Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 79

St.

Paul University Philippines


Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

ACADEMIC ENGAGEMENT AMONG GRADE 5 AND 6 PUPILS

----------------------------------------

A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the School of

Arts, ScienceS and Teacher Education

Saint Paul University Philippines

Tuguegarao City, Cagayan

____________________

In Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree of

BACHELOR IN ELEMENTARY EDUCATION

____________________

By:

Sr. Maria Linda Neves,SPC

Karla B. Reyes

Rica Mae C. Cadangan

Mary Rose A. Lopez

June 2019

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 1


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Title Page.......................................... 1

Approval Sheet

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Table of Contents................................... 2

CHAPTER 1: THE PROBLEM AND REVIEW RELATED LITERATURE

Introduction .................................. 4

Review of Related Literature .................. 6-12

Theoretical Framework ..........................15

Statement of the Problem ...................... 20

Hypothesis .................................... 21

Significance of the Study ..................... 21

Scope and Limitation .......................... 21-22

Definition of Terms ........................... 22-23

CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOGY

Research Design ............................... 24

Participants of the Study ..................... 24

Instrumentation ............................... 25

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 2


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

Data Gathering Procedure ...................... 25

Data Analysis ................................. 26

CHAPTER 3: RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Result and Discussion ......................... 27-49

CHAPTER 4: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND

RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary ....................................... 50-52

Conclusions ................................... 53

Recommendations ............................... 54

REFERENCES ......................................... 55-56

APPENDICES .........................................

CURRICULUM VITAE ...................................

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 3


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Introduction

Engagement has attracted increasing attention as

representing a possible antidote to declining academic

motivation and achievement. Engagement is presumed to be

malleable, responsive to contextual features, and amenable

to environmental change. Researchers describe behavioral,

emotional, and cognitive engagement and recommend studying

engagement as a multifaceted construct. Engagement is also

an essential component that need to be fulfilled even in a

home. Engagement is an indispensable, effective method not

only in giving opinion or idea but also in receiving

important information.

Academic engagement also means student’s engagement

in the classroom. Engagement requires not only being active

but also feeling and sense making (Harper and Quaye, 2009).

Bomia and colleagues (1997) define student engagement as

students’ willingness, needs, desire motivation and success

in the learning process. Hu and Kuh (2001) and Kuh (2009a)

refer to student engagement as the time allocated by

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 4


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

students to educational activities to contribute to the

desired outcomes and as the quality of their related

efforts. According to Stovall (2003), student engagement

includes not only the time students spend on tasks but also

their willingness to take part in activities. Krause and

Coates (2008) associated student engagement with the high

quality in learning outcomes.

All these definitions could be said to have common

points for each school level. It is also important that

student engagement in higher education is defined in a way

to cover the processes of campus engagement and class

engagement. In this respect, student engagement was defined

by Gunuc and Kuzu (2014) as “the quality and quantity of

students’ psychological, cognitive, emotional and

behavioral reactions to the learning process as well as to

in-class/out-of-class academic and social activities to

achieve success learning outcomes.”

Nowadays, academic engagement is also a great part

of success. Many problems are solved by academic

engagement. Likewise, the establishment and availability

of various technologies is also a result of engagement.

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 5


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

This is one of the most important things that everyone has

to do because it is one way to get important information.

Academic Engagement also takes into account the

important exchanges of ideas that become the basis of

decision making .For example, having the engagement of a

different countries in the United Nations result in peace

that benefits most countries. Also, the engagement of

legislators results in the development of bills and laws

that benefits the people.

Academic engagement is an indicator that combined

academic identification (which refers to getting along with

teachers, having an interest in the subject matter, and

related behaviors and attitudes) and academic participation

and Academic engagement is considered a hallmark of an

optimal studying experience and a key to academic success

for all students.

In the Education system, academic engagement is also

an important component that results in success. Thus, at

the school the academic engagement is appreciated by the

teachers and also becomes one of the bases for giving

grades to the pupils. In any formal education, most of

learning activities take place in a classroom.

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 6


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

Most pupils can obtain the benefits such as the

enjoyment of sharing ideas with others and learn more if

they are active to contribute in class discussion.

Academic Engagement means class discussions,

cooperative learning, debates, role playing, problem based

learning, asking questions, responding to the questions,

and case studies.

Academic Engagement is often equated with

discussion, which typically involves a lengthy

conversation with the whole class. However, engagement can

also include short exchanges between instructors and

pupils, or within small groups of pupils. Engagement in

class is a valuable teaching method to promote a more

active involvement in learning. It allows pupils the

opportunity to receive input from others, to apply their

knowledge and to develop public speaking skills. In

addition, class participation provides a way in which

teachers can gain a more accurate idea of how well pupils

understand the concepts being taught (Rehman, 2011).

There are Forms of Engagement that our student’s posses

such as the following:

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 7


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

 Intellectual engagement: To increase student engagement

in a course or subject, teachers may create lessons,

assignments, or projects that appeal to student

interests or that stimulate their curiosity. For

example, teachers may give students more choice over the

topics they are asked to write about (so students can

choose a topic that specifically interests them) or they

may let students choose the way they will investigate a

topic or demonstrate what they have learned (some

students may choose to write a paper, others may produce

short video or audio documentary, and still others may

create a multimedia presentation). Teachers may also

introduce a unit of study with a problem or question

that students need to solve. For example, students might

be asked to investigate the causes of a local

environmental problem, determine the species of an

unknown animal from a few short descriptions of its

physical characteristics and behaviors, or build a robot

that can accomplish a specific task. In these cases,

sparking student curiosity can increase “engagement” in

the learning process. For related discussions,

see authentic learning, community-based

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 8


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

learning, differentiation, personalized

learning, project-based learning, and relevance.

 Emotional engagement: Educators may use a wide variety

of strategies to promote positive emotions in students

that will facilitate the learning process, minimize

negative behaviors, or keep students from dropping out.

For example, classrooms and other learning

environments may be redesigned to make them more

conducive to learning, teachers may make a point of

monitoring student moods and asking them how they are

feeling, or school programs may provide counseling, peer

mentoring, or other services that generally seek to give

students the support they need to succeed academically

and feel positive, optimistic, or excited about school

and learning. Strategies such as advisories, for

example, are intended to build stronger relationships

between students and adults in a school. The basic

theory is that students will be more likely to succeed

if at least one adult in the school is meeting with a

student regularly, inquiring about academic and non-

academic issues, giving her advice, and taking an

interest in her out-of-school life, personal passions,

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 9


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

future aspirations, and distinct learning challenges and

needs.

 Behavioral engagement: Teachers may establish classroom

routines, use consistent cues, or assign students roles

that foster behaviors more conducive to learning. For

example, elementary school teachers may use cues or

gestures that help young students refocus on a lesson if

they get distracted or boisterous. The teacher may clap

three times or raise a hand, for example, which signals

to students that it’s time to stop talking, return to

their seats, or begin a new activity. Teachers may also

establish consistent routines that help students stay on

task or remain engaged during a class. For example, the

class may regularly break up into small groups or move

their seats into a circle for a group discussion, or the

teacher may ask students on a rotating basis to lead

certain activities. By introducing variation into a

classroom routine, teachers can reduce the monotony and

potential disengagement that may occur when students sit

in the same seat, doing similar tasks, for extended

periods of time. Research on brain-based learning has

also provided evidence that variation, novelty, and

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 10


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

physical activity can stimulate and improve learning.

For a related discussion, see classroom management.

 Physical engagement: Teachers may use physical

activities or routines to stimulate learning or

interest. For example, “kinesthetic learning” refers to

the use of physical motions and activities during the

learning process. Instead of asking students to answer

questions aloud, a teacher might ask students to walk up

to the chalkboard and answer the question verbally while

also writing the answer on the board (in this case, the

theory is that students are more likely to remember

information when they are using multiple parts of the

brain at the same time—i.e., the various parts dedicated

to speaking, writing, physical activity, etc.). Teachers

may also introduce short periods of physical activity or

quick exercises, particularly during the elementary

years, to reduce antsy, fidgety, or distracted

behaviors. In addition, more schools throughout the

United States are addressing the physical needs of

students by, for example, offering all students free

breakfasts (because disengagement in learning and poor

academic performance have been linked to hunger and

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 11


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

malnutrition) or starting school later at a later time

(because adolescent sleep patterns and needs differ from

those of adults, and adolescents may be better able to

learn later in the morning).

 Social engagement: Teachers may use a variety of

strategies to stimulate engagement through social

interactions. For example, students may be paired or

grouped to work collaboratively on projects, or teachers

may create academic contests that students compete in—

e.g., a friendly competition in which teams of students

build robots to complete a specific task in the shortest

amount of time. Academic and co-curricular activities

such as debate teams, robotics clubs, and science fairs

also bring together learning experiences and social

interactions.

In addition, strategies such as demonstrations of

learning or capstone projects may require students to

give public presentations of their work, often to panels

of experts from the local community, while strategies

such as community-based learning or service learning

(learning through volunteerism) can introduce civic and

social issues into the learning process. In these cases,

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 12


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

learning about societal problems, or participating

actively in social causes, can improve engagement.

 Cultural engagement: Schools may take active steps to

make students from diverse cultural backgrounds—

particularly recently arrived immigrant or refugee

students and their families—feel welcomed, accepted,

safe, and valued. For example, administrators, teachers,

and school staff may provide special orientation

sessions for their new-American populations or offer

translation services and informational materials

translated into multiple languages. Students, families,

and local cultural leaders from diverse backgrounds may

be asked to speak about their experiences to students

and school staff, and teachers may intentionally modify

lessons to incorporate the history, literature, arts,

and perspectives of the student ethnicities and

nationalities represented in their classes. School

activities may also incorporate multicultural songs,

dances, and performances, while posters, flags, and

other educational materials featured throughout the

school may reflect the cultural diversity of the

students and school community. The general goal of such

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 13


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

strategies would be to reduce the feelings of confusion,

alienation, disconnection, or exclusion that some

students and families may experience, and thereby

increase their engagement in academics and school

activities. For related discussions, see dual-language

education, English-language learner, multicultural

education, and voice.

In education, student engagement refers to the degree

of attention, curiosity, interest, optimism, and passion

that students show when they are learning or being taught,

which extends to the level of motivation they have to learn

and progress in their education. Generally speaking, the

concept of “student engagement” is predicated on the belief

that learning improves when students are inquisitive,

interested, or inspired, and that learning tends to suffer

when students are bored, dispassionate, disaffected, or

otherwise “disengaged.” Stronger student

engagement or improved student engagement are common

instructional objectives expressed by educators.

In many contexts, however, student engagement may also

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 14


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

refer to the ways in which school leaders, educators, and

other adults might “engage” students more fully in the

governance and decision-making processes in school, in the

design of programs and learning opportunities, or in the

civic life of their community.

In education, the term student engagement has grown in

popularity in recent decades, most likely resulting from an

increased understanding of the role that certain

intellectual, emotional, behavioral, physical, and social

factors play in the learning process and social

development. For example, a wide variety of research

studies on learning have revealed connections between so-

called “non-cognitive factors” or “non-cognitive skills”

(e.g., motivation, interest, curiosity, responsibility,

determination, perseverance, attitude, work habits, self-

regulation, social skills, etc.) and “cognitive” learning

results (e.g., improved academic performance, test scores,

information recall, skill acquisition, etc.)

The concept of student engagement typically arises

when educators discuss or prioritize educational strategies

and teaching techniques that address the developmental,

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 15


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

intellectual, emotional, behavioral, physical, and social

factors that either enhance or undermine learning for

students.

There is a lot of research around that argues that

pupils who are more engaged in class learn better. Even

so, many more studies prove the lack of engagement of

pupils despite the various methods teachers make so that

they will be motivated to be united in the study.

The researchers believe that lack of engagement

could be due to multiple factors. Student's reluctance

could be due to lack of understanding and motivation in

particular subjects. Gender differences may also provide

information in seeking factors that contribute to academic

engagement.

Moreover, the researchers believed that there are

many factors that can be seen as culprit in lack of

engagement among pupils. Thus, through and continuous

studies is definitely needed to determine which among

these factors are recurring and dominant so that necessary

actions may be developed to improve academic engagement

of pupils. However, in this study the factors will be

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 16


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

based on the perceptions of the teachers.

These are the factors affecting academic engagement:

Learning Motivation. Participants’ experiences showed that

individual motivation as an internal factor could increase

students’ academic engagement by stimulating the learning

of theory lessons and acquiring clinical skills. Students

consider learning theory lessons as the core for better

learning of practical skills.

Interest in Learning. Participants’ experiences

demonstrated that interest in learning was one of the

factors increasing academic engagement in nursing students.

Among factors influencing interest in learning, was

students’ appeal towards subjects or educational contents.

Interest can also provide intellectual and mental

concentration on educational subjects, increase learning

efforts, and ultimately lead to a greater and deeper

learning.

Participation in Extracurricular Scientific Activities.

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 17


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

Our analysis reflected that students’ participation in

extracurricular scientific activities could indirectly

increase their professional awareness and capabilities.

Self-directedness. In learning can result in lifelong

learning. One of the aspects of self-directedness in

learning is students’ efforts and planning for learning.

Mental Concentration. Participants’ experiences indicated

that one of the factors influencing their learning was

mental and intellectual concentration on theoretical and

practical teaching contents. Considering that the

prerequisite for learning intellectual and mental contents

is to focus on educational materials, such concentration on

educational contents can promote academic engagement.

Therefore, it can be said that one of the components of

academic engagement is intellectual and mental

concentration on educational contents as well as active

participation of students in the classroom.

Demonstration of Emotions. Learning can lead to students’

academic achievement and increase their satisfaction with

learning activities. Such a sense of satisfaction can

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 18


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

encourage students to be more active. Satisfaction with

learning also increases student engagement in education and

training.

Conducting this study is very important to every

school or teachers for them to see what the things

that they need to enhance with the students and to

see if the four engagements are balance. This study

suggested that student-related factors such as

individual motivation and interest, mental

concentration, participation in extracurricular

activities, self-directedness and demonstration of

emotions could play important roles in learning and

academic engagement among students.

Therefore, it is recommended that further studies

focusing on applying the findings to improve academic

engagement in these students. The purpose of the study is

to check on the weaknesses and strengths of each of the

students. What area are the teacher’s needs to enhance more

and to focus on. And to provide students new experiences

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 19


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

work that is meaningful, not easy: they want to work with

ideas that matter, solve real problems, learn from each

other, people in their communities, and experts in the

subjects they are studying, engage in dialogue in their

classes, and know that their learning contributes to making

a difference in the world. They consistently demand to be

respected.

This study intends to find out the learning areas that

affects the academic engagement among grade 5 and 6 pupils.

Review of Related Literature

One of the major challenges faced by faculty is to

draw learners’ attention to educational contents and to

help with their learning, which is named academic

engagement. Academic engagement can be defined as

efforts devoted by students to academic activities. It

is a result of dynamic interactions between students,

educators, academic activities, as well as educational

conditions and environments. It is recognized as a

significant indicator of quality of higher education.

Lack of academic engagement can lead to unfavorable

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 20


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

outcomes such as low academic achievement, incivility,

increased risk of failure and dropout.

Pointed out that academic engagement is the outcome

of education, Wikipedia (2013); it is the extent to which

a student, teacher or institution has achieved their

educational goals.

Thus performance is characterized by performance on tests

associated with coursework and the performance of

students on other types of examinations (Kyoshaba, 2009).

Various studies have been carried out on the factors that

affect students’ academic performance or achievement in

schools, colleges and universities. Some of the factors

identified and reported to have affected the academic

engagement of students in these different settings are:

student effort, previous or prior educational performance,

self-motivation, the social-economic status of the students’

parents, the students’ age, number of hours of study per

day, admission points, different entry qualifications,

tuition trends and the students’ area of residence (rural or

urban) (Farooq, Chaudry, Shafiq & Berhanu, 2011; Ali,

Haider, Munir, Khan & Ahmed, 2013).

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 21


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

The type of school a child attended also affects the

academic engagement of the student. In this regard,

Kyoshaba (2009) observed that students’ educational

outcome and academic success is greatly influenced by the

type of school which they attended. The school we attend

is the institutional environment that sets the parameters

of a student’s learning experience.

In agreement with this, Considine and Zappala

(2002) reported that the type of school a child attends

influences the educational outcomes; furthermore, schools

have an independent effect on the students’ educational

attainment, and this is likely to operate through the

variation of quality and attitudes. Thus, a student’s

school background is positively related to his or her

academic performance at an undergraduate level.

In addition, Ali et al. (2013) and Kwesiga (2002)

also observed that the learning outcomes and educational

performance of students are strongly affected by the type

of educational institution where they received their

education. However, this is a function of the number of

facilities a school offers, which usually determines

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 22


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

their quality, and which in turn affects the performance

and accomplishments of its students.

Jamuan (1974) stated that efficient learning depends

not only on good teaching methods but also on satisfactory

learning procedures. Farely and Rosnow (1975) studied the

responsible factors for schooling.

Brophy (1987) also suggested that teachers viewed

themselves as active socialization agent who works capable

of stimulating student’s motivation to learn. One of the

major finding by (Small, 1996) was that instruction were

perceived by students as having the prime responsibility

for learner interests or boredom.

Moreover Kapoor, R. (1987) found that better

adjustment, study habits high intelligence and socio-

economic status were related with high achievement at

Junior high school level. These studies suggest that not

only the mental abilities, but the other motivational

factors may also be the responsible for academic

performance.

TROLLS FORM (1988) reported that teachers typically

attributed students of low achievement to low effort


SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 23
St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

moreover, teachers viewed student characteristics such as

poor work habits as being more important than either

classroom or teacher variables. In some instances, some

students agreed that it was their responsibility to

motivate themselves. Gohfied (1990)also found positive

correlation between motivation and achievement

specifically, young student with higher academic intrinsic

motivation has significantly high achievement and

intellectual performance. She also found that early

intrinsic motivation correlated with later motivation and

achievement and later motivation is the predictable from

early achievement (Gohfied 1990). It was found that

perceived academic competence was positively related to

intrinsic motivation.

Tiwari and bansal (1994) mentioned that a child with

high academic achievement is likely to be well-treated as

well behaved and independent and low achieves as incapable

and deprived of employment with may lead this to met

adjustment to life. Chaudhary and Muni (1995) reported that

parental support had positive effect on their children

academic performance. They carried out a study on the role

of parental support in children’s need satisfaction and

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 24


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

academic achievement. The sample consisted of fifty

children from 7th grade of equal number of boys and girls.

Family effectiveness and need satisfaction inventory and

academic marks were used as measures in this study. HIGBEE

(1996) found that most students attributed to their own

actions.

Cimmino (2007) pointed out that classroom engagement

is important because learning is not just between the

student and the teacher but part of the whole classroom

experience.

When pupils participate, they learn from each other and

internalize the knowledge better. Pupils who are able to

share their opinions in small class discussions feel that

there is a personal reward from it. Engagement in the class

also boosts how much the student likes the class.

In addition, Dopkiss (2015) emphasized that pupils

that regularly engage in class are constantly involved with

the material and are more likely to remember a greater

portion of the information. Active class engagement also

improves critical and higher level thinking skills. Pupils

who engage in class have studied the material well enough

to introduce new concepts to their peers.

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 25


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

Despite the many benefits of class engagement, the vast

majority of pupils do not regularly contribute to their

classes.

Moreover (Johnson 1996,) 2004, Skaalvik and Skaalvik,

(2004), Skaalvik and Skaalvik,( 2006), Sandra,( 2002)

revealed-significant relationship between academic

performance and motivation.

According to Mustapha et al. (2010) there have been a

variety of reasons identified in prior studies as having

influences in encouraging or discouraging pupils’

participation.

Factors specific to the pupils like age, gender,

pupils’ willingness to talk, course level, student

preparation and student emotions like confidence or fear

have been reported to influence their engagement.

For instance, in the study conducted by Moffett and

associates (2014) they found out that there are

statistically significant differences between male and

female pupils when asked to self-report their level of

engagement and their confidence to participate. However, no

statistically significant difference was identified between

different age groups of pupils.

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 26


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

Meanwhile, as noted by Dundar et al. (2014), as seen

from studies regarding school subjects, attitudes towards

school in general and particular school subjects impact

many aspects of

academic life such as achievement. Their study showed that

the most-liked subject was science and technology, the most

important and also difficult subject was mathematics.

Whether classes were amusing, boring and/or linked to daily

life experiences was found to be among the most frequently

mentioned reasons.

Moreover, Washington University in St. Louis (2016)

asserted that, ideally, the goal of increasing engagement

is not to have every student participate in the same way or

at the same rate. Instead, it is to create an environment

in which all participants have the opportunity to learn and

in which the class explores issues and ideas in depth, from

a variety of viewpoints. Some pupils will raise their

voices more than others; this variation is a result of

differences in learning preferences as well as differences

in personalities.

Similarly, Abdullah and company (2012) opined that

classroom is a built-in environment where formal learning

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 27


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

process takes place. It is an important context where both

pupils and instructor come into contact to share

information in their quest for knowledge. For the

instructor, classroom time is a golden opportunity to meet

face to face with the pupils, delivering the teaching

material effectively with the aim to ensure that pupils are

learning what is being taught.

A conducive classroom environment involved two-way

interaction between pupils and instructors. This type of

classroom environment will stimulate learning and makes

both the instructor and pupils feel satisfied, which

eventually leads to effective learning process.

Student engagement focuses on the extent to which

students are engaging in activities that higher education

research has shown to be linked with high‐quality learning

outcomes. Reflecting the work of Astin (1985

Astin, A. 1985. Achieving educational excellence: a

critical assessment of priorities and practices in higher

education, San Francisco: Jossey‐Bass.

From good practices to good products: relating good

practices in undergraduate education to student

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 28


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

achievement. Paper presented at the Association of

Institutional Research. ( Boston. Hu and Kuh, (2001

Hu, S. and Kuh, G.D.). Being (dis)engaged in educationally

purposeful activities: the influences of student and

institutional characteristics. Paper presented at the

American Educational Research Association Annual

Conference. 3) define engagement as ‘the quality of effort

students themselves devote to educationally purposeful

activities that contribute directly to desired outcomes’.

The phenomenon has achieved recognition in the last decade

as a cogent means of guiding higher education research

policy and practice.

Research on student engagement is underpinned by the

constructivist view that education is fundamentally about

students constructing their own knowledge. From this

perspective, learning also depends on institutions and

staff generating conditions that stimulate and encourage

student involvement (Davis and (Murrell 1993

Davis, T. and Murrell, P. 1993.) A structural model of

perceived academic, personal, and vocational gains related

to college student responsibility. Engagement is a broad

phenomenon that encompasses academic as well as selected


SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 29
St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

non‐academic and social aspects of the student experience.

At a certain level of analysis, engagement is taken to

provide a singularly sufficient means of determining

whether students are engaging with their study and

university learning community in ways likely to promote

high‐quality learning.

The concept of engagement embraces a specific understanding

of the relationship between students and institutions.

Institutions are responsible for creating environments that

make learning possible, and that afford opportunities to

learn. The final responsibility for learning, however,

rests with students. The nature and degree of learning is

dependent on how the student makes use of his/her

environmental resources. Concurs that an individual’s

involvement or quality of effort plays a central role in

determining the extent and nature of development and

learning at university. Student engagement develops from

the dynamic interplay between student and institutional

activities and conditions.

While student engagement tends to be viewed as a

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 30


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

quintessential reflection of learning processes, there is

an important sense in which such involvement is one of the

more significant outcomes of first‐year study. Indeed,

fostering engagement in key educational processes is a

crucial means of establishing the foundations for

successful later year study (Astin 1993

Astin, A. 1993. Further, the large‐scale and highly

normative nature of assessment in the first year may mean

that measures of engagement provide a relatively good index

of academic involvement and potential.

Working from this perspective, the current study reinforces

the primary educational role played by engagement. Indeed,

it goes further in this direction than most other studies

of engagement. Despite the emphasis placed on engagement,

most studies of the phenomenon consider its relationship

with academic achievement, and in particular to students’

own perceived learning and developmental outcomes

(Pace 1979 Pace, C.R. 1979; Kuh 1995 Kuh, G. 1995. The

other curriculum: out‐of‐class experiences associated with

student learning and personal

development. NSSE 2005aNational Survey of Student

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 31


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

Engagement (NSSE). 2005a. In such circumstances, engagement

variables are typically treated in statistical models as

explanatory or mediating variables used to predict social,

cognitive and affective outcomes. For current purposes,

however, it is assumed that, while engagement may mediate

the influence of these other phenomena, engagement also

plays more than a mediating role. That is, engagement is

taken to be more than a phenomenon subordinated to the

effects of other variables. While it may be going too far

to suggest that engagement be conceptualized primarily as

an educational outcome, our analysis below suggests that

engagement is a phenomenon worth examining in its own

right.

In studying engagement, it is necessary to assume that

it is possible to identify a range of beneficial activities

and conditions associated with learning. It is more

difficult, however, to identify these processes and

contexts as being necessary, sufficient or, at least,

enriching for learning. One reason for this is the lack of

suitable outcome measures which has meant that, so far,

engagement research has relied on

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 32


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

student self‐reported outcomes. However, even if

phenomena could be identified by principle or experiment,

the complexity and individualised nature of the educational

endeavour would make accurate and reliable generalisation

difficult. Indeed, what is meant by ‘involvement’ may vary

between individuals and situations.

(Pascarella, E. 1991). The impact of college on students:

the nature of the evidence. Notes, change at university is

dependent on a ‘dynamic web of influences’.

For an understanding of involvement to carry any

explanatory power, it must focus on the circumstances and

conditions understood to be quite fundamental for certain

types of learning.

Student engagement has been the focus of a substantial

amount of research in the last few years, particularly in

the USA (Kuh 2001 Kuh, G. 2001. Alternative perspectives

on the student experience: alienation and engagement. The

most polished framework appears to be that which has been

developed for the National Survey of Student Engagement

(NSSE 2005a National Survey of Student Engagement

(NSSE). 2005a. For the purposes of providing aggregate

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 33


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

reports to institutions, the framework divides student

engagement into five dimensions: level of academic

challenge, active and collaborative learning, student–

faculty interaction, enriching educational experiences, and

supportive campus environment. While no doubt related, it

is proposed that these dimensions capture a necessary and

sufficient range of the educationally important qualities

of the university student experience. Although it was built

on decades of research (Pace 1979 Pace, C.R. 1979. Seven

principles for good practice in undergraduate education.

The NSSE framework was the first developed explicitly as a

model of university student engagement. It has become

widely integrated into higher education practices and

policies in the United States.

In a recent study, Coates (2006 Coates, H. 2006. Student

engagement in campus‐based and online education: university

connections, London: Routledge. [Google Scholar]) proposed

that campus‐based early‐year students’ engagement with their

study should be conceptualized in terms of nine qualities:

constructive teaching, supportive learning environments,

teacher approachability, student and staff interaction,

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 34


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

academic challenge, active learning, collaborative work,

beyond‐class collaboration, and complementary activities.

Recognising that online learning plays a formative

role in contemporary campus‐based study, Coates also

proposed seven qualities of the online dimensions of

campus‐based study: online engagement, online active

learning, online academic relevance, online teaching,

online collaboration, online social interaction, and online

contact with staff. Analysis of the general and online

scales in the Coates study suggested that they were

underpinned by a common typology which provided an

interpretive context for diagnosing and benchmarking levels

of student engagement.

Working from these earlier studies, a primary focus of

our analysis in this paper is the definition of key

qualities of Australian students’ engagement with their

first year of university study. Evidence of the importance

of the first year in determining student persistence and

success in higher education abounds in the research

literature. Understanding the first‐year experience plays a

critical role in managing transitions to tertiary study, in

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 35


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

retaining students (Krause 2005K rause, K. 2005. Serious

thoughts about dropping out in first year: trends, patterns

and implications for higher education. Studies in Learning,

Evaluation, Innovation and

Development, 2(3): 55–67. [Google Scholar]), and in setting

up the educational foundations for academic success

(Upcraft and

Gardner 1989Upcraft, M.L. and Gardner, J.N. 1989. The

freshman year experience, San

Francisco: Jossey‐Bass. [Google Scholar]; Kuh et

al. 2005Kuh, G., Gonyea, R. and Williams, J. 2005. “What

students expect from college and what they get”.

In Promoting reasonable expectations, Edited

by: Miller, T., Bender, B., Schuh, J. and and

associates. San Francisco: Jossey‐Bass. [Google Scholar]).

The Australian first‐year experience studies have made a

significant contribution in this regard.

Synthesis

Although there is a considerable variation in how

“academic engagement” is defined and measured, the term is

generally used to describe meaningful student involvement

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 36


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

throughout the learning environment. Thus, “academic

engagement” is best understood as a relationship between

the student and the following elements of the learning

environment:

• The school community

• The adults at school

• The student’s peers

• The instruction

• The curriculum

Theoretical Framework

This study would focus on the academic engagement

and its factors and even in their daily performances.

Academic engagement features of many course designs. It can

result in insightful comments and interesting connections

being made by students and can foster a high level of

energy and enthusiasm in the classroom learning

environment.

In the study context, academic engagement is regarded

as the most frequently used and often embraced pedagogical

strategies. In attempting to enhance participation quality

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 37


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

and discussion effectiveness, there is concern over what to

do about students who are less inclined to participate

voluntarily. In order to present the objective and purpose

of the study the researchers adopted the theoretical

framework of Student Engagement Scale (SES) developed by

Gunuc and Kuzu(2014) as our guide.

Figure 1: Student Engagement Structure

In this framework, the study carried out by Gunuc and

Kuzu (2014), student engagement was examined in two main

components such as campus engagement and class engagement

with 6 dimensions: Valuing, Sense of Belonging, Cognitive

Engagement, Peer Relationships (Emotional Engagement-I),

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 38


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

Relationships with the Faculty Member (Emotional

Engagement-II) and Behavioral Engagement.

Campus Engagement

Student engagement in higher education has certain

differences when compared to student engagement in other

school levels, especially the context of campus or social

life. It was observed that the campus itself and campus

activities have indirect effects on students especially in

higher education (Gunuc, 2013).

Such concepts as giving value to campus (university)

or to education, sense of belonging and participation in

campus activities are considered to be among important

parts of student engagement (Blimling, 1993; Chickering,

1975; Gunuc & Kuzu, 2014; Pike, & Kuh, 2005; Terenzini et

al., 1996). In this respect, Willms (2003) defines

engagement as students’ sense of belonging, accepting the

value of school and active participation in school

activities. Voelkl (1996) refers to school engagement by

emphasizing the themes of sense of belonging to school and

value given to school. According to Goodenow (1992), sense

of belonging occurs when students feel that they are

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 39


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

accepted, supported and involved by other people in the

social setting of a campus/school (other students, teachers

and so on). On the other hand, sense of belonging is one of

important components of psychology because sense of

belonging could be said to have positive or indirect

influence on academic achievement and on motivation

(Goodenow, 1993; Kember, Lee & Li, 2001).

In addition, in several studies, it was pointed out that

the campus/school climate is likely to have influence on

students’ performance, their achievement and on their

positive and negative behavior (Gunuc, 2013; Finn, 1989;

1993; Finn & Voelkl, 1993). Matthews and colleagues (2011)

and Nauffal (2011) indicated that social learning areas or

the campus itself have important contributions to the

development of sense of belonging and student engagement.

The concept of sense of belonging also includes

participation in campus. Participation is regarded as

taking part especially in out-of-class activities or in

campus.

It could be stated that giving value not just means

giving value to the campus or to other related elements but

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 40


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

also covers the value given to the concepts of school,

university, education and learning (Gunuc & Kuzu, 2014).

Class Engagement

Class engagement involves students’ cognitive,

emotional and behavioral responses to in-class and out-of-

class activities. Cognitive engagement includes investment

in learning, value given to learning, learning goals, self

regulation and planning. Cognitive engagement has an

important relationship with learning motivation. Cognitive

engagement refers to students who invest in their own

learning, who accordingly determine their needs and who

enjoy the mental difficulties (Gunuc & Kuzu, 2014;

Fredricks et al. 2004). Emotional engagement involves

students’ responses to the teacher, peers, course content

and to the class which all include attitudes, interests and

values (Bryson & Hand, 2007; Gunuc & Kuzu, 2014).

In addition, such emotions as sense of belonging to

school/university, loving the university and feeling

oneself to be a member of a group are also examined within

the scope of emotional engagement (Fredricks et al. 2004).

Behavioral engagement includes students’ participation in

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 41


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

academic, their efforts, their attendance in classes and

their participation in class (Gunuc & Kuzu, 2014). The

basic of behavioral engagement could be said to be related

to class activities. The campus (out-of-class) and social

activities are also examined within the scope of behavioral

engagement (Fredricks et al. 2004). Patrick and colleagues

(2007) considered social and emotional environments in the

classroom to be among prerequisites to students’ engagement

with activities and tasks. In addition, in several studies,

it was reported that emotional engagement, emotional

support or positive emotions increased participation in

activities or behavioral engagement (Ladd et al. 2000; Li

et al. 2010; Skinner et al. 2008). In another saying,

positive emotions were found important to maintain the

behavior and action (Clore, 1994; Fredrickson, 2001). Also,

it was pointed out that positive emotions made

contributions not only in behavioral context but also in

cognitive context (Aspinwall, 1998). Li and Lerner (2013)

demonstrated that behavioral engagement had influence on

cognitive engagement. Similarly, Gibbs and Poskitt (2010)

regarded emotional and behavioral engagements as

prerequisites to cognitive engagement. In this respect, it

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 42


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

was reported that the student is supposed to develop

emotional and behavioral engagements prior to cognitive

engagement.

In addition, studies conducted generally revealed

that there were mutual relationships between behavioral and

emotional engagements (Li & Lerner, 2013; Skinner et al.,

2008). Fredricks and colleagues (2004) pointed out that the

cognitive, emotional and behavioral dimensions were not

examined together in many studies and that examining these

dimensions together was important. In this respect, in

related literature, it is seen that mostly emotional and

behavioral engagements were examined (Furrer & Skinner,

2003; Patrick et al. 1993; Ryan et al. 1994; Skinner &

Belmont, 1993). One of the most important reasons for this

could be the fact that it is much more difficult to measure

cognitive engagement.

Furthermore, to show the step-by-step procedure that is

undertaken in conduct of the study, the given paradigm used

as researchers’ guide.

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 43


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

Participants’  Ascertain
profile
ed
Pupil’s perceptio
Academic
Analysis of n on the
Engagement
the level level of
 Emotional pupils’ pupils’
 Cognitive academic academic
engagement engagemen
 Behavioral
and; t in
school
 Affective

FEEDBACK

Figure 1. Paradigm of the Study

Figure 1 shows the paradigm of this study. The first

box is the input from the participants profile variables:

school, grade level, gender, age, parent’s occupation, and

pupils’ academic engagement.

The second box shows the process of the study, which

involves the analysis on the level of pupils’ academic

engagement and with the use of student engagement survey

developed by Skinner, 1991.

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 44


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

Moreover, the last part box shows the output of this

study, which is the ascertained perception on the level of

pupils’ academic engagement in school and the action plan

in promoting academic engagement.

Statement of the Problem

The study aimed to determine the academic engagement

among grade 5 and 6 pupils who are currently enrolled in

the A.Y. 2018-2019.

Specifically, the study sought to answer the following

questions:

1. What is the profile of the Grade 5 and 6 pupils in

terms of the following:

1.1 School

1.2 Grade level

1.3 Sex

1.4 Age and

1.5 Parent’s occupation?

2. What is the pupils’ level of academic engagement

along the following areas:

2.1 Emotional engagement,

2.2 Cognitive engagement,

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 45


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

2.3 Behavioral engagement, and

2.4 Affective engagement?

3. Is there a significant difference on pupils’ academic

engagement when they are grouped according to profile

variables?

Hypothesis of the Study

This study tested the null hypothesis that there is no

significant difference on the level of academic engagement

of Grade 5 and 6 pupils when grouped according to profile

variables.

Scope and Limitation

This was conducted in some public and private

elementary school in Tuguegarao City. The researchers

target would be 100 participants among male and female 5th-

grade and 6th-grade students specifically those who were 10

and 11 years old. The study confines itself in determining,

analyzing and interpreting the academic engagement of the

participants and the significant difference when grouped

according to profile variables.

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 46


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

To specify the data collected, the researchers

developed Academic Engagement Questionnaire to be able to

align the data taken in the checklist.

Significance of the Study

The researchers believe that the study will be

beneficial in teaching and learning process since both

pupils and teachers will learn in the actual interactions

when pupils actively engage in the classroom.

More specifically, the results will be beneficial to

the following:

Grade 6 & 5 Pupils. Being at the receiving end, they will

be benefited in the findings of the study as their level of

academic engagement will be enhanced as it generates

important data that can be used by their teachers to come

up with intervention program.

Teachers. The result of the study will give them important

points for them to develop teaching strategy and

intervention materials to ensure high level of class

participation inside the classroom.

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 47


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

Parents. The improvement of the academic engagement of the

study will also mean improvement of the performance of

their children.

Researchers. Research would benefit the researcher of this

study by expanding her knowledge of academic engagement and

skills in the research process.

Future Researchers. This study would serve as their basis

to conduct research in similar studies.

Definition of Terms

For complete understanding of the different terms

utilized in the study, the researcher employed operational

and conceptual definition.

Student Engagement. This refers to the degree of

attention, curiosity, interest, optimism, and passion that

students show when they are learning or being taught, which

extends to the level of motivation they have to learn and

progress in their education.

Academic Engagement . Is a multidimensional

(multifaceted) construct that can be measured with all the

dimensions dynamically interrelated.

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 48


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

Emotional Engagement. Focusing on the extent and

nature of positive and negative reactions to teachers,

classmates, academics, and school.

Cognitive Engagement. Focusing on students’ level of

investment in learning.

Behavioral Engagement. Focusing on participation in

academic, social, and co-curricular activities.

Affective Engagement. The relationship between their

peers, teachers and other part of the community.

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 49


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

Chapter 2

METHODOLOGY

This chapter deals with the research design,

participants of the study, research instrument, data

gathering procedure and analysis of data.

Research Design

In order to determine the academic engagement among

Grade 6 pupils, descriptive research design was used.

According to Calmorin (2007) the descriptive research

includes present facts or current conditions concerning the

nature or persons, a number of subjects or class of events,

classification of events, classification or measurement.

Descriptive research characterized as a fact-finding with

adequate interpretations.

Participants of the Study

This study would be undertaken during the A.Y. 2018-

2019. The present study would consider randomly selected

section of Grade 6 & 5 pupils.

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 50


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

School Grade Level Number of


Participants

A Grade 5 25

Grade 6 25

B Grade 5 25

Grade 6 25

Instrumentation

The researcher used a questionnaire as the main

instrument of the study.

The questionnaire composed of two parts with 38

questions. On the first part, the participants were ask to

fill out their demographic profile that includes their

school, grade, gender, age and parents occupation; and on

the second part, they were asked to answer the questions

that utilized to assess their level of academic engagement

along four areas such as; emotional, cognitive, behavioral

and affective engagement.

Data Gathering Procedure

To obtain the necessary data needed in this study, the

researchers have chosen participants randomly among grade 5

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 51


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

and 6 pupils in private and public elementary school.

Primarily, the researchers wrote a permission letter

addressed to the Principal of Tuguegarao West Central

School and St. Paul University Philippines and noted by the

adviser to allow the researchers to conduct the study in

the school. When the necessary data were gathered,

the researcher coded and organized the data for

interpretation and analysis.

Data Analysis

The data gathered were statistically treated to answer

the questions posed in the study. Statistical tools used in

the analysis and interpretation of data were:

1. Frequency counts and percentage. This was used to

determine the frequency and percentage distribution

of the profile variables.

2. Mean. This was used to determine level of pupil’s

academic engagement of the Grade 6 pupils in general

and in terms of the specific subjects, classroom

activities and teachers intervention.

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 52


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

Table 2. Engagement

To further analyze the weighted mean, the scale below

was used:

Mean Descriptive Interpretation


3.25-4.00 Very High
2.50-3.24 High
1.75-2.49 Low
1.00-1.74 Very Low

T-test for Independent Scale. This was used to

determine whether there exist the significant difference

on pupil’s academic engagement in terms of their profile

variables.

3. ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) This is used to

determine the significant difference in the pupils’

academic engagement of the participants when grouped

according to the profile variables.

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 53


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

CHAPTER 3

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter presents the data gathered with their

corresponding analysis and interpretation. The data are

presented in tabular form. For better understanding, the

tables were analyzed and interpreted in textual discussion.

1. Profile of the Participants

1.1 School

1.2 Grade level

1.3 Sex

1.4 Age and

1.5 Parent’s occupation?

1.5.1 Father’s Occupation

1.5.2 Mother’s Occupation

Table 1. Frequency and percentage distribution of the

participants in terms of School.

School Frequency Percentage

A 50 50.0

B 50 50.0

Total 100 100.0

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 54


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

Table 1 reveals that there is an equal number of

pupils taken from school A and B.

Table 2. Frequency and percentage distribution of the

participants in terms of Grade Level.

Grade Level Frequency Percentage

V 50 50.0

VI 50 50.0

Total 100 100.0

Table 2 reveals that there is an equal number of

pupils taken from school each grade level.

Table 3 Frequency and Percentage distribution of the

participants in terms of gender.

Gender Frequency Percentage

Male 42 42.0

Female 58 58.0

Total 100 100.0

Table 3 shows that, majority or 58.0% of the

participants are females while 42.0% are males. This shows

that the participants are female dominated.

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 55


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

Table 4. Frequency and percentage distribution of the

participants in terms of Age.

Age Frequency Percentage

9 2 2.0

10 45 45.0

11 41 41.0

12 12 12.0

Total 100 100.0%

Table 4 reveals that 45.0% of the participants are 10

years old, 41.0% of the participants are 11 years old,

12.0% of the participants are 12 years old, and 2.0% of the

participants are 9 years old. The data further reveals

that, the majority of the participants are 10 years old.

Table 5. Frequency and percentage distribution of the

participants in terms of Fathers occupation

Father’s Occupation Frequency Percentage

White Collar 80 80.0

Blue Collar 20 20.0

Total 100 100.0

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 56


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

The table shows that majority of the participants

father’s occupation are under white collar such as doctor,

engineer, nurses, architect, teacher, administrator,

manager, public safety, office employee, and OFW.

Table 6. Frequency and percentage distribution of the

participants in terms of Mothers occupation.

Mother Frequency Percentage

White Collar 74 74.0

Blue Collar 26 26.0

Total 100 100.0

Table 6 shows that the majority of the participant is that

the mothers’ occupation are under white collar which are

doctor, engineer, nurses, architect, teacher,

administrator, manager, public safety, office employee, and

OFW.

2. Pupils’ level of school academic engagement along the

following areas:

2.1 Emotional engagement,

2.2 Cognitive engagement,

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 57


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

2.3 Behavioral engagement, and

2.4 Affective engagement

Table 7. Weighted Mean and Qualitative Description of the

Participants’ Emotional Engagement.

Item Mean Qualitative


Description
1. I talk about my 2.41 Low
problems in school with
my leaders or trusted
adults.
2. I am happy to be at my 3.34 Very high
school.
3. I feel I can go to my 2.57 High
teachers with the
things that I need to
talk about.
4. My teachers believe 3.1 High
that I can do well in
school.
5. I am interested in the 3.15 High
extracurricular
activities that this
school offers.
Category Mean 2.914 High

It is manifested from the table above that the

participants’ emotional engagement are high when they are

at school. Respectively they also have high engagement in

terms of being with their teachers and in extracurricular

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 58


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

activities that the school offers. Lastly, it also

indicates that the participants have low engagement in

terms of trusting others at school. In general, the

participants have a high engagement in school with a

descriptive interpretation of high as indicated by the

overall mean of 2.914.

Table 8. Weighted Mean and Qualitative Description of the

Participants Cognitive Engagement.

Item Mean Qualitative


Description
1. When I study, I try 3.07 High
to understand the
material better by
relating it to
things I already
know.
2. When I study, I 2.9 Low
figure out how the
information might be
useful in the real
world.
3. When learning new 2.8 Low
information, I try
to put the ideas in
my own words.
4. When I study, I try 3 High
to connect what I am
learning with my own
experiences.
5. I make up my own 2.91 High
examples to help me
understand the
important concepts I
learn from school.
SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 59
St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

6. When learning things 2.76 High


for school, I try to
see how they fit
together with other
things I already
know.
7. When learning things 2.79 High
for school, I often
try to associate
them with what I
learnt in other
classes about the
same or similar
things.
8. I try to see the 2.83 High
similarities and
differences between
things I am learning
for school and
things I know
already.
9. I try to understand 2.84 High
how the things I
learn in school fit
together with each
other.
10. When studying, 2.75 High
I try to combine
different pieces of
information from
course material in
new ways.
Category Mean 2.865 High

It is manifested from the table above that the

participants’ cognitive engagement on item 1,4,5,6,7,8,9,10

has descriptive high with means 3.07, 3, 2.91, 2.76, 2.79,

2.83, 2.84, 2.75 respectively and items 2,3 have

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 60


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

descriptive very low with the means of 2.9, and 2.8. The

overall mean of 2.865 indicates that the participants have

high cognitive engagement at school.

Table 9. Weighted Mean and Qualitative Description of the

Participants’ Behavioral Engagement.

Item Mean Qualitative


Description
1. I follow the rules at 3.25 Very high
school.
2. I feel at home in the 2.76 High
school.
3. I am interested in what 3.29 Very high
I am learning in school.
4. I greet my schoolmates 3.17 High
with kindness and
respect.
5. I try to do my best in 3.45 Very high
school every day.
6. I try hard to do well in 3.16 High
school.
7. If I have trouble 2.84 High
understanding a problem,
I go over it again until
I understand it.
8. When I run into a 2.92 High
difficult homework
problem, I keep working
at it until I think I’ve
solved it.
9. I take an active role in 2.88 High
extracurricular
activities in my school.
10. I volunteer to help 2.9 Low
with school activities
such as sport day and

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 61


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

parent day.
Category Mean 3.062 High

It is manifested from the table above that the

participants’ behavioral engagement on item 1,3,5, has

descriptive very high with means 3.25, 3.29, 3.45

respectively items 2,4,6,7,8,9 has descriptive high with

means of 2.76, 3.17, 3.16, 2.84, 2.92, 2.88. Lastly, item

10 has descriptive low with means of 2.9. The overall mean

of 3.062 indicates that the participants are high in their

behavioral engagement at school.

Table 10. Weighted Mean and Qualitative Description of the

Participants’ Affective Engagement.

Items Mean Qualitative Mean


A. Affective: Liking for
Learning
1. I am very interested 3.18 High
in learning.
2. I think what we are 3.05 High
learning in school is
interesting
3. I talk with people 2.59 High
outside of school
about what I am
learning in class.
4. I like what I am 3.24 High
learning in school
5. I enjoy learning new 3.46 Very high
things in class.
6. I learn a lot from my 3.14 Very high
SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 62
St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

classes.
7. Learning is an 3.33 Very high
opportunity to acquire
life skills.
B. Affective: Liking for
School
1. I like my school 3.61 Very high
2. I am proud to be at 3.49 High
this school.
3. Most mornings, I look 3.3 Very high
forward to going to
school
4. I am happy to be at 3.45 High
this school
5. I often study or do 2.93 Very high
assignments with
friends at school

6. I try my best at 3.45 High


school.

Category Mean 3.247 High

It is manifested from the table above that the

participants’ affective engagement on linking of learning

item 5,6,7, has descriptive very high with means 3.46,

3.14, 3.33 respectively items 1,2,3,4 has descriptive high

with means of 3.18, 3.05, 2.59, 3.24. While, affective

engagement on linking for school item 1,3,5 has descriptive

very high with means 3.61, 3.3, 2.93 respectively items

2,4,6 has descriptive high with means of 3.49, 3.45, 3.45.

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 63


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

The overall mean of 3.247 indicates that the

participants are high in their affective engagement at

school.

Summary Table

3.1 Comparative analysis between the pupils academic


engagement in school when grouped according to their
profile variables.

Categories Mean Interpretation


Emotional 2.914 Low
Cognitive 2.865 High
Behavioral 3.062 High
Affective 3.247 High
Grand Mean 3.022 High

Table 11. Significant Difference on pupils’ engagement when


grouped according to school

Engagement School Mean F.Ratio Probability At α=0.05


Value

Emotional A 2.98 1.470 0.228 Accept HO

B 2.84

Cognitive A 2.84 0.137 0.712 Accept HO

B 2.87

Behavioral A 3.00 0.712 0.401 Accept

B 3.11 HO

Affective A 3.21 0.281 0.597 Accept HO

B 2.28

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 64


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

Table above reveals that there is no significant

difference on the pupil’s engagement when grouped according

to school. This is supported by the probability value of

which are all greater than 0.5 level of significance. Thus,

the null hypothesis is accepted. It means that the pupils

from school A and B are comparable in terms of their

academic engagement at school.

3.2 Significant Difference of pupils’ engagement when

grouped according to their grade level

Engagement Grade Mean F.Ratio Probability At


level Value α=0.05

Emotional Grade V 2.95 0.449 0.504 Accept


HO
Grade VI 2.87

Cognitive Grade V 2.96 2.276 0.100 Accept


HO
Grade VI 2.77

Behavioral Grade V 3.11 0.660 0.418 Accept


HO
Grade VI 3.01

Affective Grade V 3.25 0.018 0.895 Accept


HO
Grade VI 3.24

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 65


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

It can be observed from table 12 that there is no

significant difference on the pupils’ academic engagement

when grouped according to their grade level. This is proven

by the probability values which are all greater than 0.5.

Therefore, the null hypothesis is accepted.

3.3 Significant Difference of pupils engagement when

grouped according to their gender

Engagement Gender Mean F.Ratio Probability At

Value α=0.05

Emotional Male 2.88 0.205 0.652 Accept

HO
Female 2.93

Cognitive Male 2.90 0.277 0.600 Accept

HO
Female 2.84

Behavioral Male 3.11 0.439 0.509 Accept

HO
Female 3.03

Affective Male 3.30 0.599 0.441 Accept

HO
Female 3.20

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 66


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

Based on table 13, there is no significant difference

on the pupils’ academic engagement and when they are mix in

gender. This is validated by the probability value which is

greater than 0.5. Hence, the null hypothesis is accepted.

This implies that both male and female participants have

the same level of academic engagement at school.

3.4 Significant Difference of pupils engagement when group

according to their ages

Engagement Age Mean F.Ratio Probability At α=0.05


Value

Emotional 9 2.90 0.184 0.907 Accept HO

10 2.95

11 2.89

12 2.82

Cognitive 9 2.90 1.581 0.199 Accept HO

10 2.99

11 2.74

12 2.80

Behavioral 9 3.10 0.329 0/567 Accept HO

10 3.15

11 2.97

12 3.04

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 67


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

Affective 9 3.65 2.287 0.958 Accept HO

10 3.30

11 3.17

12 3.24

It can be inferred from table 14 that there is

significant difference between the academic engagement

among grade 5 and 6 pupils when grouped according to their

ages. This is approbate by the probability values which are

all greater by 0.5. Wherefore, the null hypothesis is

accepted. This implies that with regards to the pupils’

ages, academic engagement of grade 5 and 6 pupils is the

same.

3.5 Significant Difference of pupils engagement when group

according mothers occupation

Engagement Mother’s Mean F.Ratio Probability At


Occupation Value α=0.05

Emotional BCJ 2.89 0.207 0.650 Accept

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 68


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

WCJ 2.95 HO

Cognitive BCJ 2.88 0.003 0.958 Accept


HO
WCJ 2.81

Behavioral BCJ 3.10 0.555 0.646 Accept


HO
WCJ 2.95

Affective BCJ 3.29 0.337 0.535 Accept


HO
WCJ 3.12

From table 15, it shows that there is no significant

difference on the pupils’ academic engagement and when

grouped according to Mother’s Occupation. This is supported

by the probability values, which is greater than 0.5 level

of significance. Thus, the null hypothesis is accepted.

Therefore it implies that whatever work that their

mother’s have there is no discrimination or significant

difference.

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 69


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

3.6 Significant Difference of pupils’ engagement when

group according fathers occupation

Engagement Father’s Mean F.Ratio Probability At

Occupation Value α=0.0

Emotional BCJ 2.93 0.675 0.413 Accep

t HO
WCJ 2.81

Cognitive BCJ 2.88 0.207 0.605 Accep

t HO
WCJ 2.80

Behavioral BCJ 3.11 1.080 0.301 Accep

t HO
WCJ 2.87

Affective BCJ 3.25 1.691 0.197 Accep

t HO
WCJ 3.25

Table 16 reveals that there is no significant

difference on the academic engagement among grade 5 and 6

pupils when they are blocked according to their Father’s

occupation. This is proven by the probability values which

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 70


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

are all greater than 0.5. Thus, the null hypothesis is

accepted.

This implies that no matter what occupation their

father’s have they are equal and there is no significant

difference.

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 71


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

Chapter 4

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

This chapter represents the summary of findings,

conclusions and recommendations that were drawn from the

results of gathered data from the participants.

Summary of Findings

The summary of findings presented hereby answered the

statement of the problem of the study based on the data

gathered.

1. Profile of the participants

1.1 School

There is equal distribution (50.0% of

participants taken from each school.

1.2 Grade level

There is equal distribution (50.0%)of

participants taken in each grade level.

1.3 Gender

Majority (58.0%) of the participants are females.

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 72


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

1.4 Age

Majority (45.0%) of the participants are 10 years

old.

1.5 Parent’s Occupation

In terms of fathers’ occupation the majority are

under white-collar jobs likewise with mothers’

occupation majority are under white-collar jobs.

2. Pupils’ level of school academic engagement along the

following areas:

2.1 Emotional and Cognitive Engagement

The participants have high emotional and

cognitive engagement.

2.2 Behavioral and Affective Engagement

The participants have very high behavioral and

affective engagement.

3. Significant difference on pupils’ school engagement

when they are grouped according to profile variables

There is no significant difference on

pupils’ engagement when grouped according to their

profile variables.

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 73


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

Conclusion

Based on the findings of the study, the following

conclusions were derived:

The following conclusions were drawn from the findings

of the study:

1. The participants have high as the descriptive

interpretation in their emotional and cognitive

engagement at school. Furthermore, the

participants have very high as the descriptive

interpretation in terms of behavioral and

affective engagement in school.

2. Participants have no any significant difference

when grouped according to their profile

variables. There are also action plan that is

suggested by the researcher to fully enhanced

pupils engagement at school.

Recommendations

Based on the results of this study, the researchers

recommend the following:

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 74


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

1. School administrators should always see and embrace

the important role of ensuring that the system/school

is operating effectively and efficiently.

2. Teachers should involve pupils in the development of

school the different areas of academic engagement.

3. Parents should be involved in the academic engagement

of their children.s

4. Future researchers, who wants to broaden this study,

may conduct a research to focus on addressing the

academic engagement of pupils with the use of modern

technologies.

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 75


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

REFERENCES

Abdullah, Yusof M., Abu Bakar, Rahamah Noor and Mahbob,

Maizatul Haizan (2012). Student’s participation in

classroom: What motivates them to speak up? Social and

Behavioral Sciences.

Calmorin, Laurentina P. (2007). Methods of Research,

Manila: National Bookstore, p. 46.

Cimmino, Christina (April, 2007). Class participation

essential to student learning (Blogpost) Retrieved

from

http://www.theloquitur.com/classparticipationessential

tostudentlearning/

Dopkiss, Madison (January, 2015). How to participate in

class and why it is important? (Blogpost) Retrieved

from

https://collegesofdistinction.com/resource/participate

-in-class-important/

Dundaar, Sahin, Guvendir, Meltem Acar, Kocabiyik, Oya Onat

and Papatga, Erdal (2014). Which elementary school

subjects are the most likeable, most important, and

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 76


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

the easiest? Why?: A study of science and technology,

mathematics, social studies, and Turkish. Educational

Research and Reviews.

Moffett, Jennifer, Berezowski, John, Spencer, Dustine and

Lanning, Shari (2014). An investigation into the

factors that encourage learner participation in a

large group medical classroom. Advanced Medical

Education Practices, Vol. 5, pp. 65-71.

Mustapha, Siti Maziha, Rahman, Nik Suryani Abd and Yunus,

Melor M.D. (2010). Factors influencing classroom

participation: a case study of Malaysian undergraduate

students. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 9.

Rehman, Shafiqur (2018). Effects of student participation

in a classroom. Retrieved from

https://pamirtimes.net/2011/09/12/opinon-effects-of-

student-participation-in-a-classroom/

Factors Influencing Academic Engagement and Achievement:

Exploration of Impact of Parentification and Poverty in

Adolescents’ Student-Teacher Relationships Retrived from

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 77


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

http://scholarworks.wmich.edu/dissertations

SAMPLE TEACHER INTERVIEW QUESTIONS Retrived from

https://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.taspa.org/resource/resmgr/201

5_Winter_Conference/EFFECTIVE_INTERVIEW_QUESTION.pdf

The Student Engagement in Schools Questionnaire

University of California Santa Barbara

https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ934707.pdf

Las Cruces Public Schools October 30 – November 16,

2012Student Engagement Survey Retrieved from

http://lcps.k12.nm.us/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/LCPS-

Student-Engagement-Survey-Results.pdf

Research in Higher Education, 34: 267–89.[Crossref], [Web

of Science ®], , [Google Scholar]).

Measuring outcomes in college: fifty years of findings and

recommendations for the future, San

Francisco: Jossey‐Bass. [Google Scholar];

Astin 1993Astin, A. 1993.

What matters in college? Four critical years revisited, San

Francisco: Jossey‐Bass.

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 78


St. Paul University Philippines
Tuguegarao City, Cagayan 3500

[Google Scholar]; Chickering and

Gamson 1987Chickering, A. and Gamson, Z. 1987.

Astin (1985Astin, A. 1985. Achieving educational excellence: a

critical assessment of priorities and practices in higher

education, San Francisco: Jossey‐Bass. [Google Scholar])

SPUP School of Arts, Sciences and Teacher Education 79