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ETHICAL ISSUES IN BUSINESS AND CORPORATE ENVIRONMENT

1. Work Place Sexual Harassment


2. Just Wage
3. Gifts and Bribery
4. Conflict of Interest
5. Abuse of Power
6. Labor Strikes
7. Whistle Blowing
8. Recruitment of candidates
9. Employee Promotion
10. Employee Termination
11. Marketing and Advertising Morality
12. Fair Pricing
13. Trade secrets
14. Product Misrepresentation
15. Multilevel marketing and Pyramiding
16. Money Laundering
17. Insider Trading
18. Tax Evasion

WORK PLACE SEXUAL HARASSMENT

 It includes unwanted sexual advances, request for sexual favors, direct or indirect
threats for sexual activity.
 It is not restricted by gender (a man might harass- another man, or woman)

2 Forms of Sexual Harassment:


1. Quid Pro Quo (an employment decision)
- submission to the sexual harassment.
a. giving in to such conduct is made either openly or implicitly a term or
condition.
b. giving in to or refusal of such conduct is used as the source for
employment decision.
2. Hostile Work Environment
- makes the workplace frightening, intimidating or offensive.
- has the intention of unfairly medaling of an employee’s work
performance.
a. whether the behavior was verbal, physical or both
b. how often it was done again.
c. whether the behavior was hostile or obviously unpleasant.
d. whether the supposed victim was a co-worker or supervisor.
e. whether others connived in committing the harassment.
f. whether the harassment was aimed at more than one individual.
Strategies For Prevention:
1. Implementation a clear sexual harassment policy.
2. Train employees.
3. Train supervisors and managers
Penalties (R.A. 7877)
1. Imprisonment of not less than one (1) month but not more than 6
months.
2. Fine of not less than 10,000 but not more than 20,000.

JUST WAGE
- the price that workers receive for their labor in the form of salaries,
bonuses, royalties, commission and fringe benefits like paid vacations, health,
insurance, and pensions.
-differ/s among nations, regions, occupation and individuals
- proposed by Pope Leo XIII
- amount required to sustain a frugal and decent worker plus his family.

Three Principles of Church For Just Wage:


1. Principles of Need
- wage rate necessary to keep going the individual worker and his family
- more classy cities require a higher wage.
2. Principles of Equity
- appropriate to a person because of the worth of the particular skills,
effort and talent person is capable to bring to the job.
3. Principles of Economic Order
- reality that the individuals work firm itself must produce adequate

Just Wage Determination:


1. External Market Factors
- supply & demand and so called economic conditions and under employment.
2. Laws & Regulation
- workers must be paid with reference to me laws and regulation of the
government.
3. Cost of Living
- relates to essential maintenance of needs and it must be fatally considered in the
preparation of wages.
4. Existing Industry Rate
- some alleged that paying workers the average of what other companies are
paying for an identical job.
5. Organizational Factors
- evaluation on what nature of industry, the size of the company and profitability.
6. Job Factors
- duties, responsibilities & the skill requirement of the job.
7. Individual Performance
- productivity ratings.
GIFTS AND BRIBERY
Gift- something worth given with no anticipation of return.
Bribe- something given in the expectation to influence the recipient’s conduct.

The Morality of Accepting Gifts (William Shaw & Vincent Bany)


1. Conflict of Interest
2. Gift’s Value
3. Gift’s Purpose
4. Gift or Entertainment
5. A circumstance when the gift is given
6. Power to bestow factors in return for gift
7. Industry accepted practice
8. Organization’s Policy
9. Laws

CONFLICT OF INTEREST
- is the organizational context happens when someone acts in a way that is
advantageous to himself at the expense of his employer.
- can be financial or non-financial nature.
Prevention:
1. Avoid being biased by an interest that may interface in the ability to serve others.
2. Avoid obtaining interests that may bias one judgment.
3. Avoid conflicting roles.
4. Being open to all information.
5. Not playing favoritism.
6. Calling for collective decisions.

ABUSE OF POWER
- application of one’s official position for personal benefit.
- prime source and true essence of moral evil.
Prevention:
1. Make the tough calls
2. Steer clear of the power trip.
3. Back up words with action
4. Take the job seriously
5. Willingly share the power

LABOR STRIKES
- Is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work.
Reasons:
1. Higher compensation
2. Improve the workplace
3. Shorten working days
4. Stop their wages from going down
5. More benefits
6. Unfairness by the company
WHISTLEBLOWING
 is the act of going public with what one has reason to believe to be significantly
immoral or illegal acts of an organization one is member.
Criteria of Accepting Whistleblowing:
1. The intention must be appropriate.
2. The employee should usually seek less harmful ways to resolve the issue first.
3. The whistle blower needs forceful proof of wrongdoing.
4. The organization’s wrongdoing must be precise and significantly wrong.
5. The whistle blowing has a chance of being successful.

RECRUITMENT OF CANDIDATES
 Is the process of looking for and hiring qualified candidate either within or
outside of an organization for a job opening, in a timely, effective and efficient
manner.
Some ethical dilemmas in recruitment:
1. Placing misleading advertisements for jobs.
2. Misrepresenting the requirements of a particular position.
3. Responding to a hiring manager who has asked to find a way “around” not hiring
a qualified candidate for discriminatory purposes.
4. Not reviewing candidates based on their merits.

EMPLOYEE PROMOTION
 is a move up the organizational ladder.
2 Types:
1. Accomplishment Promotion
2. Competitive Promotions
Three Considerations for Promotion:
1. Work Performance
2. Seniority
3. Projected performance

EMPLOYEE TERMINATION
 it is one of the most feared tasks for human resources managers unless there is a
definite cause to terminate the employees.
Common Reasons to Terminate an Employee:
1. Unable to perform some or all the necessary aspects of the job
2. Unfavorable business conditions for economic reasons
3. Unacceptable behavior such as disclosure of confidential information, stealing
company’s property, engaging in sexual harassment
4. Chronic absenteeism which could be as sign that the employee is dealing with
substance abuse, mental illness or job dissatisfaction

MARKETING AND ADVERTISING MORALITY


 A marketer’s goal must be to please and bring delight to its possible and current
customers in an ethical way.
Ethical Issues in Marketing:
1. Irritation and frustration
2. Being unfair to customers
3. Deception, fraud and misleading information
4. Privacy issues
Advertising- non-personal practice of calling public attention to one’s product, service,
need and the like especially by paid announcements in newspapers and magazines.
Unethical Advertisements:
1. Surrogate Advertising- is prominently seen in cases where advertising a
particular product is banned by law.
2. Puffery- promotional statements and claims that express subjective rather than
objective views.
3. Exaggeration- using false claims in the advertisement about the product
4. Unverified Claims- it includes the advertisements of energy drinks which tells us
about the number of vitamins and how they help children to grow.

FAIR PRICING
 is the price point for a good or service that is fair to both parties involved in the
transaction.
Unethical Practices in Pricing:
1. Price Fixing- agreement between business competitors to sell the same product or
service at the same price.
2. Price Skimming- it is a pricing strategy in which marketer sets a relatively high
price for a product or service at first and then lower the price overtime.
3. Price Discrimination- it exists when sales of identical goods or services are
transacted at different prices from the same provider.
4. Bid Rigging- agreement between two or more competitors.
5. Price wars- state of intense competitive rivalry accompanied by a multi-lateral
series of price reductions.

TRADE SECRETS
 companies often have secret information.
Revealing Trade Secrets:
1. Hacking
2. Social Engineering

PRODUCT MISREPRESENATION
 transform of information to misinformation. It could be direct or indirect
Direct- that is done through actively misrepresenting about a product or service which
creates a bad name due to deception and lying.
a. Deceptive Packaging- to create an impression wherein the buyers or the end
users will see the improvement either by size or by weight without changing any
price.
b. Adulteration- corrupting a genuine of commodity by imitating or by adding
something to increase its bulk or volume, or even by substitute.
c. Misbranding/Mislabeling- copying a product’s design to be closest possible way
of giving an impression.
d. Short Weighing- tampering weighing scales intention offsetting the calibration of
dials.
e. Shortchanging- taken directly from a situation where the seller gives the
customer less than the change he should get.
f. Short Measuring- unethical observed in products that depends on length where
the meter stick used is short than the real length.
g. Short Numbering- the seller gives the consumer the quantity of piece of the
product less than the number he has paid for.
h. Misleading Advertising- the use of false statement in advertising which may
negatively affect stakeholders.
Indirect- this is done through omitting unfavorable information about the product or
service.
a. Caveat emptor- “sold as is”, the buyers assume the risk that a product may fail to
meet expectations or have defects.
b. Business Ignorance- unable to give the customer with the complete information
he needs to make a fair decision in buying the product or services.

MULTILEVEL MARKETING AND PYRAMIDING


Multi-Level Marketing is a system of selling wherein one signs up other people to assist
him and them in turn recruit others to help them.
Pyramiding is about merely making money out of recruiting new participants in the
program.

Pyramiding must be avoided because:


1. They committed fraud.
2. Money will be lost.
3. They are illegal

MONEY LAUNDERING
 is the process of creating the appearance that large amounts of money obtained
from serious crimes such as drug trafficking
1. Placement- the act of introducing of “dirty money” into the financial system of some
way.
2. Layering- the act of hiding the source of that money by way of a chain of complex
transactions.
3. Integration- the act of acquiring that money in supposedly legitimate means

INSIDER TRADING
 is when one person who by virtue of his work has access to information that is not
presented to the public and will probably has an impact for making investment
decisions.
TAX EVASION
 refers to the elimination of one’s correct and proper tax by fraudulent means
which is criminally punishable.

References:
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whistleblower
https://prezi.com/m/nzfopaambq6j/gift-giving-and-bribery/
https;//www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/short-weight
MODULE IN BUSINESS ETHICS AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

Reported by:

Palad, Chris Andrea SP.


Palad, Crizza Mae L.