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3A/48

Beams on Elastic Subgrade and the Winkler’s Hypothesis


Les poutres sur appui élastique et l’hypothèse de Winkler

by Aleksandar B. V e sic , D .S c ., M. A.S.C.E., Associate Professor o f Civil Engineering, Georgia Institute of


Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A.

Summary Sommaire
An extension of Biot’s solution for bending, under a co ncentrat­ L’auteur présente dans ce rap p o rt une extension de la solution
ed load, of infinite beams on elastic-isotropic subgrades is pre­ de Biot du problèm e de la flexion, sous une charge concentrée,
sented. It is shown that the W inkler’s hypothesis is practically des poutres infinies sur appui élastique-isotrope. On dém ontre
satisfied for infinite beams. que l’hypothèse de W i n k l e r est pratiquem ent satisfaite dans le
M agnitude of error introduced by analyzing beams o f finite cas de poutres indéfinies.
length with the sam e hypothesis is estim ated, and a criterion with Il évalue l’im portance de l’erreur introduite en calculant les
recom m endations for the choice of appropriate m ethod of ana­ poutres de longueur finie avec la même hypothèse et donne un
lysis is given. critère et des recom m andations en vue du choix d ’une méthode
Test results, presented in support o f the analytical findings, de calcul convenable.
indicate that beams of m oderate length resting on imperfectly A l’appui des constatations théoriques l’auteur présente les
elastic subgrades m ay be treated with reasonable accuracy by the résultats des essais indiquant que les poutres de longueur modérée,
■conventional analysis, in which case the coefficient of subgrade reposant sur un appui im parfaitem ent élastique, peuvent être cal­
reaction k can be determined from laboratory or small-scale field culées avec une précision raisonnable p ar les m éthodes courantes
tests. en utilisant les valeurs du coefficient de raideur k déterminées
d ’après les essais à petite échelle sur chantier ou au laboratoire.

Introduction

T h e co n v e n tio n a l analy sis o f beam s o n elastic su b g rad e is p resen ted b y cu rv es o f dam p ed -w av e ty p e, very sim ilar to
b ased on th e assu m p tio n th a t th e ra tio o f c o n ta c t p ressu re th e co rresp o n d in g cu rv es o b tain ed b y th e co n v en tio n al
to th e deflection is th e sam e a t ev ery p o in t o f th e beam . analysis.
D en o tin g b y p (lb ./in 2) th e p ressu re a t a n y p o in t, a n d b y w T h is finding w as a n in stig atio n fo r a closer an aly sis o f th e
(in) th e deflection a t th e sam e p o in t o f th e beam , th is assu m p ­ v ariatio n o f c o n ta c t p ressu re an d deflection alo n g th e beam .
tio n , o ften called W in k ler’s h y p o th esis, m ay be w ritten : A s a resu lt o f these an d ad d itio n al in v estig atio n s presented
in this p a p er som e in terestin g co n clu sio n s w ere reached
w hich th ro w so m ew h at different lig h t o n th e co n cep t o f th e
— = C o n st. = k (1) coefficient o f su b g rad e reactio n as well as o n th e validity
w o f W in k ler’s h y p o th esis.

w here £ (lb ./in 3) is a c o n sta n t called coefficient o f su b grad e Extension o f B iot’s Solution
reactio n .
B i o t [4] considered th e p ro b lem o f bending, u n d e r a co n cen ­
F o r a b o u t six ty years since th e in tro d u c tio n o f this h y p o ­
tra te d lo ad P (Fig. 1) o f a flexible beam o f infinite length on a
thesis in th e th e o ry o f bending o f beam s o n elastic su b g rad e [1]
hom og en eo u s, elastic an d iso tro p ic sem i-infinite subgrade.
m o st o f th e in v estig ato rs in this field w orked o n so lu tio n s
H e fo u n d for th e b en d in g m o m en t M a t an y p o in t x o f the
o f th e basic differential e q u a tio n o f th e p ro b lem . L ittle a tte n ­
beam th e ex p ressio n :
tio n w as given to th e q u estio n o f reliab ility o f the basic
hypothesis.
H ow ever, th e in vestig atio n s p erfo rm ed d u rin g th e p ast a cos (on:/c) da. Pc
th irty years [2] [12] hav e sh o w n th a t th e d istrib u tio n o f
M (x)
-f a3 + (ß) n 2* (2)
p ressu re a t the c o n ta c t betw een beam s o r slabs an d elastic w here
subg rad es m ay be q u ite different fro m th a t o b tain ed b y
th e co n v e n tio n a l analysis. W in k ler’s h y p o th esis seem ed n o t a = a dim ensionless p a r a m e te r ;
to be ju stified at least fo r beam s an d slabs o n subgrades b = half-w id th o f the beam ;
such as concrete, ro ck o r soils. C o n seq u en tly , from a th e o re ­ c .= [C (l-v s2)E il//.Es] 1/3 = fu n d am en tal length o f the
tical p o in t o f view, the coefficient o f su b g rad e reactio n k beam ;
w as considered as a n artificial co n cep t. It ap p eared th a t an C = a fu n ctio n o f ¿><x/c; C = 1-00 if th e d istrib u tio n
analysis based on th a t co n cep t w as in n o case m o re th a n a o f p ressures across the w id th o f th e beam is
c ru d e estim ate [11]. u n ifo rm ; 1-00 < C < I T 3 if the deflection across
R ecently, th e w ell-know n B io t’s so lu tio n [4] fo r a n infinite th e w id th o f th e beam is u n if o r m ;
beam on a sem i-infinite elastic solid w as ex ten d e d an d th e stiffness o f th e b e a m ;
integrals ap p earin g in th e so lu tio n ev alu ated [13]. A p p ro x im ate Y o u n g 's m o d u lu s a n d P o isso n ’s ra tio o f the
a n a ly tic a l expressions fo r these integ rals w ere fo u n d to be su b g rad e;
845
an r a 2isin a * /c da 9JÎ
M( x)
TU / a:
•s n
77^7^7^
¡¡èn ?//=//ïilsu://*//:/wii‘u>/^*ii:u*ii*ii*it'iitii*ii'ili>l’l)i)l;!l! ' * -nrimniiiiHiinVn Wnj rnm rrm nm r y (9)

W (P) cos cl x Ic da 9JÎ


V(x) = ----- -- -------- U x )
C 71 + + (P ) CH
( 10)
m

9JÎ / ’ ” a (J) (P) sin auc/c da. 9JÎ


¡/■/lf/hU>ll:ir:U!ll-//‘llilli//i//!lJ‘ll!/l‘/liini/^JJ!/ly//-'//i/lill:/li/liÿf//i/I[ij/t/lHli/lr}l;.
CTU
* » - ? //
o
oc3 + ÿ (P) “ ¿he s W

(11)
I
I. T hese ex p ressio n s, to g eth er w ith ex p ressio n s (2) (6) rep resent
a co m p lete general so lu tio n o f th e p ro b lem o f b en d ing o f
Fig. 1 A beam of infinite length acted upon by a concentrated
load or a couple. infin ite flexible beam s o n elastic-iso tro p ic sem i-infinite
subgrades.
Poutre de longueur indéfinie sous l’action d ’une charge
concentrée ou d'un couple.
Approximate Analytical Expressions for Integrals
P = bajc = a dim ensionless p a ra m e te r ;
In view o f a p p licatio n o f d eriv ed ex p ressio n s o n e o f the
(j/ (P) = a fu n ctio n ta b u la te d fo r p > 0T an d given b y an
six in teg rals J 2(x) w as ev alu a ted n u m erically fo r different
assy m p o tic ex p ressio n fo r p < 0-1 ;
ab scissae xjc = E. T h e results o f th a t c o m p u ta tio n , w hich
T he expression (2) w as ta k e n as a basis fo r a com p lete w as p erfo rm ed w ith an accu racy o f 2 per cen t are show n on
so lu tio n o f the considered p ro b lem . T h e follow ing expressions Fig. 2.
w ere o b tain ed for deflection w(x ), slope 9(jc), sh earin g force
A stu d y o f th e sh ap e o f cu rv es in Fig. 2 rev ealed th eir
V(x ) an d th e c o n ta c t pressu re p(x) [13] :
g reat sim ilarity w ith th e cu rv es o f d am p ed w ave type. A fter
som e in v estig atio n s it w as fo u n d th a t th e co m p u ted num erical
t'C'1
P c3 i cos cuclc da. Pc 3 values o f th e in teg ral J2 fit th e an aly tical ex p ressio n :
bIw(x) = —
E hIw(x) ---- / / 3 - | -Q, = — ^o(x)
7T / a [a 3 + ^ (¡3) n
(3) J 2(x) = J 2(o)e - x'-v (cos X'x — sin k 'x ) (12)

in w hich J 2(o) rep resen ts th e value o f th e in teg ral fo r jc = 0 :


. Pc 2 /r’*°°
P c2 ~ sisin oocjc da. Pc2
E bi%{x) = - — / = -------- A W
0.169

(4) J 2{o) = 0-332 (13)

P /" * a 2 si
sin axlc ofa P
K (*) = - a n d X' a p a ra m e te r h av in g th e dim en sio n (len g th)-1 and
7t / a3 T i T ' " ^ defined b y :
*• ' n

(5)
X' = (14)
4x„
P i|/ (P) cos ouc/c doc P
;> (* ) = — / = —
C 71 I a3 + (P) ct c w here x 0 is th e abscissa o f th e first zero o f th e integral.
(6) It w as fo u n d th a t th e value o f this abscissa can be a p p ro x i­
m ated , w ith a m ax im u m e rro r o f th e o rd e r o f 2 p er cent in
T he expressions (2) (6) en ab le th e co m p u ta tio n o f an y o f the in terv al 0-01 < b/c < 1, by th e ex p ressio n :
the influences in an infinite beam acted u p o n b y an y co n cen ­
0.187
tra te d loads.
1-140 ci (15)
B y extension o f the so lu tio n fo r th e case o f lo ad in g b y a
c o n cen trated cou p le 9Jt (Fig. 1 b) th e follow ing ex p ressio n s
w ere derived :
so th a t th e follow ing final ex p ressio n fo r X' w as o b tain ed :

9Jîc2 r œ sin txx/c da. 9Jîc2 0.813


£ 6/ ^ ) = , 0-689 / b
AU) (16)
X = ~b~ 17
(7)
A s X' is a fu n ctio n o f b/c o n ly , it can easily be p ro v en th a t
th e rem ain in g five integ rals J0(x) — J5(x) m ay be fo u n d from
c- J /o
E 'i(/x )-, = — /r ” a... c° s a x /c 3j î c y (A.)
= ----- th e ex p ressio n s :
71 J 0 a + + (P) *
( 8) J0(x) = J n(o)e ~ X'A (cos X'x — sin X'x) (17)
846
0.50 1.00 1.50 2 .0 0 2.50 3.00
x /c = {
Fig. 2 Values of the integral
Valeurs de l’intégrale J /x ).

an aly sis will becom e co n g ru en t to th e co rresp o n d in g curves


J 1(x) sin \ ' x .... (18) o b tain ed by th e rig o ro u s so lu tio n o f th e sam e problem .
- < *) E q u a tin g (16) to (22) an d tak in g in to co n sid eratio n th a t
C( 1 — vs2)0-083 ^ J
J3(x) = J 3(o)e ~ x'-v cos \ ' x .... (19)
0 - 9 0 [ E s 64T
Ji(x) J4(o)e - X'x (cos a 'x + sin ~h'x) .... (20) kraB = Koo = (23)
i

M x) = Js \ ï ÿ ) e s in X 'x .... ( 21) In tro d u c in g B in stead o f 2b a n d tak in g C = 1.10 as a suffi­


cien tly co rrect value fo r a n y p ractical p u rp o se, th e follow ing
ex p ressio n fo r K is fo u n d :
H ere J (o) a n d J ( — , ) a re th e values o f th e integrals fo r
k x B = K ^ = 0-65 ! 2/ E s B i _ (24)
V
Eb I 1
x = 0 a n d x = — , respectively.
2a F ro m (23) o r (24) k œ can be co m p u ted if E s is k n ow n . In som e
in stan ces th e value o f th e coefficient k fo r a sq u are plate
Validity o f W inkler’s Hypothesis h av in g a w id th B is k no w n . D e n o tin g ïcB = K a n d k n o w in g
th a t, fo r a rigid sq u are p late :
O ne o f th e m o st im p o rta n t conclusions th a t com es o u t
from a co m p ariso n o f expressions (17) a n d (18) w ith (20) pB
a n d (21) respectively, is th a t th e ra tio o f th e c o n ta c t pressure = 0-815 — = 0-815 K (25)
1 - v
an d th e deflection o f the beam does n o t dep en d o n at b u t on
b/c only. th e follow ing ex p ressio n fo r K x can be o b ta in e d :*
T hus the W inkler's hypothesis is practically satisfied fo r
any determined beam o f infinite length resting on a semi­ 12 / k ~B*
infinite elastic subgrade. A ny problem o f bending o f an infinite k x B = K* = 0-52 K (26)
beam h av in g a stiffness E bI an d a w idth B = 2b a n d resting Eb I
on a sem i-infinite su bgrad e defined b y a Y o u n g ’s m o d u lu s E s
* It m ight be interesting to com pare this expression with the T e r-
an d a P o isso n ’s ra tio vs can be treated with reasonable accuracy z a g h i [11J and V o g t [2] [9] form ulae. T he T erzaghi form ula gives
by the conventional analysis using a coefficient o f subgrade = 0-67 k irrespective o f the flexibility o f the beam . V ogt form ula
reaction k. gives K m = 0 ; for beam s o f finite length L it gives again, irrespective
W h at value should be assigned to th e coefficient k ? T h e o f the flexibility o f the beam :
c o n v en tio n al analysis leads to so lu tion s w hich c o n ta in ,
L jB 10 30 100 300 1000
as it is well k n o w n , th e sam e d am ped-w ave fu n ctio n s as th e
expressions ( 12) resp. (17)-(2 1), w ith a d am p in g facto r
K IK 0-421 0-323 0 256 0-216 0-184

K
X = (22) F o rm u la (40) gives, for the possible range o f values o f V i B'/Eb I =
0-40-1-25 :
= 0 20-0-65 K
I f this facto r is eq u ated to th e facto r X' defined b y (16) all w here the lower lim it is for very rigid; the upper lim it for very flexible
th e w, M , V an d /»-curves o b ta in e d by th e co n v e n tio n a l beam s.

847
Beams o f Finite Length For sh o rt b eam s, p ro ced u res like th o se u sed b y D e
B e e r [9] [12], O h d e [7], G r a s s h o f f [10] o r o th ers sh o u ld be
T he foregoing statem en ts are valid strictly fo r beam s o f u sed. O n ly fo r o rd in a ry single footings o r cases w here c o n d i­
infinite le n g th ; it is, how ever, reaso n ab le to ex p ect th a t they tio n s d o n o t ju stify a n y refin em en t in analysis, a rough
m ay be applied to beam s o f finite length to o , p ro v id ed th e estim ate b y th e co n v en tio n al an aly sis o r b y treatin g the
length ch aracteristic XL o f th e beam stay s w ithin a certain b eam s as p erfectly rigid (fo r X L < 0-80) m ay be ad eq u ate.
lim it. It sho uld be n o ted th a t th e criterio n X L > 2-25 w o u ld a p p a ­
T o determ in e this lim it, co m p u tatio n s w ere m ade o f b en ­ re n tly exclude th e use o f co n v en tio n al analy sis for beam s
ding m om ents in beam s o f different stiffnesses E bI resting w here lo ad s act a t th e en d s — a n o rm a l case in co n tin u o u s
on an elastic-isotropic sub g rad e, a n d acted u p o n by a con cen ­ footings. H ow ever, th e a u th o r has fo u n d a w ay to apply
tra te d load in the m iddle. C o n v en tio n al analysis w ith X -values th e co n v en tio n al analy sis even in such cases w ith reaso n ab le
determ ined by m eans o f ex pression (24) as well as a m ore accu racy by d iv id in g th e p ro b lem into tw o steps, as show n
rigorous analysis treatin g th e su b g rad e as elastic-isotropic in Fig. 4. If the criterio n is satisfied fo r th e beam w ith o u t the
solid w ere used. Fig. 3 show s th e am o u n t o f e rro r in m axi-

Fig. 3 E rror in maximum m om ent under a concentrated load


if the com putation is made by the conventional
L M
analysis. Fig- Steps in analysis of beams of finite length when loads
act also at the ends of the beam.
E rreur sur le mom ent m aximum sous une charge
concentrée lorsque le calcul est fait p ar la méthode Phases du calcul des poutres de longueur finie lorsque
courante. les charges sont appliquées également aux abouts
de la poutre.
m um b ending m o m en t in vo lv ed by th e use o f W in k ler’s en d lo ad s ; i.e., X(2/) > 2-25, b en d in g m o m en ts M ' d ue to
hypothesis. It is seen th a t w ith increase o f ch aracteristics th e m id d le lo ad s (Fig. 4b) will b e d eterm in ed w ith sufficient
XL, as defined b y expression s (22) an d (24), the e rro r decreases, a ccu racy in th e u su al w ay. F o r th e m o m en ts M " d u e to the
becom ing p ractically negligible fo r XL > 2-25. en d lo ad s (Fig. 4c) p arallel c o m p u tatio n s b y th e rig orous
T hus, in an alyzing a beam o f finite length u n d e r a con cen ­ a n d co n v e n tio n a l an aly ses show o v e r a w ide ran g e o f
trated lo ad b y the co n v en tio n al an aly sis based o n W in k ler’s X L (0 < X L < 5 ) an e rro r very close to + 20 p er cent. T hu s,
hy pothesis, reasonable accuracy is to by expected i f the beam q u ite reliable estim ate o f m o m en ts can be m ad e b y su p er­
is sufficiently long (X L > 2-25)** T he fu n d am en tal fallacy p o sitio n o f M ' a n d 0-83 M " .
o f th e co n v en tio n al c o m p u tatio n s o f beam s on elastic su b ­ In su m m ary th e follow ing design p ro ced u res fo r b eam s
g rade lies in ap p licatio n o f th e elem en tary th eo ry to sh o rt o n elastic su b g rad e a re reco m m en d ed :
beam s. T h e “ su p erp o sitio n m e th o d s” fo r beam s o f finite
length are n o t applicab le if th e “ en d -co n d itio n in g forces”
** W hen several loads are p resent on the beam , the sam e criterio n
a re n o t sm all en o u g h co m p ared to th e lo ad s actin g o n the m ay be used w ith th e free length o u tsid e o f th e loads as L ( L = 2/,
beam . Fig. 4 b).

Criterion Recommended procedure


for distinction
for rough estimates for refined analysis

Long beams XL > 500 C onventional analysis assuming infinite beam and estim ating K by means of the
expression (24)
M oderately long 2-25 < \ L < 5-00 C onventional analysis as finite beam ; iT-value by means of expression (24)
beams
M oderately short 0-80 < X L < 2-25 C onventional analysis
beams
DeBeer, Ohde o r sim ilar methods
Short beams U < 0-80 Treat as perfectly rigid

848
Fig. 5 View o f test beam.
Vue d ’une poutre d ’essai.

Experimental Evidence A lso, q u ick tria x ia l tests w ere m ad e on 4 in. d iam eter sam ples
e x tracted from th e pit. T he test resu lts a re classified in th e
T ests w ith large-size m o d els o f steel b eam s restin g o n a follow ing tab le :
su b g rad e o f co m p acted silt h av e been m ad e a t th e G eo rg ia
In s titu te o f T ech nology. Fig. 5 show s th e general view o f
Es
on e o f the beam s tested. T he 72 in. lo n g beam h ad a re c ta n ­ Range o f Pressure
g u lar cross-sectio n 8 in. w ide a n d 1 in. thick. It w as load ed Test lb / in 2 1 — V ,2

by a co n cen trated lo ad ap p lied b y m eans o f a h y d rau lic lb / in 2


ja c k in th e m iddle. T h e lo ad in stallatio n w as devised so th a t
free ro ta tio n o f the beam in th e lo n g itu d in al d irectio n w as
Sq u a r e p late 24 in . 0- 28 1110
assured. T w enty-six SR -4 strain gages w ere atta c h e d to
th e beam w ith th e p u rp o se o f m easu rin g strain s due to b en ­ C ir cu la r p late 18 in . 0- 25 1360
ding ; a t th e sam e tim e deflections o f th e w ere reco rd ed b y
m ean s o f fo u rteen dial gages.
Rig id b eam 8" WF 0- 14- 3 1160

T h e 60 in. deep su bgrad e w as co m p ac ted in a test p it 12 ft. 15 lb / in 2 (la t e r a l) 1175


lo ng and 8 ft. w ide. It consisted o f a m icaceous silt h av in g
th e follow ing ch aracteristics : T riax ial 4 in . d ia. 30 lb / in 2 (l a t e r a l ) 1200
60 lb / in 2 (la t e r a l) 1420

plasticity index 8-0


p er cent fines ( < 0-074 m m ) 37 U sing ex p ressio ns (24) an d (22), w ith £ s/l- v s2 = 1 200 lb ./in 2
per cen t clay ( < 0-002 m m ) 3 an d E h = 30-106 lb ./in 2, K x w as fo u n d to be 694 lb ./in 2 and
void ra tio 1-16 XL = 3-91.
w ater co n ten t 26-8 p er cen t B ending m o m en ts a n d deflections m easured in the test
fo r P = 8-25 kips, w ith co rresp o n d in g co n tac t pressures are
D efo rm atio n ch aracteristics o f th e su b g rad e w ere d e te r­ show n in Fig. 6. D o tte d lines in th e sam e figure rep resen t th e
m ined by loading tests using an 18 in. circu lar an d 24 in. sam e influences co m p u ted b y c o n v e n tio n al an aly sis w ith
sq u are plate, as well as a l i 'F rigid beam 8 x 72 in. in base. K x = 694 lb ./in 2. Fig. 7 co m p ares th e m easu red ra tio s o f
849
D I ST A N C E FR O M C E N T E R ( IN ) pressures a n d deflections w ith the co rresp o n d in g co m p u ted
value.
T he test results p resen ted ind icate tw o im p o rta n t facts :
(1) T h a t th e W in k ler’s h y p o th esis m ay be p ractically
satisfied n o t o n ly fo r b eam s o f infin ite len g th o n elastic-
iso tro p ic solids ; b u t also fo r b eam s o f m o d e ra te len g th o n an
im perfectly elastic su b g rad e like th e co m p acted s i l t ;
(2) T h a t th e coefficient o f su b g rad e re actio n k, fo r a p a rti­
cu lar p ro b lem o f b en d in g w here W in k le r’s h y p o th esis is
plausible, can be d eterm ined reliab ly using ex p ressio n (24)
a n d la b o ra to ry o r sm all-scale field tests fo r E s.

A cknow ledgem ent

T ests d escribed in th is p a p er w ere carried o u t in th e Soil


M echanics L a b o ra to ry a t th e G eo rg ia In s titu te o f T e c h n o ­
logy. T he a u th o r is in d eb ted to M r. P a u l T . Sze, G ra d u a te
R esearch A ssistan t, fo r p re p a ra tio n o f m odels a n d assistance
in p erfo rm in g th e tests.

R eferences

[ 1] W in k le r . D ie Lehre von Elasticitaet und Festigkeit; Prag


1867 (H. D ominicus), pp. 182-184.
[2] V o g t F. (1925). U ber die Berechnung der F undam entde­
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Math.-Naturv. Klasse, No. 2, Oslo.
[3] S c h l e i c h e r F. (1926). Z ur Theorie des Baugrundes ; Der
D I S T A N C E F R O M C E N T E R (I N )
Bauingenieur 7, pp. 931-935, 949-952.
Fig . 6 V a lu es of b en d in g m o m en ts, co n tact p ressu res an d [4] B io t M. A . (1937). Bending of an Infinite Beam on an
d ef lect io n s a lo n g the b eam as o b tain ed fro m t est Elastic F oundation ; Journal o f Applied Mechanics,
r e s u lt s (f u l l li n e s ). D o t t e d lin es s h o w th e co rresp o n d ­ Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. Engrs., vol. 59, pp. A1-A7.
in g co m p u ted valu es. [5] H abel A. (1938). N aherungsberechnung des au f dem
V a le u r s d es m o m e n t s f léch issan t s, p r essio n s d e co n tact elastisch-isotropen H albraum aufliegenden elastischen
et f lèch es le lo n g d e la p o u t r e , o b t e n u e s e x p é r im e n t a ­ Balkens ; Der Bauingenieur 19, pp. 76-78.
lem en t (t r a i t s p l e i n s ). Les valeu r s co rresp o n d an tes [6] B o s s o n G . (1939). The Flexure of an Infinite Elastic Strip
calcu lées so n t d o n n ées en p o in t illé . on an Elastic Foundation ; Philosophical Magazine,
Seventh Series, vol. 27, pp. 37-50.
[7] O h d e J. (1943). Die Berechnung der Sohldruckverteilung
unter G rundungskropern ; Der Bauingenieur 23, pp. 99-
107, 122-127.
[8] T e r z a g h i K. (1943). Theoretical Soil Mechanics, New Y ork
(J. Wiley), pp. 345-366.
[9] D e B e e r E. E. (1948). C om putation of Beams Resting on
Soil ; Proceedings, Second Intern. Conf. Soil Mech. and
Found. Engrg., R otterdam , vol. 1, pp. 119-121.
-MEASURED VALUES
[10] G r a ssh o ff H. (1943), Die Sohldruckverteilung unter
zentralsym m etrisch belasteten elastischen K reiplatten-
fundam enten, Die Bautechnik 30, pp. 352-358.
DISTANCE FROM CENTER (IN) [11] T e r z a g h i K . (1955). E valuation o f Coefficients of Sub-
grade R eaction, Géotechnique V, pp. 297-326.
Fig. 7 V a r ia t io n o f th e r at io o f co n tact p ressu res an d d eflec­
tio n s alo n g the b eam . D o tted lin e sh o w s the valu e
[12] D e B e e r , E. E., E. L o u s b e r g and P. V a n B e v e r e n . (1956).
K = 694 lb / in 2 com p u ted fro m la b o r a t o r y an d
Le calcul de poutres et plaques appuyées sur le sol ;
sm all- siz e field t est s.
Annales des Travaux Publics de Belgique, N o. 2-3.
V a r ia t io n du rap p o rt en tre les p ressio n s de co n tact
[13] V e s i o A . Bending of Beams R esting on an Isotropic-
et f l è c h e s le l o n g de la p o u t r e . La lig n e en p o in t illé
Elastic Solid ; (publication pending).
m ontre la valeu r K = 694 l b / i n '- c a lc u lé e d ’ap rès [14] H é t e n y i M. (1946). Beams on Elastic F ou nd atio n ; Ann
les essais à p et it e é ch elle au la b o r a t o ir e et in sit u . Arbor (Univ. of Michigan Press).

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