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Olivia Franchesca G.

Capola October 21, 2019


Grade 11 - SV01 Sir Samuel C. Brillo

GENERAL BIOLOGY

1. Definition of Terms

Plant Biology - it focuses on fundamental aspects of how plants function as organisms and
interact with their environment.
Plant Histology - it is the scientific study of the fine detail of biological cells and tissues
using microscopes to look at specimen of tissues that have been carefully
prepared using special processes called histological techniques.
Plant Morphology - it is the physical appearance of a plant.
Plant Anatomy - it is the study of the shape, internal structure, and size of plants.
Plant Morphoanatomy - it is the general term for the study of the structure and form of
plants.
Plant Systematics - is a science that includes and encompasses traditional taxonomy;
however, its primary goal is to reconstruct the revolutionary history of
plant life.
Plant Physiology - this is the branch of sciences that aims to understand how plants
live and function. Its ultimate objective is to explain all life processes of
plants by a minimal number of comprehensive principles founded in
chemistry, physics, and mathematics.

2. What are the different plant groups? How do we classify them? Enumerate criteria/basis in
classifying plants.

-The different plant groups are the angiosperms (flowering plants), gymnosperms (conifers,
cycads, and allies), pteridophytes (ferns and fern allies), and lastly, the bryophytes (mosses and
liverworts).

-There are many ways to classify plants. The many ways to classify plants is to separate them as
vascular and non-vascular plants, seed-bearing and spore-bearing, and angiosperms and
gymnosperms. Furthermore, plants can also be classified as grasses, herbaceous plants, woody
plants, and trees. While the criteria in classifying plants includes the differentiation, presence or
absence of vascular tissues, production of seed, covering of seeds, and number of cotyledons.

3. Provide a diagram showing the typical plant organs of a monocot and dicot. Label and
describe each parts seen in the plant organ.
4. Create a chart/diagram showing the different types/morphologies of the following:

Parts Different types


Root Forms Taproot, Fibrous, Adventitious
Leaf Shapes oval, truncate, elliptical, lancolate, and linear
Leaf Apex Acuminate, Codate, Obtuse, Acute, Cleft,
Retuse, Apiculate, Emarginate, Truncate,
Obcordate
Leaf Base Cuneate, Acute, Cordate, Inequilateral,
Obtuse, Rounded, Truncate, Auriculate
Leaf Margin/Tooth Shape Revolute, Entire, Repand, Sinuate, Undulate,
Crenate, Crenulate, Serrate, Serrulate, Doubly
Serrate, Dentate, Denticulate, Aculeate
Leaf Arrangement Alternate, Opposite, Whorled
Flower Shapes and Inflorescences Raceme, Panicle, Corymb, Spike, Umbel,
Head, Compound Umbel, Spathe, Spadix
Fruit Types Achene, Samara, Nut, Follicle, Legume,
Capsule, Pome, Drupe, Berry, Hesperidium,
Aggregate fruit, Multiple fruit

5. What is Plant Immunity? Explain how plants protect themselves against pathogens.

-Plant immunity is the inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological
attack by pathogens. It is their ability to protect themselves from things that can harm them.

-Pathogens are kinds of disease. These infectious microorganisms, such as fungi, bacteria, and
nematodes, live off of the plant and ruin its tissues. Plants have discovered ways to kill attackers.
One of the plant’s defenses is their barrier composed of bark and a waxy cuticle. The second
ones are the secondary metabolites. Through these, plants produce antimicrobial proteins,
antimicrobial chemicals, and antimicrobial enzymes that are toxic and can even be lethal to
pathogens that ingest them. To add up information, plants have an innate immune system to
protect themselves against pathogens. Through Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs), plants
are alarmed by their future attackers.

6. What are the importance and practical applications of botany in the society, economy, and
environment?

-The study of plants is so important because they are a vital part of life on Earth, making food,
oxygen, fuel, medicine, and fibers that allow other life forms to exist. Botany is also important
in the area of environmental protection. With the effects of climate change expected to have a
profound effect in the world, the need to study botany is as important today as it ever was. Also,
our knowledge about botany can help us protect endangered species and natural areas. Botany,
also, has a significance value in economy. Through studying plants, people would know how to
use plants as food, medicine, and other ways.
-Botany has practical applications as well such as for food, medicine, clothing and symbolic
uses particularly in art, mythology, and literature. As for food: people depend on plants for it, as
for industry: plants grown as industrial crops are the source of a wide range of products used in
manufacturing, as for medicine: many hundreds of medicines are derived from plants, as for
chemicals: there are lots that are derived from plants also, as for Science: basic biological
research has often been done in plants, and as for living structures: the ability of trees to graft is
occasionally exploited by tree shaping.

7. If you were tasked to create a research about plants, what would it be and why? How will it
benefit the society, economy, and environment?

-If I were asked to create a research about plants, I would choose to research about the
Photosynthetic Plants. They are at the center of the Earth’s hospitality to other life. It will
benefit the society, economy, and environment by being vital in regulating climate and the
chemical and biological conditions of the soil and water. Photosynthetic plants are the sources of
the fossil fuels we are depleting today, and they provide the most readily harvested source of
renewable energy for tomorrow.

-I would also love to research how to prolong the life of the plants by preserving them. Through
this, the society, economy, and environment will benefit from it for a long period of time. Sure
we can produce plants as many as we want, but I think it is much more important if we’ll use it
practically to avoid wastes. Let us love the plants! Let us preserve them!

8. What is Plant Tropism? Enumerate different types of plant tropisms and how plants execute
such type.

-Plant tropisms are mechanisms by which plants adapt to environmental changes. A tropism is a
growth toward or away from a stimulus.

-The different types of plant tropism include phototropism (response to light), geotropism
(response to gravity), chemotropism (response to particular substances), hydrotropism (response
to water), thigmotropism (response to mechanical stimulation), traumatotropism (response to
wound lesion), galvanotropism (response to electric current).

9. Give one endemic plant species in the Philippines and explain its conservation status, defining
characteristics, and ecological importance.

-Endemic plant species exist only in one geographic region. One of the endemic plant species
here in the Philippines is the Paphiopedilum Fowliei. It is a species of plant in the family
Orchidaceae. It is endemic to Palawan in the Philippines. Its natural habitat is subtropical or
tropical moist lowland forests. It is threatened by habitat loss. The orchid is herbaceous with
blue-gray leaves that are tessellated with faint patterns. That plant can attain a height of 20
centimeters, and leaves are from 10-14 centimeters long and 2.5 to 3.5 centimeters wide. Petals
with veins of green and purple have black warts covering their edges and they curved in an
s-shape. It usually grows at an elevation from 600 to 950 meters, and has a mean temperature
range of 23 to 24 degrees Celsius. The plant prefers high humidity with sufficient air circulation.
-Paphiopedilum fowliei is identified as critically endangered and only exists in one location.
The entirety of the island on which it resides, Palawan island, is a declared protected area.
Endemic plant species like this is important to maintain a balance in the ecosystem. It is
important to have a balanced ecosystem for us to be provided of fresh air to breathe.

REFERENCES:

Davis (2019), “Plant Biology”, https://www.ucdavis.edu/majors/plant-biology/

Ivy Rose (2003-29), “Plant Histology”,


https://www.ivyroses.com/HumanBody/Histology/What-is-Histology.php

J. Wyatt, in Reference Module in Food Science (2016), “Grain and Plant Morphology of Cereals
and How Characters Can Be Used to Identify Varieties”,
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/plant-morphology

"Plant Anatomy ." U*X*L Complete Life Science Resource . . Retrieved October 19, 2019 from
Encyclopedia.com:
https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/applied-and-social-sciences-magazines/plant-ana
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Trueman, Shanon. (2018, December 6). “What Are Plant Systemics?” Retrieved from
https://www.thoughtco.com/plant-systematics-419199
Plant Physiology. (n.d.) McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Bioscience. (2002). Retrieved
October 19 2019 from https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Plant+Physiology

Studyrankersonline, asked Jun 25, 2017 in Class IX Science by Giriraj,


https://www.studyrankersonline.com/3758/which-criteria-classification-plants-explain-with-reas
ons

Nix, Steve. "How to Identify a Tree Using Leaf Shape, Margin, and Venation." ThoughtCo, May.
8, 2019, https://www.thoughtco.com/id-trees-using-leaf-shape-venation-1343511

SFA Dendro (2014),”Leaf Morphology: Bases”,


http://forestry.sfasu.edu/faculty/stovall/dendrology/index.php/fact-sheets-sp-916/morphology-ph
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de Wit PJ. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007., “How plants recognize pathogens and defend themselves”,
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17876517/

EnvironmentalScience.org (2019), “Introduction to Botany”,


https://www.environmentalscience.org/botany

Wikipedia, “Human uses of plants”, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_uses_of_plants


Bailey, Regina. (2019, September 24). Understanding Plant Tropisms. Retrieved from
https://www.thoughtco.com/plant-tropisms-4159843

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica (April 07, 2009), “Tropism”,


https://www.britannica.com/science/tropism

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