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# Class 4

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Gear Nomenclature (6.1)

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Important definitions
• Velocity ratio=mV=angular velocity of output
gear/ angular velocity of input gear=pitch diameter
of input gear/pitch diameter of output gear
• Torque ratio=mT=torque at output gear/torque at
input gear
• mT=1/mV
• Gear ratio=mG=Ngear/Npinion, mG is almost always
greater than one

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Fundamental law of tooth gearing (6.2 and 6.3):
velocity ratio must be constant as gears rotate

## Angular velocity ratio= ratio

of distances of P from centers 2
of rotation of input and output
gear.
3 O2 P T

 2 O3P

## If common normal were 3

fixed then the velocity ratio
would be constant.

3 4
If gear tooth profile is that of involute curve
then fundamental law of gearing is satisfied
Involute curve: path generated
by a tracing point on a cord as the cord
is unwrapped from base cylinder

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Generating gear teeth profile

Steps:
•Select base circles
•Bring common normal AB
•Draw involutes CD, EF P

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Gear action

Angular velocity of
Gear 3 / angular
Velocity of gear 2 =
O2P/O3P = constant

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Fundamental law of gearing:
The common normal of the tooth profiles
at all points within the mesh must always
pass through a fixed point on the line of
the centers called pitch point. Then the
gearset’s velocity ratio will be constant
through the mesh and be equal to the ratio

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Initial contact: B
Final contact: C

## Path of approach: BP=ua=[(r3+a)2-rb32]1/2-r3sin

Path of recess: PC=ur=[(r2+a)2-rb22]1/2-r2sin
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Line of Action (Z) /Pressure Angle(Ф)

## Where , R01 – outer circle radius of pinion

R02- outer circle radius of gear
C- centre to centre dist. of gear and pinion

• Contact ratio(mp)=

Where,

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Minimum numbers of teeth to avoid
interference
• Motion is transferred through pinion to
the gear. AB is tangent to the base
circles. Theoretically specking, the
addendum circles of pinion and gear
may respectively pass through A and
B. hence

## • Assume number of teeth on gear and

pinion respectively be T & t. Assume
m be the module of the gears that has to
be similar both pinion and the gear.

## and gear ratio 'G' = T /t.

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Continue..

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Continue..

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Standard gears: American Association of Gear
Manufacturers (AGMA) (6.4)

## Teeth of different gears have same profile as long as the

angle of action and pitch is the same.

## Can use same tools to cut different gears. Faster and

cheaper product. Follow standards unless there is a very
good reasons not to do so.

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Template for teeth of standard gears

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AGMA Specifications
• Diametral pitch, pd=1, 1.25, 1.5,…,120
• Observations
– The larger the pitch, the smaller the gear
– The larger the angle of action: the larger the
difference between the base and pitch circles,
the steeper the tooth profile, the smaller the
transmitted force.
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AGMA Standard Gear Specifications
Parameter Coarse pitch Fine pitch
(pd=N/d<20) (pd=N/d>20)
Pressure angle,  200 or 250 (not common) 200
Dedendum, b 1.25/pd 1.25/pd
Working depth 2.00/pd 2.00/pd
Whole depth 2.25/pd 2.2/pd+0.002
Circular tooth thickness 1.571/pd (circular pitch/2) 1.571/pd
Clearance 0.25/pd 0.25/pd+0.002

## Minimum width at top 0.25/pd Not standardized

land
Circular pitch /pd /pd

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Min: 0.25/pd

1/pd
/pd

1.25/pd 1.571/pd
d=N/pd

0.25/pd
0.3/pd

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Planetary (or Epicyclic) Gears (10.4)

## • Gears whose centers can move

• Used to achieve large speed reductions in
compact space
• Can achieve different reduction ratios by
holding different combinations of gears
fixed
• Used in automatic transmissions of cars

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Planetary gear

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Components of a planetary gear
Planet
Carrier
Input shaft

Sun gear
Ring gear

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A variant of a planetary gear

Carrier

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Planetary gears in automotive
transmission

Planetary gears
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Velocity Analysis Of Planetary Gears (10.6, 10.7)

## • Two degrees of freedom

• Given the velocities of two gears (e.g. sun
and carrier) find velocities of other gears
• Approach
– Start from gear whose speed is given
– Use equation gear = car+ gear/car

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Velocity analysis of planetary gear

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This program finds the velocities of the remaining links given
the velocities of two links in a planetary gear.

Input:
Number of teeth of sun, planet and ring gears, N1, N3, N4,
respectively.
N1  30
N3  35
N4  100

## Velocities of two links: specify the known values of the inputs

and guess the values of the outputs:

 3  100
 4  120
 1  100
 2  100
 12  100

Given

3 0
4 1
1  2   12
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1   2  12

N1
3   2  12
N3

N1
4  2  12
N4

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