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Class 4

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Gear Nomenclature (6.1)

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Important definitions
• Velocity ratio=mV=angular velocity of output
gear/ angular velocity of input gear=pitch diameter
of input gear/pitch diameter of output gear
• Torque ratio=mT=torque at output gear/torque at
input gear
• mT=1/mV
• Gear ratio=mG=Ngear/Npinion, mG is almost always
greater than one

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Fundamental law of tooth gearing (6.2 and 6.3):
velocity ratio must be constant as gears rotate

Angular velocity ratio= ratio


of distances of P from centers 2
of rotation of input and output
gear.
3 O2 P T

 2 O3P

If common normal were 3


fixed then the velocity ratio
would be constant.

3 4
If gear tooth profile is that of involute curve
then fundamental law of gearing is satisfied
Involute curve: path generated
by a tracing point on a cord as the cord
is unwrapped from base cylinder

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Generating gear teeth profile

Steps:
•Select base circles
•Bring common normal AB
•Draw involutes CD, EF P

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Gear action

Angular velocity of
Gear 3 / angular
Velocity of gear 2 =
O2P/O3P = constant

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Fundamental law of gearing:
The common normal of the tooth profiles
at all points within the mesh must always
pass through a fixed point on the line of
the centers called pitch point. Then the
gearset’s velocity ratio will be constant
through the mesh and be equal to the ratio
of the gear radii.

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Base circle radius =
Pitch circle radius cos

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Initial contact: B
Final contact: C

Path of approach: BP=ua=[(r3+a)2-rb32]1/2-r3sin


Path of recess: PC=ur=[(r2+a)2-rb22]1/2-r2sin
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Line of Action (Z) /Pressure Angle(Ф)

• Line of action (Z)=

Where , R01 – outer circle radius of pinion


R02- outer circle radius of gear
Rb1-base circle radius of pinion
Rb1-base circle radius of gear
C- centre to centre dist. of gear and pinion

• Contact ratio(mp)=

Where,

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Minimum numbers of teeth to avoid
interference
• Motion is transferred through pinion to
the gear. AB is tangent to the base
circles. Theoretically specking, the
addendum circles of pinion and gear
may respectively pass through A and
B. hence

• Assume number of teeth on gear and


pinion respectively be T & t. Assume
m be the module of the gears that has to
be similar both pinion and the gear.

and gear ratio 'G' = T /t.

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Continue..

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Continue..

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Standard gears: American Association of Gear
Manufacturers (AGMA) (6.4)

Teeth of different gears have same profile as long as the


angle of action and pitch is the same.

Can use same tools to cut different gears. Faster and


cheaper product. Follow standards unless there is a very
good reasons not to do so.

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Template for teeth of standard gears

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AGMA Specifications
• Diametral pitch, pd=1, 1.25, 1.5,…,120
• Addendum of pinion = addendum gear
• Observations
– The larger the pitch, the smaller the gear
– The larger the angle of action: the larger the
difference between the base and pitch circles,
the steeper the tooth profile, the smaller the
transmitted force.
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AGMA Standard Gear Specifications
Parameter Coarse pitch Fine pitch
(pd=N/d<20) (pd=N/d>20)
Pressure angle,  200 or 250 (not common) 200
Addendum, a 1/pd 1/pd
Dedendum, b 1.25/pd 1.25/pd
Working depth 2.00/pd 2.00/pd
Whole depth 2.25/pd 2.2/pd+0.002
Circular tooth thickness 1.571/pd (circular pitch/2) 1.571/pd
Fillet radius 0.30/pd Not standardized
Clearance 0.25/pd 0.25/pd+0.002

Minimum width at top 0.25/pd Not standardized


land
Circular pitch /pd /pd

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Min: 0.25/pd

1/pd
/pd

1.25/pd 1.571/pd
d=N/pd

0.25/pd
0.3/pd

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Planetary (or Epicyclic) Gears (10.4)

• Gears whose centers can move


• Used to achieve large speed reductions in
compact space
• Can achieve different reduction ratios by
holding different combinations of gears
fixed
• Used in automatic transmissions of cars

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Planetary gear

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Components of a planetary gear
Planet
Carrier
Input shaft

Sun gear
Ring gear

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A variant of a planetary gear

Carrier

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Planetary gears in automotive
transmission

Planetary gears
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Velocity Analysis Of Planetary Gears (10.6, 10.7)

• Two degrees of freedom


• Given the velocities of two gears (e.g. sun
and carrier) find velocities of other gears
• Approach
– Start from gear whose speed is given
– Use equation gear = car+ gear/car

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Velocity analysis of planetary gear

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This program finds the velocities of the remaining links given
the velocities of two links in a planetary gear.

Input:
Number of teeth of sun, planet and ring gears, N1, N3, N4,
respectively.
N1  30
N3  35
N4  100

Velocities of two links: specify the known values of the inputs


and guess the values of the outputs:

 3  100
 4  120
 1  100
 2  100
 12  100

Given

3 0
4 1
1  2   12
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1   2  12

N1
3   2  12
N3

N1
4  2  12
N4

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