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2 vues7 pagesThe main objective of writing review on fatigue life of crankshaft is to investigate the behavior of crankshaft under complex loading conditions. Automobile industries are always interested to develop a new product which will be innovative and fulfill market expectations. All the engine components are subjected to constant to varying load which also varies in direction and due to these, components may fail. Bending and shear stress due to twisting are common stresses acting on crankshaft.

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The main objective of writing review on fatigue life of crankshaft is to investigate the behavior of crankshaft under complex loading conditions. Automobile industries are always interested to develop a new product which will be innovative and fulfill market expectations. All the engine components are subjected to constant to varying load which also varies in direction and due to these, components may fail. Bending and shear stress due to twisting are common stresses acting on crankshaft.

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The main objective of writing review on fatigue life of crankshaft is to investigate the behavior of crankshaft under complex loading conditions. Automobile industries are always interested to develop a new product which will be innovative and fulfill market expectations. All the engine components are subjected to constant to varying load which also varies in direction and due to these, components may fail. Bending and shear stress due to twisting are common stresses acting on crankshaft.

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crankshaft–A review

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International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering (IJMME), Vol.6 (2011), No.3, 425-430

1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Govt. College of Engineering, Amravati 444602, India

2

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lokmanya Tilak College of Engineering, Koperkhairane,

Navi Mumbai, 444708, India.

3

Axis IT&T, Axis Aerospace Technology Hyderabad, 500005, India

Email: rajeshmetkar@yahoo.co.in

The main objective of writing review on fatigue life of failure of crankshaft takes place. Most of the crankshafts

crankshaft is to investigate the behavior of crankshaft under that failed in fatigue were due to bending fatigue Design

complex loading conditions. Automobile industries are and Development has always an important issue in

always interested to develop a new product which will be crankshaft production industry to manufacture less

innovative and fulfill market expectations. All the engine expensive crankshaft with high fatigue strength

components are subjected to constant to varying load which (Montazersadgh and Fatemi, 2007)

also varies in direction and due to these, components may

fail. Bending and shear stress due to twisting are common 2. METHODS AVAILABLE

stresses acting on crankshaft. Due to the repeated bending Crankshaft is an important engine component which is

and twisting, crankshaft fails, as cracks form in fillet area. subjected to fluctuating or cyclic loads often resulting in

Hence, fatigue plays an important role in crankshaft fatigue failures (Pun, 2001).Various methods are available

development. Accurate prediction of fatigue life is very and some are developed by researchers. Three methods

important to insure safety of components and its reliability. which are used to predict fatigue life include stress life(S-

This review paper considers crankshaft as an important part N), strain Life (E-N) and Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics

of engine components, as forces which are acting on (LEFM). S-N method is based on nominal stress life using

crankshaft are many and variable in nature. This paper rainflow cycle counting. This method can be helpful to test

presents an idea about research undertaken or completed on fatigue life but only disadvantage is that plasticity effect is

fatigue life of crankshaft, methods available and role of not considered and provides poor accuracy for low cycle

Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and experimental fatigue (Solid work Corporation 2005).The strain life

techniques used. method provides more detailed analysis involving plastic

Keywords: Finite Element Method, Crack Propagation, deformation at a localized region and is useful for low cycle

Crankshaft, Fatigue. fatigue. Linear elastic fracture mechanics assume that crack

is already available and detected and predicts crack growth

by considering stress intensity factor. Because of easy

1. INTRODUCTION implementation and various data available, stress life

Crankshaft is an important component of internal method is most commonly used where S-N curve data for

combustion engine with complex geometry. Crankshaft particular material is commonly available.

experiences a large number of load cycle during its service

life (Taylor and Ciepalowicz 1997) .The sudden failure of A new method called, cracks modeling, is developed by

crankshaft made researchers and academia to investigate (Taylor and Ciepalowicz, 1997) to predict fatigue failure of

the problem. Because of complicated loading and geometry crankshaft. This technique uses a Liner Elastic Finite

problem, general method to predict fatigue life is still not Element Analysis to derive stress intensity factor for

evolved. Since crankshaft is subjected to several force component under load. In this method, stress intensity

which vary in magnitude and direction (multiaxial) and factor is calculated without introducing a crack into a

connecting rod transmitting gas pressure from cylinder to component; stress field around the maximum stress point is

crankpin, stresses acting in the crankshaft vary with respect examined and compared to that of standard centre cracked

to time (Montazersadgh and Fatemi, 2007) Most of time plate. The material property is threshold stress intensity

crankshaft fails due to fatigue at fillet areas due to bending range. This research predicted the failure of crankshaft

load. Fillet rolling can increase fatigue life [Park et.al. under constant amplitude loading. Failure occurs from

2001].Engine mechanism and geometry has large impact on stress concentration whose location is varied with loading

fillet which experiences a large stress cycle during its type basically due to bending and torsion (Taylor, et al.,

working. Small crack initiates at this fillet location due to 1999). In order to describe the severity of stress

425

concentration a crack modeling method is used (Taylor and natural frequency, bearing load and axial displacement

Ciepalowicz, 1997). Other Method Known as Damaged which is required for fatigue life estimation. (Mourelatos,

Tolerance Analysis in which uses Linear Elastic Fracture 1995) suggested reducing flywheel inertia in order to

Mechanics approach(LEFM) to predict the crack stability, increase the resonance frequency and second to balance the

crack growth, and hence minimal time between the two crankshaft internally in order to eliminate the unbalanced

inspection to avoid a crack reaching critical size. The force on the flywheel. Crankshaft is also subjected higher

function of this method is to assess the effect of cracks in loads at elevated temperature(Halaszi et al,1999), therefore

the structure. Damage tolerance is the ability to resist the thermo mechanical fatigue (TMF) life prediction has now

fracture from pre existing crack in the given period of time commonly used in automotive industry as complex thermal

to avoid catastrophic failure. (Paswan and Goel, 2008) and mechanical strains is used to find Fatigue life of engine

component. Sehitoglu TMF Life prediction model

Power Engineering Tool (PET) (Mikulec et al, 1998) developed by university of Illinois can be used to described

developed by Ford Motor Company is a Graphics User the material behavior at different temperature and strain rate

Interface based computer model that calculate engine

performance and the geometry at early stage of design. The Fatigue Life can also determined by Principal Stress

Cranktrain development process is initiated by estimating criterion by considering largest Principal stress (Mercer et

required peak engine speeds for the peak engine power, al, 2003). Principal strain criterion considers largest

cylinder bore diameter and piston stroke may be determined principal strain and Von misses equivalent strain criterion

by using the combination of engine simulation results and provides an estimate of onset yielding behavior of material

empirical data of similar engine. By using this method, can also be used to predict fatigue life estimation. (Baxter,

crankshaft system information such as number of cheeks 1993) had studied the crack detection on crankshaft by

per bay, number of main journal and crankpin etc can be using gel electrode techniques. In this experiment, at critical

found out. PET model easily generates initial geometry of locations of crankshaft, a thin film of polymer film was

complete power train system based on imputed engine applied and after fatigue test the surface was inspected with

configuration and design various parameters such as peak gel electrode probe. By using cathode and anode induced

engine power, torque, and geometry constrain and Number current flows at fatigue site and information is displayed as

of cylinders. High vibrations are playing important role in a direct image. AFGROW is one of the very good software

development of crack. A crankshaft system model available in the field of fatigue analysis and even very

(CRANKSYM) was used to verify the high vibration level widely been used as well. Because of the complicated

in bearing cap. CRANKSYM is able to performed coupled shape, size, topology and topography of crank shafts with

analysis along with structural dynamics .It also calculates several fillets and radius the use of AFGROW is showing

dynamic stresses on the crankshaft throughout whole the limitations on its application on crankshaft fatigue

engine cycle for which Finite Element model of complete prediction. Hence, even not many references are also been

assembly is required. This model gives output such as sited on this subject.

3. MATERIAL FACTOR crankshaft cost, machinability and fatigue strength play

Material plays an important role in fatigue life of important role. (Hoffmann and Turonek, 1992) studied two

crankshaft. The steel alloy is typically used in high strength Chrysler corporation engines utilizing forge crankshaft. Six

crankshaft, as it carries most desirable combinations different grades of steel with different chemical

properties (Kane, 2009). Due to cyclic loading, material composition were considered. To determine potential cost

behaves differently than under monotonic loading (Pun, reduction, a computerized cost model for crankshaft was

2001). Different types of cyclic material properties are used to evaluate the economics of each material which is

required depending on the type of fatigue loading. Different developed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

alloy and surface treatment will increase fatigue life of Isotropic and anisotropic materials behave differently under

crankshaft. (Park, et al. 2001) suggested that optimum level multiaxial loading conditions (Liu and Mahadevan, 2000).

of nitriding depth should be at least 400 micrometer and They studied two different models for multiaxial fatigue life

because of nitriding fatigue limit is improved without any prediction of isotropic and anisotropic material. For

design modification. It is also proposed by (Park et al, isotropic material critical plane approach was used which

2001) that the best combination of crankshaft material with depends on stress state and on material and fatigue fracture

proper surface treatment can be used, which improves the plane was determined. The multiaxial fatigue problem of

quality and reduces the cost. Induction hardened crankshaft anisotropic material is more complex as compared to other

usually have longer fatigue life than other material (Taylor materials, hence fatigue failure of composite material are

et al., 1999) more complex than metal. Deep rolling of the fillet area is a

significant surface treatment of an engine crankshaft by

Forge steel is commonly used as a crankshaft material which the fatigue life of a crankshaft is increased by

because of requirement of higher horsepower per liter developing a compressive residual stress in fillet area (Ko

(Hoffmann and Turonek, 1992) while selecting material for et al, 2005)

426

4. EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES prepared and results of experimental techniques and by

(Paswan and Goel, 2008) investigated fatigue results of using FEM were found in good agreement.

induction hardened and case hardened 6 cylinder

Crankshaft .Stain gauges are placed in fillet area. The other commonly used experimental method to test

Crankshaft is installed on fixture and clamp ring, cooler is bending fatigue limit is Rotating bending fatigue test. In

used to prevent loosening. This fixture is attached to inertial this constant bending stress is applied to round sample of

weight and shaker and accelerometer. Due to shaker crankshaft material along with rotation until its failure. This

crankshaft acts as a tuning fork and arrangement is made technique is simple and easy to use. Reciprocating Bending

such that if there is any failure in crankshaft, cycle stops Testing Machines utilize a rotating crank to achieve a non-

automatically. After investigating twelve sample of zero mean stress through positioning of the specimen with

crankshaft using this technique, author found no evidence respect to the motor, whereas Direct Force Fatigue Testing

of failure and predicted that induction hardened crankshaft Machines uses axial load. Staircase method is very

has longer life than any other material. commonly used in auto sector for crank shaft fatigue

An investigation of a damaged crankshaft from a testing) and then apply a statistical analysis. In this initial

horizontal, six-cylinder, in-line diesel engine of a public bus stress amplitude based on experience is applied and sample

was conducted by (Alfares et al. 2007) after several failure is tested for survive or failure. When a survival (failure)

cases were reported by the bus company. All crankshafts occurs, the stress amplitude is increased (decreased) by one

were made from forged and nitriding steel. In Laboratory stress increment (“step”) for the next sample. Magnetic

investigation the depth of the nitriding layer near fracture Particle Testing can be utilized on any ferromagnetic

locations in the crankshaft, particularly at the fillet region material in a variety of forms such as bars, engine

where cracks were initiated, was determined by scanning components such as crankshaft for in-service

electron microscope (SEM) equipped with electron- discontinuities. Magnetic particle Testing (MT) is a

dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and was found less. nondestructive method which utilizes the flux leakage

Fractography which is the study of fracture surfaces of arising as a result of surface and near surface discontinuities

materials indicated that fatigue was the dominant to detect flaws. A Magnetic current or field is imposed on

mechanism of failure of the crankshaft. The partial absence the part under inspection, a flux leakage at the surface of

of the nitriding layer in the fillet region, due to over- the part results in accumulation of sprayed iron powder,

grinding, caused a decrease in the fatigue strength which, in giving a direct indication of flaw. Ultrasonic Testing

turn, led to crack initiation and propagation, and eventually utilizes sound waves with a frequency greater than 20 kHz

premature fracture. (Alfares et al. 2007) (inaudible to humans) to detect flaws and/ or material

properties. Modern Ultrasonic Testing (UT) can be utilized

for finding cracks, de-bonds and laminations; detecting

Jung et al. (2009) used ductile crankshaft which is macrostructure variations and anomalies; variations in

commonly used for SUV and lightweight truck. A physical dimensions; and for density, mass and elastic

crankshaft is mounted on fixture and monotonic bending property determinations. Ultrasonic testing can be

load and frequency was applied to front main bearing. A performed on metals, nonmetals and composites. The X-

computer is used to monitor feedback signal when sample Ray machine or Gamma Radiation is the source of the rays

is under bending load. When crack initiates and propagates, and transmits penetrating X or Gamma Rays. The object

displacement amplitude also increases also the feedback being radiographed partially absorbs these rays. In areas

signal, computer automatically stop the process. After where there are flaws or breaks, a greater or smaller number

investigating the sample cracks are found initiates around of rays are able to penetrate. Because X and Gamma Rays

fillet area and propagating rapidly causing failure. are invisible, a detecting agent is required to produce a

visible picture. This detecting agent can be the radiographic

Yu et al. (2004) used resonance bending Fatigue test in film in light proof wrapping or a Digital image sensor.

order to investigate the effect of notch depth and

subsequently the fatigue.SAE J434C D5506 cast iron 5. FAILURE OF CRANKSHAFT (OTHER FACTORS)

crankshaft section were used in this investigation. Resonant Various other factors also play important role in mechanical

frequency before and after creation of notches were fatigue failure of crankshaft, such as, misalignment of

measured. In the experimental set up crankshaft section was crankshaft on assembly , improper journal bearing,

attached to heavy a steel tine which acts as tuning fork. The vibration due to some problem with main bearing or due to

right tin is excited by shaker. During testing oil is applied to high stress concentration caused by incorrect fillet size, oil

fillet area. For given bending moment excited by shaker leakage, overloading, high operating oil temperature(Silva,

probe, fatigue life is determined when four pin head sized 2003).Heat and stresses during contact bearing with

bubble are formed, at this point test was suspended. For repetition of heating and cooling would eventually create

result validation a 3 dimensional Finite Element model of thermal fatigue cracks and it will propagate with time.

resonant bending system with notched crankshaft was (Kareem, 2007) generated the data gathered by oral

427

interviews and questionnaires on mechanical failures of and displacement and stress were found out and compare by

crankshaft. The data collected were analyzed according to using mode superposition method and life was estimated by

vehicle type using statistical methods. The results obtained using Miner Rule. Khatri and Bhattacharya (2005)

showed that private cars enjoyed lowest fatigue failure rate developed a cycle for designing of the crankshaft of small

at the initial stage while commercial buses had the highest passenger car which also considered the effect of fatigue.

fatigue failures rate. Vibration created due gas force which CAD model of crankshaft had been developed to suit

drives crankpin can be reduced by providing damper existing engine block. Crankshaft was balanced using

package (William Sisco). multibody dynamics to minimize total mass .Basic CAD

model was then imported in ADAMS software and dummy

6. APPLICATION OF FEM IN FATIGUE masses were placed at probable location of counter weight

The use of numerical method such as Finite Element to check minimum unbalance. The gas forces were

Method now a day commonly used to gives detail extracted physically for various engine operations and at

information about structure or component. This method throttling position. Finite Element Analysis model was

predicts the behavior which is otherwise difficult to find out prepared by using PATRAN and load was applied and

by theoretical calculation, as large number of degree of maximum stress was found out. For fatigue analysis von

freedom involved in it. FEM can be used as excellent tool misses and mean stress have more influence than maximum

to analyze and find out fatigue life estimation of crankshaft stress, hence stress history of critical elements are more

by computer simulation and therefore it can help to reduce useful than static analysis of the crankshaft. For finding out

time and costs required for prototyping and to avoid von misses and mean stress. (Montazersadgh and Fatemi,

numerous test series when laboratory testing is not 2007a) conducted dynamic simulation on single cylinder

available. Since loading on crankshaft is complex in nature, four stroke engine and Finite Element analysis was

sophisticated analysis of crankshaft is required. Various performed to get stress magnitude at critical location. The

Finite Element analysis tool such as MSC-Fatigue, ANSYS, pressure volume diagram was used to calculate the load

FEMFAT etc are commonly used now a days by boundary conditions in dynamic simulation model. The

automobile companies to check durability of their products. dynamic analysis was done analytically and verified in

Renault Company (Henry et al, 1992) developed a new ADAMS software. FE model was created in ABAQUAS

crankshaft durability assessment tool based on 3D mesh, and boundary condition was applied according to engine

with an objective to improve fatigue analysis. These mounting conditions. It was found that torsional load was

approaches calculate fatigue factor of safety through very small as compared to other loads and hence neglected

external load calculation, mesh generation, FEM load and analysis was made simpler by applying inertia and gas

distribution to calculate stress and then FSF. The crankshaft forces. (Montazersadgh and Fatemi, 2007) concluded that

fillet stresses are highly localized and also the stress dynamic loading analysis gave more realistic result than

distribution inside a crankshaft of automotive engine is very static analysis and critical stress history plot found by using

complex. FEM could be is good tool for quantitative source rainflow counting cycle shows that in an entire cycle one

of data to find out stress distribution and Photo elasticity peak is important and cause fatigue damage in the

would be used to validation the results (Borges, et al, 2002) crankshaft. Other numerical techniques such as boundary

evaluates the overall structural efficiency and magnitude of element method was used for performing crack growth

stresses throughout the crank and found that localized stress analysis, as in this, stresses were calculated at surface of

concentration at crankpin bearing. A non linear transient structure and stress field could be calculated at crack front.

stress analysis for 6 cylinder inline engine crankshaft was Since boundary of components needed to be meshed, the

presented by (Payer et al, 1995) which shows that this complexity of meshing was significantly reduced. The new

method is highly sophisticated and efficient for determining approach presented in this article (Robert Adey,2004) of

the fatigue behaviors of crankshaft. (Payer et al, 1995) used NAFEMS enables a user to take an existing MSC

XFEP finite element program to call cute transient stress NASTRAN model and to facilitate automatically create a

behaviors of rotating crankshaft. Solid model of crankshaft model suitable for fatigue and crack growth prediction

is generated automatically considering both flywheel and without the need to be aware of the different analytical

vibration dampers using a rotating beam mass model of the techniques used. In this new approach the user could simply

crankshaft. This model also gives transient deformation of build a local (Robert Adey, 2004) model incorporating all

crankshaft the details necessary and the software would automatically

transfer all the necessary loads and boundary conditions

Prakash et al. (1998) used Finite element method and from MSC NASTRAN finite element model. While this

developed a program known as TVAL which quickly gives type of sub modeling was not entirely new, it had benefits

natural frequency, displacement and stresses. Three of providing the high fidelity stresses required for fatigue

different classes of engine crankshaft were considered for calculations as well as providing a model suitable for crack

study. Solid Finite element model of crankshaft was growth life prediction. Fatigue life Prediction achieved a

developed and time varying radial and tangential forces high level of accuracy because Finite Element Analysis is

were applied which were derived from cylinder pressure involved and because of increase in computational power

428

and good mesh density (Dannbuer et al, 2007), but input Taylor D., Zhoub W., Ciepalowiczb A.J., and Devlukia J.

data should be available and entered correctly. Software for 1999. Mixed-mode fatigue from stress concentration:

fatigue analysis has yielded good results which are An approach based on equivalent stress intensity,

otherwise difficult to find out. One of such tools is International Journal of Fatigue (21): 173-178.

FEMFAT in which stresses from finite analysis are entered Paswan M.K., and Goel A.K. 2008. Fatigue testing

to get fatigue analysis. procedure of 6 cylinder diesel engine crankshaft,

ARISER, (3): 144-151.

7.0 CONCLUSION Mikulec A., Ream L., Chottiner J., Page R.W., and Lee S.

Crankshaft is an important component of engine, failure 1998. Crankshaft component conceptual design and

even making engine useless also requires costly weight optimization, SAE Technical Paper No. 980566,

procurement and replacement. An extensive research in the Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA,

past clearly indicates that the problem has not yet been USA : 1-9.

overcome completely and designers are facing lot of Mourelatos Z.P.1995. An analytical investigation of the

problems specially related with multiaxial loading (Bending crankshaft-flywheel bending vibrations for a V6 engine,

and Torsion), stress concentration and stress gradient and SAE Technical Paper No. 951276, Society of

effect of variable amplitude loading. The finite element Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, USA.

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used for analyzing fracture mechanics problems. The Prediction of Thermo Mechanical Loaded Engine

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430

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