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12/29/2019 Analyze The Policies Of Tun Abdul Razak Period History Essay

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On the other hand, he also established agencies such as the Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA), Malayan Industrial Development Fin
MARA). Furthermore, he changed Malaysia’s socioeconomic landscape through the New Economic Policy (NEP) during his premiership. This Ne
by focusing not only on rural development, but also on education. Tun Abdul Razak played an important role in reestablishing the public identi
its reconciliation with Indonesia. Due to his contribution to Malaysia and the public especially in development, he is known as the Father of Dev

An Overview of Foreign Policy of Malaysia

Since Independence, a variety of geographical, historical, social and political factors contribute to the shaping of Malaysia’s foreign policy that i
determinants have become increasingly important in line with globalisation and in the advancement of communication and information techno
by time, the basic objective remains the same, which is to pursue the national interest at the international level and to ensure the continued pro

Examining Malaysia’s foreign policy since 1957, it is obvious that there are evolutionary changes characterised by notable differences in empha
need for political, economical and social stability. Under Tunku Abdul Rahman, our first Prime Minister, Malaysia is one of the anti-Communist a
to the close adherence and relationship between British and us. After Tunku Abdul Rahman, we began to approach a foreign policy based on n
involvement in Non- Alignment Movement (NAM). Under Tun Abdul Razak, Malaysia began to identify itself as a “Muslim nation” in accordance
Trying to achieve true independence by seeking out friends beside British, Malaysia started to encourage investments from sources other than
role as a member of ASEAN regarding the issue of the collapse of Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh City) in 1975, the withdrawal of the US military pre
Vietnam. Malaysia’s foreign policy began to change dramatically when Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohammad took over as the fourth Prime Ministe
line with its focus on building up a strong and nationalistic defense of the rights, interests and aspirations of developing countries. Under Tun D
Antarctica as the common heritage of mankind, the look east policy (LEP) that encourages Malaysians to learn from the positive values of Japan
of 15 (G15) – ASEAN Mekong Basin Development Co-operation, Islamic Unity and the championing of the cause of developing countries on ma
bin Haji Ahmad Badawi has served as prime Minister and becomes the chairman of OIC, ASEAN, NAM for a period of time.

Different foreign policy that comes under different prime ministers reflects a pragmatic response to the geopolitical and economic changes fro
distinct needs at different moment as the main feature of our country’s foreign policy is a reflection of the development and maturation of our
Malaysia’s leadership has been recognised as one of the most influential. Malaysia has proved that it has possessed the quality of independenc
gained its fame as a politically, economically and socially stable country mainly due to its foreign policy.

In short, Malaysia seeks to maintain the bilateral relations with almost all countries by upholding the principles of sovereign equality and mutua
each other’s internal affairs, peaceful settlement of disputes as well as mutual benefit in relations and peaceful co-existence.

Re- Alignment in Foreign Policy

The suspension of Parliament after the crisis of May 13th 1969 entailed the administration of the country by an emergency body, the National O
May 1969, Tun Abdul Razak was considered as the Head of Government due to his position as the Director of Operations of NOC. However, he
Abdul Rahman was still holding the premiership. Yet, he was convinced that Malaysia’s foreign policy which was then revolving around the pro-
over the premiership, the foreign policy agenda of a politically reconstructed Malaysia was to be put in place then.

The new Administration was clearly at pains to regain domestic (both Malaysia and non-Malay) and international confidence in Malaysia’s viabi
govern Malaysian society caused a significant review of policies. The introduction of new strategies represented the first observable attempts to
and balance of economic and political dominance among all races. For example, the development of more extensive contacts with internationa
movement towards a more Muslim character while maintaining patterns accommodation with other races.

Besides, there was also an issue referred by Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad as the “apron- string complex”. There were pressure and arguments on
our country. In addition, there was also an urgent need to take the middle stand between the two major power blocs in the world by then in or
once the major power in Southeast Asia, was facing a gradual rundown that would definitely caused the whole withdrawal of the power from th
due to its under- developed defense systems. That is the reason for in April 1970, Tun Abdul Razak who was still the Minister of Defense, subsc
Zealand, Singapore and Britain.

The turmoil in international and regional affairs was also one of the issues during the Razak administration. Prolonged United States involveme
the neighborly countries such as Indonesia and India, both culturally and politically, the emergence of China as possessing the nuclear super- p
Japan on Asia especially in the fields of commerce, industry and finance, the renewed strength of Muslim states in the Middle East were indirec
deal with some regional security issues such as the Philippines’ claim over Sabah, the cooperation with Thailand to solve communist guerrillas i
the relationships with Indonesia regarding to the navigation rights in the Melaka straits issue and the possession of offshore oil resources.

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12/29/2019 Analyze The Policies Of Tun Abdul Razak Period History Essay

Tun Abdul Razak wondered about the strategies that Malaysia could adopt to cope with it. He felt that the emerging new countries in Africa an
issues were also in the consideration as popular sentiment determined the perception of the outside world about Malaysia. It is important to cr
country. When he took over his premiership, he began to implement his plans, elevating neutrality and non- alignment as our official foreign p
One of his goals was to achieve full neutralization of the whole of Southeast Asia while still maintaining a good relationships with the West by a
region, and also by identifying with the ‘Third World’ of Afro- Asia including Latin American, South Pacific and Middle East. Another goal was to
be safer and freed from foreign military forces and also to maintain harmonious, peaceful and bilateral relationships with these neighbour coun

The Association of Southeast Asia (ASEAN)

During the period of Tun Abdul Razak as the deputy prime Minister of Malaysia, there were only few organizations such as the ASA (Association
Rahman realized that there was no space for two organizations to work perfectly at the same time. Thus, in 1967, not long after the Confrontat
from Indonesia, Narciso Ramos from the Philippines, Tun Abdul Razak from Malaysia, S. Rajaratnam from Singapore and Thanat Khoman from T
response to the failure of MAPHILINDO, for the strategic and security reasons. This is the Bangkok Declaration.

Before the forming of ASEAN, Malaysia was facing the issues regarding to the claim made by the Philippines over Sabah as Sabah was once the
Confrontation of Indonesia at Southern part of Malaysia. In line with the formation of ASEAN, many conflicts were resolved as the members of
and conflicts. By 1967, the open dispute between Malaysia and Indonesia was replaced by cooperation through the formation of ASEAN. In fact
Tun Abdul Razak played an important role as he stood firmly in declining the Philippines’ claim on Sabah. From his point of view, it was a test fo
from Sabah even if they wanted to infiltrate Sabah with a special forces.

The Malaysian government lodged a formal protest in September 1968. A meeting was held between Tuan Abdul Razak and Narciso Ramos in
cooling off period. Yet, matters went even worse when the Philippines claimed again over Sabah territory and its water. In addition, the Philippi
Kuala Lumpur Declaration by interfering with its internal affairs such as smuggling arms and explosives in the Sulu Islands and Mindanao. This i
not have Sabah as a state in our country today.

In February 1977, the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia, drafted initiatively by Tun Abdul Razak, to foster peaceful resolutions
summit conference in Bali.

Another issue that had a big impact on Malaysia was the idea of the communism. The formation of ASEAN was mainly for strategic and security
countries from being colonized, threatened or involving in communism, ASEAN bind all the countries together to have a neutralized stance. Th
focus in economic growth and also to rebuild and recover after World War II. Federation of Malaya, by the time, had just came out from the co
ASEAN and the co-operation among the ASEAN countries for the economical support, Malaysia would not be able to survive throughout the w

Neutralization and Zone of Peace, Freedom, and Neutrality (ZOPFAN)

Since Tun Abdul Razak assumed his position as the second prime minister of Malaysia, neutralization had become the key element of Malaysia’
levels of implementation. The first level specified that Southeast Asian nation-states adopt and practice non- aggression and non- intervention
besides reaching out to ensure harmony and security among themselves. The second level of implementation involved the major superpowers
prospective guarantors for ensuring that the Southeast Asian region would not become an area for conflict among these major countries. In ad
ensure the neutrality of Southeast Asia. The declaration emphasized regional cooperation to strengthen the economic and social stability of the

Since 1970, Malaysia has been practicing non- interference policy or the exception policy to create a bilateral good relationships with many cou
Russia and United States. ZOPFAN (Zone of Peace, Freedom, and Neutrality), originated in a 1970, a proposal by Tun Abdul Razak, was one of t
any form of external interference and to create a region that has lasting peace, freedom and prosperity.

In October 1971, Tun Abdul Razak proposed his plan for neutralization to the United Nations General Assembly in New York. He received a lot
other ASEAN countries to hold a meeting in Kuala Lumpur on November 26th and 27th. The result was the Kuala Lumpur Declaration, an issue
time to cooperate and work together to gain the recognition and respect for Southeast Asia as ZOPFAN.

The Malaysian Government under the Prime Minister and Deputy Prime Ministership of Tun Razak and Tun Ismail organized a chain of diploma
other non- ASEAN Southeast Asia countries for the need of a neutralized Southeast Asia. He called for a greater regional cooperation and warn
powers. During the 3rd ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on 16 December 1969, he stressed the importance of regional cooperation and regional sol

Tun Abdul Razak did not cease his personal effort in implementing the idea of ZOPFAN to a wider area including those countries that were not
President U Ne Win about neutralization. Although Burmese remained skeptical and Indo-China was about to be ruled by communists, Tun bel

However, ZOPFAN had not progressed very much beyond the conceptual beginnings and terms set down during the Bali meeting in 1976. ZOP
proposal and the subsequent Treaty of Amity and Concord have been contravened by non-ASEAN states. In 1990s, after reviewing the relevanc
increasingly irrelevant in the post-Cold War era and it was merely a statement of principle rather than a plan for effective actions. ZOPFAN was
formulation of security arrangements and other such forms of regional cooperation among the member states of ASEAN.

Non- Alignment Movement (NAM)

Tun Abdul Razak made a couple of significant changes in Malaysia’s foreign policy. One of his fundamental moves was the decision to join NAM
as a major discussion for consultations and management of positions on political and economic issues to determine an international order that
countries of the world. To understand why Tun Abdul Razak decided to actively be a member of NAM, remember that NAM emerged during th
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12/29/2019 Analyze The Policies Of Tun Abdul Razak Period History Essay

independent countries from colonization and imperialism. As the name implies, NAM members follow a strict ‘non-alignment’ policy, did not fa
determination, national independence and sovereignty and territorial integrity. NAM countries also focus on strengthening the socioeconomic

Tun Abdul Razak, practiced a non-alignment policy by establishing ZOFPAN. He believed that the joining of Malaysia into NAM can prove the s
During the period of Tun Abdul Razak as the Foreign Minister, Malaysia was officially brought into the fold of the Movement as a member coun
Affairs of NAM at New York on 27th September 1969. Consequently, the Malaysian Delegation, led by Tun Abdul Razak as the new Prime Minis
in Lusaka, Zambia from 8th until 10th September 1970. To strengthen Malaysia’s determination and pursuit of disentanglement, Tun Abdul Raz
Government of NAM Countries at Colombo in the year of 1976.

In the political aspects, NAM members agreed to condemn Zionist’s violent action against Palestinians. Zionist (Israel) persistently continued hi
Muslim, Tun Abdul Razak paid sympathy and condemnation against Israeli’s actions. NAM also agreed that this situation posed a threat to inte
create a closer relationship with Muslim countries. This gave Tun Abdul Razak a greater chance and higher reputation, since Muslim countries a

Another issue that helped Tun Abdul Razak to proven his role in Asian is the issues of United States, Lao People’s Democratic Republic and Viet
hard to make South East Asian a free-alignment zone, free from any alien powers. By the time the fifth conference was held, Vietnam had a suc
Republic had freed from United States attack. NAM celebrated the struggle of the country to fight against Imperialism by United States. To ma
with the resolution was the right actions. This act, therefore, would bring confidence to South East Asian countries to join Tun Abdul Razak’s pla

In the economic context, Tun Abdul Razak, which at that time had visions to develop Malaysia, has made a right path by joining NAM, which cle
step to neutralize from big powers (bloc), would surely suffer in terms of economic if they continued to do so. By far, most underdeveloped and
these policy had never made them any better; economic discrimination, along with imperialism, colonialism and apartheid would never place a
to gradually become independence in terms of economic and sovereignty by joining NAM.

The Relationship with China

The most recent historical perspective of bilateral Malaysia-China relations is relevant for today’s situation. This is due to the fact that the relatio
complicated by two problems. According to Malaysia, Southeast Asia and the Emerging China: Political, Economic and Cultural Perspectives; on
other is its policy towards the Communist Party of Malaya. Unlike the establishment of diplomatic relations with other countries such as for exa
communist parties linked closely to China didn’t have any issues that complicated matters so much. Thus, these two factors played a prominent

In 1949, communism took over China. They, at that time didn’t think of a clear policy towards Southeast Asians of Chinese origin. Instead, they
Chinese those who had a grandfather who was a Chinese citizen. This caused numerous difficulties with other countries which just obtained the
with citizens that came from other countries, especially China. However, the Chinese communist were enthusiastic to have diplomatic relations

Most the Chinese in Malaysia had embraced Malaysian citizenship and were already integrated in Malaysian polity by 1974. Again, according to
Cultural Perspectives; it has been suggested that one reason Tun Razak wanted to establish diplomatic relations with China was an attempt on
that was expected to be declared after he came back from China. UMNO leaders were confident of their loyalty to use the China card. However
Malaysia still could not obtain their Malaysian citizenship and therefore were so-called stateless Chinese. It was feared that they could complica
The Chinese communist government couldn’t openly abandon them. But both parties really wanted to develop diplomatic ties so in 1974, Tun
there was no mention of this group of Chinese beyond the usual urging by the Chinese premier that Chinese residents in Malaysia should respe

Besides that, there were other reasons Malaya wanted to establish diplomatic ties with China was that was due to regional strategic causes and
May 1971 a trade mission went to China at the invitation of the Chinese Government’s National Foreign Trade Corporation. The outcome of thi
Rubber Fund Board. Apart from that, China also agreed to purchase an additional150,000 tons of rubber a year at average market prices. After
Import Corporation invited a rubber technical advisory mission from Malaysia to visit China for two weeks. Malaysia’s recently established natio
the Canton Spring Fair in April 1972. Besides that, Malaya also developed a relationship with China based on other levels such as sports and me
really wanted to demonstrate its goal to achieve wide understanding with this growing power.

China’s formal membership in the UN and President Nixon’s visits to China was kind of triggered Malaysia’s initiative to have diplomatic relatio
view to normalization of relations.” The discourse began in June 1973 and the first few meetings showed Malaysia’s seriousness in the negotioa
Minister’s Office), Khor Eng Hee (Wisma Putra) and Ahmad Kamil Jaafar (Deputy Permanent Representative). On the other hand, the person who
sides’ expectations were opposed, the Malaysians were still able to persuade the Chinese to accept a package deal in which Malaysia’s main co

The perception of China as a threat to Malaysia began to change from the mid 1980s onwards. This was a result of many factors. One was due t
Chinese were well integrated in Malaysian polity. Any further opening towards China such as allowing Malaysians to visit China with the same d
Besides that, it was also encouraged for Malaysia to enhance business ties with China. Due to that, it would not have negative domestic politica

In conclusion, ties between China and Malaysia have been complicated by the issue of Beijing’s policy towards Southeast Asian of Chinese desc
However, these two factors did not prevent both of these countries from having diplomatic relations. But from 1980s onwards, the two factors
the local polity and when the Communist Party of Malaya decided to surrender back in 1989.

Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC)

The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) is an international organization with a permanent delegation with the United Nations. It happ
Malaysia has officially joined the organization since then. The succeeding government of Tun Abdul Razak reaped advantage from his leadersh
Tun Abdul Razak had become a second man by carrying on the idea made the first Prime Minister. In fact, this capable leader was persisted in t
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12/29/2019 Analyze The Policies Of Tun Abdul Razak Period History Essay

Apart of being renowned in Malaysian New Economic Policy (DBP), Tun Abdul Razak’s foreign policy had been a great success from his efforts i
Nation. Under Tun Abdul Razak, as a member of the particular organization, Malaysia began to identify itself as a “Muslim nation.” Even though
Malaysia as one single country. Indeed, it has been one up to the present. More or less, this situation had strengthened the Malaysian support t
our country and the actual religion of the Malays, most contemporary leading politicians were Malays; thus, in various Arab- Israeli conflicts, de
monetary contribution and volunteers from the public to aid the Palestinians during the Arab- Israeli war in October 1973. Tun Abdul Razak als
As a result of this, he had given birth to a clean international Islamic image for a new country like Malaysia at that particular moment.

Furthermore, this second Prime Minister had emphasized the pragmatism of OIC. It was his idea to come out with economically supportive Islam
used to stress the importance for the OIC’s members to promote and regard Islam as a religion of steadfast progression and human moderniza
cooperation, the broadening of trade, investments schemes and its members, better and improved deployment of Islamic Development Bank (I
Islamic education. As a result, there was a sharp boost in the volume of bilateral trade between Malaysia and Middle Eastern countries. The incr
evident for this case. As a matter of fact, Malaysia was considered as one of the top ten countries to be exempted from oil cutbacks during the
the establishment of foreign policies was also proven successful through the funding of oil-producing Arab countries in the constructions of m
Ummah during the 1970’s was liable for those kinds of modernizations.

In a nutshell, Tun Abdul Razak contributed a lot to Malaysian’s development in terms of its foreign policy. It was him who initially practiced com
ability to serve a respectful image of Malaysia’s name throughout the world and preserved Malaysia’s cerebral policies towards a nation’s freed

Overall influences of the foreign policy on Malaysia

Political Effects
The existence of ZOPFAN in line with the foreign policy goal to achieve neutralization has contributed to an agreement formed between Malay
Malaysia and other ASEAN countries from any kind of violation and disturbance from the foreign power that wished to carry out the imperialism
recognize the sovereignty and independence of the countries in this area Thus, the forming of ZOPFAN has provided ASEAN countries with an
that ASEAN was free to embark on a journey to prove the viability of the philosophy of building “regional resilience” based on the respective “n
and co-operation.

Despite the partial success of the p

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