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# CHE212 FLUID MECHANICS

## 2017-18 HOMEWORK 3 SOLUTION KEY

Q1. A fluid flowing in laminar flow in the x-direction between two parallel plates. 2yo is the distance between the plates,
y is the distance from the center line and vx is the velocity in the x-direction at y.

Derive the momentum balance equation and velocity profile equation. Simplify the equation using necessary assumptions.
Write the boundary conditions.

Solution 1.
 rateof momentum in by molecular transport    rateof momentumout by molecular transport  
 rateof momentum inby convectivetransport    rateof momentumout by convectivetransport  
 sumof the forces acting onthe system    momentum accumulation 
̅̅̅̅̅̅
{(𝜏𝑦𝑥 ∆𝑧 ∆𝑥|𝑦 − 𝜏𝑦𝑥 ∆𝑧 ∆𝑥|𝑦+∆𝑦 )} + {(𝜌∆𝑧 ∆𝑦(𝜗 ̅̅̅̅̅̅
𝑥 ) 𝜗𝑥 |𝑥 − 𝜌 ∆𝑧 ∆𝑦 (𝜗𝑥 ) 𝜗𝑥 |𝑥+∆𝑥 )}

𝑑𝜗𝑥
+ {(𝑃𝑥 ∆𝑧 ∆𝑦 |𝑥 ) − (𝑃𝑥 ∆𝑧 ∆𝑦|𝑥+∆𝑥 )} + 𝜌∆𝑥 ∆𝑦∆𝑧 𝑔𝑥 = 𝜌∆𝑧 ∆𝑦 ∆𝑥 = 0 = 𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑦 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑒
𝑑𝑡
̅̅̅̅̅̅
𝜌 ∆𝑧 ∆𝑦(𝜗 ̅̅̅̅̅̅
𝑥 ) 𝜗𝑥 |𝑥 − 𝜌 ∆𝑧 ∆𝑦 (𝜗𝑥 ) 𝜗𝑥 |𝑥+∆𝑥 = 0 ( 𝜗𝑥 |𝑥 = 𝜗𝑥 |𝑥+∆𝑥 )

𝑔𝑥 = 0 → 𝜌∆𝑧 ∆𝑦 𝑔𝑥 = 0
{(𝜏𝑦𝑥 ∆𝑧 ∆𝑥 |𝑦 − 𝜏𝑦𝑥 ∆𝑧 ∆𝑥|𝑦+∆𝑦 )} + {(𝑃𝑥 ∆𝑧 ∆𝑦|𝑥 ) − (𝑃𝑥 ∆𝑧 ∆𝑦|𝑥+∆𝑥 )} = 0
Divide Δx ΔyΔz and take the lim Δx→ 0 and lim Δy→ 0
(𝜏𝑦𝑥 |𝑥 − 𝜏𝑦𝑥 |𝑥+∆𝑥 ) ( 𝑃𝑥 |𝑥 ) − ( 𝑃𝑥 |𝑥+∆𝑥 )
lim + =0
∆𝑦 ∆𝑥
𝑑𝜏𝑦𝑥 𝑑𝑃
=−
𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑃 ∆𝑃 𝑃𝐿 − 𝑃𝑜
= =
𝑑𝑥 ∆𝐿 𝐿
𝑑𝜏𝑦𝑥 𝑃𝐿 − 𝑃𝑜
=−
𝑑𝑦 𝐿
𝑃𝐿 − 𝑃𝑜
𝜏𝑦𝑥 = − 𝑦 + 𝐶1
𝐿
𝑑𝜗𝑥 𝑃𝐿 − 𝑃𝑜
𝜏𝑦𝑥 = −𝜇 = − 𝑦 + 𝐶1
𝑑𝑦 𝐿
𝑑𝜗𝑥 𝑃𝐿 − 𝑃𝑜
= 𝑦 + 𝐶1
𝑑𝑦 𝜇𝐿
𝑃𝐿 − 𝑃𝑜 2
𝜗𝑥 = 𝑦 + 𝐶1 𝑦 + 𝐶2
2𝜇𝐿
B.C
y= 0 ,vx =0 → C2 = 0
𝑃𝐿 −𝑃𝑜
y= 2y0 vx =0 → 𝐶1 = − 𝜇𝐿
𝑦0

𝑃𝐿 − 𝑃𝑜 2
𝜗𝑥 = (𝑦 − 2𝑦0 𝑦)
2𝜇𝐿
𝑃𝐿 − 𝑃𝑜 2 𝑦 2 2𝑦
𝜗𝑥 = 𝑦0 ( 2 − )
2𝜇𝐿 𝑦0 𝑦0
Q2. For a layer of liquid flowing in laminar flow in the z-direction down a vertical plate or surface, the velocity profile is
𝜌𝑔𝛿 2 𝑥 2
𝜗𝑧 = [1 − ( ) ]
2𝜇 𝛿
where δ is the thickness of the layer, x is the distance from the free surface of the liquid toward the plate, and 𝜗𝑧 is the
velocity at a distance x from the free surface.

## a) What is the maximum velocity 𝜗𝑧,𝑚𝑎𝑥 ? (Ans : 𝜗𝑧,𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝜌𝑔𝛿 2 /2𝜇)

b) Derive the expression for the average velocity 𝜗𝑧,𝑎𝑣𝑔 and also relate it to 𝜗𝑧,𝑚𝑎𝑥 . (Ans: 𝜗𝑧,𝑎𝑣𝑔 =2/3 𝜗𝑧,𝑚𝑎𝑥 )

Solution 2.
Assumptions:
1) Steady state flow
2) Incompressible fluid (ρ = constant)
3) Newtonian fluid

##  rateof momentum in by molecular transport    rateof momentumout by molecular transport  

 rateof momentum inby convectivetransport    rateof momentumout by convectivetransport  
 sumof the forces acting onthe system    momentum accumulation 
̅̅̅̅̅̅ 𝑑𝜗𝑧
{(𝜏𝑥𝑧 ∆𝑧 ∆𝑦|𝑥 − 𝜏𝑥𝑧 ∆𝑧 ∆𝑦|𝑥+∆𝑥 )} + {(𝜌∆𝑥 ∆𝑦(𝜗 𝑧 ) 𝜗𝑧 | − 𝜌 ∆𝑥 ∆𝑦 ̅̅̅̅̅̅
(𝜗𝑥 ) 𝜗𝑥 | )} + 𝜌∆𝑥 ∆𝑦∆𝑧𝑔𝑧 = 𝜌∆𝑧 ∆𝑦 ∆𝑥
𝑧=0 𝑧=𝐿 𝑑𝑡
=0
𝜗𝑧 |𝑧=0 = 𝜗𝑧 |𝑧=𝐿
Divide Δx ΔyΔz and taking the lim Δx→ 0
(𝜏𝑥𝑧 |𝑥 − 𝜏𝑥𝑧 |𝑥+∆𝑥 )
lim + 𝜌𝑔𝑧 = 0
∆𝑥→0 ∆𝑥
𝑑𝜏𝑥𝑧
− = −𝜌𝑔𝑧
𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝜗𝑧
𝜏𝑥𝑧 = −𝜇
𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝜗
𝑑 (−𝜇 𝑧 )
⟹− 𝑑𝑥 = −𝜌𝑔
𝑧
𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝜗
𝑑 (𝜇 𝑧 )
⟹ 𝑑𝑥 = −𝜌𝑔
𝑧
𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝜗𝑧 𝜌𝑔𝑧
=− 𝑥 + 𝐶1
𝑑𝑥 𝜇
𝜌𝑔𝑧 2
𝜗𝑧 = − 𝑥 + 𝐶1 𝑥 + 𝐶2
2𝜇
BC 1: x = -δ z = 0
𝑑𝜗𝑧
BC 2: 𝑥 = 0 = 0 (𝑧 = 𝑚𝑎𝑥 )
𝑑𝑥
From BC 2:
𝜌𝑔𝑧
0=− 0 + 𝐶1
𝜇
⟹ 𝐶1 = 0
𝜌𝑔𝑧 2 𝜌𝑔𝑧 2
𝜗𝑧 = − 𝑥 + 𝐶1 𝑥 + 𝐶2 = − 𝑥 + 𝐶2
2𝜇 2𝜇
From BC 1:
𝜌𝑔𝑧
0=− (−𝛿)2 + 𝐶2
2𝜇
𝜌𝑔𝑧 2
⟹ 𝐶2 = 𝛿
2𝜇
𝜌𝑔𝑧 2 𝜌𝑔𝑧 2 𝜌𝑔𝑧 2 𝑥2
𝜗𝑧 = − 𝑥 + 𝛿 = 𝛿 (1 − 2 )
2𝜇 2𝜇 2𝜇 𝛿
at 𝑥 = 0 𝑧 = 𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝜌𝑔𝑧 2 02 𝝆𝒈𝒛 𝟐
𝒎𝒂𝒙 = 𝛿 (1 − 2 ) = 𝜹
2𝜇 𝛿 𝟐𝝁
𝑊 𝛿 𝑊 𝛿
𝜌𝑔𝑧 2 𝑥2
𝑄 = ∫ ∫ 𝜗𝑧 𝑑𝑥𝑑𝑦 = ∫ ∫ 𝛿 (1 − 2 ) 𝑑𝑥𝑑𝑦
0 0 0 0 2𝜇 𝛿
𝑊𝜌𝑔𝑧 𝛿 3
𝑄=
3𝜇
𝑄 𝝆𝒈𝒛 𝜹𝟐
𝝑𝒛,𝒂𝒗𝒈 = 𝑊 𝛿 =
∫ ∫ 𝑑𝑥𝑑𝑦 𝟑𝝁
0 0
𝟐
𝝑𝒛,𝒂𝒗𝒈 = 
𝟑 𝒎𝒂𝒙
Q3. Derive the equation for steady-state laminar flow inside the annulus between two concentric horizontal pipes. Calculate
the rmax.

Solution 3.

##  rateof momentum in by molecular transport    rateof momentumout by molecular transport  

 rateof momentum inby convectivetransport    rateof momentumout by convectivetransport  
 sumof the forces acting onthe system    momentum accumulation 
( rx *2 r x r   rx *2 r x r r )  (m * x x  m * x x x
)
(  x ) (1)
[  *2 r r x * g x  ( P *2 r r x  P *2 r r xx )  2 r r x *
t
m   * x *2 rr
( rx *2 r x r   rx *2 r x r r )  (  * x *2 r r * x x   * x *2 rr * x x x
)
(  x ) (2)
[  *2 r r x * g x  ( P *2 r r x  P *2 r r x x )  2 r r x *
t
Assumptions:
(  x )
 steady state condition, there is no accumulation term in the momentum balance 2 r r x * =0
t
 there is no gravity force in x direction  *2 rrx * g x =0
 νx=f(r) νx≠f(x) one dimensional flow

## ( rx *2 r x r   rx *2 r x r r )  (  * x *2 r r * x x   * x *2 rr * x x x

)
(3)
( P *2 r r x  P *2 r r xx )  0

( rx *2 rx r  rx *2 rx r r )  (P *2 rr x  P *2 rr xx )  0 (4)
Both side of the Eq.4 is divided by 2rx and lim and lim
r 0 x 0

(r rx ) P P P PL  P0
  r   (5)
r x x x L

## If we integrate the Eq.(5)

(r rx ) P
  r
r x
P  P r2
r rx  L 0  c1 (6)
L 2
P P r c
 rx  L 0  1
L 2 r
In order to calculate integral constant “c1” in Eq.6 we need to boundary conditions:
d
Schematic representation in the above 𝒓 = 𝒓𝒎𝒂𝒙 ν=νmax so x  0   rx  0
dr
If we rearrange the Eq.(6);
𝑃𝐿 − 𝑃𝑂 𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑥
−𝜏𝑟𝑥 = ( ) + 𝐶1 = 0
𝐿 2
𝑃𝐿 − 𝑃𝑂 𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝐶1 = − ( )
𝐿 2
𝑃𝐿 − 𝑃𝑂 𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝑃𝐿 − 𝑃𝑂 𝑟 ( 𝐿 ) 2
−𝜏𝑟𝑥 = ( ) −
𝐿 2 𝑟
𝑃𝐿 −𝑃𝑂 𝑟 𝑟
−𝜏𝑟𝑥 = ( 2𝐿 ) 𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑥 [𝑟 − 𝑚𝑎𝑥 ] (7)
𝑟
𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝑑𝑣𝑥
𝜏𝑟𝑥 = −𝜇 (8)
𝑑𝑟
In order to determine velocity profile equation 7 and 8 are solving with together:

𝑑𝑣𝑥 𝑃𝐿 − 𝑃𝑂 𝑟 𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝜏𝑟𝑥 = −𝜇 = −( ) 𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑥 [ − ]
𝑑𝑟 2𝐿 𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑟

𝑑𝑣𝑥 𝑃𝐿 − 𝑃𝑂 𝑟 𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑥
= −( ) 𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑥 [ − ]
𝑑𝑟 2𝜇𝐿 𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑟
𝑃𝐿 − 𝑃𝑂 2 𝑃𝐿 − 𝑃𝑂
𝑣𝑥 = ( )𝑟 − ( ) 𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑥 2 ln 𝑟 + 𝐶2
4𝜇𝐿 2𝜇𝐿
𝑃𝐿 −𝑃𝑂 𝑟 2
𝑣𝑥 = ( ) 𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑥 2 [((𝑟 ) − 2 ln 𝑟] + 𝐶2 (9)
4𝜇𝐿 𝑚𝑎𝑥 )
To calculate the second integral constant “c2” boundary conditions are used
Boundary conditions
r=r1 ν=0 (stationary pipe) & r=r2ν=0 (stationary pipe)
If we solve equation 9 according to the boundary conditions
𝑃𝐿 − 𝑃𝑂 𝑟1 2 𝑃𝐿 − 𝑃𝑂 𝑟2 2
( ) 𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑥 2 [( ) − 2 ln 𝑟1 ] + 𝐶2 = ( ) 𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑥 2 [( ) − 2 ln 𝑟2 ] + 𝐶2
4𝜇𝐿 (𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑥 ) 4𝜇𝐿 (𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑥 )

1 𝑟22 − 𝑟12
𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑥 = √ 𝑟
ln(𝑟2 ) 2
1
Q4. Water having a density of 998 kg/m3 is flowing at the rate of 1.676 m/s in a 7.8 cm diameter horizontal pipe at a pressure
P1 of 68.6 kPa absolute. It then passes to a pipe having an inside diameter of 5.25 cm.

a) Calculate the new pressure P2 in the 5.25 cm pipe. Assume no friction losses. (Ans: P2=63.2kPa)
b) If the piping is vertical and the flow is upward, calculate the new pressure P2. The pressure tap for P2 is 0.457m above
the tap for P1. (Ans: P2=58.6 kPa)

Solution 4.

## From Table A.5-4

𝑚
𝜌 = 998 𝑘𝑔 𝐻2 𝑂/𝑚3 , 𝜗1 = 1.676 , 𝑃1 =68.9 kPa
𝑠
A1= 4.769*10-3 m2 A2= 2.165*10-3 m2

a)
𝜗1 𝐴1 = 𝜗2 𝐴2

4.769
𝜗2 = 1.676
2.165

𝜗2 = 3.7 𝑚/𝑠

𝑃1 𝜗12 𝑃2 𝜗22
+ + 𝑧1 𝑔 = + + 𝑧2 𝑔
𝜌 2 𝜌 2
𝑧1 = 𝑧2
𝑃1 − 𝑃2 1.6762 3.72
+ +0=
998 2 2
𝑃1 − 𝑃2 = 5430 𝑃𝑎 = 5.43 𝑘𝑃𝑎

## 𝑷𝟐 = 𝟔𝟖. 𝟔 − 𝟓. 𝟒𝟑 = 𝟔𝟑. 𝟐 𝒌𝑷𝒂

b) Vertical pipe

𝑃1 − 𝑃2 1.6762 3.72
+ +0= + 0.457(9.980)
998 2 2

P2 = 58.6 kPa
Q5. Calculate the pressure drop (because of friction) in pascal for olive oil at 293 K flowing through the commercial pipe
having an inside diameter of 0.0525 m and a lenght of 76.2 m. The velocity of the fluid is 1.22 m/s.
(Ans: 90.65 kN/ m2)

Solution 5.

## For olive oil:

𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝑔
𝜌 = 919 , 𝜇 = 84𝑥10−3
𝑚3 𝑚. 𝑠

𝑚 𝑘𝑔
𝐷𝜗𝜌 0.0525(𝑚)1.22 ( 𝑠 ) 919 (𝑚3 )
𝑁𝑅𝑒 = = = 700.7
𝜇 84𝑥10−3

## Hence the flow is laminar.

16 16
𝑓= = = 0.02283
𝑁𝑅𝑒 700.7

∆𝐿 ̅̅̅
𝜗2
∆𝑃𝑓 = 4𝑓𝜌
𝐷 2

𝑚 2
𝑘𝑔 76.2 𝑚 (1.22 𝑠 )
∆𝑃𝑓 = 4(0.02283)911 ( 3 )
𝑚 0.0525 𝑚 2

𝑁 𝑘𝑁
∆𝑃𝑓 = 90650 2
= 90.65 2
𝑚 𝑚
Q6. A pipeline laid cross country carries oil at the rate of 795 m3/day. The pressure of the oil is 1793 kPa gage leaving
pumping station 1. The pressure is 862 kPa gage at the inlet to the next pumping station, 2. The second station is 17.4 m
higher than the first station. Calculate the lost work (ƩF, friction loss) in J/kg mass oil. The oil density is 769 kg/m3. (Ans:
1040 J/ kg)

Solution 6.
𝑃1 𝜗1̅ 2 𝑃2 𝜗2̅ 2
+ + 𝑔𝑧1 − 𝑊𝑠 = + + 𝑔𝑧2 + ∑ 𝐹
𝜌 2 𝜌 2

𝜗1̅ = 𝜗2̅

Ws = 0

z1 = 0 and z2 = 17.4 m

𝑃1 𝑃2
= + 𝑔𝑧2 + ∑ 𝐹
𝜌 𝜌

1793𝑥1000 𝑃𝑎 𝑚 862𝑥1000 𝑃𝑎
∑𝐹 = − 9.81 ( 2 ) 17.4(𝑚) −
𝑘𝑔 𝑠 𝑘𝑔
769 3 769 3
𝑚 𝑚
𝑱
⟹ ∑ 𝑭 = 𝟏𝟎𝟒𝟎
𝒌𝒈
Q7. Air flows steadily from a tank, through a hose of diameter D = 0.03 m, and exits to the atmosphere from a nozzle of
diameter d = 0.01 m as shown in the figure. The pressure in the tank remains constant at 3 kPa (gage) and the atmospheric
conditions are standard temperature and pressure. (Assume air is incompressible. ρair = 1.26 kg/m3)

## a) Determine the flow rate (Ans : 5.42*10-3 m3/s)

b) Determine the pressure in the hose. (Ans :2.96 kPa)

Solution 7.
a) If the flow is assumed steady, inviscid and incompressible. We can apply the Bernoulli equation aong the
streamline from (1) to (2) to (3) as
𝑃1 𝜗1̅ 2 𝑃2 𝜗2̅ 2 𝑃3 𝜗3̅ 2
+ + 𝑔𝑧1 = + + 𝑔𝑧2 = + + 𝑔𝑧3 … (1)
𝜌 2 𝜌 2 𝜌 2
For horizontal hose;
z1 = z2 = z3
𝜗1̅ = 0 (𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑘)
P3 = atmospheric pressure (P3 = 0 (gage))
From Eq. (1)
𝑃1 𝜗3̅ 2 𝟐𝑷
= ̅𝟑 = √ 𝟏
⟹𝝑
𝜌 2 𝝆
and
𝑃1 𝑃2 𝜗2̅ 2 𝜌𝜗2̅ 2
= + ⟹ 𝑃2 = 𝑃1 −
𝜌 𝜌 2 2
The density of the air in the tank is obtained from the perfect gas low, using standard absolute pressure and
temperature, as
Thus, we find that
𝑁
2 (3𝑥103 2 )
𝜗3̅ = √ 𝑚 = 69 𝑚
𝑘𝑔 𝑠
1.26 3
𝑚
Or
𝜋 𝜋 𝑚
𝑄 = 𝐴3 𝜗3̅ = 𝑑 2 𝜗3̅ = (0.01 𝑚)2 (69 )
4 4 𝑠
𝑚3
𝑄 = 0.00542
𝜋 2 𝜋
𝑠
b) 𝑄 = 4 𝑑 𝜗2̅ → 0.00542 = 4 0.032 𝜗2̅

## 𝜗2̅ = 7.67 𝑚/𝑠

𝜌𝜗2̅ 2
𝑃2 = 𝑃1 −
2
𝑷𝟐 = 𝟐. 𝟗𝟔 𝒌𝑷𝒂
Q8. Water stored in a large, well-insulated storage tank at 21⁰C and atmospheric pressure is being pumped at steady state
from this tank by a pump at the rate of 40 m3/h. The motor driving the pump supplies energy at the rate of 8.5 kW. The
water is used as a cooling medium and passes through a heat exchanger, where 255 kW of heat is added to the water. The
heated water then flows to a second large, vented tank, which is 25m above the first tank. Determine the final temperature
of the water delivered to the second tank. (Ans: T2 =26.63⁰C)

Solution 8.
1
𝐻2 − 𝐻1 + (𝜗 2 − 𝜗12 ) + 𝑔∆𝑧 = 𝑄 + 𝑊
2𝛼 2
𝜗1 = 𝜗2 = 0 and ∆𝑧 = 25 𝑚
𝑘𝑔
From table 4, 𝜌𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 998 𝑎𝑡 21𝑜 𝐶
𝑚3
𝑚3 1 𝑚3
𝑄 = 40 = ( )
ℎ 90 𝑠
1
𝑚̇ = 𝜌 𝑄 = 998 ∗ = 11.09 𝑘𝑔/ 𝑠
90
𝐻2 − 𝐻1 + 𝑔∆𝑧 = 𝑄 + 𝑊
∆𝐻 = 𝑄 + 𝑊 − 𝑔∆𝑧
𝑘𝐽 1 𝑠 𝑘𝐽 1 𝑠 𝑚
∆𝐻 = 255 ∗ + 8.5 ∗ − 9.81 2 ∗ 25
𝑠 11.09 𝑘𝑔 𝑠 11.09 𝑘𝑔 𝑠
∆𝐻 = 23.55 𝑘𝐽/𝑘𝑔
From Table 8, H1= 88.14 kJ/ kg
𝑘𝑗
∆𝐻 = 𝐻2 − 𝐻1 = 23.55
𝑘𝑔
𝐻2 = ∆𝐻 + 𝐻1 = 88.14 + 23.55
𝐻2 = 111.69 𝑘𝐽/𝑘𝑔
Temperature at point 2 is found by making interpolation using the data from Table 8.
Temperature (⁰C) H (kJ / kg)
25 104.89
27 113.25

T2 = 26.63 ⁰C
Q9. At 20 ⁰C water is pumped from one tank (1st) to another tank (2nd) which is 15 m higher than 1st tank. The volumetric
flow rate of the water is 5 m3/s. All pipes are made of st40 steel. There is a gate valve in the half open position at the
pump inlet. Calculate pump power. (Ans: Wp = 170.47 J/kg)

Solution 9.
𝑃1 𝜗12 𝑃2 𝜗22
+ + 𝑧1 𝑔 + 𝑛𝑊𝑝 = + + 𝑧2 𝑔 + ∑ 𝐹
𝜌 2 𝜌 2
𝜗1 = 𝜗2 = 0
𝑃1 = 𝑃2
∑ 𝐹 = (𝑧2 − 𝑧1 )𝑔 − 𝑊𝑝
ρ = 998.2 kg/ m3 , μ= 1.005 *10-3 Pa.s
4 inc D=0.1023 m → S= 8.219*10-3 m2
2 inc D=0.0525 m → S= 2.165*10-3 m2

Velocity in pipe
𝑄 5. 10−3
𝜗̅ 4𝑖𝑛𝑐 == = 0.608 𝑚/𝑠
𝑆 8.219 10−3
𝐷𝜗𝜌 (0.1023) ∗ (0.608) ∗ (998.2)
𝑅𝑒4𝑖𝑛𝑐 = = = 6.2 104 (𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑏𝑢𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑡)
𝜇 (1.005 ∗ 10−3 )
𝑄 5. 10−3
𝜗̅ 2𝑖𝑛𝑐 = = = 2.309 𝑚/𝑠
𝑆 2.165 10−3
𝐷𝜗𝜌 (0.0525) ∗ (2.309) ∗ (998.2)
𝑅𝑒4𝑖𝑛𝑐 = = = 1.2 106 (𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑏𝑢𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑡)
𝜇 (1.005 ∗ 10−3 )

∑ 𝐹 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑎𝑡 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑒 𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡 + 𝑔𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑣𝑒 + 2 𝑒𝑙𝑏𝑜𝑤 + 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 4𝑖𝑛𝑐 𝑡𝑜 2 𝑖𝑛𝑐 𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑒
+ 𝑒𝑥𝑝𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑎𝑡 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑘 + 𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑖𝑛 4 𝑖𝑛𝑐 𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑒 + 𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑖𝑛 2 𝑖𝑛𝑐 𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑒

## 1) Contraction at the pipe exit

𝑆𝑏 𝜗 2
𝐹𝑑 = 𝐾𝑑 (1 − )
𝑆𝑎 2𝛼
𝑆𝑏
𝑆𝑎
= 0 (𝑛𝑒𝑔𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡) and Kd=0.4 (turbulant flow)
(0.608)2
𝐹𝑑 = 0.4 (1) 2
= 0.0739 J/kg
2) Gate valve (Half open)
𝜗2
𝐹𝑏 = 𝐾𝑏
2𝛼
𝜗 = 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦𝑢 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑣𝑒 = 𝜗̅ 4𝑖𝑛𝑐
Kb=4.5
(0.608)2
𝐹𝑏 = 4.5 = 𝟎. 𝟖𝟑𝟏 𝐽/𝑘𝑔
2
3) 2 Elbows (90⁰)
𝜗2
𝐹𝑏 (4𝑖𝑛𝑐) = 𝐾𝑏
2𝛼
Kb=0.75
(0.608)2
𝐹𝑏 (4𝑖𝑛𝑐) = 0.75 = 0.138 𝐽/𝑘𝑔
2
𝜗2
𝐹𝑏 (2𝑖𝑛𝑐) = 𝐾𝑏
2𝛼
Kb=0.75
(2.309)2
𝐹𝑏 (2𝑖𝑛𝑐) = 0.75 = 1.999 𝐽/𝑘𝑔
2
∑ 𝐹𝑏 = 0.138 + 1.999 = 𝟐. 𝟏𝟑𝟕 𝑱/𝒌𝒈

## 4) Contruction from 4inc pipe to 2inc pipe

𝑆2𝑖𝑛𝑐 𝜗2𝑖𝑛𝑐 2
𝐹𝑑 = 𝐾𝑑 (1 − )
𝑆4𝑖𝑛𝑐 2𝛼
Kd=0.4
𝑆2𝑖𝑛𝑐 2.165 10−3
= = 0.263
𝑆4𝑖𝑛𝑐 8.219 10−3
(2.309)2
𝐹𝑑 = 0.4 (1 − 0.263) = 𝟎. 𝟕𝟖𝟓 𝑱/𝑘𝑔
2
5) Expansion at the entrance of the tank
𝜗2𝑖𝑛𝑐 2
𝐹𝑔 = 𝐾𝑔
2𝛼
𝑆2𝑖𝑛𝑐 2
𝐾𝑔 = (1 − )
𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑘
𝑆2𝑖𝑛𝑐
= 0, 𝐾𝑔 = 1
𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑘
(2.309)2
𝐹𝑔 = 1 = 𝟐. 𝟔𝟔𝟓 𝐽/𝑘𝑔
2
6) 4 inc straight pipe
𝐿 𝜗2
𝐹4𝑖𝑛𝑐 = 4𝑓
𝐷 2𝛼
L=50+5+5=60 m
D=0.1023 m
𝑚
𝜗̅ 4𝑖𝑛𝑐 = 0.608
𝑠
𝜀 = 4.6 10−5
𝜀
= 0.00045
𝐷
𝐷𝜗𝜌
𝑅𝑒4𝑖𝑛𝑐 = = 6.2 104
𝜇
𝑅𝑒 ↔ 𝑓
f=0.0051 from table
60 0.6082
𝐹4𝑖𝑛𝑐 = 4 ∗ 0.0051 ∗ ∗
0.1023 2
𝐽
𝐹4𝑖𝑛𝑐 = 𝟐. 𝟐𝟏𝟏
𝑘𝑔
7) friction loss in 2 inc straight pipe
𝐿 𝜗2
𝐹2𝑖𝑛𝑐 = 4𝑓
𝐷 2𝛼
L=20 m
D=0.0525 m,
𝑚
𝜗̅ 2𝑖𝑛𝑐 = 2.309
𝑠
𝜀 = 4.6 10−5
𝜀
= 0.00087
𝐷
𝐷𝜗𝜌
𝑅𝑒4𝑖𝑛𝑐 = = 1.2 106
𝜇
𝑅𝑒 ↔ 𝑓
f=0.0036 from table
20 2.3092
𝐹4𝑖𝑛𝑐 = 4 ∗ 0.0036 ∗ ∗
0.0525 2
𝐽
𝐹4𝑖𝑛𝑐 = 𝟏𝟒. 𝟔𝟐𝟑
𝑘𝑔
∑ 𝐹 = 0.0739 + 𝟎. 𝟖𝟑𝟏 + 2.137 + 0.785 + 𝟐. 𝟔𝟔𝟓 + 𝟐. 𝟐𝟏𝟏 + 14.623 = 23.32 𝐽/𝑘𝑔

𝑊𝑝 = ∑ 𝐹 + (𝑧2 − 𝑧1 )𝑔
𝑊𝑝 = 15 ∗ 9,81 + 23.32
𝑾𝒑 = 𝟏𝟕𝟎. 𝟒𝟕 𝑱/𝒌𝒈

𝑃 = 𝑚̇ 𝑊𝑝
𝑚̇ = 𝜌 𝜗 𝑆 = 998 ∗ 0.608 ∗ (8.219 10−3 ) = 4.991 𝑘𝑔/𝑠

𝑷 = 𝟎. 𝟗𝟓 𝒌𝑾