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IRRIGATION & HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES LAB 2019

MANUAL

Table of Contents
EXPERIMENT # 01.................................................................................................................................... 4
“TO STUDY DIFFERENT APPARATUS AND LAYOUT THIS LAB” ................................................................ 4
Centrifugal pumps............................................................................................................................... 5
Reciprocating pumps .......................................................................................................................... 5
Losses In Bends ................................................................................................................................... 6
Bernoulli Apparatus ............................................................................................................................ 6
Francis Reation Turbine ...................................................................................................................... 7
Channels For flume ............................................................................................................................. 7
Oborne Reynold’s Nuumber ............................................................................................................... 8
Flow Meter Demonstration ........................................................................................................ 8
Orifice And Jet Apparatus ................................................................................................................... 8
Turgo Turbine...................................................................................................................................... 9
Pelton Wheel..................................................................................................................................... 10
Losses In Pipes .................................................................................................................................. 10
EXPERIMENT # 2.................................................................................................................................... 11
“TO DETERMINE MANNING’S ROUGHNESS COEFFICIENT “N” & CHEZY’S COEFFICIENT “C” IN A
LABORATORY FLUME ............................................................................................................................ 11
Objectives: ........................................................................................................................................ 11
Apparatus: ......................................................................................................................................... 11
Related Theory: ................................................................................................................................. 11
Procedure:......................................................................................................................................... 12
Observation and Calculation: ............................................................................................................ 13
EXPERIMENT # 3.................................................................................................................................... 16
TO INVESTIGATE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SPECIFIC ENERGY AND DEPTH OF FLOW .................. 16
Objectives: ........................................................................................................................................ 16
Apparatus: ......................................................................................................................................... 16
Related Theory: ................................................................................................................................. 16
Basic terminology:............................................................................................................................. 17
Procedure:......................................................................................................................................... 18
Observations and calculations: ......................................................................................................... 18

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IRRIGATION & HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES LAB 2019
MANUAL

EXPERIMENT # 4.................................................................................................................................... 19
TO STUDY THE FLOW CHARACTERISTICS OVER HUMP ......................................................................... 19
Objective: .......................................................................................................................................... 19
Apparatus: ......................................................................................................................................... 19
Related theory: ................................................................................................................................. 19
Procedure:......................................................................................................................................... 21
Observation and calculation: ............................................................................................................ 21
EXPERIMENT # 5.................................................................................................................................... 25
TO STUDY THE CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDRAULIC JUMP DEVELOP IN THE LABORATORY FLUME ....... 25
Objective: .......................................................................................................................................... 25
Apparatus: ......................................................................................................................................... 25
Related Theory: ................................................................................................................................. 25
Uses of hydraulic jump: .................................................................................................................... 26
Practical application of hydraulic jump: ........................................................................................... 27
Length of hydraulic jump: ................................................................................................................. 27
Location of hydraulic jump: .............................................................................................................. 27
Types of hydraulic jump: ................................................................................................................... 28
Procedure:......................................................................................................................................... 28
Observation & calculation: ............................................................................................................... 29

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IRRIGATION & HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES LAB 2019
MANUAL

List of Figure

Figure 1. Centrifugal pumps ................................................................................................................... 5


Figure 2. Reciprocating pumps ............................................................................................................... 5
Figure 3. Losses In Bends ....................................................................................................................... 6
Figure 4. Bernoulli Apparatu .................................................................................................................. 6
Figure 5. Francis Reation Turbine .......................................................................................................... 7
Figure 6. Channels For flume ................................................................................................................. 7
Figure 7. Oborne Reynold’s Nuumber .................................................................................................... 8
Figure 8. Flow Meter Demonstration ............................................................................................. 8
Figure 9. Orifice And Jet Apparatus ....................................................................................................... 9
Figure 10. Turgo Turbine ........................................................................................................................ 9
Figure 11. Pelton Wheel ....................................................................................................................... 10
Figure 12. Losses In Pipes .................................................................................................................... 10
Figure 13. (S-6) glass tilting flume apparatus ....................................................................................... 11
Figure 14. Hump ................................................................................................................................... 19

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IRRIGATION & HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES LAB 2019
MANUAL

EXPERIMENT # 01

“TO STUDY DIFFERENT APPARATUS AND LAYOUT THIS LAB”

OFFIC
E
SITIN

HAND
WASHIN
G

10

10

11

SITING
AREA

12

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IRRIGATION & HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES LAB 2019
MANUAL

Centrifugal pumps
Centrifugal pumps has been designed especially for use in the food, dairy, beverage,
pharmaceutical and light chemical industries. Centrifugal pumps including multi-stage designs
and those for high inlet pressure, can handle most low viscosity applications. This mechanical
assembly includes the pump shaft mounted on bearings.

Figure 1. Centrifugal pumps

Reciprocating pumps
Reciprocating pumps also use typically 5 packing rings. However due to the increased risk
of extrusion of the packing due to the combination of high pressure and reciprocating
movement, anti extrusion elements are usually incorporated in the gland. The fluid is moved
by the means of a piston that travels in a cylinder. After being drawn into the cylinder through
an inlet valve, the piston continues moving down the cylinder.

Figure 2. Reciprocating pumps

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MANUAL

Losses In Bends
Energy losses in pipe flows are the result of friction between the fluid and the pipe walls
and internal friction between fluid particles. Minor (secondary) head lossesoccur at any
location in a pipe system where streamlines are not straight, such as at pipe junctions, bends,
valves, contractions, expansions, and reservoir inlets and outlets. In this experiment, you will
measure minor head losses through a pipe section that has several bends, transitions, and
fittings.

Figure 3. Losses In Bends

Bernoulli Apparatus
Energy presents in the form of pressure, velocity, and elevation in fluids with no energy
exchange due to viscous dissipation, heat transfer, or shaft work (pump or some other device).
The relationship among these three forms of energy was first stated by daniel Bernoulli.
Bernoulli’s theorem provides a mathematical means to understanding the mechanics of fluids.

Figure 4. Bernoulli Apparatu

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MANUAL

Francis Reation Turbine


Turbines using the impulse action of water are the best ones. No it’s not like that reaction
turbines are more efficient, when all of this was happening, james b. Francis, an american civil
engineer comes up with his turbine called francis turbine. The Francis turbine, developed by
James B Francis in Lowell, Massachusetts in 1849 is the most common water turbine in use
today.

Figure 5. Francis Reation Turbine

Channels For flume


The tilting flume is designed to conduct various experiments at various bed slopes from
in upstream and down stream. The flume has a perspex window to visualize the flow over
models fixed in flume. The flume is provided with gates on upstream & downstream side to
control the flow.

Figure 6. Channels For flume

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IRRIGATION & HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES LAB 2019
MANUAL

Oborne Reynold’s Nuumber


Used to study laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow. Features a transparent tank with
adjustable overflow pipe. Water admitted via diffuser and stilling materials, discharged via
bellmouth transparent tube with flow control valve. Flow rate is measured by hydraulics bench
or measuring cup..

Figure 7. Oborne Reynold’s Nuumber

Flow Meter Demonstration


Flow measurement of incompressible fluid can be determined throughout
various methods. Some of them are through orifice. In orifice, there are sudden changes
in diameter of the path flow between the input, the middle and output. At the input, the
diameter is the same as the end of the apparatus. But at the middle there is sudden change
in diameter which is smaller than the input..

Figure 8. Flow Meter Demonstration

Orifice And Jet Apparatus


An orifice is an opening, of any size or shape, in a pipe or at the bottom or side wall of
a container (water tank, reservoir, etc.), through which fluid is discharged. If the geometric
properties of the orifice and the inherent properties of the fluid are known, the orifice can be
used to measure flow rates. Flow measurement by an orifice is based on the application of

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MANUAL

bernoulli’s equation, which states that a relationship exists between the pressure of the fluid
and its velocity.

Figure 9. Orifice And Jet Apparatus

Turgo Turbine
A turbine converts energy in the form of falling water into rotating shaft power. The
selection of the best turbine for any particular hydro site depends on the site characteristics, the
dominant factors being the head available and the power required. Selection also depends on
the speed at which it is desired to run the generator or other device loading the turbine.

Figure 10. Turgo Turbine

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IRRIGATION & HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES LAB 2019
MANUAL

Pelton Wheel
The pelton wheel is an impulse turbine with tangential flow (the water hits its wheel at a
tangent). It is good for applications with high pressure (head) and low flow. It has a large wheel
or ‘runner’ that has ‘buckets’ (turbine blades) that absorb the energy in the water. The buckets
are in pairs to correctly balance the wheel and to work efficiently.

Figure 11. Pelton Wheel

Losses In Pipes
The total energy loss in a pipe system is the sum of the major and minor losses. Major losses
are associated with frictional energy loss that is caused by the viscous effects of the fluid and
roughness of the pipe wall. Major losses create a pressure drop along the pipe since the
pressure must work to overcome the frictional resistance.

Figure 12. Losses In Pipes

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IRRIGATION & HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES LAB 2019
MANUAL

EXPERIMENT # 2

“TO DETERMINE MANNING’S ROUGHNESS COEFFICIENT “N” &


CHEZY’S COEFFICIENT “C” IN A LABORATORY FLUME
Objectives:
 Physical measurement of N and C.
 To study the variation of N and C as a function of velocity of flow in the flume.
 To investigate the relationship between N and C.

Apparatus:
 (S-6) glass tilting flume apparatus.
 Point gauge.

Figure 13. (S-6) glass tilting flume apparatus

Related Theory:
Flume:

Laboratory open channel supported above the ground / elevated open channel.

Uniform Flow:

Flow parameters like depth of flow, velocity, acceleration, channel bed slop, channel
cross section remains constant as a function of distance / space between two sections of a
channel flow.

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MANUAL

Steady flow:

Flow parameters like depth of flow, velocity, acceleration, channel bed slope, channel
cross section remains constant as a function of time at a particular section of a channel flood
wave is a best example of unsteady flow.

Manning Formula (1889):


2 1
1
𝑄 = 𝑛 𝐴(𝑅)3 (𝑆)2

Where

S = Slope of energy line (for a uniform flow conditions, it is equal to slope of water surface
and channel bed slope).

n = Manning roughness coefficient, also as resistance to the floor, different for different,
materials, tables are available for n values, different to determine for channels, concept of
composite roughness for natural channels may have to be considered, it can greatly affect the
computational results.

Chezy’s formula (1775):

𝑄 = 𝐴𝐶√𝑅𝑆

Relationship between “n” & “c”:


1
𝑅6
𝐶=
𝑛

Procedure:
i. Set a particular slope of the flume.
ii. Start the pump; allow the flow to be stabilized.
iii. Determine the flow rate in the flume.
iv. Take three readings of depth of flow in flume at different points and average it for a
particular flow rate in the flume.
v. Change the flow rate through the flume.
vi. Again allow the flume in the flume to be stabilized.
vii. Again take three readings of depth of flow in flume at different points and average it.
viii. Repeat the whole procedure (at least 6 readings) for different discharge in the flume.

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MANUAL

Observation and Calculation:


Flume width = 0.3 m.

Sr. Channe Velocit Avg. Area of Head Flow Manning’ Chezy’


# l bed y Depth Flow H rate s s
slope 𝑄 of A (m) Q
𝑉 =
(S) 𝐴 flow (m) (𝑚3
Y H1 /𝑠𝑒𝑐⁡) n c
(m) H2
1 1:400 1.49 0.039 0.0117 0.6 0.6 0.017 0.0149 54.61
8 5
2 1:400 1.76 0.045 0.0136 0.7 0.61 0.024 0.0029 191.08
6 8 2 1
3 1:400 2.40 0.052 0.0157 0.8 0.59 0.037 0.0023 246.41
6 8 5 9

Graphs:
i. Manning’s n & Velocity of flow
ii. Chezy’s C & Velocity of flow.
iii. Manning’s n & Chezy’s C.

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Comments:
This job helps us to find the manning roughness coefficient “n” and chezy
roughness coefficient “c” in laboratory flume with the help of glass tilting flume apparatus and
point gauge. We also got to know about steady and uniform flow. After finding area of flow
and depth of flow we got result indicating “n” and “c”.

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IRRIGATION & HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES LAB 2019
MANUAL

EXPERIMENT # 3

TO INVESTIGATE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SPECIFIC


ENERGY AND DEPTH OF FLOW

Objectives:
To study the various in specific energy as a function of depth of flow for a given
discharge in the laboratory flume / to plot E-Y diagram for a given discharge in the channel.

Apparatus:
 (S-6) glass tilting flume apparatus.
 Point gauge.

Related Theory:
Specific energy:

The specific energy (E) is the total energy per unit weight measured relative to the
channel bed, and it is given by the sum of the depth and velocity head (assuming small bed
slope and a kinetic energy correction factor is 1).

𝑉2
𝐸 =y+
2𝑔

Hence the specific energy is constant along the channel having uniform flow conditions, but it
varies for non-uniform flow condition.

Specific energy diagram:

It is a plot between specific energy as a function of depth of flow.

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MANUAL

Fig#14.Specific Energy Diagram

Basic terminology:
Critical flow:

It is the flow that occurs when the specific energy is minimal for a given discharge.

It can be seen in Fig. what a point will be reached where the specific energy is minimum and
only a single depth occurs. At this point, the flow is termed as critical flow.

Super critical flow:

The flow for which the depth is less than critical is (velocity is greater than critical) is
termed as supercritical flow.

Sub critical flow:

Flow with low velocity and larger depth. (Fr.No. < 1)

Critical depth:

The depth of flow of water at which the specific energy is minimal is called critical
depth.

Critical velocity:

The velocity of flow at the critical depth is known as critical velocity.

Alternate depths:

For any value of the specific energy other than critical one, there are two depths, one
greater than the critical depth and other smaller than the critical depth. These two depths for a
given specific energy are called alternate depths.

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MANUAL

Procedure:
i. Start the pump to maintain a constant discharge in hydraulic flume apparatus.
ii. Allow the flow in the flume to be stabilized.
iii. Take three readings of depths of flow in the flume at different points and average it.
iv. Change the slope of the flume by automatic system attached to the apparatus.
v. Again allow the flow in the flume to be stabilized.
vi. Again take three readings of depth of flow in flume at different points and average it.
vii. Repeat the whole procedure by changing the slope of the flume.
viii. Develop a specific energy curve from observed data calculations.

Observations and calculations:


Flume width =0.3m

Sr. Channel Flow Avg. Area Velocity Velocity Specific


# bed rate depth (𝑚2 ) of flow head Energy
slope Sb. Q of V 𝑉 2 /2𝑔 E
Y1 Y2 Y3
(𝑚3 flow (𝑚/𝑠𝑒𝑐) (m) (m)
/𝑠𝑒𝑐⁡) y
(m)
1 1/500 0.0036 0.065 0.056 0.043 0.0546 0.0164 2.20 0.24 0.3000

2 1/400 0.0036 0.064 0.054 0.043 0.0536 0.0160 2.25 0.25 0.3036

3 1/300 0.0320 0.053 0.049 0.042 0.0480 0.0144 2.22 0.25 0.2900

Comments:
This job helped us to find the relation between specific energy and depth of
𝑉2
flow.by using this formula “𝐸 = y + 2𝑔” we will find specific energy. By keeping discharge
constant and varying the slope, we found that the depth of the water goes on decreasing with
the increase in slope & the values of Specific energy (E) and water depth calculated
theoretically are almost same to the values obtained from the experiment.

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EXPERIMENT # 4

TO STUDY THE FLOW CHARACTERISTICS OVER HUMP

Objective:
Study the variation in the flow, with the introduction of different types of humps in the flume.

Apparatus:
 (S-6) glass tilting flume apparatus.
 Point gauge.
 Broad crusted hump
 Round corner
 Sharp corner

Sharp Corner Round Corner

Figure 14. Hump

Related theory:
Hump:

It is a stream line construction provided as the bed channel.

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Weir:

Aweir is a streamline wall or structure commonly used to raise the water level of the
river or stream to divert the required water in to an irrigation canal.

Weirs can be gated (barrage) or ungated.

Flow over a raised hump:

The specific energy may be used to solve the raised hump problem, the figure below
shows the hump and stage down alongside a graph of specific energy Es against y

The Bernouli equation was applied earlier to this problem and equation (from that example) it
may be written in term of specify energy:

𝐸𝑆1 = 𝐸𝑠2 + ⁡ ∆𝑧

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These points are marked on the figure. Point A on the curve corresponds to the specific energy
at point 1 in the channel, but point B or point B’ on the graph may correspond to the specific
energy at point 2 in the channel.

All point in the channel between point 1 and 2 must lie on the specific energy curve between
point A and B or B’. To reach point B’ then this implies that 𝐸𝑠1 − ⁡ 𝐸𝑠2 > ⁡ ∆𝑧 which is not
physically possible. So point B on the curve corresponds to the specific energy and the flow
depth at section 2.

Critical hump height:

It is the minimum height that causes critical depth (critical flow) over the hump.

Procedure:
i. Fix the slope of the flume.
ii. Introduce round corner weir at a certain location.
iii. Set a particular discharge in the flume.
iv. Note the depth of flow at U/S, D/S and over the weir at certain points (More than one).
v. Repeat the same for various discharges.

Observation and calculation:


Weir type Width “B” Height “Z”
m m
Rounded Cornered 0.3 0.06
Sharp Crested 0.3 0.06

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Sr. Weir Type Discharge 𝑞𝑐 𝑌𝑐 Depth of flow Depth of flow Depth of flow Horizontal
# Q at U/S 𝑌1 over the hump 𝑌2 at D/S 𝑌3 Distance

𝑚3 /𝑠𝑒𝑐 m m m m m X1 X2 X3
1 0.031 0.103 0.102 0.112 0.034 0.062 0.9 1.6 2.7
Sharp
2 0.038 0.127 0.118 0.118 0.038 0.066 0.9 1.6 2.7
Crusted
3 0.054 0.180 0.148 0.126 0.045 0.072 0.9 1.6 2.7

1 0.034 0.113 0.109 0.164 0.028 0.083 0.8 1.6 2.4


Round
2 Crusted 0.055 0.185 0.151 0.179 0.038 0.091 0.8 1.6 2.4
3 0.800 2.670 0.899 0.192 0.045 0.099 0.8 1.6 2.4

Graph b/w X & Y for Discharge-1 Round Corner

Graph b/w X & Y for Discharge-2 Round Corner

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Graph b/w X & Y for Discharge-3 Round Corner

Graph b/w X & Y for Discharge-4 Round Corner

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Graph b/w X & Y for Discharge-5 Round Corner

Graph b/w X & Y for Discharge-6 Round Corner

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Comments:

EXPERIMENT # 5

TO STUDY THE CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDRAULIC JUMP


DEVELOP IN THE LABORATORY FLUME

Objective:
 To achieve physically, the development of hydraulic jump in the laboratory flume.
 To measure the physical dimensions of hydraulic jump.
 To plot hydraulic jump for various Froude’s No. “𝐹𝑛 ”
 To calculate energy losses through the hydraulic jump.

Apparatus:
 (S-6) glass tilting flume apparatus.
 Point gauge.

Related Theory:
Hydraulic Jump:

The hydraulic jump was first invented experimentally by Bidone, an Italian, in 1818.

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Hydraulic jump or standing wave is a local non-uniform flow phenomenon, resulting from the
change in slope from super critical to sub critical and in such a case the water must pass through
the critical depth line and according to theory, 𝑑𝑦/𝑑𝑥= infinite or the water surface profile
should be vertical. However, this can’t happen physically and results in the discontinuity in the
water surface characterized by a very steep upward slope of the profile accompanied by the
turbulence and eddies.

These eddies cause energy loss and depth after the jump is in accordance with the point
“C” on the E-y diagram. The depths 𝑌1 and 𝑌2 which are the depths before and after the jump
are called “Conjugate depths” or “Sequent depths”.

OR

The hydraulic jump is a rapidly varied flow phenomenon in which flow in a cannel
changes abruptly from critical flow at a relatively shallow depth (less than 𝑌𝑐 ) to subcritical
flow at a greater depth (greater than 𝑌𝑐 ). The depth before the jump is called the initial depth,
while the depth after the jump is known as the sequent depth.

The hydraulic jump may be employed as a device for the dissipation of energy, as where
a steep drain enters a larger drain at a junction. In storm water projects, the hydraulic jump may
be used to consume excess energy and avoid scour of earthen channels. Thus, the analysis of
hydraulic jumps usually has three objectives. First, the location of the jump is important
because of the potential of unexpected surcharges or channel scour. This can be determined by
searching for pipes/channel elements where the flow is supercritical upstream and subcritical
downstream. Once this is determined, it is important to compute the two depths 𝑌1 and 𝑌2 ,
which are the initial and sequent depths, respectively. Third, the energy loss high dissipated by
the jump is often an important design consideration. The pertinent depth equation for a
rectangular section is:

𝑌2 1
= 0.5⁡ [(1 + 8𝐹12 ) ⁄2 − 1]
𝑌1

In which 𝐹1 is the Froude number at the upstream section. The energy lost in the jump, 𝐻𝑗 , is
obtained by subtracting the specific energy at section 2 in Fig 4.1 from that at section 1.

(𝑌2 − 𝑌1 )3
𝐻𝑗 = ⁡ 𝐸1 − 𝐸2 =
(4𝑌1 𝑌2 )

Uses of hydraulic jump:


The major use of the hydraulic jump is to destroy the energy of the water where it is
not needed or it may damage the structure. Generally hydraulic jump is made to occur
downstream of the spillways, weirs and canal falls.

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Another use of hydraulic jump is, when certain chemical are to be mixed for water treatment
purpose, hydraulic jump provides an efficient mixing.

Practical application of hydraulic jump:


It is used

1. To dissipate energy of water flowing over dams, weirs and other hydraulic structures
and thus prevent scouring downstream of the structure.
2. To recover head or rise the water on the downstream side of the measuring flume and
thus maintain high water level in the channel for irrigation or other water distribution
purpose.
3. To increase the weight on an apron and thus reduce uplift pressure under a masonry
structures by raising the water depth on the apron.
4. To indicate special flow condition, such as the existence of super critical flow or the
presence of the control section, so that a guiding system may be located.
5. To mix chemicals used for the purification of water.

Depth of hydraulic jump:

𝑑2 = 𝑑1 /2 (−1 + √1 + 8(𝑞 2 /𝑔𝑦 3 ))

OR

𝑑2 = 𝑑1 /2(−1 + √1 + 8𝐹12 )

Expression for the loss of energy due to hydraulic jump:

𝑑2 = (𝑑2 − 𝑑1 )3 /4𝑑1 𝑑2

Length of hydraulic jump:


It is generally 5-7 lines depth of jump for barrages.

Location of hydraulic jump:


It is important to be determining just where along the length of the channel the hydraulic
jump will form. This cannot be done with a great deal of precision. The solution can also be
achieved by calculating conjugate depth “y” of various depth⁡𝑦2 . Graphically plotting these
various curves greatly aids the solution process.

Hydraulic jump occurs in a supercritical flow when the depth changes abruptly to its sequent
dept. theoretically speaking, jump will occur in a horizontal rectangular channel if the sequent
and initial depths approaching to Froude’s # satisfying equation for sequent depth.

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This theoretical condition is generally used to locate the position of the jump. For closer
location of the jump however, length of the jump should be considered. The following will
illustrated the location of a hydraulic jump in three typical cases.

Case A: Jump below a regulating sluice in a milled channel or jump formed on the glacis of a
weir (𝑦𝑛 > 𝑑2 )

Case B: Jump in a channel having a break in the bottom slope those changes from steep to mild
or jump formed at the toe of the weir(yn = d2 ).

Case C: Jump forms behind the over flow barrier or on the D/S side of the toe⁡(yn < d2 ).

The barrages the most suitable and desire able location is at toe. But practically it is
difficult to achieve. So it is kept slightly above toe on sloping surface. By doing this jump will
be weaker but safer for structure. Hydraulic jump at D/S of toe is highly undesirable. Because
it will be dangerous for barrage due to scouring of toe and it is also un-economical.

Types of hydraulic jump:


Hydraulic jumps are of several distinct types. According to the U.S. Bureau of
regulation, these types can conveniently be classified according to the Froude’s # of the
incoming flow as follows

 For F = 1 - 1.7, the water surface shows undulations, and the jump is called as undular
jump.
 For F = 1.7 – 2.5, a series of small rollers develop on the surface of the jump, but the
downstream water surface remains smooth. The velocity throughout is fairly uniform
and the energy loss is low, this jump is called as weak jump.
 For F = 2.5 – 4.5, there is an oscillating jet entering the jump bottom to the surface and
back again with no periodicity. Each oscillation produces a large wave of irregular
period, which very commonly in canals, can travel for miles doing unlimited damage
to earth banks and ripraps. This jump may be called as oscillating jump.
 For F = 4.5 – 9.0, the downstream extremity of the surface roller and the point at which
the high velocity jet tends to leave the flow occur at practically the same vertical section.
The action and position of this jump are least sensitive to variation in tail water depth.
The jump is well balanced and performance is at its best. The energy dissipation ranges
from 45 to 70%. This jump may be called as steady jump.
 For F = 9 and larger, the high velocity jet grabs intermittent slugs of water rolling
down the front surface of the jump, generating waves downstream and a rough surface
can prevail. The jump action is rough but effective since the energy dissipation may
reach 85%. This jump may be called as strong jump.

Procedure:
i. Fix the bed slope of glass flume.
ii. Set a particular discharge in the flume.

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University Of Lahore Department of Technology
IRRIGATION & HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES LAB 2019
MANUAL

iii. Develop the hydraulic jump by blocking back the tail water.
iv. Measure the depth of water, i.e. yo , y1 , y2 and corresponding horizontal distances
x0 , x1 , x2 .
v. Repeat the procedure with varying discharge.
vi. Draw the hydraulics jump on a graph sheet.

Observation & calculation:


Flume width=0. 3 m

Sr. Discharge Depth of flow / Horizontal distance V Froude’s Types of Energy


# Q (cm) # hydraulic loss
3
(m /sec) yo x0 y1 x1 y2 x2 m/s jump (m)
1 0..00798 .027 2 .020 2.98 .076 3.12 1.33 3 Oscillating .028
2 0..010925 .028 2 .024 3.11 .085 3.36 1.52 3.13 Oscillating .039
3 0..012326 .030 2 .026 3.20 .094 3.45 1.58 3.12 Oscillating .041
4 0..013853 .024 2 .030 3.30 .095 3.58 1.539 2.83 Oscillating .034
5 0..015228 .036 2 .032 3.38 .099 3.67 1.586 2.83 Oscillating .037
6 0..016488 .039 2 .035 3.45 .110 3.78 1.578 2.679 Oscillating .033

Graph b/w X & Y for Discharge-1

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University Of Lahore Department of Technology
IRRIGATION & HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES LAB 2019
MANUAL

Graph b/w X & Y for Discharge-2

Graph b/w X & Y for Discharge-3

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University Of Lahore Department of Technology
IRRIGATION & HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES LAB 2019
MANUAL

Graph b/w X & Y for Discharge-4

Graph b/w X & Y for Discharge-5

Graph b/w X & Y for Discharge-6

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IRRIGATION & HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES LAB 2019
MANUAL

Comments:

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University Of Lahore Department of Technology