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Electrical System Design

Lecture 9
EEE 3 SWX
March 2, 2002
Electrical System Design
• A matter of providing an arrangement of
conductors and equipment to safely and
effectively transfer electric energy from a
source of power to lamps, motors and
other functional devices which operate on
electricity.
Responsibilities of an Electric
Designer
• Ensure conformity to applicable codes and
standards (PEC).
• Study and establish the electrical needs of the
building.
• Determine the characteristics of the energy
supply to the overall system.
• Scale details of the overall electrical system to
meet the limitations of budgeted funds.
Basic Steps in Electrical Design

• Select basic wiring concepts and


configurations which will supply electric
power of the required characteristics at
each point of utilization.
Basic Steps in Electrical Design
• Implement the electrical concepts with
actual conductors, apparatus and
hardware, selecting types, sizes, models,
characteristics, appearance, ratings and
other specifics of the required equipment.
Basic Steps in Electrical Design

• Account for the installation of the overall


electrical system, as determined in the
first two steps, within the physical
dimensions and structured makeup of a
building, showing, as clearly as
possible, the locations and details of
equipment mountings, raceway runs,
connections to main power supply lines,
and other elements that require special
attention.
Characteristics of a Good
Electrical Design
• Flexibility
– The layout and type of equipment should
readily accommodate changes in the
locations of motors and other utilization
devices.
– Feeders, distribution panel boards and
circuits should be suited to a wide range of
utilization patterns, allowing full and
efficient use of power capacity for activities
in the building’s various areas.
Characteristics of a Good
Electrical Design
• Accessibility
– The design of the system must provide ease
of access to equipment for maintenance and
repair and for any possible extensions,
modifications or alterations to the system.
Characteristics of a Good
Electrical Design
• Reliability
– Continuity of electrical supply and overall
reliability of the wiring system can be more or
less an important consideration depending on
the nature of the activities within the building.
Preliminary Considerations in
System Design
I. Determine the characteristics of the
building
– Small or large?
– Single story or multi-level?
– Type of building (industrial plant, office
building, school, hospital, etc.)
Determine Building
Characteristics
• These characteristics give insight to the
types of electrical utilization, the need for
flexibility, the accessibility of the system
and the duty cycles of various load
devices.
Determine Building
Characteristics

• Planning for the design of an electrical


system should begin with the
determination and study of the size and
nature of the total load to be served. This
involves:
– Approximation of lighting loads (VA per sqm.)
– Analysis of the number and sizes of motors.
– Determination of the amounts of other
utilization loads.
Determine Building
Characteristics
• A full understanding of all loads – their
sizes and points of application – is
essential to the selection of the best type
of distribution system.
Preliminary Considerations in
System Design

II. Standardize Equipment


– Maximum standardization in equipment
type and ratings should always be a design
objective.
– Selection of standard voltage levels results
in significant economy since standard-
rated transformers, switchgear, motors,
motors and other equipment cost less than
specified equipment for non-standard
voltages.
Standardize Equipment
• Lack of standardization complicates
maintenance since replacement parts are
not easy to obtain, a large inventory of
parts and equipment must be maintained
and the efficiency of the maintenance
personnel is reduced.
Standardize Equipment
• The use of special, non-standard
equipment and voltages may seriously
impair expansion or adulteration of the
electrical system at a later date.
Preliminary Considerations in
System Design
III. Provide the System Power Supply
– The power may be supplied by either the
distribution system of an electric utility
company or a private generating plant.
– Select the best-suited type of distribution to
carry the electrical loads.
The Philippine Electrical Code
• Purpose
– The primary objective of the PEC is to
establish basic materials quality and electrical
work standards for the safe use of electricity
for light, heat, power, communications,
signaling and for other purposes.
The Philippine Electrical Code
• Strict compliance with the provisions of the
code will ensure safety in electrical
installation and construction, but not
necessarily efficient, convenient or
adequate for good service or future
expansion of electrical use.
Classification of Code Rules
1. Wiring Design Rules
2. Wiring Installation Rules
3. Equipment Manufacturing Rules
Classification of Code Rules
• The code rules may also be classified as:
– Mandatory - “shall”
– Advisory - “should”
Electrical Permits
• Owners, lessors, operators or occupants
should obtain the form at the government
agency concerned. It shall be
accomplished, signed and submitted by a
duly registered Professional Electrical
Engineer.
Electrical Permits
• Exception
– Installation with lighting and or receptacle
outlets not exceeding 20 or 4000 VA, 230
volts, the application may be prepared by a
duly registered Associate Electrical Engineer,
an Assistant Electrical Engineer or a Master
Electrician.
Electrical Inspection

• An application for inspection shall be


filed with the government agency
concerned before a preliminary and/or
final inspection is done.
• No electrical installation, alteration
and/or addition shall be connected or
reconnected to any power supply or any
other source of electrical energy without
a certificate of inspection obtained from
the government agency concerned.
Branch Circuits
• Definition
– A branch circuit is any segment of a wiring
system extending beyond the final automatic
overcurrent protective device that is approved
for use as branch circuit protection.
Types of Branch Circuits
• Individual branch circuit
– Branch circuit that delivers power to only one
load.
– This may have any current rating.
Types of Branch Circuits
• Multi-outlet branch circuit
– Branch circuit with two or more outlets
connected for the utilization devices.
– This branch circuit must be rated 15, 20, 30,
40 or 50 Amperes.
Branch Circuit Rating
• A branch circuit is rated according to the
setting or rating of the overcurrent device
used to protect the circuit.
Permissible Loads in Branch
Circuits

• 15 & 20-Amps Branch Circuits


– May serve general purpose lighting and/or
appliances.
– The rating if any one-cord and plug-
connected appliance must not exceed 80% of
the branch circuit rating.
– The total rating of utilization equipment
fastened in place shall not exceed 50% of the
branch circuit ampere rating where lighting
and/or utilization equipment not fastened into
place are also supplied.
Permissible Loads in Branch
Circuits

• 30-Amp Branch Circuits


– May serve fixed lighting units with heavy-duty
lamp-holders in other than dwelling units.
– May serve utilization equipment in any
occupancy.
– The rating of any one-cord and plug-
connected utilization equipment shall not
exceed 80% of the branch circuit ampere
rating.
Permissible Loads in Branch
Circuits
• 40 & 50-Amp Branch Circuits
– May serve cooking appliances that are
fastened in place in any occupancy.
– May supply fixed lighting units with heavy-
duty lamp-holders, infrared heating units and
other utilization equipment in other than
dwelling units.
Permissible Loads in Branch
Circuits
• Larger than 50-Amp Branch Circuits
– Must supply only non-lighting outlet loads.
Required Outlets
1. Required Receptacle Outlets in
Dwellings
a) General-purpose convenience outlets
Rule: Receptacle outlets shall be installed so
that no point along the floor line in any wall
space is more than 1800 mm, measured
horizontally, from an outlet in that space,
including any wall space 600 mm or more in
width.
Required Receptacle Outlets in
Dwellings
b) Small-appliance receptacle outlets
Rule: outlets in the kitchen, pantry, breakfast
room, dining room, or similar areas in a
dwelling unit shall be served by a SA
branch circuit. There shall be no ‘other’
outlets in such circuits.
Required Receptacle Outlets in
Dwellings
c) Counter Tops
Rule: In kitchens and dining areas of
dwelling units a receptacle outlet shall be
installed at each counter space wider
than 300 mm.
Required Receptacle Outlets in
Dwellings
d) Bathrooms
Rule: In dwelling units at least one wall
receptacle outlet shall be installed in the
bathroom adjacent to the basin location.
Required Receptacle Outlets in
Dwellings
e) Outdoors
Rule: At least one outlet accessible at grade
level.
Required Receptacle Outlets in
Dwellings
f) Laundry Areas
Rule: In dwelling units at least one
receptacle outlet shall be installed for the
laundry within 1800 mm of the intended
location of the appliance.
Required Receptacle Outlets in
Dwellings
g) Basements and Garages
Rule: At least one receptacle outlet in
addition to any provided for laundry
equipment shall be installed in each
basement and in each garage.
Required Receptacle Outlets in
Dwellings
h) Hallways
Rule: For hallways of 3000 mm or more in
length at least one receptacle outlet is
required.
Required Outlets
2) Required receptacle outlets in guest
rooms
Rule: Guest rooms in hotels, motels, and
similar occupancies shall have a
receptacle outlet same as in dwelling units
except that the outlets shall be permitted
to be located convenient to the permanent
furniture layout.
Required Outlets
3) Required lighting outlets in dwelling units
Rule: At least one wall switch-controlled
lighting outlet shall be installed in every
habitable room; in bathrooms, hallways,
stairways, attached garages and detached
garages with electric power, and at
outdoor entrances or exits.
Required Lighting Outlets in
Dwelling Units
Rule: At least one lighting outlet controlled
by a light switch located at the point of
entry to the attic, underfloor space, utility
room, and basement shall be installed only
where these spaces are used for storage
or contain equipment requiring servicing.
Required Lighting Outlets in
Dwelling Units
Rule: Where lighting outlets are installed in
interior stairways, there shall be a wall
switch at each floor level to control the
lighting outlet where the difference
between floor levels is six steps or more.
Required Outlets
4) Required lighting outlets in guest rooms
Rule: At least one wall switch-controlled
lighting outlet or wall switch-controlled
receptacle shall be installed in guest
rooms in hotels, motels or similar
occupancies.
Maximum Loads Allowed on
Branch Circuits

• The rating of a branch circuit serving


continuous loads shall not be less than the
non-continuous load plus 125% of the
continuous load.
• Continuous load – load where the
maximum current is expected to continue
for at least three (3) hours.
Calculations of Branch Circuit
Loads
1) Lighting and receptacle loads for general
illumination
• Larger of:
– Volt-Amperes per sqm area of listed
occupancies [Table 3.3.1.2(b)], or
– Actual load, if known.
Lighting and Receptacle Loads
for General Illumination
• Receptacle outlets of 20A or less in one-
family or multi-family dwellings or in guest
rooms of hotels and motels are considered
as part of the general lighting load.
• Branch Circuit Rating: 15 or 20 A
Table 3.3.1.2(b) General
Lighting Loads by Occupancies
Type of Occupancy Unit Load per sqm (VA)
Dwelling Units 24
Garages - Commercial 4
Hospitals 16
Hotels/Motels 16
Office Buildings 28
Restaurants 16
Schools 24
Stores 24
Warehouses (storage) 2
Calculations of Branch Circuit
Loads
2) Heavy-duty lamp-holders in fixed lighting
units
• Larger of:
– 600 VA per unit, or
– Actual load if known
• Branch circuit rating: 30, 40 or 50A
Calculations of Branch Circuit
Loads
3) General Receptacles
• Larger of:
– 180 VA per receptacle, or
– Actual load, if known
• Branch Circuit Rating: 15 or 20A
Calculations of Branch Circuit
Loads
4) Show window illumination
• Larger of:
– 180 VA per outlet, or
– 600 VA per linear meter, or
– Actual load if known
• Branch circuit rating: depends on type of
lampholder
Calculations of Branch Circuit
Loads
5) Specific Appliance
• Ampere rating of appliance
• Branch circuit rating: depends on Full
Load Current (FLC) of appliance.
Calculations of Branch Circuit
Loads
6) Small Appliance for Dwelling Unit
• Larger of:
– 1500 VA
– 180 VA per outlet, or
– Actual load, if known
• Branch circuit rating: 20 A
Calculations of Branch Circuit
Loads
7) Laundry Loads for Dwelling Units
• Larger of:
– 1500 VA
– 180 VA per outlet, or
– Actual load, if known
• Branch circuit rating: 20 A
Calculations of Branch Circuit
Loads
8) Electric Ranges and Cooking Equipment in
Dwellings
• 8 ¾ to 12 KW range: 8 KW
• Larger than 12 KW range: 8 KW for first 12
KW plus 5% for each additional KW
exceeding 12 KW
• Smaller than 8 ¾ KW range: FLC
• One range top and not more than 2 ovens:
Add the total of their separate ratings, then
proceed as with ranges.
• Branch circuit ratings: 40 or 50 A
Calculations of Branch Circuit
Loads
9) Electric ranges in commercial buildings
• Ampere rating of appliance
• Branch circuit rating: 40 or 50 A
Calculations of Branch Circuit
Loads
10) Motor loads
• Full load current of motor x 125%
• Branch circuit rating: any rating
Minimum Number of Branch
Circuits

Total computed load in VA per BC reqd.


No. of B.C. =
Branch circuit capacity
Example
• Determine the minimum number of branch
circuits required for an office building with
the following lighting and receptacle loads:
– Floor area of 30 m by 60 m
– Four hundred 150-W incandescent lamps
– 15 m long Show window
– Special lighting load of 100 fluorescent
lighting fixtures, each unit draws 2.5 A
– Two hundred duplex receptacles
• Use 20 Amp B.C.
Solution
a) General illumination
• Larger of:
– (30m)(60m)(28VA/sqm) = 50,400 VA, or
– (400 units)(150VA/unit) = 60,000 VA
60,000 VA
# BC =
(0.8)(20A)(230V)
# BC ≈ 17 Branch Circuits (minimum)
(max 24 lamps per BC)
Solution
b) Show window
(15m)(600A/m) = 9000 VA

9000 VA
# BC =
(0.8)(20A)(230V)
# BC ≈ 3 BC (minimum)
Solution
c)Special Lighting Load
(100 units)(2.5 A/unit)(230V)=57,500 VA

57500 VA
# BC =
(0.8)(20A)(230V)
# BC ≈ 16 BC (minimum)
Solution
d) General receptacle
(200 units)(180 VA/unit) = 36,000 VA

36000 VA
# BC =
(0.8)(20A)(230V)
# BC = 10 BC (minimum)
Feeders for Lighting and Power
• General Rule
– A feeder must have sufficient capacity to carry
the total load of the branch circuits.
Feeder Capacity
• When a feeder supplies a continuous load
or a combination of continuous or non-
continuous loads, the rating of the feeder
conductors and overcurrent device must
not be less than the non-continuous load
plus 125% of the continuous load.
Feeder Demand Factors

• General Lighting – Table 3.3.2.2


• Receptacle Loads: non-dwelling units –
Table 3.3.2.4
• Appliance Load: Dwelling units (4 or
more appliances not including electric
ranges, clothes dryers, space heating
equipment or air-conditioning
equipment. – DF = 75%
• Clothes dryers: Dwelling units – table
3.3.2.9
Feeder Demand Factors
• Electric Ranges and other cooking
appliances: dwelling units – Table 3.3.2.10
• Kitchen equipment: non-dwelling units –
Table 3.3.2.11
Motor Branch Circuit

• Elements of Motor Branch Circuits


– Disconnecting means
– Overcurrent (short-circuit) protection
– Conductors
– Controller
– Overload protection
– Motor
– Secondary controller and resistors for
wound rotor motor
Motor Full Load Current
• The full load current given by the PEC
should be used in determining the branch
circuit of a motor.
• The full load nameplate current, if known,
is used only in determining the rating or
setting of the overload protective device.
Motor Disconnecting Means
• The rating of the disconnecting means for
motor circuits rated up to 600 V shall be at
least 115% of the full load current rating of
the motor.
• Must be rated in HP for motors up to 500
HP.
Branch Circuit Conductors for a
Single Motor
• Basic Rule
– Conductors shall have an ampacity of not less
than 125% of the motor full-load rating.
Motor Branch Circuit Short
Circuit Protection
• Rule
– The motor branch circuit short circuit
protective device shall be capable of carrying
the starting current of the motor which shall
not exceed the value calculated according to
Table 6.6.12.6
Motor Branch Circuit Overload
Protection
• For 1 HP up to 1500 HP
• A separate overcurrent device responsive to
motor current, rated or selected to trip at no
more than the following percentage of the
motor full rating:
– Motors with marked service factor of not less
than 1.15 – 125%
– Motors with marked temperature rise not over
40° C – 125%
– All other motors – 115%
Electrical System Design for
Residential Occupancies
• Classification of Dwelling Types According
to PEC
– Single-Family Dwelling
– Two-Family Dwelling
– Multi-family Dwelling
Scope of Premises Wiring
System
• Branch circuits in a dwelling unit
• Feeders to individual dwelling units in a
multifamily dwelling
• service
Calculation Methods
• Standard calculation method
• Optional calculation method
Branch Circuit Design for
Dwellings

• General lighting and receptacle branch


circuits
– 24 VA/sqm of floor area.
– 15 A or 20 A branch circuit capacity.
– At least 2.0 mm2 for 15 A circuit or 3.5 mm2 for
20 A circuit copper conductors.
Branch Circuit Design for
Dwellings
• Small Appliance Branch Circuits
– 1500 VA
– 20 A branch circuit
– At least 3.5 mm2 copper wire
Branch Circuit Design for
Dwellings
• Laundry Branch Circuit
– 1500 VA
– 20 A branch circuit
– At least 3.5 mm2 copper wire
Branch Circuit Design for
Dwellings
• Appliance branch circuit
– Individual branch circuits for specific
appliances
– BC capacity and size of conductors depend
on the full load current of the appliance.
Branch Circuit Design for
Dwellings
• Motor branch circuit
– Apply rules for motors
Feeder or Service Design for
Dwelling Units
• Standard Calculation Method
a. General lighting and receptacle loads: 24
VA/m2
b. Small appliance load: 1500
VA/ckt
c. Laundry circuit: 1500
VA/ckt
Total Gen. Lighting Load ____VA
• Apply Demand Factors to compute
feeder load
– 1st 3000 VA at 100 %
Feeder or Service Design for
Dwelling Units
d) Other loads
• Apply specific demand factors for:
– Clothes dryers
– Electric ranges