Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 873

Loren T.

Stuckenbruck
1 Enoch 91–108
Commentaries on
Early Jewish Literature
(CEJL)

Edited by
Loren T. Stuckenbruck
and
Pieter W. van der Horst · Hermann Lichtenberger
Doron Mendels · James R. Mueller

Walter de Gruyter · Berlin · New York


Loren T. Stuckenbruck

1 Enoch 91–108

Walter de Gruyter · Berlin · New York


Ü Printed on acid-free paper which falls within the guidelines
of the ANSI to ensure permanence and durability

Library of Congress – Cataloging-in-Publication Data

A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress

ISBN 978-3-11-019119-6

Bibliographic information published by Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek

Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed
bibliographic data is available in the Internet at <http://dnb.d-nb.de>

© Copyright 2007 by Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG, 10785 Berlin, Germany
All rights reserved, including those of translation into foreign languages. No part of this book
may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopy, recording or any information storage and retrieval system, without
permission in writing from the publisher.

Printed in Germany
Cover Design: Christopher Schneider, Berlin
Typesetting: Dörlemann Satz GmbH, Lemförde
Printing and binding: Hubert & Co GmbH & Co. KG, Göttingen
VI

For Lois
V
Table Of Contents VII

Table Of Contents

Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIII
Note on Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XV

Chapter One
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
A. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
A.1. Apocalypse of Weeks (93:1–10; 91:11–17) . . . . . . 2
A.2. Exhortation (91:1–10, 18–19) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
A.3. Epistle (92:1–5; 93:11–105:2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
A.4. Birth of Noah (106:1–107:3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
A.5. Eschatological Admonition (108:1–15) . . . . . . . . 4
B. 1 Enoch 91–108 and Stages of Literary Growth . . . 5
B.1. Independent Compositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
B.2. A Growing Collection of Enochic Writings . . . . . . 8
B.3. 1 Enoch 91–105 + Appendices in 106–107 and 108:
Fifth Part of an “Enochic Pentateuch” or Variations
on a Growing Testamentary Framework? . . . . . . 14
C. 1 Enoch 91–108: The Ethiopic Version . . . . . . . . 15
C.1. The Text-Basis for This Commentary . . . . . . . . . 15
C.2. The Ethiopic Version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
C.2.a. Ethiopic I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
C.2.b. Ethiopic II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
C.2.c. Presentation of the Ethiopic Evidence . . . . . . . . . 26
C.2.d. Other Versions and the Ethiopic . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
D. Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
D.1. Editions and Reference Works Used . . . . . . . . . . 28
D.2. Translations and Commentaries . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
D.3. Secondary Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

Chapter Two
Part One: Apocalypse of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17) . . . . 49
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
A. The Text Traditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
A.1. The Ethiopic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
VIII Table Of Contents

A.2. The Aramaic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50


A.3. The Coptic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
B. Division of Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
C. Outline and Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
D. Date . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
E. Authorship and Relation to the Epistle and
Exhortation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Commentary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
93:1–2 Opening Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
93:3 The First Week . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
93:4 The Second Week . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
93:5 The Third Week . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
93:6 The Fourth Week . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
93:7 The Fifth Week . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
93:8 The Sixth Week . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
93:9–10; 91:11 The Seventh Week . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
91:12–13 The Eighth Week . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
91:14 The Ninth Week . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
91:15–16 The Tenth Week . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
93:17 Weeks Without End . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

Chapter Three
Part Two: Exhortation (1 Enoch 91:1–10, 18–19) . . . . . . . . . . 153
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
A. The Text Traditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
A.1. The Ethiopic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
A.2. The Aramaic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
B. Literary Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
B.1. Literary Relationship with the Apocalypse of Weeks
and Epistle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
B.2. Ideological and Terminological Links with other
1 Enoch Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
C. The Exhortation as an Independent Tradition . . . . 156
D. Date . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Commentary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
91:1–2 Enoch Summons His Children through Methuselah . 157
91:3–4 Opening Ethical Exhortation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
91:5–10 Eschatological Destruction of Iniquity . . . . . . . . 169
91:18–19 Closing Exhortation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Table Of Contents IX

Chapter Four
Part Three: Epistle of Enoch (1 Enoch 92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2) 185
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
A. The Text Traditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
A.1. The Ethiopic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
A.2. The Greek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
A.3. The Aramaic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
B. Introduction to the Epistle (Title, Outline, Literary
Analysis of Formulae, and Use of Tradition) . . . . 188
B.1. Title . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
B.2. Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
B.3. Literary Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
B.3.a. Different Origin of the Frame and Body . . . . . . . . 191
B.3.b. Recurring Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
B.3.b.i. Woe-Oracles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
B.3.b.ii. Oath-formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
B.3.b.iii. Exhortations to the Righteous . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
B.3.b.iv. Disclosure Formulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
B.3.b.v. Instruction on the Two Ways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
B.3.b.vi. Imputed Speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
B.3.b.vii. Makarism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
B.4. Use of and Intertextuality with Formative Traditions . 204
C. Date and Social Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
D. Author and Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Commentary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
92:1 The Superscription . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
92:2–5 Opening Statement on Eschatological Reward and
Punishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
93:11–14 Reflection on the Inscrutable Greatness of God . . . . 231
94:1–5 Exhortation on the Contrasting Ways of Righteousness
and Wrongdoing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
94:6–95:2 First Woe-Oracles Against the Wicked . . . . . . . . . 256
95:3 First Consolation of the Righteous . . . . . . . . . . . 272
95:4–7 Second Woe-Oracles Against the Wicked . . . . . . . 273
96:1–3 Second Consolation of the Righteous . . . . . . . . . 283
96:4–8 Third Woe-Oracles Against the Wicked . . . . . . . . 294
97:1–2 Third Consolation of the Righteous . . . . . . . . . . 303
97:3–6 Address to the Sinners Concerning the Judgement . . 307
97:7–10 Fourth Woe-Oracles Against the Wicked . . . . . . . 316
98:1–3 Oath to the Wise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
98:4–8 Two Oaths to Sinners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
X Table Of Contents

98:9–99:2 Fifth Woe-Oracles Against the Wicked . . . . . . . . 351


99:3–5 Exhortation that the Righteous Testify Against the
Wicked . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
99:6–9 An Oath Denouncing Sinners About Their Idolatry
and Visions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392
99:10 Blessing on Those Who Heed the Wise . . . . . . . . 407
99:11–16 Sixth Woe-Oracles Against the Wicked . . . . . . . . 412
100:1–4 Eschatological Judgement Against Sinners . . . . . . 426
100:5–6 Eschatological Bliss for the Righteous . . . . . . . . 437
100:7–9 Seventh Woe-Oracles Against the Wicked . . . . . . 445
100:10–13 Meteorological Phenomena as Instruments of Divine
Judgement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453
101:1–9 Divine Activity in the Created Order and the
Response of the Wicked . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
102:1–3 Eschatological Judgement on the Wicked Through
the Created Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
102:4–104:8 Discourse on Divine Justice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492
102:4–103:5 1. Exhortation to the Righteous Dead . . . . . . . . 492
102:4–5 A. Consolation for the Righteous Dead . . . . . . . . 492
102:6–11 B. Speech of the Sinners About the Righteous Dead
and the Author’s Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500
103:1–4 C. Oath to the Righteous Dead About Their
Ultimate State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513
103:5–8 2. Eighth Woe-Oracle Against the Sinners Who Have
Died . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526
103:9–104:6 3. Exhortation to the Righteous Who Are Still Alive . 537
103:9–15 A. The Speech of the Living Righteous . . . . . . . . 537
104:1–6 B. The Author’s Response to the Speech of the Living
Righteous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561
104:7–8 A Warning to the Sinners Who are Alive: Their Speech
and the Author’s Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . 578
104:9–105:2 Conclusion to the Epistle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582
104:9; 105:1 Final Exhortations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582
104:10–13;
105:2 Revelations About the End . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582

Chapter Five
Part Four: Birth of Noah (1 Enoch 106:1–107:3) . . . . . . . . . . . 606
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 606
A. The Enochic Character of Chapters 106–107 . . . . 606
B. Summary and Significance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 607
Table Of Contents XI

C. Birth of Noah in the Context of Enochic and Other


Early Jewish Traditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 608
D. The Text Traditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 614
D.1. The Ethiopic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 614
D.2. The Aramaic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615
D.3. The Greek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615
D.4. The Latin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615
E. Date . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 616
Commentary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 617
106:1 Narrative Setting and Birth of Noah . . . . . . . . . . 617
106:2–3 A Miraculous Child . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 622
106:4–7 Lamech’s Report About His Son’s Birth to
Methuselah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 631
106:8 Methuselah Journeys to Enoch . . . . . . . . . . . . . 641
106:9–12 Methuselah’s Report About the Child to Enoch . . . . 644
106:13–17 Enoch’s Explanation Part One: Calamities Leading
up to the Flood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 655
106:18 Enoch’s Explanation Part Two: Noah and His
Significance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 671
106:19–107:1 Enoch’s Explanation Part Three: The Eschatological
Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 677
107:2 Enoch’s Explanation Part Four: Methuselah Sent Back
to Reassure Lamech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 683
107:3 Conclusion: Methuselah Reports to Lamech . . . . . 685

Chapter Six
Part Five: Eschatological Admonition (1 Enoch 108:1–15) . . . . . . 690
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 690
A. Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 690
B. Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 690
C. The Text Traditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 691
D. Eschatological Admonition in Relation to Enochic
and Other Early Jewish Traditions . . . . . . . . . 692
E. Date . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 693
Commentary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 695
108:1–3 A. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 695
108:1 A.1. Title, Superscription, Adressees . . . . . . . . . 695
108:2–3 A.2. Opening Exhortation to the Righteous . . . . . 697
108:4–15 B. Apocalypse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 704
108:4–5 B.1. Vision of a Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 704
108:6–10 B.2. The Angel’s Explanation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 709
XII Table Of Contents

108:6–7 B.2.a. The Wicked to be Punished . . . . . . . . . . 709


108:8–10 B.2.b. The Righteous to be Rewarded . . . . . . . . 716
108:11–12 C. Words of Divine Promise . . . . . . . . . . . 729
108:13–15 D. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 738

Index of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 745


Index of Names and Subjects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 828
Index of Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 851
Table Of Contents XIII

Foreword

The present book had its beginnings during a generous grant from the Alex-
ander von Humboldt Stiftung for sabbatical research in 1998 at the Evange-
lisch-Theologische Fakultät of the Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen,
where I was given given time and space to work by Prof. Hermann Lichten-
berger and his helpful staff, especially Monika Merkle and Marietta Häm-
merle. At that time and since, ongoing connections with Tübingen and Ger-
many have made further discussions of my work possible with Armin
Lange, Ulrike Mittmann-Richert, Gerbern Oegema, Jörg Frey, and Martin
Hengel. Another sabbatical, further supported by the Arts and Humanities
Research Council of the United Kingdom in 2004, made the most signifi-
cant work on this commentary possible. Several research terms at Durham
University enabled me to complete text-critical work, which included the
reading of manuscript fragments at the British Library and at the Dead Sea
Scrolls laboratory of the Israel Antiquities Authority in Jerusalem. Finally,
the last stages of this volume were completed in the course of a two-month
stay during the summer 2006 at Tantur Ecumenical Institute in Jerusalem,
where I was a Woods/Gumbel Fellow supported by The British Trust for the
Ecumenical Institute for Theologial Studies. While at Tantur, I benefited
from numerous conversations with Tantur staff and residents (especially
Fr. Michael McGarry, Bridget Tighe and David Burrell), as well as from
resources at Tantur, the National Library and École Biblique. I am grateful
for valuable discussions during this period with Doron Mendels, Michael
Stone, Daniel Schwartz, James Charlesworth, Hanan Eshel, Esther Eshel,
Jonathan Ben-Dov, Stephen Pfann and Claire Pfann.
In relation to the years in which this book has been in preparation, I am
grateful for discussions with other colleagues from whose expertise I have
learned on “Enochic matters”. Among the many scholars, I would like to
mention especially Hindy Najman, John Collins, George Nickelsburg, Karl-
Wilhelm Niebuhr, Michael Knibb, Philip Alexander, Joel Marcus, Gabriele
Boccaccini, Stefan Beyerle, Annette Yoshiko Reed, Eric Meyers, Daniel
Olson, Marcello Del Verme, James Aitkin, Lester Grabbe, Sylvie Honigman
and Eibert Tigchelaar.
I am fortunate to be in a collegial and academic setting at Durham Uni-
versity. My colleagues in the Department of Theology and Religion have
XIV Foreword

contributed to this book through discussions at research seminars (Seminar


for the Study of Judaism in Antiquity, New Testament Research Seminar),
coffees at Almshouses, pub lunches, and conversations on the street. In par-
ticular, I owe debts of gratitude to Robert Hayward and Stuart Weeks, with
whom consultation on this or that point has enriched and accompanied the
process of writing. I am also grateful for conversations on finer points with
John Barclay, Stephen Barton, Walter Moberly, William Telford, Robert
Song, Douglas Davies, and David Brown. Not least, I am indebted to the
Department’s secretarial staff – Anne Parker, Ellen Middleton and Margaret
Hendriksen – who have managed to create an ethos, despite their many re-
sponsibilities, that has made it easier for me to keep apace with my research
in Abbey House.
Finally, significant for this work have been a number of doctoral stu-
dents who have completed their research during the last several years or are
currently completing their research at Durham University. Each in their
own way has made academic life in the Department something for me
to look forward to: Jerry Truex, Michael Fuller, Ron Herms, Archie Wright,
Benjamin Wold, John Byron, Jin-Ho Ahn, Kim Papaioannou, Charlene
Moss, Brett Burrowes, Rosalyn Murphy, Matthias Hoffmann, Helen
Savage, Samantha Newington, Lara Guglielmo, Andrew Perry, Suzanne
Nicholson, Rodney Thomas, Sang-Il Lee, Matthew Scott and Naomi
Jacobs.
I would like to thank former staff at Walter de Gruyter, Hasko von Bassi
and Claus Jürgen Thornton, for their support at the earliest stages of re-
search and, now, Albrecht Döhnert and his staff (including Sabine Krämer
and Andreas Vollmer) at the publishing house for managing the difficulties
inheritent in the present work with such professionalism and commitment.
Lastly, words fail to express the debt I owe to my family for their patient
prodding and support. Not uncommonly, Enoch has become part of dinner
and living room conversations in which my children Hanno, Daniella
and Nathan have usually had plenty to say. Through the course of the last
several years my wife Lois and I have spoken almost endlessly about every
aspect of this book. It is to her that I lovingly dedicate this work.

Durham, UK
Passover Week, 2007
Table Of Contents XV

Note On Abbreviations

In the present volume, the abbreviations used normally follow those in


The SBL Handbook of Style: For Ancient Near Eastern, Biblical, and Early
Christian Studies (ed. Patrick H. Alexander, John F. Kutsko, James D.
Ernest, Shirley A. Decker-Lucke; Peabody, Massachusetts, 1999). Those
abbreviations not included in The SBL Handbook of Style are given in an
analogous form, while the Index of References provides in any case the full
titles of ancient writings that correspond to the abbreviations used.

Sigla

The following sigla are regularly employed in the Textual Notes of the com-
mentary:

< > within the brackets, an emended form or word from the manuscript

[ ] within the brackets, reconstructed text

* before Aramaic, Greek or Ethiopic text, signals a hypothetical retro-


version from one of the parallel texts
V
1

Chapter One

Introduction

The present volume offers a commentary on the final chapters (91–108) of


a work that is commonly referred to by the title 1 Enoch or Ethiopic
Enoch. Even a cursory read of this final section of 1 Enoch reveals that,
although written under the same pseudepigraphic name of the pre-dilu-
vian patriarch “Enoch”, these chapters do not always share the same
theological emphases, they are not all anchored in the same tradition-his-
torical setting, and thus, for the most part, they do not share the same
authorship. For this reason, I shall attempt to treat chapters 91–108 as
five independent literary units, doing so in the following order: Apoca-
lypse of Weeks (93:1–10; 91:11–17), Exhortation (91:1–10, 18–19),
Epistle (92:1–5; 93:11–105:2), Birth of Noah (106:1–107:3) and Escha-
tological Admonition (108:1–15).
Each of these works belonged to a group of compositions which received
and interpreted the earliest strands of the Enochic tradition preserved in
the Book of Watchers (1:1–36:4) and Astronomical Book (esp. 72:1–80:8;
82:4–20).1 Together with the first vision of the Book of Dreams
(83:1–84:6), the Animal Apocalypse (85:1–90:42) and early additions to
the Astronomical Book (81:1–82:4a), the materials preserved in chapters
91–107 were composed during the 2nd century BCE. Soon thereafter they
were edited into a collection of revelatory disclosures made by Enoch to his
son Methuselah (81:5–6; 82:1; 83:1; 85:1–3; 91:1–2; and 92:1; cf. 79:1;
106:1, 7 – 107:3). At a later point, probably during the latter part of the
1st century CE, chapter 108 was appended to the end of this collection, tak-
ing the form of a further disclosure by Enoch to Methuselah.
Since each of the literary units in 1 Enoch 91–108 is separately analysed
and introduced in this volume, the present Introduction shall focus on is-
sues that relate to the book as a whole. The discussion below thus provides
the following: (A) a brief overview of each section; (B) a reconstruction of
stages through which these writings passed in forming the Enochic collec-

1 Because of their reception in and influence on 1 En. 91–108, these writings shall be
collectively referred to in this commentary as “the early Enoch tradition”. To this
tradition we may arguably assign the Book of Giants.
2 Introduction

tion in its present form; and (C) a discussion of the Ethiopic manuscript
tradition which is alone in preserving all of the chapters covered by the
commentary. The Introduction concludes with a Bibliography (D) of all
works cited in the present volume.

A. Overview

The summary of writings in this section follows the sequence adopted in


this commentary. This sequence is to be distinguished (a) from the chro-
nological order in which they were composed (see introductions to each
work) and (b) from the order in which they were being integrated into the
growing corpus of Enoch tradition (see section B below).
A.1. Apocalypse of Weeks (93:1–10; 91:11–17). Together with the Ani-
mal Apocalypse (85:1–90:42), the Apocalypse of Weeks is the only part
of 1 Enoch which recounts a history of the world. More brief and probably
earlier than its Enochic counterpart, Apocalypse of Weeks is organised
around a ten-“week” scheme which, by implication, is further subdivided
into seven parts (cf. 93:3b; 91:15a), ultimately reflecting a periodisation
into seventy units. While the first seven weeks are concerned with events
known to the Enochic writer, the final three anticipate an eschatological
future during which the wicked will be punished and the righteous rewarded.
The history reaches a climax in the “seventh part” of the tenth week when,
after the destruction and punishment of evil, the “first heaven” is replaced
by a “new heaven”. This, in turn, is followed by “many weeks without
number”, a period of endless “goodness and righteousness” in which all
memory of sin will disappear.
A.2. Exhortation (91:1–10, 18–19). The Exhortation opens with the
most elaborate testament-like scene within 1 Enoch 91–108; the patriarch
not only speaks to Methuselah his son, but also asks him to summon all his
brothers in order that they too might receive his instruction. This brief sec-
tion contains a number of themes that occur in the preceding and following
sections of 1 Enoch. As such, it seems to function as a literary bridge, fol-
lowing on from 81:1–4 and presupposing the Epistle which its text is made
to anticipate (e.g. 92:1a Aram.; 92:1c; 94:1a – Enoch’s address to both
Methuselah and his other sons). In the main part of the Exhortation, the
readers are encouraged, by means of ethical contrasts, to adhere to righteous-
ness and to reject wrongdoing (91:3–4, 18–19). These admonitions, which
overlap thematically with the early part of the Epistle (92:3; 94:1–5), frame
a two-stage prediction of the future that draws heavily on the typology of
the Noahic flood (91:5–10): an increase of wrongdoing and its subsequent
Overview 3

punishment (91:5) will recur even more intensely in the eschatological fu-
ture when all unjust and idolatrous activities will be brought to an end and
the righteous will be rewarded as they rise from “sleep” (91:6–10; cf. Ep-
istle 92:3a and Birth of Noah 106:19–107:1). Both the testamentary setting
as communication to Methuselah (which includes a sustained address to
readers in the second person) and the anticipation of themes taken up in the
Epistle suggest that the Exhortation was specifically composed in order to
integrate the Epistle into the foregoing Enochic tradition. Once the
Exhortation served such a function, it became possible for its text to exert
an influence on the early part of the Epistle, so much so that it becomes dif-
ficult to determine which present wording originally preceded the other.2
A.3. Epistle (92:1–5; 93:11–105:2). When it was composed, this longest
section within 1 Enoch 91–108 introduced new form and content into the
Enoch tradition. In its extant form,3 the Epistle opens with words that are
consistent with a testamentary scenario (esp. Aram. to 92:1).4 After several
poetic sections which programmatically outline eschatological reward and
punishment (92:2–5), the unfathomable greatness and wisdom of God
(93:11–14) and the ways of righteousness and wrongdoing (94:1–5), the
main body of the work consists of three sections (or “discourses”) of vary-
ing length: (1) six series of woe-oracles against sinners reinforced by further
denunciations and interspersed with words of consolation for the righteous
(94:6–100:9); (2) an account of how creation as God’s agent renders the
sinners helpless (100:10–102:3); and (3) a discourse in which the writer
rejects and argues against false assertions regarding the fate of the righteous
who have died (102:4–104:8). Throughout these three sections, “the
sinners” are often described as socially elite, wealthy, idolators and as
propagators of false teaching; in stark contrast, the “righteous”, with
whom the writer identifies, are oppressed, without social influence and re-
cipients of revealed Enochic wisdom. Adopting a prophetic tone, the author
of the three discourses of the Epistle communicates more directly with his

2 Indeed, the patterning of eschatological events on the events surrounding Noah’s


flood seems to have influenced the redaction of the Birth of Noah at 106:17–107:1.
3 Concerning the debate around the literary growth of chapters 92–105, see the intro-
duction to the Epistle below.
4 Though the previously existing Enochic traditions may have already contained the
motif of Enoch communicating to Methuselah (Astron. Bk. at 79:1; cf. 4QEnastrb
26.6), it is not clear that the writer of the introduction to the Epistle was himself
drawing directly on such a framework (e.g. as found in the additional sections
to Astron. Bk. at 81:5–6 and 82:1 or, at least, in the Bk. of Dreams at 83:1 and
85:1–3).
4 Introduction

contemporaries than his Enochic predecessors, alternatively addressing the


wicked and the righteous in the second person plural in a fashion that seems
to break outside the bounds of the fictive Enochic testament. The conclusion
(104:9–105:2) not only returns to themes found in the opening of the
Epistle (esp. 92:1–5; 94:1–5) but also draws on and links up with several
ideas found in the central sections of the work (94:6–104:8).
A.4. Birth of Noah (106:1–107:3). This work is the earlier of two addi-
tions at the end of the Enochic corpus; it is already attested in the 4QEnc
manuscript of the Dead Sea Scrolls in which it immediately follows the
conclusion to the Epistle. Despite its interest in Noah’s mature and angelic
appearance at birth – which would imply the function of Noah as a divine
agent – the work ultimately draws on several etymological explanations of
Noah’s name in order to focus on the promise of salvation to the righteous
during the time of increasing evil penultimate to the eschaton. Chapters
106–107 derive from an originally independent narrative about Noah (cf.
Genesis Apocryphon), but were edited in two ways as they were were inte-
grated into their present Enochic context: unlike the earlier tradition from
which it was taken, (1) the story has been reshaped as told from the per-
spective of Enoch (106:1, 8–9, 13; cf. 107:1), and (2) the depiction
of the Noahic flood as a type for eschatological judgement and salvation
(106:13b–17; 106:19–107:1) is modelled on the pattern found in the Ex-
hortation at 91:5–10.
A.5. Eschatological Admonition (108:1–15). This second appendix and
conclusion to 1 Enoch is only attested in the Ethiopic tradition. Patterned
after the preceding Enochic works as a revelation disclosed by Enoch to
Methuselah, the work is directed at the real author’s pious contemporaries
who “keep the law in the last days” (108:1). These addressees, who in the
text are said to experience poverty and undergo persecution and social
hardship, are reassured through a vision (108:4–5) and instruction
(108:6–15) that they, as a “generation of light” (108:11a; cf. 108:12a, 13a,
14), will be rewarded for their faithfulness. By contrast, the sinners
who have subjected them to ridicule (108:7, 10) and who misinterpret “the
prophets” (108:6) will be taken into the “darkness” for which they have
been destined (108:14–15).
1 Enoch 91–108 and Stages of Literary Growth 5

B. 1 Enoch 91–108 and Stages of Literary Growth

The authors of the compositions included in chapters 91–108 knew and


drew on a core of pre-existing Enochic traditions. Known to all of them
was the Book of Watchers (1:1–36:4, perhaps including 81:1–45); in addi-
tion, they were probably aware of the core of the Astronomical Book
(i.e. 72:1–80:8; 82:4b–20), though they seem to have used this work less di-
rectly. On the other hand, there is very little evidence to support the notion
that these authors received and were influenced by material from both parts
of the Book of Dreams, that is, the first vision (83:1–84:6) and Animal
Apocalypse (85:1–90:42).
Hardly anyone would dispute that the reception of the earlier Enoch
sources (esp. of Book of Watchers) in all parts of chapters 91–108 was the
major factor that linked and brought them together into a literary unit with
an underlying thematic structure organised around the figure of Enoch.
This recognition, however, does not resolve the related questions of how the
five major parts of chapters 91–108 came to be integrated into an Enoch
corpus and in what stages they became linked to one another. Drawing on
clues from the text traditions and in conversation with the recent work of
George Nickelsburg, the present discussion shall offer a hypothesis that
sketches literary stages which led to the text in its present (Ethiopic) form.
B.1. Independent Compositions. Before chapters 91–108 grew into
their present shape, a number of Enochic works had been composed and
were being transmitted independently before and during the early part of
the 2nd century BCE. In relation to this question, it is important in principle
to distinguish between the dates of composition, the dates of the manu-
scripts that preserve them, and the dates of early redaction and literary his-
tories.6 These early Enochic works are listed below, together with their
chapter and verse numbers based on the Ethiopic tradition and, where rel-
evant, with a listing of Aramaic Dead Sea manuscripts along with the dates
assigned them by Josef Milik:

5 Though appearing within the Ethiopic tradition of the Astronomical Book, the re-
spective contents of 81:1–4 and 81:5–82:3 suggest an origin from other sources; see
the discussion in this section below. Regarding the status of 81:1–4 as belonging to
the conclusion of the Book of Watchers, see Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, pp. 22–24 and
334–36.
6 Though the earliest ms. evidence may provide some clues, it cannot be expected to
solve prior stages of literary development.
6 Introduction

Book of Watchers (1:1–36:47; 81:1–4?) –


4QEna (=4Q201, first half of 2nd cent. BCE8);
4QEnb (=4Q202, mid-2nd cent. BCE9);
4QEnc (=4Q204, last third of 1st cent. BCE10);
4QEnd (=4Q205, dated as 4Q20411); and
4QEne (=4Q206; first half of 1st cent. BCE12).
See also XQpapEnoch (mid-2nd cent. BCE13).
Astronomical Book (72:1–80:8; 82:4b–20) –
4QEnastra (=4Q208, end of 3rd or early 2nd cent. BCE14);

7 The work itself consists of different sources, at least, behind ch.’s 1–5, 6–11, 12–16,
17–19 and 20–36; see Dimant, “The Biography of Enoch and the Books of Enoch”,
VT 33 (1983), pp. 16–17 and Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, pp. 22 and 132. The present
discussion, however, begins with a stage during which these sections and the tradi-
tions behind them had already been integrated.
8 Milik, The Books of Enoch, p. 140. Significantly, the copyist errors in this ms. dem-
onstrate it as a copy of a much older archetype which Milik dates to the “third
century at the very least” (The Books of Enoch, p. 141). For a treatment of these
materials, see The Books of Enoch, pp. 139–63 (Plates I–IV) and Stuckenbruck,
“4Q201 2–8”, DJD 36, pp. 3–7 (Plate I). The ms. frgt.’s published by Milik corre-
spond to 1:1–6 (col. i); 2:1–5:6 (col. ii); 6:4–8:1 (col. iii); 8:3–9:3, 6–8 (col. iv);
10:3–4 (col. v); 10:21–11:1; and 12:4–6 (col. vi); and those published by Stucken-
bruck relate possibly to 10:16 (frg. 2) and 13:8 (frg. 6).
9 Milik, The Books of Enoch, p. 164. The more legible of the 35 frgt.’s can be placed
in ch.’s 5–10 and 14; on the ms. as a whole, see The Books of Enoch, pp. 164–78
(Plates VI–IX).
10 Milik, The Books of Enoch, pp. 178–79. For whole ms., see The Books of Enoch,
pp. 178–217 (Plates IX-XV); 14 of the 24 frgt.’s correspond with material from ch.’s
1–6, 10, 13–15, 18, 31–32, and 35–36.
11 Milik, The Books of Enoch, p. 217 (cf. also p. 5); for the 8 frgt.’s, which relate to ch.’s
22 and 25–27, see The Books of Enoch, pp. 217–25 (Plates XVI–XVII).
12 Milik, The Books of Enoch, p. 225. For the publication of the ms., see The Books of
Enoch, pp. 225–44 (Plates XVIII–XXI); 7 of the 17 frgt.’s of this ms. relate to ch.’s
20–22, 28–29, and 31–34.
13 See the discussion of the frg., which corresponds to 8:4–9:3, by Esther Eshel and Hanan
Eshel, “A New Fragment of the Book of Watchers from Qumran (XQpapEnoch)”, Tar-
biz 73 (2004), pp. 171–79 (mod. Heb.) and “New Fragments from Qumran: 4QGenf,
4QIsab, 4Q226, 8QGen, and XQpapEnoch”, DSD 12 (2005), pp. 134–57.
14 Milik, The Books of Enoch, p. 273; on the date, see also Greg Doudna, “Dating the
Scrolls on the Basis of Radiocarbon Analysis”, in eds. Peter W. Flint and James C. Van-
derKam, The Dead Sea Scrolls After Fifty Years (2 vols.; Leiden: Brill, 1998–1999),
2.470: 167–153 BCE. The 37 frgt.’s of the ms. are published by Eibert J. C. Tigche-
laar, “208. 4QAstronomical Enocha ar”, DJD 36, pp. 104–131 (Plates III–IV). The
ms. has no direct textual correspondence with Eth. Astron. Bk., though Milik has
1 Enoch 91–108 and Stages of Literary Growth 7

4QEnastrb (=4Q209, turn of Common Era15);


4QEnastrc (=4Q210, mid-1st cent. BCE16); and
4QEnastrd (=4Q211, second half of 1st cent. BCE17).
Apocalypse of Weeks (93:1–10; 91:11–17) –
4QEng (=4Q212, mid-1st cent. BCE18).
Epistle of Enoch A (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–5; 104:9–105:2) –
4QEnc (see under Bk. of Watchers19) and
4QEng (see under Apoc. Weeks20).
Epistle of Enoch B (94:6–104:8) –
Not attested among the Qumran Aramaic manuscripts, though some
scholars have claimed that small pieces relating to chapters 100, 103
and 105 are preserved in Greek fragments from Cave 7.21

noted overlaps between its lengthy description of a synchronistic calendar and


73:1–74:9 or perhaps only in 74:3–9 (The Books of Enoch, pp. 274–75.
15 The 41 frgt.’s include material corresponding to 76–79, 82 and possibly 74(?); see the
publication by Eibert J. C. Tigchelaar, “209. 4QAstronomical Enochb ar”, DJD 36,
pp. 104–131 (Plates V-VII) and discussion in Milik, The Books of Enoch, pp. 274,
287–89, and 293–96 (Plates XXV-XXVII, XXX).
16 Milik, The Books of Enoch, p. 274. 5 frgt.’s belonging to ch.’s 76 and 78; see Milik,
The Books of Enoch, pp. 287–88 and 292 (Plates XXVIII).
17 One frg. of missing text on three cols. that would have come after 82:20; see Milik,
The Books of Enoch, pp. 296–97 (Plate XXIX).
18 So Milik, The Books of Enoch, p. 246; Frank Moore Cross, “The Development of the
Jewish Scripts”, p. 149 (fig. 4, line 5), suggests 50–1 BCE. For this document, the ms.
contains text from 93:1–4, 9–10; and 91:11–17.
19 See bibl. in n. 10; 9 of the 24 frgt.’s correspond to text from 104:13–107:2.
20 See bibl. in n. 18; the Epistle is preserved for parts of text belonging to 92:1–5 and
94:1–2 and 5.
21 See G.-Wilhelm Nebe, “Möglichkeit und Grenze einer Identifikation”, RevQ 13
(1988), pp. 629–33: 7Q4 1 = 1 En. 103:3–4; 7Q4 2 = 1 En. 98:11; and possibly 7Q8
= 1 En. 103:7–8. Since then, further identifications have been proposed. See Émile
Puech, “Notes sur les fragments grecs du manuscript 7Q4 1 = 1 Henoch 103 et 105”,
RB 103 (1996), pp. 592–600 and “Sept fragments de la Lettre d’Hénoch (I Hén 100,
103 et 105) dans la grotte 7 de Qumrân (=7QHén gr)”, RevQ 19 (1997–1998),
pp. 313–23: 7Q11 = 1 En. 100:12; 7Q13 = 1 En. 103:15; 7Q14 = 1 En. 103:3–8. Fin-
ally, see Ernest A. Muro, “The Greek Fragments of Enoch from Qumran Cave 7
(7Q4, 7Q8, & 7Q12 = 7QEn gr = Enoch 103:3–4,7–8”, RevQ 18 (1997),
pp. 307–312, for whom 7Q4 1, 7Q8 and 7Q12 = 1 En. 103:3–4 and 7–8, respec-
tively. Peter Flint uses the proposed identifications with the Epistle in order to reject
proposals made by others that 7Q fragments preserve portions of the New Testament
gospels; see Flint, “That’s No Gospel, It’s Enoch! Identification of the Dead Sea
Scrolls Challenged”, Bible Review 19 (2003), pp. 37–40 and 52 and “The Greek
Fragments of Enoch from Qumran Cave 7”, in ed. Gabriele Boccaccini, Enoch and
8 Introduction

B.2. A Growing Collection of Enochic Writings. These free-standing


works22, not initially collected together,23 may have been combined along
the following lines:
B.2.a. The oldest of the known writings attributed to Enoch were the As-
tronomical Book and Book of Watchers, both of which date at least into the
3rd century BCE. As the earliest textual witnesses among the Dead Sea docu-
ments show, these writings circulated in a form that differed variously from
the text-forms in which they would eventually be received in the Ethiopic
tradition. The Astronomical Book was being preserved in a recension that
was both longer and contained material not included in 1 Enoch 72:1–80:8 +
82:4b–20.24 The Book of Watchers, itself the product of a compilation of
Enochic and other (Noahic) traditions,25 was extant in a recension in 4QEna
that differed from the recension known through other Aramaic copies and
the other later versions.26 We can observe, however, that at this early stage,
these Enochic compositions overlapped to some extent with one another in

Qumran Origins (Grand Rapids and Cambridge: Eerdmans and Cambridge Univer-
sity Press, 2005), pp. 224–33 (esp. 229–32). The strongest evidence in the analysis
seems to be the association of the fragments 7Q4–8–12, as this is based not so much on
the text preserved, but on the alignment of the papyrus fibres made by Muro. While
the association is plausible, the textual identification remains weak and highly specu-
lative. Regarding the continuing uncertainty of identification, see Nickelsburg, “The
Greek Fragments of 1 Enoch from Qumran Cave 7: An Unproven Identification”,
RevQ 84 (2004), pp. 631–34, and the Textual Notes below on 103:3–4 and 103:5–6.
22 Not all the works were originally “independent” or “free-standing” in the same way.
For example, whereas the Apoc. of Weeks and Epistle (both A and B) may have been
independent compositions subsequently brought together, the Exhortation seems to
have been specifically composed with earlier and subsequent parts of the growing
Enochic collection in view.
23 The present discussion does not attempt to account for the Similitudes in ch.’s 37–71
since there is no evidence for it among the Dead Sea manuscripts nor is there anything
amongst the other parts of 1 En. which reflects its influence in any apparent way.
24 See the initial discussion by Milik, The Books of Enoch, pp. 274, 287–8, 292 + Pls.
XXIII and XXX (4Q210 = 4QEnastrc), 274, 296–7 + Pl. XXIX (4Q211 = 4QEnastrd)
and the full publication and discussion of 4Q208–209 by E. J. C. Tigchelaar and
F. García Martínez, “4Q208–209. 4QAstronomical Enocha-b ar: Introduction,”
“4Q208. 4QAstronomical Enocha ar (Pls. III–IV),” and “4Q209. 4QAstronomical
Enochb ar (Pls. V-VII),” in DJD 36, pp. 95–103, 104–131, 132–71.
25 This is to say nothing about the process through which the Bk. of Watchers took
shape into its present form. The view taken here is that, early on, the Apoc. of Weeks,
Epistle (esp. B) and Anim. Apoc. all received the Bk. of Watchers in a form that in-
cluded all 36 chapters.
26 See Stuckenbruck, “4Q201 2–8. 4QEnocha (Pl. I),” DJD 36, pp. 3–7.
1 Enoch 91–108 and Stages of Literary Growth 9

form (disclosure of cosmos through angelic beings; in Book of Watchers,


ch.’s 17–36) and content (interest in heavenly luminaries and meteorological
phenomena; cf. ch.’s 17–19, 33–36, 72–80 and 82:4b–20). Despite these for-
mal and ideological associations, there is no codicological evidence amongst
the Dead Sea documents that these two works were being copied together.27
B.2.b. Three further independent strands of Enochic tradition, while
composed after the Book of Watchers and Astronomical Book, probably go
back to the pre-Maccabean period. They are (i) the Apocalypse of Weeks,
(ii) several somewhat disparate fragments which lie behind the introduction
and conclusion of the Epistle A (cf. 92:1–5; 93:11–94:5; 104:9–105:2), and
(iii) the main body of the Epistle B (94:6–104:8, perhaps preceded by an
opening now lost). Though they derive from independent authorial activity
which in each case reflects a different reception of the earlier Enochic tradi-
tion, these materials shared with one another a basic interest in establishing
Enochic “wisdom” (93:10; 98:3; 99:10) as revelation disclosed through
heavenly writings or “tablets” (93:2; 103:2; 104:9–13).
Before the Maccabean revolt, therefore, a number of Enochic writings
and traditions were in circulation. While they were related to one another
through their interest in the patriarch, it is not clear to what extent they
were beginning to be compiled into a running narrative. It is possible that
the Apocalypse of Weeks, however, was originally assimilated into the Eno-
chic tradition with the Book of Watchers in mind, before it was collected
alongside the Epistle and the Exhortation (see Introduction to Apoc. of
Weeks, section A.2).
B.2.c. The independent, yet complementary, Apocalypse of Weeks and
Epistle A and B were soon welded together. This amalgamation was not
seamless and betrays a process in which not all the original traditions of
Epistle A and B survived intact. In the combination that emerged, the
Apocalypse was encased within Epistle A (i.e. in predecessors to 4QEng)
which, in turn, was edited in several places in order to function as a bridge to
the lengthier text of Epistle B: (i) The superscription and introduction to the
Epistle (92:1–5) underwent a first process of editing as it was made to serve
as the opening for this new arrangement (compare e.g. v. 5 with 91:17).28

27 Milik, The Books of Enoch, p. 8, regards the extensiveness of the Astron. Bk. (sig-
nificantly longer than that of the Eth. version) as the reason why it was not included
with Bk. of Watchers in any of the Qumran mss. On the status of the Book of Giants
in relation to the early Enoch tradition, see section B.2.e below.
28 At this stage, as implied in section b above, the precise content of 92:1–5 was unlikely
to have been the same as it now exists. The text would continue to undergo editing
with the addition of the Exhortation (see d below).
10 Introduction

The result, however, remained awkward, with superscriptions to two works


standing almost side by side in 92:1 and 93:1–2, respectively. This inte-
gration of Apocalypse and Epistle also occasioned the editing and addition
of further material: (ii) The passage 93:11–14 from Epistle A, originally
from a longer text, was now placed immediately after the conclusion of the
Apocalypse (4QEng); in this position, it reflects profoundly on the privilege
the righteous community has in receiving the wisdom uniquely disclosed
to Enoch. As such, it functioned as a bridge between the climactic reference
in the Apocalypse to the wisdom given to the elect community (93:10) and
the disclosure of Enochic revelation to “the righteous and the wise” in
Epistle A (104:9–13; cf. also Epistle B at 99:10). (iii) At this stage the orig-
inal material behind 105:1–2 (Epistle A) and 100:6 (Epistle B) may have
been adjusted to include the universalising motif in Apocalypse 91:14.
B.2.d. The affinity of the Apocalypse and Epistle with the received
Enoch tradition, especially Book of Watchers (less so, the Astron. Book,
except for 79:1; cf. below), led to an attempt to piece together a running
collection of Enochic works. This was accomplished by an expansion
which – inspired by the mention of “heavenly tablets” and “writings” in
93:2, 103:2 and 104:9–13 – provided a narrative originally not part of the
Book of Watchers29: the presentation of Enoch’s revelation as a communi-
cation made to his son Methuselah. This scenario was built on a form al-
ready implied in the Astronomical Book at 79:1 (cf. 4QEnastrb 26.6).
The chief links between the later and earlier Enochic traditions were
forged through two sets of additional material, respectively, from
81:1–82:4a and the Exhortation in 91:1–10, 18–19. The material in
81:1–82:4a30 tells of Enoch’s return to earth for one year to communicate
with Methuselah and his children, while the Exhortation in 91:1–10, 18–19
conveys the patriarch’s two-ways admonition and prediction of future
events as a communication to a gathering of Methuselah and his brothers.
These links, in turn, led to further revision of 92:1–5 and 94:1–5 which, in
their evolving form, began to accommodate the presence of the Exhortation
in the collection. It is here, one may begin to speak of a “testamentary”
framework for the Enoch tradition (see section B.2 below).

29 As the Apoc. of Weeks (93:1–2), the Bk. of Watchers is formulated as instruction to


generations remote to Enoch (1:1–2).
30 It is not clear whether or not this section would have included the material in 81:5b
(perhaps an allusion to Gen. 6:3 which may be reminiscent of Rom. 3:20) and 81:7–8
(which seems to contrast with the Enochic theme of ultimate conversion in 10:21;
91:14; 105:1).
1 Enoch 91–108 and Stages of Literary Growth 11

The way the Apocalypse of Weeks, Epistle of Enoch and Exhortation


are combined shows an interdependence that makes it difficult to argue for
chronological priority of the received text form of one part over the other.
This is especially the case in the connecting seam at 91:10–11 (between
Exhortation and Apoc. of Weeks) and sections which underwent reformu-
lation when combinations of works were made (92:1–5; 93:1–2; 94:1–5).
This interlinking, which cannot easily be described in terms of a unilinear
development, is best explained if one posits the production of these works
within the same Enochic community. The differences, however, between
these writings and those composed at the earliest stages of the tradition (see
B.2.a above) make the sociological continuity – unless a considerable lapse
of time between them may be posited – more difficult to assume.
B.2.e. During the 2nd or perhaps even 1st century BCE, further additions
of independent Enoch traditions to the growing collection were made, mod-
elled on different forms of Enochic communication to Methuselah. The best
evidence for this is attested in 4QEnc.31 The additions from this period
would have included the visions in the Book of Dreams: chapters 83–84,
which may have been influenced by the Exhortation 91:5–9; and chapters
85–90 (Anim. Apoc.), which may have developed out of the claim in 81:2
that Enoch saw “all the deeds of humanity” on earth. Both of these dream
visions are presented as revelatory disclosures to Methuselah which Enoch
remembers he had received when he was a young man (83:1–2 and 85:1–3,
respectively), as he was learning to write and before he took a wife.
It is also sometime during this stage that the Birth of Noah in chapters
106–107 was added, as it too occurs in 4QEnc where it occupies a position

31 4QEnc preserves text from Anim. Apoc. and, through a related (or perhaps even the
same) manuscript labelled 4QEnGiantsa (=4Q204), from text in two fragments (no.’s 9
and 10) that resembles the first vision of Book of Dreams at 84:2–4. Nickelsburg
(1 Enoch 1, pp. 24; cf. pp. 352–53) does not seem aware of this overlap and maintains
that no part of the first vision in ch.’s 83–84 is preserved among the Dead Sea materi-
als. From this he draws the conclusion that these chapters were later additions that
presuppose not only material from the Book of Watchers (generally the flood-escha-
tological judgement typology in ch. 10 and specifically 1:6–7, 2:1–2) but also perhaps
even later parts of the corpus (an archetype of ch.’s 106–107 and of ch. 65). Ch.’s
83–84, however, may also be related to the flood typology found in the Exhortation
(cf. 91:5–9) and Birth of Noah (cf. 106:16–107:1). If 4Q203 and 4Q204 come from
the same manuscript – this matter is also subject to debate – then the similarities
between 4QEnGiantsa 9 and 10 and 84:2–4 suggest that the association of both
fragments with the Book of Giants cannot be assured; for the view that identifies
them directly as text from ch. 84, see Knibb, The Ethiopic Book of Enoch, 1.10 and
193–95.
12 Introduction

at the very end of the manuscript.32 Though Birth of Noah involves instruc-
tion by Enoch to Methuselah, unlike the other parts of the early Enochic
tradition (81:5–6; 82:1–2a; 83:1–2; 85:1–2; 91:1–2; 92:1 Aram.; cf. 108:1),
it does not take a form that is compatible with a testamentary setting, but
rather focuses on a journey by Methuselah to Enoch’s abode “with the an-
gels … at the ends of the earth” (106:7–8). This narrative location for the
patriarch’s instruction, which is linked to Methuselah’s consultation of
Enoch in a Noahic tradition (cf. Genesis Apocryphon at 1QapGen cols. ii-v)
and is paralleled by a giant’s visit to Enoch in Book of Giants (4Q530 2 ii +
6–7 i + 8–12, 21–24 – 7 ii 3–11), presupposes a pre-testamentary setting,
that is, a time before the patriarch returned to give final instructions to his
progeny and not a time after his more permanent departure.33 Formally,
then, Birth of Noah may be regarded as an early appendix to the core of Eno-
chic tradition.34 Nevertheless, the text traditions in which chapters 106–107
have been received (Aram., Grk., Eth.) betray an editorial attempt to adjust
the story to its acquired literary setting: formerly a story told by Lamech (cf.
Gen. Apoc.), it is now narrated by Enoch in the first person and draws on a
two-stage flood typology that resembles that of the Exhortation (91:5–9).
Less clear in relation to the developing Enochic collection is the status
of the Book of Giants. On the one hand, its affinities with the Enochic tradi-
tion are unmistakable. Along with the other Enochic works mentioned
above, it reflects the influence of traditions in the Book of Watchers,35 es-
pecially given its emphasis on the gargantuan progeny of the rebellious
angels and its typological use of the Noahic flood to describe eschatological
judgement. In addition, it remains possible that one of its copies amongst the
Dead Sea Scrolls (4Q204) belonged to the same manuscript that contained
other Enochic works (4QEnGiantsa = 4Q203).36 On the other hand, unlike

32 So also the Grk. Chester Beatty papyrus for which ch.’s 106–107 serve as a conclusion,
included as part of the “Epistle of Enoch” in the subscription following 107:3.
33 The references in Gen. 5:22 and 24 to Enoch’s walking “with God”, which have been
interpreted in the Enoch tradition as the patriarch’s interaction with angels (taking
the ambiguous ,yhvlX as angelic beings), are placed within Enoch’s lifetime, that is,
before the time when “God took him” (5:24).
34 This is implied by the extra space in 4QEnc between the final line of the Epistle and
the first line of Birth of Noah; cf. 4QEnc 5 i 23 and 24, respectively.
35 On this, see Stuckenbruck, The Book of Giants, pp. 24–25.
36 Though this point in itself cannot be verified, it is very likely that the copyist of
4Q203 and 4Q204 was the same. Concerning the problem, see e.g. Greenfield and
Stone, “The Enochic Pentateuch and the Date of the Similitudes”, HTR 70 (1977),
p. 54; Dimant, “The Biography of Enoch and the Books of Enoch”, pp. 16–17; and
Stuckenbruck, “203. 4QEnochGiantsa ar”, DJD 36, pp. 8–10.
1 Enoch 91–108 and Stages of Literary Growth 13

all the works which comprise 1 Enoch (including Birth of Noah, Eschat.
Admon. and the later Sim.), the Book of Giants is not an Enochic pseudepi-
graphon and so does not fit into the genetic growth of Enoch traditions
being traced here. At the same time, this book was circulating alongside the
other Enochic compositions and may thus be said to belong to the early Eno-
chic tradition that contributed to the ideological framework within which
the later traditions took shape; at least by the time 4QEnc was copied, its
place within Enochic tradition was being recognised,37 a development that
may have run parallel to the inclusion of Birth of Noah within the collection.
B.2.f. Finally, the Eschatological Admonition in chapter 108 was
appended to its Enochic forerunners. Since there is no evidence for the work
in either the Aramaic or Greek textual traditions within the Enochic tradi-
tion (the extant Aram. in 4QEnc and Grk. in the Chester Beatty papyrus con-
clude with Birth of Noah) and since this addition is only attested (and
throughout) among Ethiopic manuscripts, its inclusion should be considered
a later development38 analogous to, though ideologically distinguishable
from, the addition to the collection of the Similitudes in chapters 37–71.

Admittedly, the evolution of Enoch compositions and traditions outlined


above, though beginning with the evidence among the Aramaic manuscripts
from the Dead Sea, has followed a trajectory that led to the collection of
chapters 1–108 that is (only) preserved in the Ethiopic tradition. It should
not be forgotten, however, that manuscript traditions in an intermediate
stage – especially the Greek Codex Panopolitanus (5th –6th cent. CE: two
partly overlapping texts of the Book of Watchers, 1:1–32:6a) and the
Chester Beatty-Michigan Papyrus (4th cent. CE: text from Epistle of Enoch
and Birth of Noah, 97:6–107:3) – demonstrate that sections of the Enoch
corpus were being circulated as separate units39 that may no longer have
reflected patterns stemming from earlier stages of literary combination.40

37 This may at least be true by the 4th cent. C.E., if Milik’s argument that in his Chro-
nography Syncellus cited the Bk. of Giants as the last of Enochic quotations bor-
rowed from the earlier Chonicles of Panodorus or Annianus; cf. Milik, The Books of
Enoch, pp. 58, 319–20.
38 See section E in the introduction to Eschat. Admon. below.
39 See Annette Yoshiko Reed, “The Textual Identity, Literary History, and Social Setting
of 1 Enoch”, ArchRel 5 (2003), p. 289.
40 Therefore I hesitate to argue with Yoshiko Reed (“The Textual Identity, Literary His-
tory, and Social Setting of 1 Enoch”, p. 289) that a ms. as late as the Chester Beatty
papyrus casts “doubt upon N.’s theory that the Epistle of Enoch did not originate
[italics mine] as a document discrete from the Book of the Watchers”.
14 Introduction

These materials suggest that we distinguish between the way in which the
Enoch tradition was transmitted during its early formative stages and the
forms in which it could be transmitted in Greek several hundred years later.
In addition, they imply what we already encounter in the Dead Sea manu-
scripts themselves: (1) in antiquity the early Enochic traditions were initially
being and continued to be copied and encountered in a variety of forms,
whether as isolatable literary units (4QEna,b?; XQpapEnoch?) or in differ-
ent combinations (cf. also 4QEnc, 4QEnd, 4QEne, 4QEng); and (2) some
Enochic traditions in the Dead Sea documents not taken up into Ethiopic
Enoch may have been copied alongside those that were taken up (possibly,
though not certainly, Bk. of Giants in 4Q203; cf. also 1Q19) or, alternatively,
were being transmitted independently of an Enochic collection (possibly
Bk. of Giants mss. e.g. 1Q23–24, 4Q530–532, 6Q8; even Astron. Bk.).

B.2. 1 Enoch 91–105 + Appendices in 106–107 and 108: Fifth Part of an


“Enochic Pentateuch” or Variations on a Growing Testamentary Frame-
work? The first option of this question has been argued by Milik, who took
as his point of departure the partition of 1 Enoch into five main works held
by a number of scholars before him.41 Going further than this, however, he
took up the hypothesis of G. H. Dix42 that 1 Enoch was a “pentateuchal
collection” which represented an Enochic counterpart to “the Mosaic Pen-
tateuch”.43 Such a five-fold collection, he maintained, was already being
put into circulation around 100 BCE,44 that is, in a precursor to 4QEnc
(which – if one allows for the lengthy Astron. Bk. to have been copied in
a separate scroll – included Bk. of Watchers, Bk. of Giants [as for him
4Q203=4Q204], Anim. Apoc., and Epistle). Within this scheme, the
Epistle, according to Milik, would have been “a fifth Book of Enoch, com-

41 Esp. Dillmann, Das Buch Henoch, pp. i-v; Flemming and Radermacher, Das Buch
Henoch; and Charles, The Book of Enoch, pp. xlvi–lii; cf. Schürer, History, III.1,
pp. 250–56. Until Charles’ discussion a wide variety of hypotheses were being dis-
cussed during the 19th century. One widespread view was the partition (e.g. by Ewald,
Herzog, Hausrath, Schodde, Schürer, Stanton, Baldensperger, Deane, Cheyne) of
1 Enoch into three independent works: (1) a Grundschrift (ch.’s 1–36, 72–105);
(2) the Similitudes (ch.’s 37–71); and (3) Noahic additions (esp. material in ch.’s 6–11,
64–69 and 106–107). Martin, Le Livre d’Hénoch, pp. lxii–lxxxviii and Charles, The
Book of Enoch, pp. xxx–xlvi provide summaries of the 19th cent. scholarly discussion
which take into account the variety of critical investigations.
42 “The Enochic Pentateuch”, JTS 9 (1925), pp. 29–42.
43 Milik, The Books of Enoch, pp. 4, 22, 54–58, 76–78, 109–10, 183–85, 227, 310.
44 Milik, The Books of Enoch, p. 184.
1 Enoch 91–108 and Stages of Literary Growth 15

pleting the four existing books (α ββλοι μοψ, 104:12) in the same way
that Deuteronomy completes the four other books of the Mosaic Penta-
teuch.”45 Support for this overarching structure for 1 Enoch during the
Second Temple period is disputed by a number of scholars who have em-
phasized the complicated nature of the Aramaic Enochic materials.46 In
addition, the sketch above of the literary development leading to 1 Enoch
91–108 (section B.2) suggests that additions to the collection did not occur
early on along the lines of five essentially distinguishable books.
More recently, Nickelsburg has stressed the development of 1 Enoch less
as a growing corpus of separate books than as growth around a single book
that soon became testamentary in its accumulated form. While during
the second century BCE the material had become “a full-blown Enochic tes-
tament”, consisting of chapters 1–36 + 81:1–82:4a + 91 + at least some
parts of the Epistle, Nickelsburg argues that even at its very early stages the
tradition may well have already contained “testamentary material”
(esp. 81:5–82:3, 91, 94, 104–105) to which chapters 1–5 were then added
as an introduction.47 He reasons further that “[t]here is no real proof … for
Milik’s claim that 4QEna (4Q201) and 4QEnb (4Q202) contained only the
Book of the Watchers”, that is, that they contained only chapters 1–36; nor
does 4QEng (4Q212) prove that the manuscript began at 91:1 (and not with
the Book of Watchers).”48 The main problem with this hypothesis is that it
is built around arguments from silence regarding three manuscripts: 4QEna
(4Q201), 4QEnb (4Q202) and 4QEng (4Q212), on dates of which see section
B.1 above. Moreover, if chapters 1–5 were added as an introduction with tes-
tamentary material in mind, it is curious that, for all the allusions in them to
Deuteronomy 33, they do not actually open with a testamentary scenario.49

45 Milik, The Books of Enoch, pp. 54 and 183–84; cf. Dix, “The Enochic Pentateuch”, p. 31.
46 So Greenfield and Stone, “The Enochic Pentateuch and the Date of the Similitudes”,
pp. 52–55; Dimant, “The Biography of Enoch and the Books of Enoch”, pp. 15–19;
and Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, pp. 21–22. On further codicological implications of
Milik’s construal of the Dead Sea materials, see Stuckenbruck, “The Early Traditions
Related to 1 Enoch from the Dead Sea Scrolls: An Overview and Assessment”, in eds.
Gabriele Boccaccini and John J. Collins, The Early Enoch Literature (Leiden: Brill,
2007), pp. 41–63.
47 See Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, pp. 22, 25, 132, and 335–37 for the views being sum-
marised here.
48 Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, pp. 25–26.
49 See Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 25 and “Response on the Commentary on 1 Enoch”,
in eds. Jacob Neusner and Alan J. Avery-Peck, George Nickelsburg in Perspective. An
Ongoing Dialogue in Learning (2 vols.; Supplements to JSJ, 80; Leiden and Boston:
Brill, 2003), 2.417.
16 Introduction

Furthermore, the notion of “testament”, if understood as a literary genre, is


surely misleading. In a strict sense, this label refers to a death-bed scene – as
in Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs or Testament of Job – rather than
simply to a departure.50 Thus Nickelsburg’s interest in describing the over-
arching structure of 1 Enoch 1–36, 81:1–82:4 and 91–105 as “a testamen-
tary collection” is overstated. Instead, it seems best to maintain that the
“testamentary” element developed as the compilers attempted to find a lit-
erary or narrative rationale for the additions they were making.
Nickelsburg’s literary analysis, nonetheless, commends itself in a
number of ways and has contributed to the reconstruction offered above
(section B.2). The reservations just expressed, however, have led me to post-
pone the accruement of “testamentary” or “testament-like” scenes in
81:5–82:3, 91:1–3 and 94:1 to a later stage of literary growth (i.e. stage d
above), that is, a stage that is subsequent to the time when the Book of
Watchers had acquired its present form. Thus, while the Book of Watchers
itself never acquired a testamentary shape, the traditions that emerged
thereafter (stage b) did develop in this direction once they were being com-
piled alongside it.

C. 1 Enoch 91–108: The Ethiopic Version

The present section focuses on the classical Ethiopic (Ge‘ez) version as it is


the only one which covers the entirety of 1 Enoch 91–108. While detailed
discussions of the other versions (Aramaic, Greek, Coptic) are reserved
for the separate introductions to the individual works, I shall outline here
the rationale which has guided the presentation and analysis of the different
versions in relation to one another (C.1) before describing the text-critical
principles that underlie my attempt to establish an Ethiopic textual basis
underlying the translation (C.2). Finally, I outline the way evidence from the
other versions has been negotiated with the Ethiopic evidence in the Textual
Notes (C.3).

C.1. The Text-Basis for This Commentary. The present commentary takes
its point of departure in the Ethiopic text tradition due to the running text it
preserves for essentially all parts of chapters 91–108. Thus the lemmas at
the start of each of the Notes offer translations of the best reconstructable

50 Cf. Collins, “An Enochic Testament? Comments on George Nickelsburg’s Hermeneia


Commentary”, in George Nickelsburg in Perspective (bibl. in n. 49), 2.375–76.
1 Enoch 91–108: The Ethiopic Version 17

Ethiopic text based on editorial choices made for that tradition (see C.2
below).
At the same time, we negotiate the Ethiopic tradition as much as possible
with the more fragmentary evidence preserved in Aramaic, Greek, Coptic
and Latin which not infrequently contains better readings. Before describ-
ing the procedures adopted in this volume, it is helpful to provide a conveni-
ent summary of the texts preserved in the incomplete and fragmentary ver-
sions:

Aramaic51
4QEng (4Q212) – from the Exhortation, Apocalypse of Weeks, and
Epistle of Enoch
fragment a: 91:10, 18–19; 92:1–2
fragments b,c: 92:5; 93:1–4
fragments c,d: 93:9–10; 91:11–17
fragments c,e: 91:17; 93:11–14; 94:1–2
4QEnc (4Q204) – from Epistle of Enoch and Birth of Noah
fragments 5 a,b: 104:13–105:2; 106:1–2
fragments 5 b,c-i: 106:13–107:2
Greek
Chester Beatty-Michigan Papyrus – from Epistle of Enoch and Birth of
Noah 97:6–104:13; 106:1–107:3
Coptic
Antinoë fragment – from Apocalypse of Weeks
93:3–8
Latin
Royal Ms. 5 E XIII – from Birth of Noah
106:1–18

This listing of the evidence suggests two things. First, the fragmentary
sources from other versions leaves no doubt about the pre-Ethiopian an-
tiquity of all parts of 1 Enoch 91–108 except for the Eschatological Admo-
nition in chapter 108 (on which see section E in the introduction to that
chapter). The versions therefore provide sometimes crucial data for estab-
lishing possible precursors to the Ethiopic tradition as well as to other re-
censions.
Second, the Greek Chester Beatty-Michigan Papyrus provides a running
text that parallels the Ethiopic at 97:6–107:3, and the Latin Royal Ms. 5

51 See Milik, The Books of Enoch, pp. 247 (4QEng) and 182 (4QEnc).
18 Introduction

does the same for 106:1–18. For these parts of the Epistle and Birth of
Noah, I have taken the decision in the present volume to provide English
translations alongside the Ethiopic; these are presented synoptically. My
reasons for this procedure are threefold: (1) The synoptic presentation of
parallel translations illustrates differences between the versions for the
reader; these differences are then noted and, where possible, text-critically
discussed in the Textual Notes. By making the process transparent in this
way, the reader has the possibility of observing and participating in at least
some of the comparative and text-critical procedures being followed at any
given point. (2) The format chosen here also underscores, in principle, the
integrity of each version. This does not play down the importance of the
many instances in which readings of the one version, whether secondary or
the result of transmission errors, can be derived from more authentic read-
ings of another; to be sure, such decisions may have a bearing on the trans-
lation being subjected to comment.52 However, though to some degree the
eclectic text and translation are the inevitable result of text-critical analysis,
the presentation of parallel translations comes closer to providing texts
which actually existed and are less a product that depends on the validity of
the many choices made by an editor. (3) For the commentary itself, the prin-
cipled integrity of existing versions, barring an obvious text-critical expla-
nation, conveys that each of the parallel versions warrant comment. This is
especially so, if there is any chance that these texts preserve tradition that
can be traced back to the Second Temple period.
The textual approach of this commentary, therefore, is at once less eclec-
tic and more eclectic than recent modern translations. On the one hand, it
departs significantly from the strategy adopted in the translation published
by Nickelsburg.53 His single translation, which aims at approximating an
“earliest recoverable form of the text”, follows an ecletic or composite text
based on a critical comparisons of all the versions. In following this strat-
egy, Nickelsburg builds on his earlier text-critical work on the manuscripts
on the Epistle of Enoch54 and follows, though more radically, the eclectic

52 In this respect, Nickelsburg’s study, “Enoch 97–104: A Study of the Greek and
Ethiopic Texts”, in ed. Michael E. Stone, Armenian and Biblical Studies (Sion Supple-
ments, 1; Jerusalem: St. James Press, 1976), pp. 90–156.
53 See Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 18. See further, Nickelsburg and VanderKam, 1 Enoch.
A New Translation (Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 2004), pp. 13–14.
54 Nickelsburg, “Enoch 97–104: A Study of the Greek and Ethiopic Texts”, esp.
pp. 153–55. In particular, Nickelsburg adopts the principle that agreement in read-
ings between Ethiopic mss. Abb (Eth. I) and Eth. II mss., on the one hand, and the
Grk. (in our case, the Chester Beatty-Michigan papyrus), on the other, suggests an
1 Enoch 91–108: The Ethiopic Version 19

procedures such as taken earlier by Siebert Uhlig55 and, more recently, by


Daniel Olson.56 As described in the preceding paragraph, the present vol-
ume proceeds along a different line: given the complexity of establishing the
text within each version (esp. the Ethiopic), translations of each of the run-
ning texts (Grk. and Lat.) are presented separately. Only then, in the Tex-
tual Notes and Notes of the commentary, are the differences between the
versions negotiated.
On the other hand, the present commentary departs from the widely
read translations of Michael Knibb and Ephraim Isaac, who have adopted a
more manuscript-based tactic. While Knibb has rendered into English the
John Rylands manuscript (from the Eth. II recension; see C.2.b below) and
collated around it, Isaac has essentially done the same with the 15th century
manuscript from Lake Tana (from the Eth. I recension; see C.2.a below).57
By contrast, the translation of the Ethiopic in the present volume is more
eclectic. It is based on a text-critical negotiation of inner-Ethiopic variants
that assigns a special place to the older, though more diverse, Ethiopic I
recension.

C.2. The Ethiopic Version. Since the text-critical editions of Johannes Flem-
ming and R. H. Charles, the Ethiopic manuscripts for 1 Enoch have been
divided into two recensions, here designated, respectively, as Ethiopic I and
II (α and β for Charles). The existence of two recensions does not imply any-
thing about the status of the book within the Ethiopic tradition. Such an
existence of an older text-form and a later reworking corresponds to the way
copyists were working with the remaining books of the Old Testament.58

early reconstructable text in which Eth. II mss. can be seen to play an important role;
cf. Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 19. The force of the criticisms brought against Nick-
elsburg’s approach by Black (The Book of Enoch, pp. 424–27), who argues that many
of the correct Eth. II readings are also shared by Eth. I mss., has yet to be tested on the
basis of the Eth. I evidence that has since emerged (esp. EMML 2080, EMML 1768,
EMML 6281, EMML 7854).
55 Cf. Uhlig, Henochbuch, p. 490: “Aufgabe einer Übersetzung des Hen(äth) ist es, aus-
gehend von Aeth I (wie Flemming, Martin und Charles) unter Beachtung notwendiger
Emendationen durch die ‘akademische’ Textrezension (Aeth II) und unter Zuhilfe-
nahme von Aram und Gr den hypoethetisch erschlossenen Archetypus zu über-
tragen.” The precedessors within Enoch scholarship to this approach are esp. Beer,
“Das Buch Henoch” and Charles (The Book of Enoch and “Book of Enoch”)
56 Olson, Enoch, p. 20.
57 See Knibb, The Ethiopic Book of Enoch, 2.21–37 (esp. p. 36); Isaac, “1 (Ethiopic
Apocalypse of) Enoch”, pp. 10–12.
58 Cf. Flemming, Das Buch Henoch. Äthiopischer Text, p. IX.
20 Introduction

Before discussing the presentation of the Ethiopic evidence for the text
underlying the translation in this volume (C.2.c), we describe each of these
recensions in turn.

C.2.a. Ethiopic I. At least 10, perhaps 11, parchment manuscripts are wit-
nesses to this recension. The following list includes the sigla used in this vol-
ume for the manuscripts (though an asterisk “*” denotes mss. whose read-
ings have not been collated in the Textual Notes of this volume), along with
their date, location, content, and the sigla employed by Flemming, Charles,
Uhlig and Nickelsburg59: 606162

Siglum60 Date Location Content Flemming Charles Uhlig Nickelsburg


1) BM 485 16th c. London 1–108 G g Lo4 g
British Library
2) BM 485a 16th c. London 97:6b–108:10 Ga ,g Lo4(2) g’
British Library
3) BM 491 18th c.61 London 1–108 M m Lo9 m
British Library
4) Berl 16th c. Tübingen62 1–108 Q q Be q
Staats-
bibliothek
Preussischer
Kulturbesitz
5) Abb 35 late Paris 1–108 T t Pa3 t
17th c. Bibliothèque
Nationale
Abbadian 35

59 The details are based on lists provided by Flemming, Das Buch Henoch. Äthiopischer
Text, pp. VII–IX; Flemming and Radermacher, Das Buch Henoch, pp. 3–5; Charles,
The Ethiopic Version of the Book of Enoch, pp. xviii–xxi; The Book of Enoch, pp.
xxi–xxiv; “Book of Enoch”, Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament,
2.165–66; Knibb, The Ethiopic Book of Enoch, 2.23–27; Isaac, “1 (Ethiopic Apoca-
lypse of) Enoch”, p. 6; Uhlig, Henochbuch, pp. 473–76; Tiller, Commentary on the
Animal Apocalypse, pp. 142–43; Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, pp. 15–17; and Olson,
Enoch, p. 22. Esp. important here have been the lists of Charles, Knibb, Uhlig and
Tiller. In addition, I have consulted volumes I–X of the Catalogue of Ethiopian Manu-
scripts Microfilmed for the Ethiopian Microfilm Library, Addis Ababa and for the
Monastic Manuscript Library, Collegeville (1975–1993), esp. for the EMML mss.
numbered 1–5000.
60 The sigla adopted for the mss. follow the system of longer abbreviations used by
Knibb (to whom, however, the EMML mss. were not available for collation).
61 Uhlig dates the ms. to the 17th c.
62 On the relocation of the ms. from Berlin to Tübingen, see Knibb, The Ethiopic Book
of Enoch, 2.23.
1 Enoch 91–108: The Ethiopic Version 21
Siglum60 Date Location Content Flemming Charles Uhlig Nickelsburg
6) Abb 5563 15–16th c. Paris 1–10864 U u Pa4 u
Bibliothèque
Nationale
Abbadian 55
7) Tana 9 15th c. Kebran 1–108 – – TS T9
8) EMML 15–16th c.65 Hayq 1–108 – – Co2 2080
2080 Estifanos
9) EMML 16th c. Hayq 1–108 – – Co1 1768
1768 Estifanos
10) EMML 17th c. (Collegeville) 1–108 – – Co5 6281
6281
11) EMML66 15th c.67 (Collegeville) 1–108 – – – 7584
7584*
6364656667

This list illustrates the growth of knowledge between the time of Flemming
and Charles, on the one hand, and the present, on the other. While Flem-
ming (1902) and Charles (1906) knew and collated the BM, Berl and Abb
manuscripts, it was not until Knibb’s edition (1978) that we see the incor-
poration of Tana 9, which was discovered in the 1970’s and upon which
Isaac’s translation (1983) would be based. Uhlig was the first to integrate a
collation of the EMML manuscripts 2080, 1768 and 6281 into his trans-
lation. Finally, in addition to all these, Tiller (1993) collated EMML 7584,
though his work was limited to the Animal Apocalypse. In addition to these
manuscripts, it is to be noted that several manuscripts assigned to the
Ethiopic II recension (see below) exhibit characteristics – sometimes with

63 It is probably because of this ms.’s frequent omissions and abbreviated form of the
text that Knibb did not include it among the Eth. I mss. he collates. Concerning the
character of Abb 55, see Charles, The Ethiopic Version of the Book of Enoch, p. xxiv.
The present volume fully integrates the readings and omissions of Abb 55 into the
Textual Notes.
64 The text is heavily abbreviated in ch.’s 83–108; see Charles, The Ethiopic Version
of the Book of Enoch, p. xx and Isaac, “New Light upon the Book of Enoch from
Newly-Found Ethiopic Mss”, p. 400.
65 The 12–13th c. date initially assigned to the ms. turned out to be incorrect; cf. Uhlig,
Ethiopian Palaeography, p. 14.
66 The ms. is mentioned by Nickelsburg and collated by Tiller (Commentary on the
Animal Apocalypse, p. 143), though neither specifically assign it to Eth. I. For this
classification, however, see Olson, Enoch, p. 22; in correspondence (Feb. 2007),
Olson confirms the status of EMML 7584, and adds that in the first half of 1 En. it
agrees closely with Abb 55 (see n. 64), “so that in some ways 7584 makes up for the
erratic omissions that mar the second half of what would otherwise be one of our
best mss.”
67 I.e. not the date of the 18th cent. given by Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 17.
22 Introduction

superior readings – of the Ethiopic I recension: these include BM 492,68


EMML 2436 and EMML 6974.69
Despite being amongst the oldest witnesses to the Ethiopic text tradi-
tion,70 these manuscripts are still comparatively late: Only two (Tana 9 and
EMML 7584) can be confidently dated to the 15th century, two (Abb 55 and
EMML 2080) to the 15th –16th centuries, four (BM 485, BM 485a, Berl,
EMML 1768) to the 16th century, two to the 17th century (Abb 35, EMML
6281), and one to the 18th century (BM 491). This means that the period of
time between the initial translation of 1 Enoch into Ethiopic and our ear-
liest evidence is about a thousand years.71 Thus it should not be surprising
that the Ethiopic I manuscripts, which witness to a translation made from
the Greek so many years earlier, display a text that is even more variegated
than what is attested among the textual witnesses to the Ethiopic II recen-
sion (see section C.2.b below).
The variety of readings within the Ethiopic I recension has made it dif-
ficult to produce a text-critical edition of both recensions of the Ethiopic
version, the most recent sustained attempt being that of R. H. Charles
in 1906.72 For texts 1) through 10) above, Uhlig has observed the existence
of four, sometimes overlapping, sub-groups that tend to share readings not
followed by the other manuscripts73: (1) Abb 35, Abb 55, EMML 6281 – to
which one may perhaps add EMML 2080 and EMML 7584 (though see
n. 66 above); (2) Abb 55 and EMML 2080; (3) Tana 9 and Berl; and (4)
BM 485 (and BM 485a), BM 491 and Abb 35. To compound the problem,
several of these manuscripts contain numerous idiosyncracies (esp. Berl,
EMML 6281, Abb 55). Therefore, in contrast to the optimism of Charles
that the Ethiopic I recension reflects a considerable degree of accuracy in
transmission, Uhlig has concluded that “der Archetypus [ist] nicht zu re-
konstruieren”.74 Clearly, the project of a text-critical edition of the earlier
Ethiopic recension to 1 Enoch remains a desideratum.

68 Cf. Charles, The Ethiopic Version of the Book of Enoch, p. xxiv.


69 I am grateful to Daniel Olson for information on the character of the latter two mss.
70 The antiquity of mss. from the Eth. I recension is established by their textual affinity
with almost all of the citations of 1 En. in church writings predominantly composed
during the 15th century. See Uhlig, Henochbuch, p. 489.
71 See esp. the discussion by Uhlig, Henochbuch, pp. 485–86.
72 Charles, The Ethiopic Version of the Book of Enoch, esp. pp. xxii–xxiv (on the tex-
tual character of BM 485, BM 485a, BM 491, Berl, Abb 35).
73 Uhlig, Henochbuch, p. 489.
74 Uhlig, Henochbuch, p. 489.
1 Enoch 91–108: The Ethiopic Version 23

In the meantime, it remains important to draw attention to the variants


among the manuscripts and, where possible, to identify readings that have a
claim to antiquity. The Textual Notes of the present volume aim at a com-
plete documentation of the Ethiopic I witnesses, the only exception being
EMML 7584.75

C.2.b. Ethiopic II. The manuscripts that witness to the later recension are
likewise growing in number. Of the more than fifty representatives, we list
forty below in the same format used above (with those not collated in the
Textual Notes marked by an asterisk “*”):
Siglum Date Location/No. Content Flemming Charles Uhlig Nickelsburg
1) Bodl 4 18th c. Oxford 1–105 A a Ox 1 a
Bodleian Library
Orient 531
2) Bodl 5 18th c. Oxford 1–98 B b Ox 2 b
Bodleian Library
Bruce 74
3) Frankfurt 18th c. Frankfurt 1–98 C c Fr c
Ms. Orient Rüppel II 1
4) Curzon 55 18th c.(?) London 1–102 D d Lo1 d
British Library
Orient 8822
5) Curzon 56 18th c.(?) London 1–108 E e Lo2 e
British Library
Orient 8823
6) BM Add. 19th c. London 1–106 F f Lo3 f
24185 British Library
Additional 24185
7) BM 484 18th c. London 1–108 H h Lo5 h
British Library
Orient 484
8) BM 486 18th c. London 60:13b–108:15 I i Lo6 i
British Library
Orient 486
9) BM 490 18th c. London 1–107 K k Lo7 k
British Library
Orient 490
10) BM Add. 18th c. London 1–108 L l Lo8 l
24990 British Library
Additional 24990

75 An omission in the photographs for EMML 1768 has made it impossible at this stage
to integrate its readings for 102:5 – 106:13. A full account of EMML 7584 will be
made in a forthcoming study of the Eth. I recension under preparation by Eibert J. C.
Tigchelaar, Stuart D. Weeks and myself.
24 Introduction

Siglum Date Location/No. Content Flemming Charles Uhlig Nickelsburg


11) BM 492 18th c. London 87 ch.’s N n Lo10 n
British Library
Orient 492
12) BM 499 18th c. London 1–106 O o Lo11 o
British Library
Orient 499
13) Ryl 18th c. Manchester 1–108 P p Ma p
Rylands Library
Ethiop. 23
14) Abb 16* 19th c. Paris 77 ch.’s R r Pa1 r
Bibliothèque
Nationale
Abbadian 16
15) Abb 30 18th c. Paris 1–108 S s Pa2 s
Bibliothèque
Nationale
Abbadian 30
16) Abb 99 19th c. Paris 1–108 V v Pa5 v
Bibliothèque
Nationale
Abbadian 99
17) Abb 197 19th c. Paris 1–98 W w Pa6 w
Bibliothèque
Nationale
Abbadian 197
18) Vatican 71 18th c. Vatican City 1–108 X x Va1 x
Vatican Étiop. 71
19) Munich 18th c. Munich 1–108 Y y Mü y
Ms. Munich
Äthiop. 30
20) Paris 114* 17th c. Paris 1–108 Z z Pa7 z
Paris Éthiop. 50
(also 114)
21) Paris 32* 18th c. Paris Paris 1–108 zb Pa8 zb
Éthiop. 49
(also 32)
22) Garrett Ms. 18–19th c. Princeton 1–108 ,a Pr ,a
Ethiop. 2=
Garrett
Collection Dep.
1468
23) Westen- 18th c. Hamburg 1–106 ,b Ha ,b
holz Ms. Hamburg Orient.
271a
24) Ull ea. 18th c. Ullendorf 1–108 Ull Ull
25) Cambridge 1588 Cambridge 1–108 Ca Ca
Ms.* University Library
Additional
1570
26) Cerulli 1931–22 Vatican City 1–108 Va2 Va2
75*
1 Enoch 91–108: The Ethiopic Version 25
Siglum Date Location/No. Content Flemming Charles Uhlig Nickelsburg
27) Cerulli 1921–22 Vatican City 1–108 Va3 Va3
110*
28) Cerulli 19th c. Vatican City 1–108 Va4 Va4
131*
29) EMML 18–19th c. (Collegeville)
36*
30) EMML 17th c. (Collegeville) 1–108
2436*
31) EMML 17–18th c. (Collegeville) 1–108 Co3 4437
4437*
32) EMML 18th c. (Collegeville) 1–108 Co4 4750
4750*
33) EMML 17–18th c. (Collegeville)
6686*
34) EMML 18th c. (Collegeville)
6706*
35) EMML 18th c. (Collegeville)
6930*
36) EMML 18th c. (Collegeville)
6974*
37) EMML 18th c. (Collegeville)
7103*
38) BibSoc 9* 18th c.(?) London 1–108 Lo12
39) PBI Banco 17th c. Rome 2:3–108:15 Ro
A 2, II*
40) Zion* 15th c. Jerusalem 52:7–60:3;
84:6–89:54
91:11–108:15

The Ethiopic II recension is essentially the product of Ethiopian copyists


who, beginning especially in the 16th and 17th centuries, attempted to edit
and correct the Ethiopic text into a version that could be more usable
within the church. Given the relative antiquity of the manuscripts from
Cambridge and Jerusalem (no.’s 25 and 40 in the list), it is possible that
this recension was inspired by prototypes that competed with Ethiopic I.
More study is thus needed on the early development of Ethiopic II.
From the vantage point of text-criticism, this reworking and streamlin-
ing of the earlier recension was described as “on the whole disastrous” by
Charles, who went on to state that “in nearly every instance where they
have departed from the original unrevised text they have done so to the
detriment of the book”.76 However, as Charles himself acknowledged,
the Ethiopic II manuscripts are nevertheless not without value; some on
occasion preserve early readings that are superior to what we find among
the manuscripts from the Ethiopic I recension. While most scholars

76 Charles, The Ethiopic Version of the Book of Enoch, p. xxi.


26 Introduction

have followed the emphasis of Flemming and Charles on the value of


Ethiopic I, Knibb has attempted to illustrate the text-critical contribution of
Ethiopic II.77 Without providing a text-critical edition of the Ethiopic
Enoch itself, he offers a photographic edition of the Rylands text (18th cent.,
no. 13 above) as a good specimen of Ethiopic II and provides an English
translation of it while collating around this text the readings of some manu-
scripts from Ethiopic I (BM 485, BM 485a, BM 491, Berl, Tana 9, Abb 35)
and a few witnesses from Ethiopic II (esp. Ull, Bodl 5, Westenholz Ms.).
Nickelsburg has argued similarly, though along different lines, that the
value of the Ethiopic II recension should not be discounted: Taking Abb 35
as “[b]y far, the most reliable single Eth. manuscript”, Nickelsburg notes its
affinity with Ethiopic II manuscripts, on the one hand, and the Greek
Chester Beatty papyrus, on the other.78 His analysis, published in 1976, led
to a conclusion that “in those parts of Enoch for which we have only the
Eth., we would seem to be following the most reliable course if we accepted
the joint readings of t [= Abb 35] and β (Etht and Eth II)”.79 Clearly, given
the growing number of Ethiopic I manuscripts, more study is needed to de-
termine the extent to which the convergence emphasized by Nickelsburg is
shared among other witnesses to the older recension.80 He and Knibb, how-
ever, have made enough of a case to counter Charles’ almost complete dis-
missal of the Ethiopic II evidence in establishing the Ethiopic text.

C.2.c. Presentation of the Ethiopic Evidence. In the Textual Notes, the fol-
lowing procedures have been adopted:
(i) Whenever variants reflect differences in translation, a text-critical
choice has been made. In each of these instances, the Textual Notes provide
the known variants, beginning with the preferred reading taken up in the
translation.
(ii) The variants, in turn, are each followed by a listing of the manu-
script evidence which supports them. Wherever the preferred reading is not
supported with an itemised list of textual witnesses, the only exceptions to
this reading are to be found in the variants that follow.

77 When all of the Eth. I mss. seem to contain (a) corrupt reading(s) while the only read-
ing that makes sense is preserved in Eth. II, the possibility that the latter is more orig-
inal can be seriously entertained; see Knibb, The Ethiopic Book of Enoch, 2.33–34
and the excellent discussion by Tiller, Commentary on the Animal Apocalypse, p. 131.
78 Nickelsburg, “97–104: A Study of the Greek and Ethiopic Texts”, p. 153.
79 Nickelsburg, “97–104: A Study of the Greek and Ethiopic Texts”, p. 155.
80 See, e.g., Black’s criticism of Nickelsburg in The Book of Enoch, p. 425 and Nickels-
burg’s brief rejoinder in 1 Enoch 1, p. 19 n. 82.
1 Enoch 91–108: The Ethiopic Version 27

(iii) If the variant reading results in a translation different from that of


the lemma, a rendering into English is supplied.
(iv) The transliterations of readings in Ethiopic texts follows the system
in Thomas Lambdin’s Introduction to Classical Ethiopic (Ge‘ez).81 How-
ever, a transliteration of Ethiopic based on manuscripts themselves poses
challenges in three respects. First, the vowels are sometimes difficult to re-
present with precision. Some manuscripts (e.g. EMML 2080) do not distin-
guish clearly between short and long vowels (e.g. -a and -a), or between dif-
ferent vowel sounds (i.e. in -wi- and -wu-). Where the precise reading is in
doubt, I have conformed the transliteration to the more conventional spell-
ing. Second, spellings of words in the manuscripts do not always conform to
those which one is led to expect by grammars of Ethiopic. This applies, for
example, in the transliteration of imperfect and subjunctive forms of verbs.
Third, due to similarities among consonant sounds, the Ethiopic manu-
scripts contain a variety of spellings for many words. In the tradition as a
whole, the most frequently varied spellings are found for the following:
d and s; h, x and h; s and š; and ’ and ‘. The transliteration has attempted to
reflect some of this variance as follows: the transliteration usually conforms
the spelling to the lexical forms of the words; however, when a variant spell-
ing predominates in (a) manuscript(s) cited for a given reading, then the
transliteration reflects the particular spelling in the manuscript(s).

Regarding the textual evidence itself, the following text-critical principles


have been applied in this volume:
(i) In cases where the readings are plausible, the Ethiopic I recension has
been generally preferred over Ethiopic II.
(ii) As the diversity of readings even within Ethiopic I makes a choice
among manuscript variants necessary, special weight has been accorded
to readings found in a combination of manuscripts that span the four
sub-groups delineated by Uhlig (e.g. Tana 9, EMML 2080, BM 485 and
Abb 35); see section C.2.a.
(iii) Since, however, the Ethiopic II cannot be categorically set aside as
irrelevant (see C.2.b above), the Textual Notes draw on Flemming, Charles
and Knibb’s editions in itemising its variant readings. This, in turn, illus-
trates the extent of agreement with Ethiopic I readings and makes it possible
to identify in any given instance the text-critical value of individual
Ethiopic II manuscripts.

81 Lambdin, Introduction to Classical Ethiopic (Ge‘ez) , pp. 8–9.


28 Introduction

C.2.d. The Other Versions and the Ethiopic. As emphasized above, the
present volume offers parallel translations for the other versions where they
have running texts (esp. Greek and Latin). The way the parallel versions are
treated depends on whether they are preserved in a (mostly) running or
fragmentary text (below, respectively i and ii).
(i) In the case of these running parallel versions, the Textual Notes
itemise differences from the reconstructed Ethiopic text, and in some
instances, they are compared with different readings in the Ethiopic manu-
scripts. Where these differences are noted, the Greek text is reproduced
alongside the Ethiopic text. On occasion, where the reconstructed Ethiopic
tradition may derive from a different Greek Vorlage, an attempt has been
made to retrovert the Ethiopic into a putative Greek text (signalled by “*”)
that departs from the text in the Chester Beatty-Michigan papyrus.
(ii) The fragmentary sources – that is, the Aramaic and Coptic texts –
are given in full in the Textual Notes, both in transcription and translation.
Obvious differences between these texts and the Ethiopic and the Greek
(where it exists) are identified in the Textual Notes and discussed in the
Notes of the commentary.

D. Bibliography

(underlined parts of the bibliographical entries are the abbreviated forms


cited in this volume)

D.1. Editions and Reference Works Used

Abegg, Martin G., James E. Bowley and Edward M. Cook, eds. The Dead Sea
Scrolls Concordance. 2 Volumes. Leiden: Brill, 2003.
Albeck, H. And H. Yalon, eds. Shisha Sidre Mishnah. Jerusalem: Dvir, 1958.
Beentjes, Pancratius C. The Book of Ben Sira in Hebrew. A Text Edition of all Ex-
tant Hebrew Manuscripts & A Synopsis of all Parallel Hebrew Ben Sira Texts.
SVT, 68. Leiden, New York and Cologne: Brill, 1997.
Beyer, Klaus. Die aramäischen Texte vom Toten Meer samt den Inschriften aus
Palästina, dem Testament Levis aus der Kairoer Genisa, der Fastenrolle und
den alten talmudischen Zitaten. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1984.
Beyer, Klaus. Die aramäischen Texte vom Toten Meer Band 2. Göttingen: Vanden-
hoeck & Ruprecht, 2004.
Black, Matthew, ed. Apocalypsis Henochi Graece. PVTG 4. Leiden: Brill, 1970.
Bonner, Campbell. The Last Chapters of Enoch in Greek. Darmstadt: Wissenschaft-
liche Buchgesellschaft, 1968. (Reprint from London: Chatto and Windus, 1937.)
Bibliography 29

Brock, Sebastian P. “A Fragment of Enoch in Syriac”. In JTS n.s. 19 (1968),


pp. 626–31.
Broshi, Magen. “247. 4QPesher on the Apocalypse of Weeks”. In eds. Stephen J.
Pfann, Philip Alexander, et al., Qumran Cave 4 XXVI. Cryptic Texts and Mis-
cellanea, Part 1. DJD 36. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000. Pp. 187–91.
Charles, Robert Henry. The Ethiopic Version of the Book of Enoch. Oxford: Cla-
rendon Press, 1906.
Charles, Robert Henry. The Greek Versions of the Testaments of the Twelve Patri-
archs, Edited from nine MSS together with the Variants of the Armenian and
Slavonic Versions and Some Hebrew Fragments. Oxford: Oxford University
Press and Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1908.
Charles, Robert Henry, ed. The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testa-
ment. 2 Volumes. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913.
Charlesworth, James H., ed. The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. 2 Volumes.
Garden City: Doubleday, 1983–1985.
Clarke, E. G., W. E. Aufrecht, J. C. Hurd and F. Spitzer, eds. Targum Pseudo-Jon-
athan of the Pentateuch. Hoboken: Ktav, 1984.
Colson, F. H. and G. H. Whitaker. Philo I-X. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge,
Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1929–1962.
de Jonge, Marinus. The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs. A Critical Edition of
the Greek Text. PVTG, 1/2. Leiden: Brill, 1978.
Dietrich, M., O. Loretz and J. Sanmartin, eds. Die keilalphabetischen Texte aus
Ugarit. AOAT, 24/1. NeukirchenVluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1976.
Diez Macho, A., ed. Targum Ms. Neophyti I. 5 Volumes. Madrid-Barcelona: Con-
sejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1968–1978.
Dillmann, August. Liber Henoch, Aethiopice, ad quinque codicum fidem editus,
cum variis lectionibus. Tübingen: Fr. Chr. Guil. Vogel, 1951.
Dillmann, August. Lexicon linguae aethiopicae cum indice latino. Adiectum est Vo-
cabularium tigre dialecti septentrionalis compilatum a Werner Munzinger. Leip-
zig: T. O. Weigel, 1865.
Dimant, Devorah. Qumran Cave IV. XXI: Parabiblical Texts, Part 4: Pseudo-Pro-
pheticTexts. DJD 30. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2001.
Discoveries in the Judaean Desert. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1955-.
Donadoni, Sergio. “Un frammento della versione copta del ‘Libro di Enoch’”. In
AcOr 25 (1960), pp. 197–202.
Elgvin, Torleif. “423. 4QInstructiong (Mûsαr lěMεvîng)”. In John Strugnell, Daniel
J. Harrington, S.J. and Torleif Elgvin. Qumran Cave 4 XXIV. Sapiential Texts,
Part 2: 4QInstruction (Mûsαr Le Mεvîn): 4Q415ff. DJD 34. Oxford: Clarendon
Press, 1999. Pp. 505–533.
Elliger, K. and W. Rudolph, eds. Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. Stuttgart: Würtem-
bergische Bibelanstalt, 1967–1976.
Eshel, Esther and Hanan Eshel. “A New Fragment of the Book of Watchers
from Qumran (XQpapEnoch)”. In Tarbiz 33 (2004), pp. 171–79. (Modern
Hebrew.)
30 Introduction

Eshel, Esther and Hanan Eshel. “New Fragments from Qumran: 4QGenf, 4QIsab,
4Q226, 8QGen, and XQpapEnoch”. In DSD 12 (2005), pp. 134–57.
Flemming, Joh. And L. Radermacher. Das Buch Henoch. GCS. Leipzig: Hinrichs,
1901.
Flemming, Joh. Das Buch Henoch. Äthiopischer Text. TU New Series 7.1/XXII.1.
Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs, 1902.
García Martínez, Florentino and Eibert J. C. Tigchelaar. The Dead Sea Scrolls Study
Edition. 2 Volumes. Leiden and Grand Rapids, Michigan: Brill and Eerdmans,
1997–1998.
Goldschmidt, L., ed. Der Babylonische Talmud. 9 Volumes. The Hague: Martinus
Nijhoff, 1933–1935.
Holladay, Carl R. “Pseudo-Eupolemos (Anonymous)”. In idem, Fragments from Hel-
lenistic Jewish Authors. Volume 1: Historians. SBL Texts and Translations, 20;
Pseudepigrapha Series, 10. Chico, California: Scholars Press, 1983. Pp. 157–87.
Holladay, Carl R. “Ezeliel the Tragedian”. In idem, Fragments from Hellenistic
Jewish Authors. Volume II: Poets. Texts and Translations 30; Pseudepigrapha
Series 12. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1989. Pp. 301–529.
Henning, W. B. “The Book of Giants”. In BSOAS 11 (1943–1946), pp. 52–74.
Hillers, Delbert R. and Eleonora Cussini, Palmyrene Aramaic Texts. Comprehen-
sive Aramaic Lexicon Project. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University
Press, 1996.
James, M. R. Apocrypha Anecdota. A Collection of Thirteen Apocryphal Books
and Fragments. Texts and Studies, II/3. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
1893.
Junod, E. Philocalie 21–27. Sur le libre arbiter. Introduction, texte, traduction et
notes. Sources chrétiens, 226. Paris: Editions du Cerf, 1976.
Kenyon, Frederic G. The Chester Beatty Biblical Papyri. Descriptions and Texts of
Twelve Manuscript on Papyrus of the Greek Bible, fasc. viii. Enoch and Melito.
London: Walker, 1941.
Knibb, Michael A. The Ethiopic Book of Enoch. A New Edition in the Light of the
Aramaic Dead Sea Fragments.. 2 Volumes. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978. Vol-
ume 1.
Lambdin, Thomas G. Introduction to Classical Ethiopic (Ge‘ez). HSS, 24. Cam-
bridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Semitic Museum, 1978.
Lambdin, Thomas G. Introduction to Sahidic Coptic. Macon: Mercer University
Press, 1983.
Liddell, H. G. and R. Scott. A Greek-English Lexicon. Oxford: Clarendon Press,
1968.
Milik, Josef T. The Books of Enoch. Aramaic Fragments of Qumrân Cave 4. Ox-
ford: Clarendon Press, 1976.
Newsom, Carol A. and James H. Charlesworth, eds. Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek
Texts with English Translations. Volume 4B. Angelic Liturgy: Songs of the Sab-
bath Sacrifice. The Princeton Theological Seminary Dead Sea Scrolls Project.
Tübingen and Louisville: Mohr Siebeck and Westminster John Knox, 1999.
Bibliography 31

Parry, Donald W. and Emanuel Tov. The Dead Sea Scrolls Reader. 6 Volumes.
Leiden: Brill, 2004.
Pritchard, James B., ed. Ancient Near Eastern Texts. Princeton: Princeton Univ.
Press, 1969, 3rd ed.
Puech, Émile. “4Q530–533, 203 1. 4QLivre de Géantsb-e ar”. Qumrân Grotte 4
XXII. Textes araméens, Première Partie: 4Q529–549. DJD 31. Oxford: Claren-
don Press, 2001. Pp. 9–115.
Puech, Émile. “4QNaissance de Noéa-c ar”. Qumrân Grotte 4 XXII. Textes ara-
méens, Première Partie: 4Q529–549. DJD 31. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2001.
Pp. 118–70.
Puech, Émile. “537. 4Qtestament de Jacob? ar (4QTJa? ar)”. In Qumrân
Grotte 4 XXII. Textes araméens, Première Partie: 4Q529–549. DJD 31. Ox-
ford: Clarendon Press, 2001. Pp. 171–90.
Schäfer, Peter. Synopse zur Hekhalot-Literatur. TSAJ 2; Tübingen. Mohr Siebeck,
1981.
Sperber, Alexander, ed. The Bible in Aramaic, I: The Pentateuch According To Tar-
gum Onkelos. Leiden: Brill, 1959.
Strack, Hermann L. and Paul Billerbeck. Kommentar zum Neuen Testament aus
Talmud und Midrasch. 6 Volumes. Munich: Beck, 1922–1961.
Strugnell, John, Daniel J. Harrington, S.J. and Torleif Elgvin. Qumran Cave 4 XXIV.
Sapiential Texts, Part 2: 4QInstruction (Mûsαr Le Mεvîn): 4Q415ff. DJD 34.
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1999.
Stuckenbruck, Loren T. “201 2–8. 4QEnocha ar”. In eds. Stephen J. Pfann, Philip
Alexander, et al., Qumran Cave 4 XXVI. Cryptic Texts and Miscellanea, Part 1.
DJD 36. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000. Pp. 3–7.
Stuckenbruck, Loren T. “203. 4QEnochGiantsa ar”, “206 2–3. 4QEnochGiantsf
ar”, “23. 1QEnochGiantsa ar (Re-edition)”, “24. 1QEnochGiantsb ar (Re-edi-
tion)”, “26. 2QEnochGiants ar (Re-edition)”, “8. 6QEnochGiants ar (Re-edi-
tion”). In eds. Stephen J. Pfann, Philip Alexander, et al., Qumran Cave 4 XXVI.
Cryptic Texts and Miscellanea, Part 1. DJD 36. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000.
Pp. 8–41, pp. 42–48, 49–66, 67–72, 73–75, 76–94.
Teixidor, Javier. Inventaire des Inscriptions de Palmyre. Fascicle XI. Beirut: Institut
français d’archéologique de Beyrouth, 1965.
Thackeray, H. St. J., R. Marcus and L. H. Feldman. Josephus I-IX. Loeb Classical
Library. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1926–1969.
Theodor, J. and Ch. Albeck. Midrash Bereschit Rabba mit kritischem Apparat und
Kommentar. Akademie für die Wissenschaft des Judentums. Berlin: Ittskovski,
1912–1929.
Tigchelaar, Eibert J. C. and Florentino García Martínez. “4Q208–209. 4QAstro-
nomical Enocha-b ar: Introduction,” “4Q208. 4QAstronomical Enocha ar
(Pls. III–IV),” and “4Q209. 4QAstronomical Enochb ar (Pls. V-VII).” In eds.
Stephen J. Pfann, Philip Alexander, et al., Qumran Cave 4 XXVI. Cryptic Texts
and Miscellanea, Part 1. DJD 36. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000. Pp. 95–103,
104–131, 132–71.
32 Introduction

Warner, George R. and Julius P. Gilson, Catalogue of Western Manuscripts in the


Old Royal and King’s Collections. 4 Volumes. London: The Trustees, 1921.
Waszink, J. H. and J. C. M. van Winden, Tertullianus De Idololatria. Supplements
to VigChr, 1. Leiden: Brill, 1987.
Weeks, Stuart, Simon Gathercole and Loren Stuckenbruck. The Book of Tobit:
Texts from the Principal Ancient and Medieval Traditions. With Synopsis, Con-
cordances, and Annotated Texts in Aramaic, Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and Syriac.
Fontes et Subsidia ad Bibliam pertinentes, 3. Berlin and New York: Walter de
Gruyter, 2004.
Wevers, J. W. Genesis SVTG I. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1974.
Ziegler, J., et al eds. Septuaginta, Vetus Testamentum Graecum. Auctoritate Aca-
demiae Scientiarum Gottingensis editum. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht,
1931-.

D.2. Translations and Commentaries

Allison, Dale. Testament of Abraham. CEJL. Berlin and New York: Walter de
Gruyter, 2004.
Andersen, F. I. “2 (Slavonic Apocalypse of) Enoch”. In ed. James H. Charlesworth,
The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Volume 2. Garden City: Doubleday, 1985.
Pp. 91–213.
Aune, David E. Revelation 1–5. WBC, 52A. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1997.
Aune, David E. Revelation 6–16. WBC, 52B. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1998.
Barclay, John M. G. Against Apion: Translation and Commentary. In ed. Steve
Mason, Flavius Josephus: Translation and Commentary, Volume 10. Leiden and
Boston, 2007.
Beer, Georg. “Das Buch Henoch”. In ed. Emil Kautzsch, Die Apokryphen und
Pseudepigraphen des Alten Testaments. Volume 2. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck,
1900. Pp. 217–310.
Black, Matthew. The Book of Enoch or 1 Enoch: A New English Edition with
Commentary and Textual Notes in Consultation with James C. VanderKam.
SVTP, 7. Leiden: Brill, 1985.
Böttrich, Christfried. Das slavische Henochbuch. JSHRZ V/7. Gütersloh: Güters-
loher Verlagshaus, 1995.
Burchard, C. “Joseph and Aseneth”. In ed. James H. Charlesworth, The Old Testa-
ment Pseudepigrapha. Volume 2. Garden City: Doubleday, 1985. Pp. 177–247.
Charles, Robert Henry. The Book of Enoch or 1 Enoch. Translated from the
Editor’s Ethiopic Text, and edited with the introduction notes and indexes
of rhte first edition wholly recast enlarged and rewritten; together with a reprint
from the editor’s text of the Greek fragments. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1912.
Charles, Robert Henry. “Book of Enoch”. In ed. R. H. Charles, The Apocrypha and
Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English. Volume II: Pseudepigrapha.
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1913. Pp. 163–281.
Bibliography 33

Charlesworth, James H. with J. A. Sanders. “More Psalms of David”. In ed. James


H. Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Volume 2. Garden City:
Doubleday, 1985. Pp. 609–624.
Collins, John J. “Sibylline Oracles”. In ed. James H. Charlesworth, The Old Testa-
ment Pseudepigrapha. Volume 1. Garden City, New York: Doubleday,
1983–1985. Pp. 317–472.
Collins, John J. Daniel. A Commentary on the Book of Daniel. Hermeneia. Min-
neapolis: Fortress, 1993.
Dexinger, Ferdinand. Henochs Zehnwochenapokalypse und offene Probleme der
Apokalyptikforschung. SPB, 29. Leiden: Brill, 1977.
Dillmann, August. Das Buch Henoch. Leipzig: Fr. Chr. Wilh. Vogel, 1853.
Fitzmyer, Joseph A. Tobit. CEJL. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 2003.
Flemming, Joh. and L. Radermacher. Das Buch Henoch. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs,
1901.
Goldstein, Jonathan A. I Maccabees. A New Translation with Introduction and
Commentary. Anchor Bible. New York: Doubleday, 1971.
Goldstein, Jonathan A. II Maccabees. A New Translation with Introduction and
Commentary. Anchor Bible, 41A. New York: Doubleday, 1983.
Hoffmann, Andreas Gottlieb. Das Buch Henoch in vollständiger Übersetzung mit
fortlaufendem Commentar. 2 volumes. Jena: Croeker, 1833–1838.
Isaac, Ephraim. “1 (Ethiopic Apocalypse of) Enoch”. In ed. James H. Charles-
worth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Volume 1. Garden City: Double-
day, 1983. Pp. 5–89.
Käsemann, Ernst. Commentary on Romans. Translated by Geoffrey W. Bromiley.
Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1980.
Kee, Howard C. “Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs”. In ed. James H. Charles-
worth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Volume 1. Garden City: Double-
day, 1983. Pp. 775–828.
Knibb, Michael A. The Ethiopic Book of Enoch: A New Edition in the Light of the
Aramaic Dead Sea Fragments. 2 Volumes. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978. Vol-
ume 2.
Lindenberger, James M. “Ahiqar”. In ed. James H. Charlesworth, The Old Testa-
ment Pseudepigrapha. Volume 2. Garden City: Doubleday, 1985. Pp. 479–507.
Martin François. Le Livre d’Hénoch. Documents pour l’Étude de la Bible, 1. Paris:
Letouzey et Ané, 1906.
Metzger, Bruce M.,“The Fourth Book of Ezra”. In ed. James H. Charlesworth,
The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Volume 1. Garden City: Doubleday, 1983.
Pp. 516–59.
Nickelsburg, George W. E. 1 Enoch 1. A Commentary on the Book of 1 Enoch,
Chapters 1–36; 81–108. Heremeneia. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2001.
Nickelsburg, George W. E. and James C. VanderKam. 1 Enoch. A New Translation.
Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress Press, 2004).
Olson, Daniel. Enoch. A New Translation. N. Richland Hills, Texas: BIBAL Press,
2004.
34 Introduction

Priest, J. “Testament of Moses”. In ed. James H. Charlesworth, The Old Testament


Pseudepigrapha. Volume 1. Garden City: Doubleday, 1983. Pp. 919–34.
Schrage, Wolfgang. Der erste Brief an die Korinther: 1 Kor. 15,1 – 16,24. EKK,
VII/4. Neukirchen: Benzinger/Neukirchener Verlag, 2001.
Smith, Jonathan Z. “Prayer of Joseph”. In ed. James H. Charlesworth, The Old Tes-
tament Pseudepigrapha. Volume 2. Garden City: Doubleday, 1985. Pp. 699–723.
Stinespring, W. F. “Testament of Isaac”. In ed. James H. Charlesworth, The Old Tes-
tament Pseudepigrapha. Volume 1. Garden City: Doubleday, 1983. Pp. 903–911.
Tiller, Patrick A. A Commentary on the Animal Apocalypse of 1 Enoch. SBL Early
Judaism and Its Literature, 4. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1993.
Tromp, Johannes. The Assumption of Moses. A Critical Edition with Commentary.
SVTP, 10. Leiden: Brill, 1993.
Uhlig, Siebert. Das Äthiopische Henochbuch. Jüdische Schriften aus hellenistisch-
römischer Zeit, V/6. Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus, 1984. Pp. 463–780.
VanderKam, James C. The Book of Jubilees. CSCO, 511. Leuven: Peeters, 1989.
Wilson, Walter T. The Sentences of Pseudo-Phocylides. CEJL. Berlin and New
York: Walter de Gruyter, 2005.
Winston, David. The Wisdom of Solomon: A New Translation with Introduction
and Commentary. AB, 43. Garden City: Doubleday, 1979.
Wintermute, Orvil. “Jubilees”. In ed. James H. Charlesworth, The Old Testament
Pseudepigrapha. Volume 2. Garden City: Doubleday, 1985). Pp. 35–142.

D.3. Secondary Literature

Aalen, Svere. “St. Luke’s Gospel and the Last Chapters of 1 Enoch”. In NTS 13
(1966), pp. 1–13.
Adler, William. “The Apocalyptic Survey of History Adapted by Christians: Dan-
iel’s Prophecy of 70 Weeks”. In eds. James C. VanderKam and William Adler,
The Jewish Apocalyptic Heritage in Early Christianity. CRINT III.4. Assen and
Minneapolis: Van Gorcum and Fortress Press, 1996. Pp. 201–238.
Alexander, Philip A. “The Demonology of the Dead Sea Scrolls”. In eds. Peter W.
Flint and James C. VanderKam, The Dead Sea Scrolls After Fifty Years. A Com-
prehensive Assessment. Volume 2. Leiden, Boston and Cologne: Brill, 1999.
Pp. 331–53.
Argall, Randal A. 1 Enoch and Sirach: A Comparative and Conceptual Analysis of
Themes of Revelation, Creation and Judgment. Early Judaism and Its Litera-
ture, 8. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1995.
Barr, James. “Aramaic-Greek Notes on the Book of Enoch (I)”. In JJS 23 (1978),
pp. 184–98.
Barr, James. “Aramaic-Greek Notes on the Book of Enoch (II)”. In JJS 24 (1979),
pp. 179–92.
Batto, Bernard F. Slaying the Dragon: Mythmaking in the Biblical Tradition. Louis-
ville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1992.
Bibliography 35

Bauckham, Richard. “Early Jewish Visions of Hell”. In JTS n.s. 41/42 (1990),
pp. 355–85.
Bauckham, Richard. The Climax of Prophecy. Studies in the Book of Revelation.
Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1993.
Baum, Armin Daniel. Pseudepigraphie und literarische Fälschung im frühen
Christentum. WUNT, II/138. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2001.
Baxter, Wayne. “Noachic Traditions and the Book of Noah”. In JSP 15.3 (2006),
pp. 179–94.
Bennett, H. “Exposing Infants in Ancients Rome”. In Classical Journal 18 (1922/
1923), pp. 341–51.
Benoit, Pierre. “L’inscription grecque du tombeau de Jason”. In IEJ 17 (1967),
pp. 112–13.
Berger, Klaus. “Hellenistische Gattungen”. In ed. Wolfgang Haase, Aufstieg und
Niedergang der Römischen Welt. II.25.2. Berlin and New York: Walter de
Gruyter, 1984. Pp. 1031–1432.
Beyerle. Stefan. Die Gottesvorstellungen in der antik-jüdischen Apokalyptik.
Supplements to JSJ, 103. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2005.
Bickerman, Elias J. The Jews in the Greek Age. Cambridge, Massachusetts and
London: Harvard University Press, 1988.
Black, Matthew. “The Apocalypse of Weeks in the Light of 4QEna”. In VT 28
(1978), pp. 464–69.
Boccaccini, Gabriele. Beyond the Essene Hypothesis. The Parting of the Ways be-
tween Qumran and Enochic Judaism. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans,
1998.
Boccaccini, Gabriele. “Enoch, Qumran, and the Essenes: The Rediscovery of a For-
gotten Connection: A Response to ‘The Epistle of Enoch and the Qumran Lit-
erature’.” In eds. Jacob Neusner and Alan J. Avery-Peck, George W. E. Nickels-
burg in Perspective: An Ongoing Dialogue of Learning. Supplements to JSJ, 80.
Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2003. Pp. 123–132.
Boccaccini, Gabriele. “Qumran and the Enoch Groups: Revisiting the Enochic-
Essene Hypothesis”. In ed. James H. Charlesworth, The Bible and the Dead Sea
Scrolls. The Princeton Sympoium on the Dead Sea Scrolls. Vol. 1: Scripture and
the Scrolls. Waco, Texas: Baylor University Press, 2006. Pp. 37–66.
Boswell, John E. The Kindness of Strangers: The Abandonment of Children in
Western Europe from Late Antiquity to the Renaissance. London: Penguin
Press, 1988. Pp. 53–197.
Böttrich, Christfried. “Die vergessene Geburtsgeschichte: Mt 1–2 / Lk 1–2 und die
wunderbare Geburt Melchisedek in slHen 71–72”. In eds. Hermann Lichten-
berger and Gerbern S. Oegema, Jüdische Schriften in ihrem antik-jüdischen und
urchristlichen Kontext. Studien zu den Jüdischen Schriften aus hellenistisch-
römischer Zeit, 1. Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus, 2002. Pp. 222–57.
Brant, Winnie. “The Gender Heresy of Akhenaten”. In eds. Bonnie Bullough, Vern
L. Bullough and James Elias, Gender Blending. New York: Prometheus, 1997.
Pp. 215–26.
36 Introduction

Brown, Raymond E. “The Semitic Background of the New Testament Mystêrion”.


In Bib 39 (1958), pp. 426–48 and 40 (1959), pp. 70–87.
Brulé, Pierre. “Infanticide et abandon d’enfants. Pratiques grecques et comparaisons
anthropologiques”. In Dialogues d’histoire ancienne 18 (1992), pp. 53–90.
Cameron, Allan. “The Exposure of Children and Greek Ethics”. In Classical Re-
view 46 (1932), pp. 105–114.
Charles, Robert Henry. Eschatology. The Doctrine of a Future Life in Israel,
Judaism, and Christianity: A Critical History. New York: Schocken Books,
1963.
Clifford, Richard J. Creation Accounts in the Ancient Near East and in the Bible.
Washington, D.C.: Catholic Biblical Association of America, 1994.
Collins, John J. “Methodological Issues in the Study of 1 Enoch: Reflections on the
Articles of P. D. Hanson and G. W. Nickelsburg”. In ed. Paul J. Achtemaier, So-
ciety of Biblical Seminar Papers. Volume 1. Missoula, Montana: Scholars Press,
1978. Pp. 315–22.
Collins, John C. The Apocalyptic Imagination. New York: Crossroad, 1985.
Collins, John C. Apocalypticism in the Dead Sea Scrolls. London and New York:
Routledge, 1997.
Collins, John C. “An Enochic Testament? Comments on George Nickelsburg’s Her-
meneia Commentary.” In eds. Jacob Neusner and Alan J. Avery-Peck, George
W. E. Nickelsburg in Perspective: An Ongoing Dialogue of Learning. Volume 2.
Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2003. Pp. 373–78.
Conrad, Edgar W. Fear not Warrior. A Study of ‘al tira’ Pericopes in the Hebrew
Scriptures. BJS, 75. Chico: Scholars Press, 1985.
Coughenour, Robert A. “The Woe-Oracles in Ethiopic Enoch”. In JSJ 11 (1978),
pp. 192–97.
Cross, Frank Moore. “The Development of the Jewish Scripts”. In ed. G. Ernest
Wright, The Bible and the Ancient Near East. Essays in Honor of W. F. Albright.
New York: Doubleday, 1960. Pp. 133–202.
Cumont, Franz. The Afterlife in Roman Paganism. Silliman Memorial Lectures.
New Haven: Yale University Press, 1922.
Cumont, Franz. Lux Perpetua. Paris: Librairie Orientaliste Paul Guenthner, 1949.
Davidson, M. J. Angels at Qumran. A Comparative Study of 1 Enoch 1–36,
72–108 and Sectarian Writings from Qumran. JSP Supplements, 11. Sheffield:
Sheffield Academic Press, 1992.
Davila, James R. The Provenance of the Pseudepigrapha: Jewish, Christian, or
other? JSJ Supplements, 105. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2005.
Davis, Michael T. and Loren T. Stuckenbruck. “Notes on Translation Phenomena
in the Palmyrene Bilinguals”. In ed. Zdzislaw J. Kapera, Intertestamental Essays
in honour of Jósef Tadeusz Milik. Qumranica Mogilanensia, 6. Cracow: The
Enigma Press, 1992. Pp. 265–83.
Day, John. “The Development of Belief in Life After Death in Ancient Israel”. In
eds. John Barton and David J. Reimer, After the Exile: Essays in Honour of Rex
Mason. Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press, 1996. Pp. 231–57.
Bibliography 37

Del Verme, Marcello. Didache and Judaism: Jewish Roots of an Ancient Christian-
Jewish Work. London: T & T Clark International, 2004.
Dimant, Devorah. The “Fallen Angels” in the Scrolls from the Wilderness of Judaea
and among the Apocryphal and Pseudepigraphal Books Related to Them. Ph.D.
Dissertation, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1974.
Dimant, Devorah. “The ‘Pesher on the Periods’ (4Q180) and 4Q181”. In IOS 9
(1979), pp. 77–102.
Dimant, Devorah. “1 Enoch 6–11: A Methodological Perspective”. In Society of
Biblical Literature Seminar Papers. Missoula, Montana: Scholars Press, 1980.
Pp. 323–39.
Dimant, Devorah. “The Biography of Enoch and the Books of Enoch”. In VT 33
(1983), pp. 14–29.
Dimant, Devorah. “New Light from Qumran on the Jewish Pseudepigrapha –
4Q390”. In eds. J. Trebolle Barrera and L. Vegas Montaner, The Madrid Qum-
ran Congress. Proceedings of the International Congress on the Dead Sea
Scrolls. STDJ, 2. Leiden: Brill, 1992. Pp. 405–447.
Dimant, Devorah. “The Seventy Weeks Chronology (Dan 9,24–27) in the Light of
New Qumranic Texts”. In ed. A. S. van der Woude, The Book of Daniel in the
Light of New Findings. BETL, 106. Leuven: Leuven University Press and Peeters
Press, 1993. Pp. 57–76.
Dimant, Devorah. “Noah in Early Jewish Literature”. In eds. Michael E. Stone
and Theodore A. Bergen, Biblical Figures outside the Bible. Harrisburg: Trinity
Press International, 1998. Pp. 123–50.
Dix, G. H. “The Enochic Pentateuch”. In JTS 9 (1925), pp. 29–42.
Doudna, Greg. “Dating the Scrolls on the Basis of Radiocarbon Analysis”. In eds.
Peter W. Flint and James C. VanderKam, The Dead Sea Scrolls After Fifty Years.
2 Volumes. Leiden: Brill, 1998–1999. Vol. 1, pp. 430–71.
Drawnel, Henryk. An Aramaic Wisdom Text from Qumran. JSJ Supplements, 86.
Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2004.
Eissfeldt, Otto. “Ba‘alšamen und Jahwe”. In ZAW 37 (1939), pp. 1–31.
Elgvin, Torleif. “The Reconstruction of Sapiential Work A”. In RevQ 15 (1995),
pp. 559–80.
Elgvin, Torleif. “The Mystery to Come: Early Essene Theology of Revelation”. In eds.
F. H. Cryer and T. L. Thompson, Qumran between the Old and New Testaments.
JSOT Supplements, 290; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1998. Pp. 113–50.
Elgvin, Torleif. “Wisdom and Apocalypticism in the Early Second Century BCE –
The Evidence of 4QInsturction”. In eds. L. H. Schiffman, E. Tov and J. C. Van-
derKam, The Dead Sea Scrolls Fifty Years after Their Discovery: Proceedings of
the Jerusalem Congress, July 20–25, 1997. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration So-
ciety/Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000. Pp. 226–47.
Elledge, Casey D. Life after Death in Early Judaism: The Evidence of Josephus.
WUNT II/208. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2006.
Elliott, Mark Adam. The Survivors of Israel. A Reconsideration of the Theology of
Pre-Christian Judaism. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, 2000.
38 Introduction

Engels, Donald. “The Problems of Female Infanticide in the Greco-Roman World”.


In Classical Philology 75 (1980), pp. 112–20.
Eshel, Esther. “Demonology in Palestine During the Second Temple Period”. Ph.D.
Dissertation, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1999. (Modern Hebrew)
Eshel, Hanan and Esther. “A New Fragment from the Book of Watchers from Qum-
ran (XQpapEnoch)”, Tarbiz 73 (2004), pp. 171–79. (Modern Hebrew)
Eshel, Hanan and Esther. “New Fragments from Qumran: 4QGenf, 4QIsab,
4Q226, 8QGen, and XQpapEnoch”. In DSD 12 (2005), pp. 134–57.
Eshel, Hanan. “4Q390, the 490-Year Prophecy, and the Calendrical History of the
Second Temple Period”. In ed. Gabriele Boccaccini, Enoch and Qumran Ori-
gins. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, 2005. Pp. 102–110.
Eskola, Timo. Messiah and the Throne. WUNT II/142. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck,
2001.
Firmage, Edwin. “Zoology (Animal Names in the Bible)”. In ed. D. N. Freedman,
Anchor Bible Dictionary. Volume 6. Garden City: Doubleday, 1992. Pp. 1151–59.
Fitzmyer, Joseph A. Essays on the Semitic Background of the New Testament. SBS,
5. Missoula: Scholars Press, 1979, repr. from 1965.
Flint, Peter W. “That’s No Gospel, It’s Enoch! Identification of the Dead Sea Scrolls
Challenged”. In Bible Review 19 (2003), pp. 37–40 and 52.
Flint, Peter W. “The Greek Fragments of Enoch from Qumran Cave 7”. In ed. Ga-
briele Boccaccini, Enoch and Qumran Origins. Grand Rapids and Cambridge:
Eerdmans and Cambridge University Press, 2005). Pp. 224–33.
Francis, Fred O. “Humility and Angel Worship in Colossae”. In eds. Fred O. Fran-
cis and Wayne Meeks, Conflict at Colossae. Missoula, Montana: Scholars Press,
1973. Pp. 163–95.
Fröhlich, Ida. “Time and Times and Half a Time”: Historical Consciousness in the
Jewish Literature of the Persian and Hellenistic Eras. JSP Supplements, 19.
Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1996.
García Martínez, Florentino. Qumran and Apocalyptic: Studies on the Aramaic
Texts from Qumran. STDJ, 9. Leiden: Brill, 1992.
García Martínez, Florentino. “Interpretation of the Flood in the Dead Sea Scrolls”.
In eds. F. García Martínez and G. P. Luttikhuizen, Interpretation of the Flood.
TBN, 1. Leiden, Boston and Cologne, 1999. Pp. 86–108.
Germain, L. R. F. “L’exposition des enfants nouveau-nés dans la Grèce ancienne.
Aspects sociologiques”. In Recueils de la société Jean Bodin 35 (1975),
pp. 211–46.
Gilbert, Maurice. “God, Sin and Mercy: Sirach 15:11–18:14”. In ed. Renate Egger-
Wenzel, Ben Sira’s God. Proceedings of the International Ben Sira Conference
Durham-Ushaw College 2001. BZAW, 321. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2002.
Pp. 118–35.
Goff, Matthew J. The Worldly and Heavenly Wisdom of 4QInstruction. STDJ, 50.
Leiden: Brill, 2003.
Golden, Mark. “Did the Ancients Care When Their Children Died?” In Greece &
Rome second series 35 (1988), pp. 152–63.
Bibliography 39

Goodman, David. “Do Angels Eat?”. In JJS 37 (1986), pp. 160–75.


Grabbe, Lester L. Etymology in Early Jewish Interpretation. The Hebrew Names in
Philo. Brown Judaic Studies, 115. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1988.
Greenfield, Jonas and Michael E. Stone. “The Enochic Pentateuch and the Date of
the Similitudes”. In HTR 70 (1977), pp. 51–65.
Grelot, Pierre. “L’eschatologie de la Sagesse et les apocalypses juives”. In ed. Xavier
Marpus, A la recontre de Dieu. Memorial Albert Gelin. BFC TL, 8. Paris: Le
Puy, 1961. Pp. 165–78.
Grelot, Pierre. L’espérance juive a l’heure de Jésus. Édition nouvelle revue et aug-
mentée. Paris, Declée de Brouwer, 1978.
Gundry-Volf, Judith. “The Least and the Greatest: Children in the New Testa-
ment”. In ed. M. J. Bunge, The Child in Christian Thought. Grand Rapids,
Michigan: Eerdmans, 2001. Pp. 29–60.
Hadot, J. Penchant mauvais et volonté libre dans la Sagesse de Ben Sira (L’Ecclési-
astique). Brussels: Presses Universitaires, 1970. Pp. 9–31.
Halévi, J. “Recherches sur la langue de la redaction primitive du livre d’Énoch”. In
Journal asiatique Ser. 6 vol. 9 (1867), pp. 352–95.
Halperin, David J. Faces of the Chariot. Early Jewish Responses to Ezekiel’s Vision.
TSAJ, 16. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1988.
Hannah, Darrell. “The Ascension of Isaiah and Docetic Christology”. In VigChr 53
(1999), pp. 165–96.
Hanson, Paul D. “Rebellion in Heaven, Azazel, and Euhemeristic Heroes in
1 Enoch 6–11”. In JBL 96 (1977), pp. 195–233.
Hay, David M. Glory at the Right Hand: Psalm 110 in Early Christianity.
SBLMS 18. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1973.
Hayward, C. T. R. “Sirach and Wisdom’s Dwelling Place”. In ed. Stephen C. Barton,
Where Shall Wisdom Be Found? Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1998. Pp. 31–46.
Hayward, C. T. R. “Philo, the Septuagint of Genesis 32:24–32 and the Name ‘Is-
rael’”. In JJS 51 (2000), pp. 209–226.
Hayward, C. T. R. Interpretations of the Name Israel in Ancient Judaism & some
Early Christian Writings. From Victorious Athlete to Heavenly Champion. Ox-
ford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Hengel, Martin. Judaism and Hellenism. Translated by John Bowden. London and
Philadelphia: SCM Press and Fortress Press, 1974.
Hengel, Martin. “‘Sit at My Right Hand!’ The Enthronement of Christ at the Right
Hand of God and Psalm 110:1”. In Martin Hengel, Studies in Early Christol-
ogy. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1995.
Henze, Matthias. “Psalm 91 in Premodern Interpretation and at Qumran”. In ed.
Matthias Henze, Biblical Interpretation at Qumran. Studies in the Dead Sea
Scrolls and Related Literature. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, 2005.
Pp. 168–94.
Herms, Ronald. An Apocalypse for the Church and for the World. The Narrative
Function of Universal Language in the Book of Revelation. BZNW, 163. Berlin
and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 2006.
40 Introduction

Himmelfarb, Martha. Tours of Hell: An Apocalyptic Form in Jewish and Christian


Literature. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1983.
Hoffmann, Yair. “The Day of the Lord as a Concept and a Term in the Prophetic
Literature”. In ZAW 93 (1981), pp. 37–50.
Horsley, Richard. “Social Relations and Social Conflict in the Epistle of Enoch”.
In eds. Randal A. Argall, Beverly A. Bow and Rodney A. Werline, For a Later
Generation: The Transformation of Tradition in Israel, Early Judaism, and
Early Christianity. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Trinity Press International, 2000.
Pp. 110–15.
Hugger, P. Jahwe meine Zuflucht: Gestalt und Theologie des 91. Psalms. Mün-
sterschwarzach: Vier-Türme-Verlag, 1971.
Huggins, Ronald V. “Noah and the Giants: A Response to John C. Reeves”. In
JBL 114 (1995), pp. 103–110.
Isaac, Ephraim. “New Light upon the Book of Enoch from Newly-Found Ethiopic
Mss”. In JSTOR 103 (1983), pp. 399–411.
Jarick, John. “Questioning Sheol”. In eds. Stanley E. Porter, Michael A. Hayes and
David Tombs. Resurrection. JSNT Supplement Series, 186. Sheffield: Sheffield
Academic Press, 1999. Pp. 22–32.
Knibb, Michael A. “The Date of the Parables of Enoch: A Critical Review”. In NTS
25 (1979), pp. 344–57.
Knibb, Michael A. “The Apocalypse of Weeks and the Epistle of Enoch”. In ed. Ga-
briele Boccaccini, Enoch and Qumran Origins. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerd-
mans, 2005. Pp. 213–219.
Knibb, Michael A. “The Book of Enoch in the Light of the Qumran Wisdom Lit-
erature”. In ed. F. García Martínez, Wisdom and Apocalypticism in the Dead
Sea Scrolls and in the Biblical Tradition. BETL, 168. Leuven: University Press
and Peeters, 2003. Pp. 193–210.
Koch, Klaus. “Die mysteriosen Zahlen der judäischen Könige und die apokalyp-
tischen Jahrwochen”. In VT 28 (1978), pp. 443–441. Reprinted in eds. U. Gless-
mer and M. Krause, Vor der Wende der Zeiten. Beiträge zur apokalyptischen
Literatur. 3 volumes. Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1996. Vol. 3,
pp. 135–42. (pp. from VT)
Koch Klaus. “Sabbatstruktur der Geschichte. Die sogenannte Zehn-Wochen-Apo-
kalypse (1Hen 93, 1–10; 91, 11–17) und das Ringen um die alttestamentlichen
Chronologien im späten Israelitentum”. In ZAW 95 (1983), pp. 403–430.
Kreitzer, L. J. Jesus and God in Paul’s Eschatology. JSNT Supplements, 19. Shef-
field: Sheffield Academic Press, 1987. Pp. 32–37 and 81–83.
Kuhn, H.-W. Enderwartung und gegenwärtiges Heil. Untersuchungen zu den Ge-
meindeliedern von Qumran mit einem Anhang über Eschatologie und Gegen-
wart in der Verkündigung Jesu. SUNT, 4. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht,
1966.
Lange, Armin. Weisheit und Prädestination. Weisheitliche Urordnung und Prä-
destination in den Textfunden von Qumran. STDJ, 18. Leiden, New York and
Cologne: Brill, 1995.
Bibliography 41

Lewis, Jack P. A Study of the Interpretation of Noah and the Flood in Jewish and
Christian Literature. Leiden: Brill, 1978.
Licht, Jacob. “Taxo, or the Apocalyptic Doctrine of Vengeance”. In JJS 12 (1961),
pp. 95–103.
Lichtenberger, Hermann. Studien zum Menschenbild in der Qumrangemeinde.
SUNT, 15. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1980.
Lindenberger, James M. The Aramaic Proverbs of Ahiqar. Baltimore: Johns Hop-
kins University Press, 1983.
Longenecker, Bruce W. 2 Esdras. Guides to the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha.
Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1995.
Mearns, Christopher L. “Dating the Similitudes of Enoch”. In NTS 25 (1979),
pp. 360–69.
Meeks, Wayne. “Moses as God and King”. In ed. Jacob Neusner, Religions in An-
tiquity. Essays in Memory of E. R. Goodenough. SHR, 14. Leiden: Brill, 1968.
Pp. 354–71.
Michaelis, Wilhelm. “οδο«”. In eds. Gerhard Kittel and Gerhard Friedrich, Theo-
logical Dictionary of the New Testament. 10 volumes. Translated by Geoffrey
W. Bromiley. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, 1977. Vol. 5, pp. 42–114.
Milik, J. T. “Problèmes de la literature hénochique à la lumière des fragments ara-
méens de Qumrân”. In HTR 64 (1971), pp. 333–78.
Milik, J. T. Dédicaces faites par des dieux (Palmyre, Hatra, Tyr) et des thiases sémi-
tiques à l’époque romaine. Institut française d’archéologie de Beyrouth: Biblio-
thèque archéologique et historique, 92. Paris: Paul Geuthner, 1972.
Müller, U. B. Messias und Menschensohn in jüdischen Apokalypsen und in der Of-
fenbarung Johannes. SNTU, 6. Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus, 1972.
Muro, Ernest A. “The Greek Fragments of Enoch from Qumran Cave 7 (7Q4, 7Q8,
& 7Q12 = 7QEn gr = Enoch 103:3–4,7–8”. In RevQ 18 (1997), pp. 307–312.
Murphy, Catherine. Wealth in the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Qumran Community.
STDJ, 40. Leiden: Brill, 2002.
Najman, Hindy. “Angels at Sinai: Exegesis, Theology and Interpretive Authority”.
In DSD 7 (2000), pp. 313–33.
Nebe, G.-Wilhelm. “Möglichkeit und Grenze einer Identifikation”. In RevQ 13
(1988), pp. 629–33.
Newsom, Carol A. “The Development of 1 Enoch 6–19: Cosmology and Judg-
ment”. In CBQ 42 (1980), pp. 310–29.
Newsom, Carol A. The Self as Symbolic Space. Constructing Identity and Commu-
nity at Qumran. STDJ, 52. Leiden: Brill, 2004.
Nickelsburg, George W. E. “Enoch 97–104: A Study of the Greek and Ethiopic
Texts”. In ed. Michael E. Stone, Armenian and Biblical Studies. Sion Supple-
ments, 1. Jerusalem: St. James Press, 1976. Pp. 90–156.
Nickelsburg, George W. E. “The Apocalyptic Message of 1 Enoch 92–105”. In
CBQ 39 (1977), pp. 309–328.
Nickelsburg, George W. E. “Apocalyptic and Myth in 1 Enoch 6–11”. In JBL 96
(1977), pp. 383–405.
42 Introduction

Nickelsburg, George W. E. “Riches, the Rich, and God’s Judgement in I Enoch


92–105 and the Gospel according to Luke”. NTS 25 (1978–1979), pp. 324–344.
Reprinted in eds. Jacob Neusner and Alan J. Avery-Peck, George W. E. Nickels-
burg in Perspective: An Ongoing Dialogue in Learning. Supplements to JSJ, 80.
Leiden and Boston, 2003. Pp. 521–46. (pp. from George W. E. Nickelsburg in
Perspective)
Nickelsburg, George W. E. “Patriarchs Who Worry about Their Wives: A Haggadic
Tendency in the Genesis Apocryphon”. In eds. Michael E. Stone and Esther
Chazon, Biblical Perspectives. Early Use and Interpretation of the Bible in Light
of the Dead Sea Scrolls. STDJ, 28. Leiden: Brill, 1998. Pp. 137–58. Reprinted in
eds. Jacob Neusner and Alan J. Avery-Peck, George W.E. Nickelsburg in Per-
spective: An Ongoing Dialogue of Learning. Supplements to JSJ, 80. Leiden and
Boston: Brill, 2003. Pp. 177–99 (pp. from George W. E. Nickelsburg in Perspec-
tive)
Nickelsburg, George W. E. “The Nature and Function of Revelation in 1 Enoch,
Jubilees, and Some Qumranic Documents”. In eds. Esther Chazon and Michael
Stone, Pseudepigraphic Perspectives. The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha in
Light of the Dead Sea Scrolls. STDJ, 31. Leiden, Boston and Cologne: 1999.
Pp. 91–119.
Nickelsburg, George W. E. “The Epistle of Enoch and the Qumran Literature”. In
JJS 33 (1982), pp. 333–348. Reprinted in eds. Jacob Neusner and Alan J. Avery-
Peck, George W. E. Nickelsburg in Perspective: An Ongoing Dialogue of Learn-
ing. 2 volumes. Supplements to JSJ, 80. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2003,
pp. 105–122. (pp. from George W. E. Nickelsburg in Perspective)
Nickelsburg, George W. E. “Response on the Commentary on 1 Enoch”. In eds.
Jacob Neuser and Alan J. Avery-Peck, George W. E. Nickelsburg in Perspective:
An Ongoing Dialogue of Learning. Volume 2. Supplements to JSJ, 80. Leiden
and Boston: Brill, 2003. Pp. 409–423.
Nickelsburg, George W. E. “Revisiting the Rich and the Poor in 1 Enoch 92–105
and the Gospel According to Luke”. In eds. Jacob Neuser and Alan J. Avery-
Peck, George W. E. Nickelsburg in Perspective: An Ongoing Dialogue of Learn-
ing. Volume 2. Supplements to JSJ, 80. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2003.
Pp. 547–71.
Nickelsburg, George W. E. “The Greek Fragments of 1 Enoch from Qumran Cave 7:
An Unproven Identification”. In RevQ 21 (2004), pp. 631–34.
Nickelsburg, George W. E. Jewish Literature Between the Bible and the Mishnah.
Second edition. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2005.
Nickelsburg, George W. E. Resurrection, Immortality, and Eternal Life in Intertest-
amtal Judaism and Early Christianity. HTS, 56. Cambridge, Massachusetts:
Harvard University Press, 2006, expanded edition.
Niederwimmer, Kurt. The Didache. A Commentary. Hermeneia. Minneapolis: For-
tress Press, 1998.
Nilsson, Martin. “Die astrale Unsterblichkeit und die kosmische Mystike”. In
Numen 1 (1954), pp. 106–119.
Bibliography 43

Nilsson, Martin. Geschichte der griechischen Religion. Handbuch der Altertums-


wissenschaft, 5.2.2. 2 Volumes. Munich: Beck, 1974.
Nordheim, Eckhard von. Die Lehre der Alten. 2 volumes. ALGHJ, 13. Leiden:
Brill, 1980, 1985.
Ochshorn, Judith. “Sumer: Gender, Gender Roles, Gender Reversals”. In ed. Sa-
brina Petra Ramet, Gender Reversals and Gender Cultures. London: Routledge,
1996. Pp. 52–65.
Oden, R. A. “Ba‘al Šamen and ’El”. In CBQ 39 (1977), pp. 457–73.
Olson, Daniel C. “Recovering the Original Sequence of 1 Enoch 91–93”. In JSP 11
(1993), pp. 69–94.
Paul, Shalom M. “Heavenly Tablets and the Book of Life”. In ed. D. Marcus, The
Gaster Festschrift. The Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society of Columbia
University, 5. New York: Columbia University Press, 1973. Pp. 343–53.
Pfann, Stephen J. “298. 4QCryptA Words of the Maskil to All Sons of Dawn”. In
eds. Torleif Elgvin et al., Qumran Cave 4 XV: Sapiential Texts, Part I. DJD, 20.
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997. Pp. 1–30.
Pomeroy, Sarah. “Infanticide in Hellenistic Greece”. In eds. A. Cameron and
A. Kuhrt, Images of Women in Antiquity. London: Routledge, 1985. Pp. 207–222.
Porter, Paul A. Metaphors and Monsters. A Literary-Critical Study of Daniel 7 and
8. CBOT, 20; Lund: Gleerup, 1983.
Prigent, P. L’Apocalypse de Saint Jean. CNT. Lausanne: Delachaux & Niestlé,
1988.
Puech, Émile. La Croyance des Esséniens en la Vie Future: Immortalité, Résurrec-
tion, Vie Éternelle? Histoire d’une Croyance dans le Judaïsme Ancien. 2 Vol-
umes. Paris: Gabalda, 1993.
Puech, Émile. “The Collection of Beatitudes in Hebrew and in Greek (4Q525 1–4
and Mt 5,3–12)”. In eds. F. Manns and E. Alliata, Early Christianity in Context.
Jerusalem: Franciscan Printing Press, 1993. Pp. 353–68.
Puech, Émile. “Notes sur les fragments grecs du manuscript 7Q4 1 = 1 Henoch 103
et 105”. In RevBib 103 (1996), pp. 592–600.
Puech, Émile. “Sept fragments de la Lettre d’Hénoch (I Hén 100, 103 et 105) dans
la grotte 7 de Qumrân (=7QHén gr)”. In RevQ 19 (1997–1998), pp. 313–23.
Puech, Émile. “Les fragments 1 & 3 du Livre de Géants de la Grotte 6 (6Q8 1–3)”.
In RevQ 74 (1999), pp. 227–38.
Reeves, John. “Utnapishtim in the Book of Giants?”. In JBL 112 (1993),
pp. 110–15.
Reicke, B. “Official and Pietistic Elements of Jewish Apocalypticism”. In JBL 79
(1960), pp. 137–50.
Reid, S. B. “The Structure of the Ten-Week Apocalypse and the Book of Dream Vi-
sions”. In JSJ 16 (1985), pp. 189–201.
Reese, G. Die Geschichte Israels in der Auffassung des frühen Judentums. Eine Un-
tersuchung der Tiervision und der Zehnwochenapokalypse des äthiopischen
Henochbuches, der Geschichtsdarstellung der Assumptio Mosis und der des
4. Esrabuches. BBB, 123. Berlin: Philo Verlagsgesellschaft, 1999.
44 Introduction

Reiser, M. Die Gerichtspredigt Jesu. Eine Untersuchung zur eschatologischen


Verkündigung Jesu und ihrem frühjüdischen Hintergrund. NTA, 23. Münster:
Aschendorff, 1993.
Roddy, Nicolae. “Ultimate Reflections, Infinite Refractions: Form and Function
in the Elusive Genre of Testamentary Literature”. In Studia Hebraica 3 (2003),
pp. 298–310.
Rowley, H. H. The Relevance of Apocalyptic. A Study of Jewish and Christian
Apocalypses from Daniel to Revelation. London: Lutterworth, 1963.
Rubinkiewicz, Rubin. “Apocalypse of Abraham”. In ed. James H. Charlesworth,
The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Volume 1. Garden City: Doubleday, 1983.
Pp. 681–705.
Rubinkiewicz, Rubin. L’Apocalypse d’Abraham (Towarzystwo Naukowe Katolick-
iego Uniwersytetu Lubelskiego, 129. Lublin: Société des Lettres et des Sciences
de l’Université de Lublin, 1987.
Rubinkiewicz, Rubin. “Reich Gottes im frühjüdischen Schrifttum als Hintergrund
der ntl. Basileia-Verkündigung”. In Collectanea theologica 64 (1994),
pp. 19–32.
Russell, D. S. The Method and Message of Apocalyptic. Philadelphia: Westminster
Press, 1964.
Sacchi, P. “Ethiopic Enoch and the Problem of Mediation”. In idem, Jewish Apoca-
lyptic and Its History. Trans. W. J. Short. JSP Supplements, 20. Sheffield: Shef-
field Academic Press, 1996. Pp. 141–149.
Sacchi, Paolo. “Qumran and the Dating of the Parables of Enoch”. In ed. James H.
Charlesworth, The Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls. The Princeton Symposium
on the Dead Sea Scrolls. Volume Two: The Dead Sea Scrolls and the Qumran
Community. Waco, Texas: Baylor University Press, 2006. Pp. 377–95.
Savage, Helen. “Changing Sex? Transsexuality and Christian Theology”. Ph.D.
Dissertation, Durham University, 2006.
Schürer, Emil, Geza Vermes and Fergus Millar. The History of the Jewish People
in the Age of Jesus Christ. Revised ed., 3 Volumes. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark,
1973–1987.
Starcky, Jean. “Un texte messianique araméen de la grotte 4 de Qumrân”. In École
des langues orientales anciennes de l’Institut Catholique de Paris. Mémorial du
cinquantenaire 1914–1964. Travaux de l’Institut Catholique de Paris, 10. Paris:
Bloud et Gay, 1964. Pp. 51–66.
Starcky, Jean. “Le Maître de Justice et Jésus”. In Le Monde de la Bible 4 (1978),
pp. 51–55.
Stone, Michael Edward. “Lists of Revealed Things in the Apocalyptic Literature”.
In eds. F. M. Cross, W. E. Lemke and P. D. Hanson. Magnalia Dei: The Mighty
Acts of God. Garden City: Doubleday, 1976. Pp. 415–52.
Stone, Michael Edward. Features of the Eschatology of IV Ezra. Harvard Semitic
Studies, 35. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1989.
Stone, Michael Edward. Fourth Ezra. A Commentary on the Book of Fourth Ezra.
Hermeneia. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1990.
Bibliography 45

Stuckenbruck, Loren T. “Revision of Aramaic-Greek and Greek-Aramaic Gloss-


aries in The Books of Enoch: Aramaic Fragments of Qumrân Cave 4 by J. T.
Milik”. In JJS 41 (1990), pp. 13–48.
Stuckenbruck, Loren T. Angel Veneration and Christology. A Study in Early Ju-
daism and in the Christology of the Apocalypse of John. WUNT II/70. Tübin-
gen: Mohr Siebeck, 1995.
Stuckenbruck, Loren T. “‘One like a Son of Man as the Ancient of Days’ in the Old
Greek Recension of Daniel 7,13: Scribal Error or Theological Translation?” In
ZNW 86 (1995), pp. 268–76.
Stuckenbruck, Loren T. The Book of Giants from Qumran. TSAJ, 63. Tübingen:
J. C. B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck), 1997.
Stuckenbruck, Loren T. “The Throne-Theophany of the Book of Giants: Some New
Light on the Background of Daniel 7”. In eds. Stanley E. Porter and Craig A.
Evans, The Scrolls and the Scriptures. Qumran Fifty Years After. JSP Supple-
ment Series, 26. Sheffield: Academic Press, 1997. Pp. 211–20.
Stuckenbruck, Loren T. “The ‘Angels’ and ‘Giants’ of Genesis 6:1–4 in Second and
Third Century BCE Jewish Interpretation: Reflections on the Posture of Early
Apocalyptic Traditions”. In DSD 7 (2000), pp. 354–77.
Stuckenbruck, Loren T. “4QInstruction and the Possible Influence of Early Enochic
Traditions: An Evaluation”. In eds. Charlotte Hempel, Armin Lange and Her-
mann Lichtenberger, Wisdom Texts from Qumran and the Development of Sa-
piential Thought. BETL 159; Leuven: Leuven University Press and Peeters,
2002). Pp. 245–61.
Stuckenbruck, Loren T. “4QInstruction and the Possible Influence of Early Enochic
Traditions: An Evaluation”. In eds. C. Hempel, A. Lange, and H. Lichtenberger,
Wisdom Texts from Qumran and the Development of Sapiential Thought.
BETL, 159. Leuven: Leuven University Press and Peeters, 2002. Pp. 245–61.
Stuckenbruck, Loren T. “Giant Mythology and Demonology: From the Ancient
Near East to the Dead Sea Scrolls”. In eds. Armin Lange, Hermann Lichten-
berger and K. F. Diethard Römheld, Die Dämonen – Demons. Die Dämonolo-
gie der israelitisch-jüdischen und frühchristlichen Literatur im Kontext ihrer
Umwelt. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2003. Pp. 318–38.
Stuckenbruck, Loren T. “Genesis 6:1–4 as Basis for Divergent Readings During the
Second Temple Period”. In ed. G. Boccaccini, The Origins of Enochic Judaism.
Proceedings of the First Enoch Seminar. University of Michigan, Sesto Fio-
rentino, Italy June 19–23, 2001. Freiburg: Herder, 2003. Pp. 99–106.
Stuckenbruck, Loren T. “The Origins of Evil in Jewish Apocalyptic Tradition: In-
terpretation of Genesis 6:1–4 in the Second and Third Centuries BCE”. In eds.
Christopher Auffarth and Loren T. Stuckenbruck, The Fall of the Angels. TBN,
6. Leiden: Brill, 2004. Pp. 86–118.
Stuckenbruck, Loren T. “The Formation and Re-Formation of Daniel in the Dead
Sea Scrolls”. In ed. James H. Charlesworth, The Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls.
The Princeton Symposium on the Dead Sea Scrolls. Volume One: Scripture and
the Scrolls. Waco: Baylor University Press, 2006. Pp. 101–130.
46 Introduction

Stuckenbruck, Loren T. “The Early Tradition Related to 1 Enoch from the Dead Sea
Scrolls: An Overview and Assessment”. In eds. Gabriele Boccaccini and John J.
Collins. JSJ Supplements, 121. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2007. Pp. 41–63
Sullivan, Kevin P. Wrestling with Angels. A Study of the Relationship between An-
gels and Humans in Ancient Jewish Literature and the New Testament. AGAJU,
55. Brill: Leiden and Boston, 2004.
Taylor, Timothy. The Prehistory of Sex. London: Fourth Estate, 1996.
Tcherikover, Victor. Hellenistic Civilisation and the Jews. Philadelphia/Jerusalem:
Jewish Publication Society of America and Magnes Press, 1959.
Tobin, Thomas H. “Logos”. In ed. David Noel Freedman, Anchor Bible Diction-
ary. Volume 4. Garden City: Doubleday, 1992. Pp. 348–56.
Thorndike, Jeanie P. “The Apocalypse of Weeks and the Qumran Sect”. In RevQ 3
(1961–1962), pp. 163–84.
Tigchelaar, Eibert J. C. “The Addressees of 4QInstruction”. In eds. Daniel K. Falk,
Florentino García Martínez and Eileen Schuller, Sapiential, Liturgical and Poeti-
cal Texts from Qumran. Proceedings of the Third Meeting of the International
Organization for Qumran Studies Oslo 1998. Published in Memory of Maurice
Baillet. STDJ, 35. Leiden, Boston and Cologne: Brill, 2000. Pp. 62–75.
Tigchelaar, Eibert J. C. “Evaluating the Discussions concerning the Original Order
of Chapters 91–93 and Codicological Data Pertaining to 4Q212 and Chester
Beatty XII Enoch”. In ed. Gabriele Boccaccini, Enoch and Qumran Origins.
New Light on a Forgotten Connection. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans,
2005. Pp. 220–23.
Tiller, Patrick A. “The ‘Eternal Planting’ in the Dead Sea Scrolls”. In DSD 4 (1997),
pp. 312–35.
Torrey, C. C. “Notes on the Greek Text of Enoch”. In JAOS 62 (1942), pp. 52–60.
Uhlig, S. “Bemerkungen zur Textkritik des äthiopischen Henoch und inbesondere
der Epistel Henochs”. In Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesell-
schaft 139 (1989), pp. 21–42.
Uhlig, Siebert. Introduction to Ethiopian Palaeography. Äthiopistische For-
schungen, 28. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1990.
van Ruiten, J. T. A. G. M. “The Influence and Development of Is 65,17 in
1 En 91,16”. In ed. J. Vermeylen, The Book of Isaiah. Les oracles et leurs reflec-
tures unite et complexité de l’ouvrage. BETL, 81. Leuven: Leuven University
Press and Peeters Press, 1989. Pp. 149–174.
Van de Sandt, Huub and David Flusser. The Didache: Its Jewish Sources and its
Place in Early Judaism and Christianity. CRINT III/5. Assen and Minneapolis:
Van Gorcum and Fortress Press, 2002.
van der Horst, Pieter W. “Moses’ Throne Vision in Ezekiel the Dramatist”. In JJS 34
(1983), pp. 21–29.
VanderKam, James C. “The Theophany of 1 Enoch 1:3b-7, 9”. In VT 23 (1973),
pp. 129–50.
VanderKam, James C. “Studies in the Apocalypse of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10;
91:11–17)”. In CBQ 46 (1984), pp. 511–523.
Bibliography 47

VanderKam, James C. Textual and Historical Studies in the Book of Jubilees. Har-
vard Semitic Monographs, 41. Missoula, Montana: Scholars Press for Harvard
Semitic Museum, 1977.
VanderKam, James C. Enoch and the Growth of Apocalyptic Tradition. CBQ, 16.
Washington, D.C.: Catholic University Press of America, 1984.
VanderKam, James C. “The Textual Base for the Ethiopic Translation of 1 Enoch”. In
ed. D. M. Golomb, Working with No Data: Studies in Semitic and Egyptian Pres-
ented to Thomas O. Lambdin. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1987. Pp. 247–62.
VanderKam, James C. “The Birth of Noah”. In ed. Zdzislaw J. Kapera, Intertesta-
mental Essays in honour of Jósef Tadeusz Milik. Qumranica Mogilanensia, 6.
Cracow: The Enigma Press, 1992. Pp. 213–31.
VanderKam, James C. Enoch. A Man for All Generations. Columbia, South Ca-
rolina: University of South Carolina Press, 1995.
VanderKam, James C. “The Angel of the Presence in the Book of Jubilees”. In
DSD 7 (2000), pp. 378–93.
VanderKam, James C. “The Demons in the Book of Jubilees”. In eds. Armin Lange,
Hermann Lichtenberger and K. F. Diethard Römheld, Die Dämonen – Demons.
Die Dämonologie der israelitisch-jüdischen und frühchristlichen Literatur im
Kontext ihrer Umwelt. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2003. Pp. 339–64.
Vermes, Geza. An Introduction to the Complete Dead Sea Scrolls. London: SCM
Press, 1999.
Werman, Cana. “Qumran and the Book of Noah”. In eds. Esther G. Chazon
and Michael Stone, Pseudepigraphic Perspectives. The Apocrypha and Pseu-
depigrapha in Light of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 1999.
Pp. 171–81.
Werman, Cana. “Epochs and End-Time: The 490-Year Scheme in Second Temple
Literature”. In DSD 13 (2006), pp. 229–55.
M. L. West. Early Greek Philosophy and the Orient. Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 1971.
Wickham, L. R. “The Sons of God and the Daughters of Men: Genesis VI 2 in Early
Christian Exegesis”. In eds. J. Barr, W. A. M. Beuken et al., Language and Mean-
ing. Studies in Hebrew Language and Biblical Exegesis. Oudtestamentische Stu-
diën, 19. Leiden: Brill, 1974. Pp. 135–47.
Wiedemann, Thomas. “Adults and Children in the Roman Empire”. In eds. Joseph
M. Hawes and N. Ray Hiner, Children in Historical and Comparative Perspec-
tive: An International Handbook and Research Guide. New York: Greenwood
Press, 1991. Pp. 13–29.
Wilson, Walter. Love Without Pretense. WUNT, II/46. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck,
1991.
Wold, Benjamin G. Women, Men & Angels: The Qumran Wisdom Document
Musar leMevin & its Allusions to Genesis Creation Traditions. WUNT II/201.
Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2005.
Wright, Archie T. The Origin of Evil Spirits: The Reception of Genesis 6:1–4 in
Early Jewish Literature. WUNT II/198. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2005.
48 Introduction

Wright, Benjamin G. III. “The Discourse of Riches and Poverty in the Book of Sir-
ach”. In Society of Biblical Literature Seminar Papers. Atlanta: Scholars Press,
1998. Pp. 559–78.
Wright, Benjamin G. III and Claudia V. Camp. “Who Has Been Tested by Gold and
Found Perfect? Ben Sira’s Discourse of Riches and Poverty”. In Henoch 23
(2001), pp. 153–74.
Wright, Benjamin G. III. “Fear the Lord and Honor the Priest. Ben Sira as Defender
of the Jerusalem Priesthood”. In ed. P. C. Beenties, The Book of Ben Sira in
Modern Research. BZAW, 255. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1997.
Pp. 189–222.
Wright, N. T. The Resurrection of the Son of God. London and Minneapolis: SPCK
and Fortress Press, 2003.
Yarbro Collins, Adela. “Numerical Symbolism in Jewish and Early Christian
Apocalyptic Literature”. In ed. Wolfgang Haase, Aufstieg und Niedergang der
Römischen Welt, II.21,2. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1984.
Pp. 1221–87.
Yoshiko Reed, Annette. “The Textual Identity, Literary History, and Social Setting
of 1 Enoch”. In Archiv für Religionsgeschichte 5 (2003), pp. 279–96.
Yoshiko Reed, Annette. “Heavenly Ascent, Angelic Descent, and the Transmission
of Knowledge in 1 Enoch 6–16”. In eds. Ra‘anan S. Boustan and Annette Yos-
hiko Reed, Heavenly Realms and Earthly Realities in Late Antique Religions.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Pp. 47–66.
Zehnder, Markus Philipp. Wegmetaphorik im Alten Testament. Eine semantische
Untersuchung und altorientalischen Weg-Lexeme mit besonderer Berücksichti-
gung ihrer metaphorischen Verwendung. BZAW, 268. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter,
1999.
Zuntz, G. “Notes on the Greek Enoch”. In JBL 61 (1942), pp. 193–204.
Zuntz, G. “Enoch on the Last Judgment”. In JTS 45 (1944), pp. 161–70.
Zuntz, G. “The Greek Text of Enoch 102:1–3”. In JBL 63 (1944), pp. 53–54.
The Text Traditions 49

Chapter Two

Part One
The Apocalypse Of Weeks
(1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

Introduction

A. The Text Traditions

The present commentary takes, in the first instance, the view that the
Apocalypse of Weeks was originally an independent work composed by an
author who was not the author of any other parts of 1 Enoch. It is not pre-
served as a free-standing piece in the Ethiopic tradition or among the frag-
mentary Aramaic materials from the Dead Sea,82 but was transmitted
within its present literary context of 1 Enoch 91–105 at a very early stage,
in all likelihood, already during the late 2nd century BCE.

A.1. The Ethiopic. The Apocalypse is only fully preserved in the Ethiopic
tradition and is found in almost all the extant manuscripts of 1 Enoch that
include the Epistle.83 Since the content of 91:11–17 (an account of weeks
through 10 and beyond) follows on from 93:3–10 (weeks 1 to 7), modern
scholars have posited a dislocation of material during the course of trans-
mission of 1 Enoch 91–105. Leaving aside the question of the original lit-
erary setting for the Apocalypse and focusing on the manuscript evidence
itself, we may suppose that the displacement could have happened in one of
two directions: (1) 93:3–10, originally located between 91:10 and 91:11,
was displaced into a new setting, between 92:5 and 93:11, where it would
have been furnished with an introductory title in 93:1–2; or (2) 91:11–17,
originally located between 93:3–10 and 93:11–14, was dislocated into its
present position between 91:10 and 18. The second possibility is supported
by the publication of 4QEng (see below), which also confirms that early on
the Apocalypse was embedded within the Epistle (ch.’s 92–105).

82 The extent of the Coptic evidence is uncertain (see section A.3 below).
83 The only exception is BM 485a, which begins at 97:6b.
50 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

A.2. The Aramaic. The oldest textual evidence survives in Aramaic, pre-
served in 4QEng (= 4Q212). Given its importance for reconstructing the
earliest extant literary context for the Apocalypse, a detailed discussion of
what can be known about the manuscript and its fragments is appropriate.
4QEng is copied in a transitional semi-cursive script that may be dated to
the middle of the 1st century BCE. It consists of five surviving fragments
(a through e) which Milik, who presumes that the text began with 1 Enoch
91, assigned to columns i through v.84 As the fragments of 4QEng only pre-
serve portions from the Apocalypse and Epistle of Enoch, nothing survives
that relates it to any of the other early Enochic traditions; there is therefore
no obvious reason to suppose that 4QEng contained anything outside
1 Enoch chapters 91–105.85
The significance of 4QEng lies in the sort of text it preserves. As things
stand in the Ethiopic tradition, the ten-week sequence in the Apocalypse is
broken and out of order: without exception in the Ethiopic manuscripts, the
description of weeks eight through ten occurs in the text (91:12–17)86 be-
fore the events associated with weeks one through seven are described
(93:3–10). Thus, well before the Dead Sea discoveries from Cave 4 in 1952,
scholars had no difficulty restoring an original order on the basis of the
Ethiopic alone: whatever its original literary context, the text of 93:3–10
was originally followed immediately by 91:11/12–17. The restoration of
this original order has implications for what one does with the remaining
text in that context (i.e. 91:1–10, 18–19; 92:1–5; 93:1–2, and 93:11–14). If
91:11–17 is moved into chapter 93, the sequence of the earliest literary con-
text within which the Apocalypse was transmitted would then become:
91:1–10, 18–19 (Exhortation); 92:1–5 (opening of Epistle); 93:1–10 and
91:11–17 (Apoc. of Weeks); and 93:11–14 (continuation of Epistle). No-
tably, precisely this sequence is reflected in the order Milik has proposed for
the fragments of 4QEng. Milik acknowledges, however, that the placement

84 See Milik, The Books of Enoch, pp. 245–72 (Plates XXI–XXIV).


85 Milik does refer to the scribe’s inconsistent adherence to the Vorlage’s more conser-
vative orthography (The Books of Enoch, p. 246), but makes no attempt to speculate
whether this has any implications for how much the text behind 4Q212 may (or may
not) have contained. Of possible significance may be the seam that links col. i with
col. ii; if the piece containing col. i was originally of comparable length, then it be-
comes possible to imagine that 4QEng contained material well beyond (i.e. before)
ch. 91; see the discussion of Text Traditions (Aramaic) to the Epistle below.
86 We focus on the most apparent features, though it is likely that the account of week
seven has been split between 93:9–10, on the one hand, and 91:11, on the other (see
Notes to these texts).
The Text Traditions 51

of fragment a, column ii of which preserves text from 91:10, 18–19 and


92:1–2, requires an Aramaic version for the text which, if it began at 91:1,
would have had to contain a text for the opening verses of chapter 91 that is
longer than what survives in the Ethiopic tradition.87
Taking this difficulty into account (including the identification of 91:10)
and while attempting to explain the dislocation within the Apocalypse in
the Ethiopic tradition, Olson has more recently questioned Milik’s recon-
struction. In particular, Olson places the same fragment a of 4QEng in
another position, that is, above column iii of fragment c.88 Thus, whereas
Milik has the Apocalypse come between the material in 92:1–5 and
93:11–14, Olson assigns it to an earlier position, that is, between 1 Enoch
92:5 and 91:18. More specifically, Olson’s arrangement of the Aramaic frag-
ments, which assigns all the fragments to three (instead of to Milik’s five)
columns, is as follows: 91:1–10; 92:3–93:10; 91:11–92:2; and 93:11–14.
According to this reconstruction, 91:1–10 is regarded as the beginning of the
Epistle, so that the Apocalypse ensues (i.e. within sections 92:3–93:10 and
91:11–17), followed by 91:18–92:1 and by a section in which 92:2 intro-
duces 93:11–14. Olson argues that there is only one explanation that could
account for the loss of this order in the Ethiopic tradition: at a very early
stage of the Ethiopic tradition, a scribe copied by mistake one leaf’s worth of
text (91:11–92:2) between 93:10 and 92:3, thus disrupting the sequence.
Whatever problems there are in positing such an accidental displacement
within the transmission of the text,89 is there any physical evidence that could
adjudicate Olson’s placement of fragment a within 4QEng? A microscopic
analysis of fragments a and c reveals that the directions of their hair follicles
on the skin are inconsistent with Olson’s placement of fragment a just above
fragment c:90 whereas at the top of fragment c the follicles move diagonally
from lower right towards the upper left, the follicles at the lower part of frag-
ment a move from the lower right to the upper left, precisely where one
would expect the follicles to be more vertical than on fragment c.91 Olson’s

87 Milik, The Books of Enoch, pp. 247–48.


88 Olson, “Recovering the Original Sequence of 1 Enoch 91–93”, JSP 11 (1993),
pp. 69–94.
89 See the evaluation of Olson’s reconstruction by Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, pp. 414–15.
90 For Olson’s arrangement of these fragments see “Recovering the Original Sequence of
1 Enoch 91–93”, p. 94 (Figure 2; bibl. in n. 88).
91 Thanks are due to Stephen Pfann for introducing me to the analysis of hair follicles
and for assistance in analysing these fragments. For a description of the method, see
Stephen J. Pfann, “298. 4QCryptA Words of the Maskil to All Sons of Dawn”, in ed.
Torleif Elgvin et al., Qumran Cave 4 XV: Sapiential Texts, Part I (DJD 20; Oxford:
Clarendon Press, 1997), pp. 1–30.
52 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

suggestion is, therefore, unlikely. Milik’s reconstruction, on the other hand,


while not thereby confirmed (in particular, the location of fragment a), is
more plausible.
If Milik’s reconstruction is correct, then we are left with a text that is
still not without problems in terms of structure. While an unbroken con-
tinuity of both the Apocalypse of Weeks and the foregoing Exhortation is
left intact, the opening of the Epistle (92:1–5) is in the Aramaic separated
from what follows, namely 93:11–14 or 94:1–105:2. In this case, the
opening section 92:1–5 may, on the one hand, be thought to be resumptive
of the Exhortation (cf. the parallels between 92:3 and 91:10, 18–19) or
to offer material that anticipates an inclusio near the end of the document
at 104:13 (“ways of uprightness”); on the other hand, the Apocalypse
of Weeks may be thought to supply in graded detail what 92:4–5 supplies
in more general terms of future reward for the righteous and destruction
of sin.
Regarding the extent of manuscript 4QEng, we may offer a final con-
sideration. The manuscript fragments themselves do not show any obvious
signs of having been rolled. This suggests that the preserved portions are
some distance from the end or beginning of the manuscript. If the extant
text is distant from the end, then there would have been sufficient space on
the manuscript to include the full length of the Epistle to follow. If, however,
the extant text is distant from the beginning of the manuscript, the manu-
script would have had sufficient room for a work of some size to have pre-
ceded the Exhortation. Literary-critical and tradition-historical consider-
ations suggest that such a work, if there at all, would most likely have been
the Book of Watchers (see Notes to 93:1a, c).

A.3. The Coptic. A parchment leaf from a 6th –7th century manuscript, in
which no other document except the Apocalypse is preserved, was dis-
covered in 1937 in the northern cemetery of Antinoë, Middle Egypt. The
text was eventually published in 1960 by Sergio Donadoni,92 whose study
could only make comparisons with the Ethiopic. Milik draws attention to
this fragment and presents a Latin translation given to him with comments
by Gerard Garitte.93 The text, inscribed of the lower page of two columns
on both sides of the fragment, only preserves the following parts of the
Apocalypse: (a) Recto, 93:3b–4a, 5ab and (b) Verso, 93:6c–7a, 8cd. Milik

92 Donadoni, “Un frammento della versione copta del ‘Libro di Enoch,’” Acta Orienta-
lia 25 (1960), pp. 197–202.
93 Milik, The Books of Enoch, pp. 80–81.
Division of Time 53

and Nickelsburg,94 appealing to the text at 93:3b, agree that the fragment,
the text of which goes back to a Greek predecessor, may preserve a text that
is closer to the Aramaic than the Ethiopic tradition. The codicological con-
text of the fragment remains unclear: while Milik supposes, with Donadoni,
that the codex originally included the Epistle,95 Nickelsburg rightly cau-
tions that one cannot know whether the fragment contained only the
Apocalypse or a longer piece from 1 Enoch such as the Epistle.96

B. Division of Time

The organisation of time occupies a central place in the Apocalypse. Its


sketch of history extends from a primordial era co-ordinated with the birth
of Enoch into an unending future. Within 1 Enoch the nearest counterpart
for the work is the Animal Apocalypse (ch.’s 85–90) which covers – in much
more detail – the same time span (though without mention of the limitless
eschaton). As is set forth below, the Apocalypse of Weeks may be regarded
as the earlier of the two documents.
Immediately apparent to readers is the writer’s special interest for the
numbers ten and seven which structure the account. The history itself is di-
vided into ten periods, each of which is labelled a “week”. This quantifiable
time is contrasted at the end by a further period – not identified as an elev-
enth era – which consists of “weeks without number” (91:17). The ten-fold
scheme is not without parallels. Though none of them offer any immediate
explanation for the writer’s scheme,97 they at least establish that the writer

94 Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 15.


95 Donadoni, “Un frammento”, p. 202 and Milik, The Books of Enoch, p. 81.
96 Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 15.
97 Collins (The Apocalyptic Imagination, p. 50), essentially followed by Nickelsburg
(1 Enoch 1, pp. 439–40), appeals to Sib. Or. 1–2 (1.65–124, 283–323; 2.6–38) and 4
(49–101); 11QMelchizedek; and 4Q180–181. It is hard to determine anything more
than a loose connection between the sources, though it is interesting that in these
writings the notion of ten eras combines with other schemes. For example, according
to the division of time in Sib. Or. 4, six generations are assigned to Assyrian rule
(49–53), two to that of the Medes (54–64), one to the Persians (65–87) and one to the
Macedonians (88–101). Unlike the Apoc. of Weeks, this integration of a four-king-
dom scheme into ten eras does not include the future. The reference in 4Q180 1.2
(“un]til he begat Isaac; ten h[…”; par. 4Q181 2.1 has only “he begat ]Isaac”) is un-
certain and may refer only to a period between Noah and Abraham. However, 4Q181
2.3 does mention “seventy weeks”, yielding a possible combination of the numbers
ten and seventy (see below). 11QMelchizedek ii 7–8 provides a more promising par-
54 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

of Apocalypse of Weeks was adapting a more widespread ten-fold period-


isation for his own purposes. It is interesting that the writer chose not to
conclude the account of eschatological events at the end of week seven, but
rather added an additional three periods (plus the unlimited time) to round
out the scheme in week ten.
In the Apocalypse the significance of the number of seven (or its
multiple) is apparent in three ways. First, the writer’s scheme of ten weeks
presupposes a more detailed scheme in which they are further subdivided
into seven parts each (i.e. 10 weeks X 7 parts each = 70). This is implied in
the co-ordination of events with the “seventh (part)” in the weeks one
(93:3, the birth of Enoch) and ten (91:15, the eternal judgement against the
watchers of heaven). The immediate influence behind a seventy-fold period-
isation of history is not clear.98 Collins has proposed that the writer of the
Apocalypse may have been elaborating “the seventy generations” during
which, according to 1 Enoch 10:12, the fallen angels are to be bound.99 The
correlation between the Apocalypse and the Book of Watchers, however, is
not precise. Whereas the period of the angels’ incarceration extends from
the time of the Great Flood until the time of eschatological punishment,
the Apocalypse is more comprehensively concerned with the ante-diluvian
period, on the one side (cf. 93:3), and with a period following the great
judgement, on the other (cf. 91:15–16, 17). Several biblical texts show
an interest in the number seventy,100 most notably Jeremiah’s reference to

allel: after mentioning a ninth jubilee, the text refers to a “da]y [of ato]nement” that
will occur at “the e[nd of] the tenth [ju]bilee”. Of possible interest here is the combi-
nation of the overarching number of ten which, as a jubilee, is further subdivided into
a multiple of seven (forty-nine). However, if the tenth jubilee in this work coincides
with the eschaton, then its scheme does not stretch as far as that of the Apoc. of
Weeks. Further afield, Collins (“Sibylline Oracles”, OTP 1.332, 345) notes that the
tenfold division is preserved throughout the Bahman Yašt (Zand-I Vohuman Yasn);
Virgil, Eclogue 4.4 (“the last age” is specified as the tenth in the commentary by Ser-
vius around 400 C.E.); in the opening passages of the Tg. Esth. I and Tg. Esth. II; in
Pirqe R. El. 11; and in Sib. Or. 7.97 and 8.199.
98 For accessible overviews of other attempts in the ancient world to periodize history
into fixed times (Persian systems; Dan. 2 and 7; Hesiod’s Theogony and Works and
Days; Berossus), see especially Hengel, Judaism and Hellenism, pp. 181–96 and Van-
derKam, Enoch and the Growth of Apocalyptic Tradition, pp. 154–56.
99 Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination, p. 65.
100 See esp. the discussions by Yarbro Collins, “Numerical Symbolism in Apocalyptic
Literature”, pp. 1222–87; VanderKam, Enoch and the Growth of Apocalyptic Tradi-
tion, pp. 156–57; Adler, “The Apocalyptic Survery of History”, pp. 202–217; and,
more generally, Collins, Apocalypticism in the Dead Sea Scrolls, pp. 52–56.
Division of Time 55

“seventy years” as the duration for the Babylonian exile in 25:11–12 and
29:10. These words are interpreted in 2 Chronicles 36:21 as “seventy years
of rest” in the land during the time of its desolation. Similarly, Zechariah
1:12–17 assigns a length of seventy years to the duration of the Temple’s
ruined state (and therefore of sorrow; cf. 7:5), though the text adds the
detail that after this period the Temple will be rebuilt (1:16).
More contemporary traditions may provide closer analogies. Signifi-
cantly, in Daniel 9 the seventy years of Jeremiah are explicitly reinterpreted
as seventy “weeks of years”, that is, a period of 490 years that extend from
the time of the exile in 586 BCE until the writer’s present (the end of the
sixty-second week, i.e. 434 years) and beyond (8 × 7 = 56 years). Analogous
to Daniel, the writer of the Apocalypse applies a scheme which includes
both (mostly) past events and projects onto the future. Moreover, in the
Animal Apocalypse of the Enoch tradition, the number seventy is applied to
the shepherds appointed to rule from a time of deteriorating conditions at
the beginning of the exile (Jehoiakim) until the eschaton (1 En. 89:59–64).
It is not clear, however, whether the text implies a division into seventy units
of time, as the periodisation more readily falls under a fourfold scheme
of successive phases.101 Furthermore, it is possible that “seventy weeks”
(4Q181 2.3) – that is, 490 years – are mentioned in the “pesher on the peri-
ods” (4Q180 1.1) which “is engraved on [heavenly] tablets” (4Q180 1.3;
cf. 1 En. 93:2g), provided that the manuscripts 4Q180 and 4Q181 derive
from the same work.102 If the smaller units consist of ten generations (see
n. 97 above), then ten sub-periods of forty-nine years each is integrated into
the scheme seventy weeks. While analogous to the Apocalypse of Weeks,
this scheme assigns the ten-fold division to the periods of shorter duration.
Two further documents that contain or presuppose a scheme of 490 years
may be similar to 4Q180–181: (1) a so-called Apocryphon of Jeremiah
(4Q383–384, 385a–b, 387b, 389a) which in 4Q387b 2 ii 3–4 (par. 4Q385a
4.1) refers to “ten jubilees of years” (10 × 49 = 490 years), a period marked
by walking “in madness, blindness and confusion”, and (2) a work pre-
served in 4Q390 which, labelled by Dimant as a Pseudo Moses,103 subdi-

101 See Hengel, Judaism and Hellenism, pp. 187–88; Tiller, Commentary on the Animal
Apocalypse, pp. 324–57: (1) exile; (2) Persian rule; (3) Ptolemaic rule; and (4) Seleu-
cid rule.
102 For the argument that these manuscripts overlap, see Milik, The Books of Enoch,
pp. 248–52, while this identification is questioned by Dimant, “The ‘Pesher on the
Periods’ (4Q180) and (4Q181)”, IOS 9 (1979), pp. 77–102.
103 See Dimant, “New Light from Qumran on the Jewish Pseudepigrapha – 4Q390”, in
eds. J. Trebolle Barrera and L. Vegas Montaner, The Madrid Qumran Congress: Pro-
56 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

vides what appears to be 490 years into four periods (as Anim. Apoc.).104
Finally, it has been argued that the Damascus Document, similar to Daniel,
draws on a 490-year scheme (= seventy weeks of years) that extends from
the time of the exile until the writer’s present. The allusion is, however,
only implied and relies on the sum of eras expressly mentioned in the text
(390 + 20 + 40 years) plus an estimate of the duration of the activities of the
Teacher of Righteousness (40 years).105 If there is any correspondence
between the more detailed texts just reviewed and the Apocalypse of Weeks,
the author of the latter may presuppose a 490-year scheme within the
seventh week (93:9–10) which begins after the exile (93:8) and extends into
and just beyond the writer’s present.
The fact that the author of the Apocalypse passes over most of the minute
breakdown of the underlying seventy periods casts the spotlight on the signifi-
cance of the events he has selected for his account (see the section C below).
Second, the seventh week is pivotal for the writer. Though the name of
Enoch is used to “predict” the entire history, the writer – from his own van-
tage point – attributes past events to the first seven weeks of the scheme,
while describing the imminent future under weeks seven through ten. In
other words, week seven represents for him the crucial transition from the
recent past and present, marked by a “wicked generation” and the appear-

ceedings of the International Congress on the Dead Sea Scrolls (STDJ, 2; Leiden: Brill,
1992), pp. 405–447; “The Seventy Weeks Chronology (Dan 9,24–27) in the Light of
the New Qumranic Texts”, in ed. A. S. van der Woude, The Book of Daniel in the
Light of New Findings (BETL, 106; Leuven: Leuven University Press and Peeters
Press, 1993), esp. pp. 65–71, and her edition in DJD 30, pp. 237–54.
104 These subperiods in 4Q390 derive from references to (1) seventy years of wayward-
ness during the exile by the Aaronic priesthood (1.2–3); (2) a period lasting until the
seventh jubilee (i.e. 343 years) after the destruction of the First Temple (1.7–8); (3)
seven years during which the priesthood forgot “the law” (qvx ), “the festival” (divm ),
“the sabbath” (tb> ) and “the covenant” (tyrb ) and when, because of this, the Jews
were handed over to persecution (i.e. by Antiochus; 1.8 and 2.4); and (4) seventy
years of rule by the Hasmoneans associated with “the angels of Mastemot” (2 i 6–7).
For the observation of the 490-year scheme in 4Q390, see esp. Hanan Eshel,
“4Q390, the 490-Year Prophecy, and the Calendrical History of the Second Temple
Period”, in ed. Gabriele Boccaccini, Enoch and Qumran Origins (Grand Rapids:
Eerdmans, 2005), pp. 102–110 and Cana Werman, “Epochs and End-Time: The
490-Year Scheme in Second Temple Literature”, DJD 13 (2006), pp. 229–55.
105 Cf. Vermes, An Introduction to the Complete Dead Sea Scrolls (London: SCM Press,
1999), pp. 136–38; Collins, Apocalyticism in the Dead Sea Scrolls, pp. 55–56; and
Loren T. Stuckenbruck, “The Formation and Re-Formation of Daniel in the Dead Sea
Scrolls”, in ed. James H. Charlesworth, The Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls. Volume
One: Scripture and the Scrolls (Waco: Baylor University Press, 2006), pp. 124–25.
Outline and Content 57

ance of “the chosen righteous” (93:9), to an imminent destruction of


sinners by the sword (91:11). The seventh week receives the lengthiest treat-
ment in the work, and it is here that its Sitz im Leben is to be found.106
Third, in the seventh and tenth weeks, the text describes “sevenfold”
conditions associated with salvific activity. In week seven this characterises
the revelatory instruction received by the specially elect community. The
septant multiple, which connotes the complete sufficiency of revelation for
the righteous community’s salvation, co-ordinates well with the reversal
from wickedness in the seventh week and the introduction of punishment to
be inflicted on the wicked. In week ten “sevenfold” describes the degree
to which heavenly bodies will shine when the final judgement has been
executed.

C. Outline and Content

As noted in the previous section, the sketchiness of the review of history


in the Apocalypse highlights the degree to which it is the product of the
writer’s reductionistic choices. The Apocalypse thus lends itself easily to the
identification and analysis of patterns around which the key ideas of the
work are organised. The selection of events and the character of each week
is illustrated by the following synopsis:

Week People and Events Character


Past to Present birth of Enoch Justice and
One righteousness
Two Rise of evil; sprouting of evil Evil
The first end (the Great Flood)
Man (Noah) is rescued Deliverance
Growth of iniquity
Law given for sinners
Three A man (Abraham) chosen as plant of righteous- Election and
ness righteousness
Four Visions of holy and righteous ones (Righteousness)
Giving of a law for every generation
(Mosaic Torah)
Enclosure (tabernacle) made for them
Five House of glory and royalty (Temple) built unto (Righteousness)
eternity

106 Dexinger, Zehnwochenapokalypse, p. 133.


58 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

Week People and Events Character


Six The blind fall away from wisdom (Evil)
A man (Elijah) ascends Deliverance
House of the kingdom (Temple) burned
Whole family of the chosen root scattered
(exile)
Seven Rise of wicked generation Evil
Election of the chosen from the eternal plant of Righteousness and
righteousness election
Sevenfold instruction revealed
Future
Uprooting of oppression Judgement
Destruction of sinners
Eight Judgement on oppressors and sinners by the Righteousness and
righteous judgement
Righteous obtain possessions
Temple of the Great King built in glory for ever
Nine Disclosure of the righteous judgement to the Righteousness and
whole world judgement
The works of the wicked written down for
destruction
All people look to the way of uprightness
Ten Eternal judgement Righteousness and
Judgement against the watchers and among the judgement
angels
Disappearance of the first heaven
Appearance of a new heaven
Every power of heaven shines sevenfold for ever
Weeks without Goodness and righteousness Righteousness
number Sin no longer exists

Within the scheme, several patterns may be noticed, among which the follow-
ing stand out:107 (a) The history begins and ends with righteousness (Endzeit
is resumptive of Urzeit). Thus the final state of things in week ten (and the

107 Cf. esp. Dexinger, Zehnwochenapokalypse, pp. 117–41; VanderKam, “Studies in the
Apocalypse of Weeks”; Stephen B. Reid, “The Structure of the Ten-Week Apocalypse
and the Book of Dream Visions”, JSJ 16 (1985), pp. 190–95; Günther Reese, Die
Geschichte Israels in der Auffassung des frühen Judentums. Eine Untersuchung der
Tiervision und der Zehnwochenapokalypse des äthiopischen Henochbuches, der Ge-
schichtsdarstellung der Assumptio Mosis und der des 4Esrabuches (BBB, 123; Berlin:
Philo Verlagsgesellschaft, 1999), pp. 54–69; and Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, pp. 438–39.
Outline and Content 59

weeks without number) marks a return, though within a new cosmic order, to
the state of things from the time of creation to Enoch’s birth. (b) The rise of
evil in week two has its counterpart in the rise of the wicked generation at the
start of week seven. The writer thus regards the wicked of his time as follow-
ing the pattern of the rise of wickedness before the flood (cf. the Exhortation
91:5–6; Birth of Noah 106:19–107:1). (c) The narrative contains several re-
versals. Within week seven the oppressed community of the righteous be-
come those who punish their oppressors (93:9 and 91:11). The First Temple
(week five), which was burned (week six), is restored or rebuilt (week eight).
Here, the writer bypasses the existence of the Second Temple of his day. (d)
The relation between the election recounted in week three (Abraham, the
plant of righteousness) and the election mentioned in week seven (the chosen
from the eternal plant of righteousness) involves a reduction. The “wicked
generation” at the start of week seven denotes apostatising members of Israel,
while the chosen elect ones of that week are the true heirs of Abrahamic elec-
tion. Finally, (e) three weeks juxtapose evil and righteousness: the weeks
which are marked out by a surge of evil (two, six, seven) are also described as
eras of salvific activity for a minority: week two – Noah (cf. Bk. of Watchers
10:1–3), week six – Elijah, and week seven – the chosen from the eternal
plant of righteousness. Building on the foregoing pattern of the previous
weeks, the writer thus assures the righteous community of the imminence of
their salvation, despite the predominance of evil during their time.
The future is envisaged as the establishment of divine rule on earth
(weeks eight and nine, 91:12–14), followed by the establishment of a “new
heaven” after an eternal judgement (91:15–16). The writer, then, looks
forward to a transparent reversal of fortunes for the righteous on earth –
and this, without any agency of a messianic figure.108 This expectation may

108 As generally recognised e.g. by U. B. Müller, Messias und Menschensohn in jüdischen


Apokalypsen und in der Offenbarung Johannes (SNTU, 6. Gütersloh: Gütersloher
Verlagshaus, 1972), pp. 62–65; Pierre Grelot, L’Espérance juive à l’heure de Jésus
(Paris: Desclée de Brouwer, 1978), pp. 50–51; L. Joseph Kreitzer, Jesus and God in
Paul’s Eschatology (JSNT Supplement Series, 19; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press,
1987), pp. 34–37, 86–87; Paolo Sacchi, “Ethiopic Enoch and the Problem of Medi-
ation”, in idem, Jewish Apocalyptic and Its History (JSP Supplements, 20; Sheffield:
Sheffield Academic Press, 1996), pp. 141–49; Marius Reiser, Die Gerichtspredigt
Jesu. Eine Untersuchung zur eschatologischen Verkündigung Jesu und ihrem früh-
jüdischen Hintergrund (NTA, 23. Münster: Aschendorff, 1990), p. 47; Rubin Rubin-
kiewicz, “Reich Gottes im frühjüdischen Schrifttum als Hintergrund der ntl. Basileia-
Verkündigung”, Collectanea theologica 64 (1994), p. 21; Reese, Die Geschichte
Israels in der Auffassung des frühen Judentums, pp. 54–69.
60 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

also be reflected in the Epistle 105:1–2, but seems to conflict with the con-
sistent emphasis on eschatological reversal following the great judgement in
the main body of the Epistle.109

D. Date

Recently, only Milik has advanced the argument that the Apocalypse of
Weeks was composed at the end of the 2nd or beginning of the 1st century
BCE,110 while most scholars have dated the work to just before or during
the Maccabean revolt (see below). Milik’s view seems to adopt Charles’ dat-
ing for the Epistle to the early 1st century (i.e. 95–79 or 70–64 BCE)111 as a
point of departure, and regards this as consistent with (a) the mid-1st cen-
tury date of the manuscript 4QEng and (b) with the lack of evidence that the
Apocalypse existed independently from the Epistle. This view is problem-
atic for two related reasons which assume that the real future of the author
was anticipated after the last recognisable historical events in the seventh
week. First, the latest possible historical allusion in the seventh week is con-
cerned with events surrounding the Maccabean revolt (cf. 91:11). Second,
and more significantly, in the Apocalypse there is no decipherable allusion
to any occurrence following this period.
It has been much more common to date the work to sometime during the
first third of the 2nd century BCE.112 Considerations that lead in this direc-
tion consist of the following: the terminus ante quem of the mid-1st century
BCE, set by the date of 4QEng; the terminus post quem set by the date of the
Book of Watchers (no later than the 3rd century BCE) to which the Apoca-

109 On this distinction, see esp. Kreitzer, Jesus and God in Paul’s Eschatology, p. 35 (bibl.
in n. 108).
110 Milik, The Books of Enoch, pp. 255–56. Jeanie P. Thorndike’s attempt to relate the his-
tory outlined in the Apocalypse to the Qumran community (“The Apocalypse of Weeks
and the Qumran Sect”, RevQ 3 [1961–1962], pp. 163–84) implies a similar date, but is
predicated on so many questionable assumptions that it does not hold up to scrutiny.
111 Charles, The Book of Enoch, pp. liii and 222.
112 E.g. Beer, “Das Buch Henoch”, p. 230; Martin, Le Livre d’Hénoch, pp. xciv-xcv;
Charles, The Book of Enoch, p. liii (“before the Maccabean revolt”) and “Book of
Enoch”, pp. 170–71; Hengel, Judaism and Hellenism, pp. 168 and 176 (and n. 459);
Dexinger, Zehnwochenapokalypse, pp. 137–40 (and bibl.); VanderKam, Enoch and
the Growth of Apocalyptic Tradition, pp. 142–49 and “Studies in the Apocalypse of
Weeks”, pp. 521–22; García Martínez, Qumran and Apocalyptic, esp. pp. 90–91;
Black, The Book of Enoch, p. 288; Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, pp. 440–41; Knibb, “The
Apocalypse of Weeks and the Epistle of Enoch”, p. 217.
Date 61

lypse alludes; and a likely allusion to the Apocalypse in Jubilees 4:18 ac-
cording to which Enoch, with respect to “the generations of the earth” re-
counted “their weeks according to their jubilees”.113
In relation to this earlier period, different views have been expressed,
depending on how the references to the vengeance of the righteous against
the wicked are construed in 91:11–12 (esp. 91:12, since the Aram. text of
4QEng to 91:11 does not refer to a “sword”). On the one hand, Dexinger
has argued that 91:12, which falls in the eighth week, furnishes reason to
date the Apocalypse “zu Beginn der makkabäischen Kämpfe … etwa im
Jahre 166 v. Chr.” Such precision is based on situating the composition after
the revolt had gotten underway (i.e. in 167 CE) and before the reconstitu-
tion of the Temple cult by Judas Maccabeus (i.e. on 25th of the month Chis-
lev 164 CE).114 It is not clear, however, whether the reference in 91:12 to
“the sword” is a historical allusion. If the seventh week symbolises the con-
clusion to the writer’s history (past and present), then one may expect the
eighth week to be concerned with the future. Furthermore, the language of
destruction by “the sword” is traditional and can be argued to have its
background in the Hebrew Bible (cf. Note to 91:12b). On the other hand,
others – for example, Hengel, VanderKam, García Martínez, Black, Nick-
elsburg and Knibb (bibl. in n. 112) – have rightly noted the absence in the
text of any mention of the persecution by Antiochus. Even if one takes the

113 Concerning the date of Jubilees to the 160’s to the mid-2nd cent. BCE, see section C
(Date and Social Setting) in the Introduction to the Epistle below.
114 Dexinger, Zehnwochenapokalypse, pp. 137–40 (esp. pp. 139–40, including a thor-
ough overview of proposals). See also Black, The Book of Enoch, p. 288 and Kreitzer,
Jesus and God in Paul’s Eschatology, p. 35 (bibl. in n. 108). The calculations by Koch,
based on his compression of events in each of the first seven weeks to durations
of 490 years, leads him to posit a date of 164 C.E.; cf. Koch, “Die mysteriosen
Zahlen der judäischen Könige und die apokalyptischen Jahrwochen”, VT 28 (1978),
pp. 433–441 and esp. “Sabbatstruktur der Geschichte: Die sogenannte Zehn-Wo-
chen-Apokalypse (1Hen 93, 1–10; 91, 11–17)”, ZAW 95 (1983), pp. 403–430. For
all its intricacy, Koch’s division of time is too schematic to apply to each of the peri-
ods. For overviews regarding other proposals to determine the length of each of the
weeks, see Charles, The Book of Enoch, p. 228 (Hoffmann, Wieseler: 700 years
each); D. S. Russell, The Method and Message of Apocalyptic (Philadelphia: West-
minster Press, 1964), p. 227; Dexinger, Zehnwochenapokalypse, pp. 118–20 (Milik,
Hoffmann); VanderKam, Enoch and the Growth of Apocalyptic Tradition, p. 157;
and Elliott, The Survivors of Israel: A Reconsideration of the Theology of Pre-Chris-
tian Judaism (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000), p. 529, who argue instead for periods
of varying lengths. The writer’s selection of important events, more than strictly
mathematical reckoning, seem to have determined the shape of his scheme.
62 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

selectiveness of the Apocalypse into account, why would an event of such


importance (not least to the writer’s community) have been overlooked?
The apostate “wicked generation” mentioned in 93:9a seems rather to refer
to more generally to those Jews whose “many deeds” the writer regarded as
reprehensible. The most natural setting for such an incursion may be associ-
ated with the Hellenising reforms in Jerusalem that followed the beginning
of Antioch IV Epiphanes’ reign (i.e. ca. 175–170 BCE).
The Apocalypse of Weeks, therefore, may be confidently dated to before
the composition of the Animal Apocalypse which alludes both to the Seleu-
cid persecution and to the Maccabean revolt.115

E. Authorship and Relation to the Epistle and Exhortation

The question of who wrote the Apocalypse of Weeks has been discussed in
the context of the document’s relationship to the Epistle. While a number of
scholars have argued that both works may have been composed by one and
the same author, there is reason to think otherwise. Of course, the difference
in genre between the vaticinium ex eventu prophecy of the Apocalypse, the
testamentary frame of the Epistle and the alternating invectives and exhor-
tations in the body of the Epistle do not in themselves lead to a conjecture of
common authorship. However, while the Apocalypse looks like a self-con-
tained unit,116 VanderKam, for example, has reasoned “that is not to say
that it once existed independently”, and goes on to support this argument on
the basis of traits which the Apocalypse and Epistle (and Exhortation) hold
in common.117 Because of the weight accorded to these similarities, Vander-
Kam’s list, expanded by further traits (points d, e, f, and g), is given below:

(a) Contrast between the righteous and sinners


Sinners – Apocalypse 93:4, 9; 91:11–12, 14
Epistle 94:5, 11; 95:2–3, 7; 96:1–2, 4; 97:1–4, 7;
98:4, 6, 10; 99:2–3, 6; 100:3–4, 7, 9; 101:7, 9;
102:3, 5–6, 9; 103:5, 11; 104:5–7, 10

115 See the discussion in Tiller, A Commentary on the Animal Apocalypse, pp. 61–82: the
Anim. Apoc. is “no earlier than 165 BCE”, given allusions to Judas Maccabeus’ vic-
tories over Apollonius and Seron (166 BCE) in 90:12 and before the battle of Beth-zur
(164 BCE), while the addition of 90:13–15 does not yet mention Judas’ death and
therefore may be dated to before 160 BCE.
116 See esp. the discussion by Dexinger, Zehnwochenapokalypse, pp. 102–109 (esp. p. 106).
117 VanderKam, Enoch and the Growth of Apocalyptic Tradition, p. 145.
Authorship and Relation to the Epistle and Exhortation 63

Righteous ones –
Apocalypse 93:10 (cf. 93:6); 91:17; 93:2 (“sons of
righteousness”)
Exhortation 91:2 (but cf. Translation and Note to
91:2a) and 91:10 (cf. 92:3)
Epistle 92:3 (cf. 91:10), 4; 94:3, 11; 95:3, 7; 96:1, 4,
8; 97:1, 3, 5; 98:12–14; 99:3, 16; 100:5, 7, 11;
102:4, 6, 10; 103:2, 9; 104:1, 6, 12–13
(b) Contrast between righteousness/uprightness and wickedness/iniquity
Righteousness/Uprightness –
Apocalypse 93:2–3, 5, 10; 91:12–13, 14 (path of), 17
Exhortation 91:4, 18–19 (paths of; cf. 92:3)
Epistle 92:1, 3 (paths of cf. 91:18), 4; 94:1, 4; 99:10;
102:4; 103:3–4; 104:9–10, 12–13; 105:2 (paths
of)
Unrighteousness/Wickedness/Iniquity –
Apocalypse 93:4; 91:11
Exhortation 91:5–8, 18–19 (paths of; cf. 94:2–3)
Epistle 94:1, 2–3 (paths of cf. 91:18–19), 6, 9; 95:2;
96:7; 97:6, 8, 10; 98:11–12; 99:1, 15; 100:5, 8;
102:10; 104:9
(c) Heavenly tablets
Apocalypse 93:2
Epistle 103:2
(d) Disclosure formula
“I make known to you”
Apocalypse 93:2
Exhortation 91:3
Epistle 94:10 (cf. 97:2; 98:12 Grk)
(e) Punishment of sinners by the sword
Apocalypse 91:11 (Eth.), 12 (by the righteous)
Epistle 94:7; 99:16
(f) Removal of deeds of the wicked
Apocalypse 91:14
Epistle 97:6
(g) Final conversion/understanding of humanity
Apocalypse 91:14
Exhortation 91:10 (Aram.; cf. Textual Note)
Epistle 100:6; 105:1–2
64 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

The similarities just listed need not be overinterpreted. The contrasts in (a)
and (b) are conventional and thus may be explained as the shared reception
of widespread traditions. Moreover, “the sinners” in the body of the Epistle is
a label applied mostly to a particular group opposed to the author’s commu-
nity. The application of this terminology in the Apocalypse, on the other
hand, is less specific and more akin to its use in the frame of the Epistle
(cf. 94:5; 104:10). Similarly, the phrase “sons of righteousness” in the Apoca-
lypse (93:2a) is less of a descriptive categorical contrast to the wicked than
“the righteous” are throughout the Epistle (cf. Note to 93:2a). With respect
to the instruction of the two-ways (91:14, 18–19, 92:3, 94:2–3 and 105:2),
the correlation pertains to the Exhortation and frame (but not body) of the
Epistle and, even where it exists, the motif need suggest no more than a tradi-
tion held in common by the Enochic adherents behind the works. Point (c)
may be significant, as the reference to heavenly tablets in 81:1 may be later
(cf. section B.2.d in the volume Introduction). However, the motif is wide-
spread (cf. Note to 93:2g), and the possibility of independent authorship
remains. The context for (d) is different: in the Apocalypse the disclosure for-
mula in 93:2 occurs in a testamentary setting while in the body of the Epistle
at 94:10 it introduces a prophetic oracle directed against the wealthy. The
(eschatological) destruction of sinners by the sword (e) is carried out by the
righteous as an act of vengeance in the Apocalypse; the Epistle does not spec-
ify the righteous as agents at this point, though a similar execution of justice
is implied in 98:12. Again, however, we have to do with a widespread tradi-
tion (see Note to 91:12b). The removal of wicked deeds (f) may be explained
as common dependence on the Book of Watchers (10:16). Finally, the final re-
percussions of Enochic revelation on humanity as a whole (g) are differently
conceived in 91:14, 100:6 and 105:1–2, with the Apocalypse showing the
influence of the Book of Watchers (cf. 10:21, to which the notion of “path of
uprightness” is added) and the latter two coming more under the influence of
biblical tradition in the way they validate Enochic wisdom through its escha-
tological acceptance among the Gentiles (see the Notes to these passages).
In conclusion, the similarities just discussed show that there would be no
reason to question the ideological interrelatedness of the Apocalypse and
the literary context within which it is embedded. At a very early stage, the
Apocalypse was welded into this context by editorial seams that juxtaposed
several themes held in common with the frame of the Epistle, on the one
hand, and the Exhortation, on the other (esp. testamentary two-ways ex-
hortation). At the same time, the shared traits of the writings show up dif-
ferences – especially between the Apocalypse and the body of the Epistle –
that are not as easy to account for if one simply posits that the same auth-
orical hand lies behind them.
1 Enoch 93:1–2 65

COMMENTARY

Opening Words (93:1–2)

(1) And after this, it came to pass that Enoch was speaking from the books,
(2) and Enoch said, “Concerning the sons of righteousness and concerning
the eternally chosen ones and concerning the plant of uprightness, these
things I will say to you and make known to you, my children, I myself,
Enoch, according to what was shown to me from a heavenly vision, and
from the words of the holy angels I have learned, and from the heavenly
tablets I have understood.”

Textual Notes
Ethiopic: (1) “And after this” (wa-’em-dexra-ze) – Abb 55 has wa-’em-ze;
Tana spells deficiently wa-’em-dera-ze wa- (lit. “and after this, and”); Berl
reads only wa-’em-dexra (“and after”). // “It came to pass (that) Enoch was
speaking” (kona henok yetnaggar; Tana 9, Abb 35, EMML 6281) – Ryl,
Ull and Eth. II mss. read kona henok wa’axaza yetnaggar (“it came to
pass that Enoch began to speak”); BM 491 reads henok kona yetnaggar
(“Enoch was speaking”); EMML 2080 reads only ’ahaza henok yetnaggar
(“Enoch began to speak”); BM 485 reads wahabani henok wa-’ahazani
henok yetnaggar (“Enoch transmitted and Enoch began to speak”); Abb 55
reads only wahabani henok (“Enoch transmitted”); EMML 1768 reads
wahabani henok yetnaggar (“he transmitted to me, Enoch, saying”);
Berl reads wahabani-ze henok yetnar (sic!) (“Enoch transmitted this,
saying”). The verb ’axaza (lit. “he seized”) may reflect an underlying
* ναλαβ ν (followed by *τν παραβολν “the parable” [cf. Cod. Pan.
to 1 En. 1:1] instead of *παρ βιβλν “from the books”) which would
correspond, in turn, to Aram. bcn (“he took”; cf. 4QEng 1 iii 23 to 93:3:
rmXv hltm „vnx bxn , “Enoch took up his parable and said”118). (2) “And
concerning the eternally chosen ones” (wa-ba’enta xeruyana ‘alam) –
omitted in Abb 55; Tana 9 has wa-ba’enta xeruyan ‘alam; and Ull has
wa-ba’enta xeruyan la-‘alam (“and concerning those who are chosen
forever”). // “The plant of uprightness” (takla ret‘; Tana 9 ret‘a,
EMML 2080, BM 485, BM 491, Abb 35, EMML 1768, EMML 6281
takl) – Berl reads takla sedq (“plant of righteousness”; cf. 93:5, 10); and Ryl
and Eth. II mss. conflate the readings to takla sedqa wa-ret‘ (“the plant of

118 See the discussion by Knibb on the wording of 93:1 and 3 in The Ethiopic Book of
Enoch, 2.223.
66 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

righteousness and uprightness”). // “And make known to you” (wa-


’ayda‘kukemu, pf.; Tana 9, EMML 2080, BM 491, Abb 35, Abb 55,
EMML 1768, EMML 6281) – Berl, BM 485, Ryl and Eth. II mss. read the
impf. causative form wa-’ayadde‘kemu. // “I myself” (’ana we’etu) –
BM 491 reads only ’ana (“I”). // “According to what was shown me” (ba-za
’astar’ayani) – EMML 2080 corrupts to ba-za-’enta re‘yani (“according to
what he saw (sic!) me”); Abb 55 reads ’ar’ayani (“he showed me”). //
“From a heavenly vision” (’em-ra’ya samay) – Tana 9 and EMML 6281
have ’em-ra’y samay; Abb 55 reads ba-samay. // “And from the words of”
(wa-’em-qala) – Berl reads wa-’ella (“and those of”). // “Holy angels” (qe-
dusan mala’ekt) – Abb 55 reads only qedusan (“the holy ones”). // “And
from” (wa-’emmena) – BM 485 reads without the conj. ’emmena (“from”);
Abb 35, Abb 55, EMML 1768, Ryl and Eth. II mss. have wa-’em-.

Aramaic: (1) rmX hltm „vn [x (4QEng 1 iii 18) – following the Eth., I recon-
struct bcn hnd rtb ]mv, “and after this E]noch[ took up] his parable, say-
ing”. Nickelsburg and Koch restore the following: bcn hvh hrtb ]mv (“and
after it he was taking up”), while Milik has bcn htrgX bhy ydkv (“and when
he gave his letter, he took up”).119 (2) Xu>vqv ] Xtbjy / tbjn ]mv [ (4QEng 1 iii
19–20) – reconstructed with Nickelsburg, lit. “and concerning the plant of
stability [and truth”); the verb in Milik’s restoration of the phrase120 bears
no affinity with Eth. mss.: Xu>vqv ] Xtbjy tbjn ]m v [qlc (“who have grown
up] from …”). The meaning of “concerning” or “in relation to” for ]m
poses no problem.121 // hnX yn [b t ]yzxX „vnx / Xvh (4QEng 1 iii 20–21), “my
[sons], I myself, Enoch, was show[n”. // ]tidy Xlk hnX / ]y>dqv ]yryi rmm
(4QEng 1 iii 21–22), “]the word of watchers and holy ones, I knew every-
thing[”. // t [nnvbtXv ty ]rq X [lk (4QEng 1 iii 22), “every]thing [I] rea[d and
understood]”.

General Comment
Some discussion has been devoted to whether or not 93:1–2 constitutes the
original beginning of the Apocalypse. Whereas Charles and Nickelsburg

119 Milik’s reconstruction (The Books of Enoch, p. 263) is inconsistent with his view that
the lacuna to 92:1 (4QEng 1 ii 23–24), which in the manuscript precedes the Apoc. of
Weeks, would not have contained an opening reference to the Epistle as a “letter”
(hrgX ); cf. Note to 92:1a.
120 Milik, The Books of Enoch, pp. 263–64.
121 See Beyer, Die aramäischen Texte vom Toten Meer, p. 627; Die aramäischen Texte
vom Toten Meer Band 2, p. 434; cf. Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 435.
1 Enoch 93:1–2 67

think that the work opens at 93:1,122 Dexinger has assigned the beginning
to 92:1123 while Black places it at 93:3.124 The text of 92:1, however, serves
better to introduce another work, such as the Epistle, than the Apoca-
lypse.125 Moreover, if one has the Apocalypse begin at 93:3, then verses 1–2
are rendered as unnecessary to the vision itself, and, on the level of the
Ethiopic, must be regarded as a secondary attempt to provide a brief nar-
rative setting that anticipates (i.e. summarises) what follows. However, 93:3
would be an unusually short introduction, if that were its purpose. Instead,
it serves best as a transition from the introduction relating to the trans-
mission of Enoch’s revelation in verses 1–2 to the beginning of the revel-
ation itself. In other words, verse 3 is integral to the text more as a transi-
tional sentence from narrative opening to content of the vision than as an
opening to the vision itself.
The writing is concerned with readers whose character is elaborated by
means of several designations: “sons of righteousness”, “eternally chosen
ones”, “plant of uprightness” and “my children”.126 It is not clear, however,
that these designations are intended as equivalents in a strict sense.127 In this
elaboration, the Apocalypse goes beyond the single designation “chosen
ones” used in the parallel text at the outset of the Book of Watchers (1 En.
1:2), though the addressees in the Book of Watchers are given similar names
(“chosen ones” – 1:1–2, 8; “righteous ones” – 1:1; “plant of truth and
righteousness” – 10:16). Thus it may said that three of the names occur
in similar forms in the Book of Watchers. Moreover, all three resonate with

122 See Charles, “Book of Enoch”, p. 262; Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, pp. 434 and 441.
Milik, The Books of Enoch, pp. 255–56, circumvents discussion of the source-critical
problem altogether by asserting that “No serious evidence exists to disprove that the
author of this Apocalypse of Weeks is the same author as composed the rest of the
Epistle, towards the end of the second century or at the beginning of the first century
B.C.”
123 Dexinger, Zehnwochenapokalypse, pp. 106–109, who chooses 92:1 over 93:1 as the
preferable original introduction to the Apoc. of Weeks, regarding the latter as redac-
tional.
124 Black, The Book of Enoch, pp. 287–88, without providing any explanation.
125 See Reid, “The Ten-Week Apocalypse and the Book of Dreams”, p. 190 (bibl. in
n. 107).
126 The Aramaic of 4QEng is incompatible with “plant” being a third designation, since
it is preceded by “from”; cf. the reading in the Textual Note above and Milik’s pro-
posed restoration, which links the second and third elements by having the chosen
ones stem from the plant (cf. 93:10).
127 See Patrick A. Tiller, “The ‘Eternal Planting’ in the Dead Sea Scrolls”, DSD 4 (1997),
p. 319.
68 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

recurring language in the main body of the Apocalypse itself (93:3–10;


91:11–17). Finally, as the discussion below shall make clear, there is no rea-
son to link any of these expressions with a closed sectarian group.128
Enoch’s identification of the recipients of his vision as “my children” has
no parallel in the Book of Watchers. This communication of instruction
from father to offspring is consistent with a testamentary setting; with
respect to Enoch’s life, the instruction presupposes a period after Enoch’ re-
ception of revelation and before his departure from his family (cf. 81:5–6).
If this is the case, however, the present passage is the only one amongst the
texts covered in the present volume in which Methuselah plays no explicit
role as recipient of Enoch’s instruction (91:1–3; 92:1 Aram.; 106:1 and
107:2–3; 108:1; cf. also 81:5–82:4).

Notes
1a. And after this. The opening words presuppose preceding content. In the
Ethiopic tradition, 93:1 occurs immediately after the opening of the Epistle
(92:1–5). Moreover, if the phrase may be restored for the fragmentary Ara-
maic text (cf. 4QEng 1 iii 18), it would also have followed the beginning of
the Epistle in the Aramaic tradition as well (see section A.2 of the introduc-
tion on the sequencing of the 4QEng fragments).
Despite the textual evidence, however, “after this” makes little sense in
the present context, so that it is difficult simply to regard it as a redactional
addition in order to fit its present literary position. Furthermore, the phrase
assumes that a foregoing section has reached some kind of conclusion.
Nevertheless, if the Apocalypse was originally composed as an independent
composition, then it is likely that these words represent an early attempt to
integrate it into a larger literary context. Given that such integration is al-
ready in evidence in 4QEng, it may be assigned to an early stage in the growth
of tradition as it was transmitted in Aramaic, though this may have come at a
stage that precedes the form of tradition attested in the Dead Sea materials.
If the previous content is not to be identified with any part of chapter 92,
which opens rather than concludes another composition, then what may
have originally preceded the Apocalypse when it was added to Enochic
traditions? An answer to this question is suggested by parallels between the
following words and the opening of the Book of Watchers (see Note to v. 1c
below).

128 Beyond this, therefore, no reason exists to suppose any direct link between the Apoc.
of Weeks and the Qumran community, as argued by Thorndike, “The Apocalypse of
Weeks and the Qumran Sect”.
1 Enoch 93:1–2 69

1b. It came to pass that Enoch. This is the first of a threefold mention of
the patriarch’s name as bearer of the vision (here and in vv. 2 and 3). There
is no reason to doubt that when it was originally composed, the Apocalypse
was being attributed to Enoch. This is clear for several reasons. In the first
place, even if the opening words in the third person narrative have been
added to the original work, “Enoch” features in the first person introduc-
tion to the vision that immediate follows. Though it could be argued that
the patriarch’s name has been added to verses 1, 2, and 3, such a possibility
does not seriously undermine an Enochic attribution, because of a second
argument: In verse 3b, the speaker claims to have been born in the “seventh
(part)” of “the first week”. Since “seventh” probably denotes the ordinal
sequence in which Enoch was born according to biblical tradition (Gen.
5:1–24; see the Note under v. 3b below) – in a visionary’s statement that is
integral to the Apocalypse itself – the work presents and understands itself
as an Enochic pseudepigraphon.
1c. Was speaking from the books. The Aramaic has a different formula
(“took up] … his parable saying”, 4QEng 1 iii 18; see Textual Note). The
wording shows how much the opening of the Apocalypse is modelled on
the beginning of the Book of Watchers which, in turn, is formally shaped
by the narrative on the oracles attributed to Balaam, in particular at
Numbers 24:15–17. With the introductions to both the Book of Watchers
and the Balaam oracle in Numbers, the opening of the Apocalypse (vv. 1–3)
shares the following features:129

– mention of taking up his parable (93:1; 1 En. 1:2-Cod. Pan. ναλαβν


τν παραβολν ατο “taking up his parable” and 4QEna 1 i 2
y ]hvltm “hi[s] parables”; cf. Num. 25:15)
– the visionary’s name (93:1–3; 1 En. 1:1–2; cf. Num. 25:15)
– source of the vision’s entire content is the watchers and holy ones
(93:1 – God as source is not explicitly mentioned; 1 En. 1:2-Cod. Pan.-
4γιολγν 4γν “holy words of the holy ones” and 4QEna 1 i 3
[]yryi ] ylm ]mv ]y>ydqv “and from the words of [the watchers] and holy
ones”; cf. Num. 25:16, which refers directly to the words of God 130)

129 The parallels are conveniently provided in synoptic format by Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1,
p. 138.
130 I.e., ,yhlX . It is possible that the biblical tradition about Enoch’s walking with God
lies behind the otherwise close connections between 1 Enoch materials and the
Balaam oracles. If the Enochic tradition was already interpreting elohim as angelic
beings, then it is possible that the Balaam oracle, being read the same way, was picked
up and construed in terms of the angelic origin of revelation.
70 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

– reference to the patriarch’s understanding of the content (93:2, which in


addition refers to the heavenly tablets that Enoch has read; 1 En. 1:2-«
κοψσα παρ ατν πντα κα! "γνν #γ $ερ&ν “as I heard from
them everything and, knowing, I was beholding”; cf. Num. 24:16 –
simply a reference to the visionary’s understanding of the knowledge of
the Most High)
– reference to the vision as revealed (93:2 – shown as vision of heaven;
1 En. 1:2-Cod. Pan. 'ρασι« #κ $εο ατ( νεγμωνη +ν … "δει,ων μοι
“a vision from God was disclosed to him … he showed me”; cf. Num.
24:16 – vision of the Almighty)
– mention of those with whom the vision is concerned (93:2 – the sons
of righteousness, the eternally chosen ones, and the plant of truth; 1 En.
1:3-Cod. Pan. περ! τ&ν #κλεκτ&ν … λωγ “I speak concerning the
chosen ones”)

Significantly, however, the Apocalypse differs from these tradition-histori-


cal predecessors in several ways. It has:

– no brief description of the seer (1 En. 1:2 – a righteous man; Num.


24:15 – son of Beor)
– no mention of God as the direct source of the revelation (the Holy One
in 1 En. 1:2; the Most High in Num. 24:16)
– no explicit reference to a distant or remote generation with which the vi-
sion is concerned (cf. 1 En. 1:2; Num. 24:17)
– a direct address (2nd pers. plur.) to those concerning whom the vision has
been disclosed (absent in 1 En. 1:2; Num. 24:15–17)

These differences lead to several observations. The character of Enoch as


righteous is taken for granted when he is introduced, especially if the tem-
poral expression “and after this” suggests that an Enochic work immedi-
ately preceded the Apocalypse. Moreover, the work also takes for granted
that the source of Enoch’s revelation is ultimately divine; nothing less about
this vision can be inferred from the absence of explicit language about God
here. Finally, its direct address to a group as intended recipients of the
words demonstrates how immediately the Apocalypse is concerned with a
specific community, however it was that the writer wished to define it (see
Notes on vv. 2a, b and c below). These considerations make it likely that
when it was first embedded within the Enochic tradition, the Apocalypse
was redacted in relation to the Book of Watchers which served as its most
immediate predecessor.
Nickelsburg and others have argued that “parable” is an inappropriate
1 Enoch 93:1–2 71

translation of the Aramaic ltm .131 However, I have opted to retain this term
since the alternative translation, “discourse”, does not convey as strongly a
revelatory dimension that invites discernment and wisdom on the part of the
recipients. Just as Enoch claims to have had mediatory assistance in seeing
and learning what the vision has to say, so also, by implication, the readers
require revelation to understand the contents being disclosed here.
2a. Concerning the sons of righteousness. The expression “sons of
righteousness” (weluda sedq) does not as such occur anywhere else in the
Enoch tradition (except possibly 105:2132), including the Apocalypse. In the
Two Spirits Treatise, it occurs twice (1QS iii 20, 22; cf. 4Q259 iii 10) as
a designation for those who are under the control of “the Prince of lights”
(iii 20), as opposed to “the sons of injustice” (lvi ynb ) who are under the
power of “the Angel of darkness” and behave accordingly. In addition, the
expression occurs in Dead Sea documents that do not otherwise contain
specific characteristics of works composed within the Qumran community
(Heb. texts-4Q424 3.10; 4Q468b 5 [reconstructed]; 4Q502 1–3.10; 4Q503
48–50.8; Aram. texts- Visions of Amram at 4Q548 1–2 ii 7 [reconstructed:
Xtqd ]j ynb ]). Qumranic documents seem to have given this designation
a priestly orientation by using the phrase “sons of Zadok” (qvdj ynb ; cf.
1QS v 2, 9; ix 14; 1QSa i 2, 24; ii 3; 1QSb iii 22; 4Q174 1–2 i 17; CD A iii
21; ix 3; 4Q266 3 iii 22).133 The distribution of the expression amongst the
Dead Sea materials suggests that “sons of righteousness” was in use outside
the Qumran group and thus did not function as a technical term to describe
the sect.
Although in the non-Qumranic texts the dualistic language, in which
righteousness-injustice and light-darkness contrasts are co-ordinated, sug-
gests that the righteous and the wicked are distinct from one another in
every respect, the Two Spirits Treatise does not allow for the inference that
“the sons of righteousness” are impeccable. Indeed, it is possible for them to
wander astray (1QS iii 24; cf. iv 15–16), and the passage refers precisely to
“their sins, their iniquities, their guilt, and their transgressions”, attributing

131 Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, pp. 138–39 and n.’s 3, 4, 5 (commenting on 1 En. 1:2,
37–71, and 93:1–2).
132 This holds at least for the Ethiopic tradition of 1 Enoch. In 105:2, the expression
weluda ret‘ “sons of truth” may go back to the same Aramaic expression as weluda
sedq: Xu>q ynb (cf. below).
133 On the other hand, the designation “son(s) of truth” (tmX ynb ) is more generally used
amongst both the Qumranic and non-Qumran texts (composed in Hebrew): 4Q266
11.7; 1QS iv 5, 6; xi 16 (sing.); 1QM xvii 8; 1QHa vi 29; vii 29; xi 11; xvi 18 (sing.);
4Q381 33a,b+35.5 (sing.); 4Q416 1.10; 4Q427 7 ii 14.
72 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

this to the influence of the Angel of darkness (iii 21–22). In other words, the
expression there is to be understood as a social category, not as an absolute
description of piety. In a similar fashion, this expression in the Apocalypse
should not be assumed to mean that the writer attributes perfection to his
addressees. However, the writer does not go as far as the Treatise in working
this notion out in relation to human nature. Instead, “sons of righteousness”
functions as an idealising designation that distinguishes the addressees from
those who are and, especially, will be found wicked in the eschaton.
This understanding of “righteousness” in the Apocalypse is echoed in
both the Exhortation and Epistle: the possibility that the righteous can go
astray is not excluded, as implied by the warnings against being associated
with those who are double hearted (91:4) or walking in paths of violence
and iniquity (91:18–19). Thus full realisation of “righteousness” shall only
come about at the end when through divine judgement iniquity will be com-
pletely uprooted and destroyed (91:8–9; cf. 91:14). And yet, while this is
similar to the Apocalypse, there are discernable differences. The Exhor-
tation and Epistle treat the present age as a whole as one characterised by
persistent tension between justice and injustice until the end (as expressed
through conflict between the righteous and the wicked), whereas the se-
quentially ordered framework of the Apocalypse results in a description of
the present age in terms of the ups and downs before eschatological resol-
ution is reached. Correspondingly, the former focus on exhortation and
warning, while in the latter the hortatory dimension of the communication
is more implicit.
The first designation for the addressees is appropriate for the Apoca-
lypse. “Righteousness” (Eth. sedq), including its adjectival derivate, is a key
term around which much of the work is structured (cf. 93:3,5,6,10;
91:12,13,14,17). The Aramaic expression behind the Ethiopic is probably
u>q (i.e. not necessarily the cognate hqdj ) since this word and its related
forms are more often rendered in the Greek translations of Enochic tradi-
tion as δικαιοσ-νη134 than as λ$εια.135
Within the literary context of 1 Enoch, the term “sons” may leave the
impression that the Apocalypse is drawing on a testamentary form which
customarily involves a patriarch addressing his offspring before his depar-
ture, exhorting them by emphasizing the rewards for their actions (91:1, 4;
cf. 83:1; 85:1; 108:1) and describing consequences for iniquitous deeds. In-
deed, the designation “sons of righteousness” may be echoed in the follow-

134 Cf. 1 En. 10:16, 17, 18; 13:10; 14:1; 22:14?; 32:3; 106:18 and 107:1 (Chester-Beatty).
135 So 1 En. 10:16 (Cod. Pan.).
1 Enoch 93:1–2 73

ing 2nd person plural forms (“you”), and thus comes closer to the testamen-
tary genre than does the Book of Watchers.136 Here, the Apocalypse retains
the form so that Enoch is made to address his spiritual progeny.137 By im-
plication, the author would have expected his readers to identify them-
selves with their Enochic heritage and to find themselves addressed as a dis-
tinctive group.138 This recognition is strengthened by the two designations
that follow.
2b. And concerning the eternally chosen ones. The designation “the
eternally chosen ones” has no precise parallel in the Enochic tradition. It is a
rendering of the Ethiopic (xeruyana ‘alam), which may be literally trans-
lated “the chosen ones of eternity/of the world”. If we render “of the
world”, the the phrase refers to the sphere from which the chosen have
been selected, that is, it would mean “out of/from the world” (cf. Jn. 15:19;
17:16). If the noun carries a temporal sense (i.e. “eternal”), it could be
either a future temporal, with the meaning “those chosen into eternity”, so
that the expression refers to those who will live for ever; or, on the other
hand, the expression might connote the aforetime, in this case “those
chosen from eternity” (election prior to creation). The eschatological thrust
of the Apocalypse suggests that the expression is to be understood in a
temporal sense, so that the future, temporal meaning should be preferred
amongst the options.
Significantly, this expression is also without precise parallel in the bibli-
cal tradition. While there is plenty of language that specifies God’s choos-
ing of Israel,139 the place for God’s name to dwell,140 the priesthood to serve
God,141 and the king,142 there is very little that explicitly emphasizes that
the choice or election of Israel to be God’s people is “for ever” or “eternal”.
Nonetheless, the notion of Israel’s election is never far removed from the
assumption that the covenant relationship will persist and be sustained what-
ever the circumstances. And so, the special status of God’s people is appealed

136 See the volume Introduction section B.2.


137 The Bk. of Watchers implies this too, but does not have Enoch use “sons” in any ad-
dress.
138 The Exhortation, which serves as a bridge between earlier Enochic tradition and the
Epistle, comes even closer to a traditional testamentary form.
139 See Deut. 4:37; 7:6–7; 10:15; 14:2; Ps. 33:12; 42:4; 135:4; Isa. 14:1; 41:8–9; 43:10;
44:1–2; 49:7; Ezek. 20:5. See Acts 13:17.
140 E.g. Deut. 12:5,11,14,18,21; 14:23–25; 15:20; 16:2,6–7; 16:15–16; 17:8,10; 18:6;
26:2; 31:11.
141 So, e.g. Deut. 18:5; 21:5.
142 E.g. Deut. 17:15.
74 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

to as reason why God should, despite their wrongdoing, be entreated to


show mercy towards Israel (cf. Ps.-Philo 39:7).
The eternity of God’s election of Israel is expressed more directly in Jew-
ish literature beginning in the 2nd century BCE. According to Jubilees
19:15–25, Abraham predicts to Isaac that God “will choose him [Jacob] as a
people who will rise up from all the nations which are upon the earth” (v. 18)
and that “he will be blessed for ever and his seed will be one which fills all
the earth”. For the writer of Jubilees this status is not simply ethnic, that is,
based on ancestry from Jacob, but also depends on the people’s tenacious
and unyielding adherence to God (Jub. 22:9, 10–24). Thus being chosen by
God implies responsibility; though Israel’s chosenness is never envisioned
as altogether dispensable – indeed, the possibility of return and restoration
to God’s ways is always held open – withdrawal from the observance of
God’s law has consequences. Thus, in 4 Ezra 5:21–30, Zion, God’s only
chosen vine from every forest of the earth and from all its trees, is subject
to punishment for the sinful condition it shares will the rest of humankind
(4 Ezra 5:26–32; cf. 6:55–59 and 7:1–25, 45–61, 116–140; 8:1–3).
In the Book of Watchers, “chosen ones” functions as an equivalent ex-
pression for those who are righteous. Its use as a designation there may well
have shaped the way it is used and applied in the Apocalypse. The ex-
pression initially describes “the distant generation” about whom the visions
are given to the patriarch (1:2). Which “distant generation” is this: the
righteous community in the time of the author or the righteous eschatologi-
cal community which, from that author’s perspective, has yet to be consti-
tuted? In the early Enochic tradition, the terminology focuses ultimately on
the future. It is as “the elect” that the righteous will be preserved by God
in the time of judgement (cf. 1 En. 1:9). In another passage significant for
understanding the Apocalypse, the Greek Codex Panapolitanus specifies
that “the chosen ones … will inherit the earth” (5:7),143 in contrast with
“the sinners” and “the impious ones” who will be cursed (5:5–7). These
labels have their meaning in relation to the eschatological judgement, when
punishment and reward will be meted out: sinners will be cursed and die
on account of divine wrath (cf. 5:9), while the righteous are to be given
“light and joy and peace” (5:7) and “will fill out the number of the days
of their life” (5:9). The chosen righteous are, in addition, given “wisdom”

143 The Ethiopic evidence omits the sentence: “Then there will be given to the chosen
ones light and joy, and they will inherit the earth.” This has probably happened
through a translation or copying error committed on the Greek (i.e. rather than on
the Ethiopic) level of transmission through homoioarcton with ττε δο$σεται.
1 Enoch 93:1–2 75

(5:8-Cod. Pan. σοφα). This sapiential revelation, also given to the elect in
the Apocalypse (cf. under 93:10) shows how much 1 Enoch 5 lies in the
background. Just as the author of 1 Enoch 5 regarded the community to
which he belonged as the basis of those who would receive these blessings,
the same may be inferred for the writer of the Apocalypse. In both cases,
“the chosen” denotes the righteous community in the eschatological future,
and so does not necessarily function as a technical term that refers to
a closed or narrowly circumscribed group or community in the writer’s
present.
Gradually narrowing interpretations of the expression “elect ones” sur-
face amongst the Dead Sea materials. Amongst the non-Qumranic docu-
ments, the expression seems to centre on a specific group, though not yet in
a sectarian way. This seems to be the case in Musar le-Mevin at 4Q418 69 ii
10, in which the writer addresses “chosen ones of truth” (tmX yryxb ), who
are probably understood to be the same group as those called “the sons of
his truth” (4Q416 1.10). In both designations the nomen rectum may be
rendered descriptively, that is, as “truly chosen ones”144 and “true sons”.
Granted a connection between both designations, it is significant that the
writer of Musar le-Mevin states that the “sons of his truth” will be found
“favourable” when God “will wield judgement against the work of wicked-
ness” (4Q416 1.10). As neither expression is found anywhere in the Hebrew
Bible, it is likely that the writer had a specific readership in view, one which
shall be favoured during the eschatological judgement. However, less clear
is whether the group is seen to provide the nucleus for the righteous at the
end or is in itself, and as presently constituted, expected to correspond to
those who are to be favoured.
Even more specific is the designation in several of the texts that may be
assigned to the corpus of the Qumran community. The Habakkuk Pesher
refers to “his [God’s] chosen ones” by whose reproof God will render judge-
ment over all the nations (1QpHab v 4); here, as in other Qumran texts
(esp. 1QS viii 6; ix 14; 4QpPsa 1–2 ii 5; cf. 1QpHab ix 12), writers apply the
expression “chosen ones” to their own community in a way that categori-
cally excludes Jewish contemporaries who fall outside the community.
Thus the expression in the Apocalypse, which falls much more in line
with its function in the Book of Watchers, does not suggest that the writer is
concerned with a group that is categorically closed. Despite the ideal char-
acterisation in verse 2b, the community of the Apocalypse is an “open”
movement that the writer believes will be the centre through which Israel

144 So Strugnell and Harrington, “418. 4QInstructiond”, DJD 34, p. 28.


76 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

comes to see the eschatological salvation of the righteous. This eschatologi-


cal horizon thus prevents the language from reflecting a sectarian self-
understanding.
2c. And concerning the plant of uprightness. The reading of Ethiopic II
expands the designation to “the plant of truth and righteousness”. It is
possible that the nomina recta in Ethiopic II may in fact be a double trans-
lation of what original goes back to one term (hendiadys).145 This may have
led Milik to reconstruct Xu>vqv (“and truth/righteousness”) in the Aramaic,
resulting in the phrase “plant of planting and truth/righteousness”. How-
ever, the visible Aramaic text Xbjy tbjn (“plant of planting”; see Textual
Note) does not suggest itself as a precise equivalent for either “truth” or
“righteousness”. Therefore, it remains difficult to derive the Ethiopic II
reading from the Aramaic tradition as it is preserved: “the plant of firmness
[and truth” or “the firm [and true] plant”.146 The Ethiopic II text is thus sec-
ondary. The Aramaic expression, in its extant form, juxtaposes two words
taken from the same root: bjn (“to plant”). The second term, in the form of
a substantive, is rare, while the adjectival and verbal forms are much more
common (byjy and bjy respectively).147 Its use here thus seems deliberate:
the “plant” about which the vision is concerned is one that is an unalterable
fixture of divine election.
Unlike the other two opening designations, the “plant” is widely attested
as a religious metaphor referring in some way to Israel. It not only occurs in
biblical tradition (cf. esp. Isa. 5:7; 60:21; 61:3), but also in early Enochic
tradition (1 En. 10:3,16; 84:6; cf. 93:5,10), Jubilees (1:16; 16:26; 21:24;
36:6), and further literature preserved amongst the Dead Sea documents
(Musar le-Mevin in 4Q418 81.13 and 4Q423 1–2.7; 1QS viii 5; xi 8; 1QM
vi 15; viii 6; 1QHa xiv 15; xvi 5–6, 9–10, 20–21).148 Since the relation of the

145 This view would assume from 4QEng 1 iv 12–13, which corresponds to 93:10, that
the Aramaic u>q ultimately lies behind the Ethiopic term sedq (neither Aram. nor
Grk. evidence exists for this verse); for the expression see u>vq tbjn in 1QapGen
xiv 13. The Ethiopic version followed by Michael A. Knibb (The Ethiopic Book of
Enoch, 2.223) probably goes back to a hendiadys: “righteousness and uprightness”.
146 It is unlikely that Xbjy is a third substantive which has later been deleted in trans-
mission, as suggested by Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 442. Unless the text has been cur-
tailed in another place, this fits with the length allowed for reconstruction of the miss-
ing text in 4QEng 1 iii 20 (cf. Milik, The Books of Enoch, p. 264).
147 Its only other known occurrence is in the Book of Giants at 4Q530 2 ii + 6–7 i + 8–12,
l.24 with the prefix b to form an adverbial expression “certainly”; contra Nickels-
burg’s claim (1 Enoch 1, p. 442) that the noun “is not attested elsewhere”.
148 See Dexinger, Zehnwochenapokalypse, pp. 164–69 on the passages in the Hebrew
Bible and their narrowing used in the Qumran texts.
1 Enoch 93:1–2 77

Dead Sea materials to the Apocalypse constitutes a special problem (on this,
see under 93:10 below), we discuss here those texts which may have pro-
vided a formative background, that is, the biblical tradition and other early
Enochic texts.
In Isaianic tradition, the term “plant(ing)” was applied metaphorically.
As a “pleasant planting” in 5:7, it denotes “the men of Judah”, who have
failed to produce the righteousness expected from them. In Deutero-Isaiah
the term is more specifically associated with works by the righteous people
of God (60:21; so LXX) and with “generations of righteous ones” who,
despite their suffering in Zion, will become “the planting of the Lord”
(61:3).149 These texts from Deutero-Isaiah anticipate the idealised eschato-
logical community of Israel. However, the Isaianic author does not yet
apply this language to a particular, remnant community that already exists
in his day.
More specificity is achieved in the early Enochic traditions within which
the metaphor of the Apocalypse was shaped. On account of their signifi-
cance, the Enochic usage merits fuller discussion here. In the oldest section
of the Book of Watchers the metaphor occurs twice, in both 10:3 and
10:15–16. In the latter passage, it occurs among instructions being given to
the angel Michael concerning eschatological judgement which is to involve
the destruction of the souls of the fallen watchers and their offspring and
the eradication of injustice and evil deeds from the earth. This divine pun-
ishment is to be accompanied by the appearance of “a plant of truth/right-
eousness” (cf. Xu>vq tbj [n , 4QEnc 1 v 4); in a parallel phrase, this time is
characterised as one when “deeds of truth/righteousness will be planted for
ever”.150 The plant here most likely refers to the human community of those
who will survive the judgement into the future eschatological age of bless-
ing, peace, and unhindered productivity. This interpretation is supported by
verse 17, in which the Aramaic text of 4QEnc 1 v 5 uses the word ]yuy [>q
(= Eth. and Cod.Pan.: ο δκαιοι) to denote ‘the righteous ones’, who “will
escape” (4QEnc 1 v 5: ]vulpy ) and “live until they beget thousands” (so the

149 See the review of these texts in Tiller, “The ‘Eternal Planting’ in the Dead Sea Scrolls”,
pp. 314–15.
150 Much as the Ethiopic versions, Cod. Pan. renders the expressions, respectively, with
τ/ φ-τον τ0« δικαιοσ-νη« κα! τ0« λη$εα« and <τ 1ργα τ0« δικαιοσ-νη« κα!
τ0« λη$εα«> ε2« το3« α2&να« (restoring an omission through homoioteleuton in
the manuscript; cf. Black, Apocalypsis Henochi Graece, p. 26). Since elsewhere in
Cod. Pan. only δικαιο- root words correspond to passages in which the Aramaic u>q
root words occur (10:17–18; 13:10; 14:1; 22:14; 32:3), it is likely that the more wooden
lexical corresponding term λ$εια was a later addition resulting in a hendiadys.
78 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

preferable text as represented by Cod. Pan. and Eth. ms. EMML 2080; Ara-
maic not extant). Verses 15–16, then, are oriented around the eschatologi-
cal future (i.e. the real future from the perspective of the author).
Though 10:3 precedes the passage just discussed, the mention of “a
plant” there in association with Noah reflects editorial reworking on the
basis of verses 15–16, as shown by Dimant.151 The editor has strengthened
the analogy between the Noahic Flood and the end time judgement by inte-
grating the plant metaphor into the promises made to Noah. Here the angel
Sariel is told to instruct Noah that “he will escape [the coming deluge]
for ever” and that “from him will be planted a plant” that “will stand all
the generations of eternity”.152 The text thus applies the metaphor to a
righteous community which will emerge from Noah’s descendants.153 Un-
like the eschatological community envisioned in verse 16, the text in verse
3 refers to a group that exists in the writer’s present. This group may
have already begun with Abraham (though he is nowhere mentioned in the
Book of Watchers),154 and the author regarded it as a historical fulfilment
of God’s promise to Noah. It is not clear whether this community is thought
by the writer to be ethnic Israel as a whole or a more narrowly defined
group; nothing suggests, for example, that a righteous remnant is in view.
However, in either case, it is a historical, not merely future, group. The edi-
tor of 10:3 applied the plant metaphor in order to emphasize that this com-
munity, however it is to be defined, is the nucleus from which the future
plant of righteousness will emerge in the eschaton (vv. 15–17).

151 Dimant, “The Fallen Angels” in the Scrolls from the Wilderness of Judaea,
pp. 109–112.
152 This text, not attested in the shorter Ethiopic versions, is preserved through Greek
Syncellus. Although the text is poorly preserved among the Aramaic Enoch frag-
ments, it is nevertheless consistent with it, if Milik’s restorations of 4QEna are correct;
Milik, The Books of Enoch, pp. 161–2 and Tiller, “The ‘Eternal Planting’ in the Dead
Sea Scrolls”, p. 317).
153 I am not convinced that the text refers to the existence of a righteous community
“from the time of Noah on” (so Tiller, “The ‘Eternal Planting’ in the Dead Sea
Scrolls”, p. 317) since here it is Noah who survives the flood, and not strictu sensu
the “plant”. Tiller’s view would, however, come closer to evidence from the Genesis
Apocryphon, in which (a) Noah is given to say of himself that “for truth I was
planted” (1QapGen vi 1, tbyjn u>vql ), and (b) the subsequent application of the
designation to Shem, Noah’s firstborn (1QapGen xiv 13–14), who “will go out as a
plant of truth (u>vq tbjnl , l. 13)” and, as such, “will stand for ever” (l. 14).
154 One may rightly ask whether the Apocalypse at 93:5, which associates Abraham with
“the plant of truth”, is assumed in the editor’s work of 10:3.
1 Enoch 93:1–2 79

The texts preserved and reconstructed in Book of Watchers 10:3 and 16


lie in the background to the additional occurrences of the plant metaphor in
the Book of Dreams (1 En. 84:6) and the Apocalypse (1 En. 93:5, 10). Book
of Dreams 84:6 occurs at the end of a petitionary prayer by Noah (vv. 1–6)
that God would grant him offspring to survive the flood, while destroying
those who have incurred divine anger. Noah asks that his offspring, called
“the flesh of righteousness and uprightness”, be established “as a plant of
the eternal seed”. The plant refers to Noah’s progeny, but the stress may fall
on the second expression with the nomen rectum (Eth.: zar‘ la-‘alam). Un-
like 1 Enoch 10:3, the plant seems to contain an eternal seed without being
directly identified with it. In other words, if the author had a righteous
community in mind at all, it is here represented by the seed within the plant
rather than by the plant itself.155 Hence there is no attempt to identify the
plant as such with any particular group, whether it be historical or eschato-
logical. Rather, what in 1 Enoch 10:3 is represented by the plant metaphor
has in 84:6 been identified with the eternal seed within the plant.
The metaphorical usage of “plant(ing)” at the beginning of the Apoca-
lypse seems directly influenced by the Book of Watchers. In juxtaposing this
term at the outset with “the sons of righteousness” and “the chosen ones”
in (1 En. 93:2), the writer may have been using it to denote a community
characterised by its righteousness and chosenness.156 The occurrence of the
expression anticipates the prominence it is given in the third and seventh
weeks (see the Notes to 93:5 and 10 below).
2d. These things I will say to you and make known to you, my children,
I myself, Enoch, according to what was shown to me from a heavenly vision.
Enoch does not only tell a parable, but is made here to disclose a vision given
specifically to him. The information the seer wants to impart to the address-
ees is claimed to derive from a visionary experience. Enoch’s role as a vision-
ary is fundamental to the early Enochic tradition. The patriarch acts as a seer
who records what he has seen, which in the narratives is mediated by him to
characters, whether they be part of the visions seen (such as the watchers and
their offspring in 1 En. 10 and 13) or those for whom the visions are ulti-
mately directed, that is, the righteous community of the author’s day (see the
following paragraph). In addition, he is sometimes given the function of act-

155 It seems, therefore, that attempts to harmonise this text with the remaining occur-
rences of “plant(ing)” in 1 Enoch are too quick to equate “plant” with “eternal seed”;
so, e.g., Tiller, “The ‘Eternal Planting’ in the Dead Sea Scrolls”, p. 322.
156 I am not convinced, as reasoned correctly by Tiller, “The ‘Eternal Planting’ in the
Dead Sea Scrolls”, p. 319, that the “plant” metaphor is not being equated with the
two groups.
80 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

ing as an interpreter par excellence of visions experienced by others (such as


in the Book of Giants in 4Q530 2 ii + 6–7 i + 8–12, l. 14 cf. Birth of Noah at
1 En. 106:7, 9 and Genesis Apocryphon at 1QapGen ii 20–23).
The double reference to Enoch’s transmission of revelation (“I will say to
you and make known to you”) occurs also in the Exhortation (91:3) and
the Epistle (94:10). In the latter instance, the wording is exactly the same,157
including the second person plural forms, so that it is possible that the
formulation in the Epistle has been influenced by this text. The wording has
a parallel in the extant Aramaic text from the Genesis Apocryphon at
1QapGen v 9: “and now to you (sing.) I say … and to you (sing.) I make
known”. Significantly, the context of this text is a communication, likewise
by Enoch, that Methuselah inform Lamech that Noah is his son.
The address (“my children”) presupposes the setting of Enoch speaking to
his children adopted in 91:1–2, 3, and 18–19 (cf. also 94:1). It is thus unclear
whether this was original to the Apocalypse or added later for the sake of in-
tegration into the literary context. As the text stands, the address belies a tes-
tamentary form. It is not immediately clear whether these are imagined as
Enoch’s physical offspring (i.e. Methuselah and further generations; cf. 1 En.
79:1; 82:1; 83:1; 85:2; 91:1–2; 108:1) or refer to Enoch’s spiritual descen-
dants (cf. 1 En. 1:2). If the latter, then those addressed by Enoch are the very
ones about whom his vision is concerned, that is, those specified by the three
designations in verse 2a, b and c. In this case, the three groups referred to in
the 3rd person in verse 2a–c are now being directly addressed. If the writer is
assuming the fictive context of Enoch speaking to his physical offspring,
then, as common to the testamentary genre,158 the account of history that fol-
lows in the Apocalypse constitutes an implicit warning to the addressees lest
they not be found amongst the righteous when divine judgement takes place.
If Enoch’s address to his offspring is testamentary, the fictive setting of
the Apocalypse comes during the second week, sometime before the deluge
and related events (v. 4).
With the emphatic (“I myself, Enoch”), the seer reports that his revel-
ation comes from a visionary experience (“was shown to me”). The experi-
ence does not involve the patriarch as one who journeys through heaven
(as in 1 En. 17–36), but as one to whom information is revealed. The phrase
’ana we’etu henok (Eth. “I myself, Enoch” which corresponds to Aram.

157 See Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 442.


158 For all the diversity of the early Jewish testamentary literature, the communication by
a patriarch to his followers or offspring remains a constant feature; cf. Nicolae
Roddy, “Ultimate Reflections, Infinite Refractions: Form and Function in the Elusive
Genre of Testamentary Literature”, Studia Hebraica 3 (2003), pp. 298–310.
1 Enoch 93:1–2 81

„vnx Xvh hnX , 4QEng 1 iii 20–21) is not a copula and thus does not mean
“I am Enoch” as if the seer is introducing himself.159 Instead, the words
function to re-enforce that Enoch himself (and not someone else) is the
visionary. Herewith the writer establishes the vision as falling within the
Enochic tradition.
2e. From a heavenly vision. “Heavenly vision”, literally “vision of
heaven”, does not refer to a vision the content of which is heaven, as would
be seen in a journey. Rather, the expression denotes the ultimately divine
source of Enoch’s revelation. In addition, it may imply the role played by
the angelic intermediaries (cf. v. 2f below).
2f. And from the words of the holy angels I have learned everything, and
from the heavenly tablets I have understood. As in the Enochic tradition,
the text emphasizes the divine origin of Enoch’s revelation. In the earlier
1 Enoch books, this occurs also in other ways: (1) divine throne commission-
ing (ch. 14) and (2) the reading of heavenly tablets (ch. 72–82). Enoch’s func-
tion in the chain of meditation varies from book to book. Depending on the
target of his communication Enoch’s position in the chain looks as follows:

(a) God – Angel(s) – Enoch – a giant – watchers/giants (Book of Giants;


cf. also 1 En. 12:1–13:10-by good “watchers”; 15:1–7-by God)
(b) God – Angel(s) – Enoch – Enoch’s progeny, whether physical
or spiritual heirs (1 En. 17:1–36:4-by various angels; 72:1–78:17-by
Uriel; 79:2–6-by an angel; 80:1–8-by Uriel; 81:5–10, 82:1–2-seven
holy angels; 83:1–10, 85:1–90:42-dream vision; 93:1–10; 106:1–
107:3; 108:1–15)

It is, of course, (b) that is taken up here. The text presupposes a divine ori-
gin behind Enoch’s angelic source.
For a closely related idea, see Book of Giants, a fragmentary text
of which may refer to Enoch when it states, “he did [n]ot dwell among
humanity and did not learn from them” (4Q531 14.6).160 The interface be-

159 See Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 442, who discusses this possibility, without adopting it
for his own translation. He maintains, nonetheless, that read as a copula, the phrase
would “function to establish Enoch’s credentials as a revealer – something that he
does in the next tristich”.
160 See Puech, “531. 4QLivre des Géantsc”, DJD 31, pp. 66–67, reading the negative par-
ticle (X [l ) before “dwell”, though the visible letter is not entirely certain; cf. Stucken-
bruck, The Book of Giants, p. 155, who reads, “]n he dwelt among humanity and/but
did not learn from them[”. It is not certain whether the text attributes Enoch’s special
knowledge to his not living among humanity (so Puech) or despite the fact that he does.
82 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

tween Enoch and the angels underpins and permeates the Enochic tradition.
His location among the angels during his lifetime is emphasized in the
Book of Watchers 12:1–2 (“his works were with the watchers, and his days
were with the holy ones”). His cosmic journeys in the Book of Watchers
(ch.’s 17–36) are mediated by angelic interlocutors. Uriel helps him
track the movements of the sun and moon in the Astronomical Book (ch.’s
72:1–80:8; 82:7–20), and in the insertion into the Astronomical Book at
81:5 and 10 seven angels accompany and instruct him about his temporary
stay to convey revelation from the heavenly tablets to Methuselah and his
children. According to the Birth of Noah 106:7b, Enoch’s dwelling with the
angels reinforces his reliability as a sage.
The association of Enoch with angels is likewise established in extra-
Enochic literature, some of which may reflect the latter’s influence. Accord-
ing to the Genesis Apocryphon, Enoch’s abode was with the angels, and it
is there that he could be consulted by Methuselah on behalf of Lamech
(1QapGen ii 21).161 In Jubilees, Enoch is said to have been with God’s an-
gels for “six jubilees of years” (i.e. 300 years); during this time, the angels
revealed to him “everything” which he then records (4:21). It is here that
Enoch testifies on behalf of God against the fallen angels, the watchers, and
those who sinned because of them (4:22), and it is there where the author
claims Enoch is still “writing condemnation and judgement of the world,
and all of the evils of the children of men” (4:24). A further document
4QPsJubc = 4Q227 2.1–4, which compares to Jubilees, has the angels claim
that they have instructed Enoch on what to write (cf. Note to 92:1a).
Finally, one of the anonymous Pseudo-Eupolemos fragments preserved by
Eusebius (Praep. Evang. 9.17.1–9) and dating back to the 2nd century BCE
traces astrological learning back to Enoch: “To Enoch was born a son,
Methuselah, who learned all things through the help of the angels of God,
and thus we gained our knowledge.”161a

161 The text mentioning angelic beings is plausibly restored, since the visible part of
1QapGen ii 21 refers in the plural to those who “were making everything known to
him” (Xlvk ]yvxm hl ). For further discussion of these texts, see Stefan Beyerle, Die
Gottesvorstellungen in der antik-jüdischen Apokalyptik (Supplements to JSJ, 103;
Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2005), pp. 101–113.
161a The translation by Carl R. Holladay, Fragments from Hellenistic Jewish Authors:
Volume I: Historians (Texts and Translations, 20; Pseudepigrapha Series, 10;
Chico, California: Scholars Press, 1983), 175; text: το δε ’ Ενξ γενωσ$αι ψ/ν
Μα$οψσαλαν 8ν πντα δι γγωλν $εο γν&ναι κα! 9μ»« ο:τ« #πιγν&ναι
(p. 174).
1 Enoch 93:1–2 83

The link between Enoch and the angelic beings can already be read out
of the biblical tradition, in which ,yhlXh of Genesis 5:24 may be taken as a
plural (“divinities”) rather than as a name of God.162
The divine source of Enoch’s vision is reinforced by the mention of in-
scribed heavenly tablets. In Jewish apocalyptic literature, the tablets, under-
stood as heavenly writings, play a significant role. This occurs in Jubilees,
1 Enoch, Book of Giants and a number of Dead Sea texts: 4Q177=Catena
A 1–4.12(?) (cf. 18.2), 4Q180 1.3, 4Q400 1 i 4–6, 4Q504 1–2 vi 14,
4Q534 1 : 5, 4Q537 1–3.3 (cf. further CD A xvi 3).163 A discussion of some
of the texts is merited here in order to determine the function of these
“tablets” in the Apocalypse more precisely.
In Jubilees the notion of tablets mediated through divine revelation is
most fully developed. Jubilees, both in its title and at 1:1, refers at the outset
to the giving of the Torah on Mount Sinai (called “the tablets of the law”
and “two stone tablets”, respectively). This event provides the setting dur-
ing which Moses is given further instructions contained in “heavenly tab-
lets”. Distinguishable from, but not contrary to, the Torah, it represents a
body of special instructions given to Moses through the Angel of the Pres-
ence who has recorded what he has received from God (Jub. 1:27–29).164
Moses, in turn, is instructed to write these down (1:26). These tablets, first
and foremost, contain a history “of the division of years from the time of

162 Though the writer of this text did not necessarily have multiple beings in mind, ,yhlX
does acquire the meaning “angels” in the Hebrew Bible; see VanderKam, Enoch and
the Growth of an Apocalyptic Tradition, p. 31, who refers to Ps. 8:6 ( γγωλοψ«);
82:1, 6; 97:8 [96:7]; and 138:1; cf. further the use of ,yhlX ynb in Job 1:6; 2:1 and
38:7. For a fuller discussion, see Dimant, The “Fallen Angels” in the Scrolls from the
Wilderness of Judaea, pp. 30–32. In the Dead Sea texts, as Carol Newsom observes,
,yhlX denotes angelic beings in 11QMelchizedek ii 10 (a citation of Ps. 82:1), and it
carries this meaning in at least two passages from Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice:
4Q400 2.5 and 4Q403 1 i 32; cf. Newsom, Angelic Liturgy: Songs of the Sabbath
Sacrifice, p. 7. Finally, see Ber. Rab. 25.1, in which Gen. 5:24 is interpreted along
these lines.
163 See the treatments of the Ancient Near East background and the Dead Sea materials,
respectively, by Shalom M. Paul, “Heavenly Tablets and the Book of Life”, in ed.
D. Marcus, The Gaster Festschrift (The Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society
of Columbia University, 5; New York: Columbia University Press, 1973), pp. 343–53
and Armin Lange, Weisheit und Prädestination. Weisheitliche Urordnung und Prä-
destination in den Textfunden von Qumran (STDJ, 18; Leiden/New York/Cologne,
1995), pp. 69–97 (excursus on “Die himmlischen Tafeln”).
164 See Hindy Najman, “Angels at Sinai: Exegesis, Theology and Interpretive Authority”,
DSD 7 (2000), pp. 316–18.
84 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

the creation of the law” until the end, that is, “until the sanctuary of the
Lord is created in Jerusalem upon Mount Zion” (1:29). The rest of the book
is, then, what Moses is supposed to have recorded from this special source.
Throughout the book, the text draws attention to specific content in the
“heavenly tablets”, from which Moses transmits instructions about naked-
ness (3:31), murder (4:5,32), divine judgement against wickedness (5:13;
24:33), circumcision (15:25), marriage (28:6; cf. Lev. 18:18), Jacob’s bless-
ing of Levi and Judah (31:32), tithing (32:10), incest (33:10), and the cor-
rect calendrical observance of feasts (6:17-Shebu‘ot; 6:29,31,35 – 364-day
solar calendar; 16:28–29-Succot; 18:19-Passover; 33:27–29-additional
feast day). In addition, within the story a further group of tablets are re-
ferred to, as if a subset of the heavenly tablets, but belonging to another
work.165 At Bethel an angel gives Jacob seven tablets regarding the Temple,
which Jacob reads, comprehends, and is told to write down in accordance
with the memory to be provided him (32:20–26).166 The author of Jubilees
does not claim to be providing, through the pseudepigraphic angel of the
presence, the entirety of the revelation contained in the heavenly tablets,
which are comprehensive with respect to what they contain regarding his-
tory from beginning to end and the will of God. Instead, the book contains
only what Moses is given to record from this source. Significantly, the ref-
erence in Jubilees to Enoch’s activities includes a “book” about “the signs of
heaven” (probably a work corresponding to the Book of Luminaries; cf.
1 En. 72–82) without explicitly attributing his work to “heavenly tablets”.
This should not be read, however, as a veiled polemic in Jubilees against an
anti-Mosaic portrait of Enoch in the Enochic tradition.
The mention of tablets, probably inspired by or related to Jubilees
32:20–26 (see immediately above), occurs in 4Q537, a manuscript which
has been designated under the title 4QTestament of Jacob(?) ar.167 The
patriarch is told to take the tablets and read everything inscribed in them
(4Q537 1–3.3). The content of the tablets relates Jacob’s past troubles and
what was going to happen to him.168 In addition, and significantly, as in

165 Possibly a work such as or related to 4Q537 (see next paragraph and n. 167 below).
166 Another account of heavenly tablets read by Jacob is extant through two fragments of
Prayer of Joseph, B and C; see n. 168 below.
167 See the publication of the 25 fragments of 4Q537 by Émile Puech, “537. 4QTesta-
ment of Jacob? ar (4QTJa? ar)”, DJD 31, pp. 171–90 (esp. pp. 175–76).
168 See similarly the Prayer of Joseph, as cited by Origen in Philocalia 33:15 (see the edi-
tion of E. Junod, Philocalie 21–27. Sur le libre arbiter. Introduction, texte, traduction
et notes [Sources chrétiens, 226; Paris: Editions du Cerf, 1976], pp. 180–83 and n. 2,
1 Enoch 93:1–2 85

Jacob’s vision in Jubilees, the tablets apparently describe the exemplary


heavenly cult.
Among the Enochic traditions themselves, there are a number of
examples. A much more specific use of tablets is found in the Book of
Giants. Here the tablets, probably two in number within the narrative itself,
are revealed to Enoch “the scribe of interpretation” (4Q530 2 ii + 6–7 i +
8–12, 14), who then discloses what they mean. These tablets pronounce
judgement against the watchers and their offspring and, as divine pro-
nouncement, they guarantee that the wickedness they have perpetrated in
the past and present will be held to account, despite vain hopes among the
giants for a more lenient outcome.169
Elsewhere in the early Enochic tradition, there are three further refer-
ences to heavenly tablets. The first is within the insertion (81:1–82:4) into
the Astronomical Book according to which heavenly tablets are given to
Enoch to read and comprehend (81:1–2) and contain an account of “all the
deeds of humanity and all the children of the flesh upon the earth for all the
generations of the world” (v. 2). Such a comprehensive description of all
activities implies that the tablets contain a human history from beginning to
end. The second passage is found in the Enochic Epistle (103:2–3). The
patriarch declares that he has read “the tablets of heaven”, claiming that
they are specifically written “concerning you”, that is, the righteous ones in
relation to whom the work is addressed. Presumably the tablets record the
rewards due to the righteous, and thus reassure the intended readers that
such rewards are not in doubt. The third passage comes at the conclusion of
the Birth of Noah in 106:19. The Ethiopic text is extant in a form longer
than that the text which has to be inferred from the Aramaic (which is not
extant, but the length of which may be reconstructed). It shows signs of edi-
torial reworking and expansion in a form that bears similarity with 93:2.
While adding that the content of Enoch’s revelation consists of “mysteries”,
the text corresponds to 93:2 in the claim that “the holy ones” have revealed
and made them known to him and that he has read them “in the tablets of
heaven”. Moreover, as in the Apocalypse, the content has to do with forth-
coming tumult; Enoch claims from the tablets that each generation will be-
come increasingly worse until, along with evil and iniquity, they are com-

cited by Puech, DJD 31, p. 176), which attributes to Jacob the following words:
“I have read in the tablets of heaven all that shall happen to you and your sons.” Cf.
also Jonathan Z. Smith, “Prayer of Joseph”, OTP, 2.699 and n. 3.
169 See Stuckenbruck, “Giant Mythology and Demonology: From the Ancient Near East
to the Dead Sea Scrolls”, in A. Lange, H. Lichtenberger, and K. F. Diethard Römheld,
Die Dämonen – Demons (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2003), pp. 329–32.
86 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

pletely destroyed (107:1). This correspondence of both specific motifs and


general content (though the Noahic work does not actually offer an apoca-
lyptic account of history) suggests that 106:19 reflects the influence of 93:2;
an editor has attempted to align the content with the beginning of the
Apocalypse. In contrast to Jubilees, the “heavenly tablets” in the Enoch
tradition thus relate even more to an eschatological context. In the Epistle
they may be equivalent to “the eternal law” (šer‘ata ‘enta la‘alam, τν
α2ναν δια$κην), the unalterable truth which the wicked alter and dis-
tort (1 En. 99:2).170
In summary, the notion of heavenly tablets is applied to underscore sev-
eral things: (a) they are a body of information that reflects divine perspec-
tive, whether this be on the workings of the universe or on salvation history
past, present, and future; (b) the information they contain is fixed and can-
not be changed, whatever the human circumstances; and (c) this information
is only available through revelation or specially received knowledge. In the
early Enochic tradition, the tablets are associated with eschatological events,
especially as they relate to the fate of the righteous and the wicked. In the
Apocalypse the mention of the heavenly tablets emphasizes that the “past”
from the actual readers’ point of view will be recognisable in a way which,
already fixed in the heavenly tablets, guarantees the certitude of what is said
about events in the readers’ future, which likewise is fixed in these tablets.
Past, present, and future are thus represented as one unchangeable con-
tinuum predetermined and governed by the purposes of God for Israel.

The First Week (93:3)

(3) And then he began to recount from the books and said, “I was born
(in) the seventh (part) in the first week, until when justice and righteousness
lasted.

Textual Notes
Ethiopic: “And then he began to recount” (wa-’axaza ’enka yetnaggar;
Tana 9, Berl, BM 491, Abb 35, EMML 1768, EMML 6281) – EMML 2080
and Berl read only wa-’axaza henok yetnaggar (“and Enoch began to re-
count”); BM 485, Ryl and most Eth. II mss. read wa-’axaza enka yetnaggar

170 In a strict sense, the law is not the same as the Mosaic law given at Mt. Sinai (cf. 1 En.
93:6), but in the Enochic tradition suggests something much larger and more compre-
hensive in scope that is not in competition with it.
1 Enoch 93:3 87

henok (“and then Enoch began to recount”); Bodl 4, BM Add. 24185,


BM 484 and BM 490 read wa-’axaza henok yetnaggar ’enka (“and Enoch
began to recount, then”); BM 492 has wa-’axaza henok ’enza yetnaggar
’enka. // “I” (’ana) – omitted in Berl and BM 491. // “(In) the seventh (part)”
(sab‘) – Berl and EMML 6281 have acc. sab‘a; BM 491 reads ba-sab‘ (“in
the seventh (part)”); omitted in EMML 20802 and BM 484. // “Was born”
(tawaladku) – Ull reads tewled (“(seventh) generation”). // “In the first”
(ba-qadamit) – Ryl1 and BM 486 read qadamit. // “Until when … lasted” –
omitted in Abb 55. // “Until when” (’eska ’ama) – EMML 2080 corrupts to
’eska ’em- (lit. “until from”). // “Justice” (kwennane) – Berl, BM 491,
EMML 1768 and EMML 6281 spell kwennani. // “Justice and righteous-
ness” (kwennane wa-sedq) – this is perhaps a double translation (Grk.
*κρσι« κα! δικαιοσ-νη) that may ultimately derive from Aram. Xu>q
(similar to v. 2b). // “Lasted” (ta‘aggašu, plur.) – Tana 9 and BM 485 read
sing. ta‘aggaš; EMML 1768 and EMML 6281 have ta‘aggasa (cf. sing.
of Copt.); EMML 2080 reads with the conj. and has wa-ta‘aggasa (“and
lasted”).

Coptic: ] h envx ayèpoei än töoRP Näebdomas ayv öa äivvt


pdikaion Nävb awqv ewsmoNT , (recto col. i 2–8) – “] I, Enoch, was
born in the first week (Ψβδομ«); and until me, righteous (δκαιο«) work re-
mained intact”. The text is shorter than Eth. and Aram., with the absence of
“seventh”. However, the phrase öa äivvt, which literally means “until
upon me” reflects a Greek text (*1« #π μοψ or *1« <περ #μο) which, in
turn, “is an exact reproduction of the Aramaic ‘d ‘ly”.171

Aramaic: tdlyt ]X iyb> [ „vnx Xvh h ]nX rmXv hltm „vnx bcn [b ]tv
r ]bk Xu>q yli div ymdq [ivb>b (4QEng 1 iii 22–23) – “and answering,
Enoch took up his parable and said, [‘ … ]seventh I [was born in the] first
[week], and until my time righteousness in[deed …”.

General Comment
The author unequivocally describes the first era as one of righteousness; as
such, it would have spanned from the time of creation until the lifetime of
Enoch. As there is no hint of a tradition about anything having gone wrong
with Adam and Eve in the garden of Eden, the text suggests the influence of
earlier Enochic traditions that interpreted Genesis 6:1–4 as a story about
the origin of sin through rebellious angels. By keeping the entire beginning

171 The observation of M. Garitte, quoted by Milik, The Books of Enoch, p. 82.
88 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

unencumbered by evil, the author puts a protology into place that heralds
the “many weeks without number” of righteousness which conclude the
Apocalypse (91:17).

Notes
3a. And he began to recount from the books and said. The phrase looks
like a doublet of 93:1 and echoes the opening of the Book of Watchers
(1 En. 1:2). Nevertheless, like 93:1 it possesses a literary integrity, at least if
the Aramaic evidence is consulted. In this context, the repeated reference to
Enoch beginning with the parable functions to mark the transition between
the heading (which sums up and anticipates the central themes of the Apoc.
of Weeks) and the main body of the Apocalypse itself.
The “parable”, which in the Ethiopic becomes “books”, refers to the
essential content of the work. This, in turn, picks up what the seer claims to
have seen in the “tablets”.
3b. I was born (in) the seventh (part) of the first week. The number
seven applies to the generation from Adam in which Enoch was born and,
as such, is inferred from biblical tradition (see Gen. 5:1–24). As an articu-
lated tradition, Enoch’s location within the sequence of ante-diluvian gen-
erations is found in Jubilees (4:7–16)172 and Similitudes (1 En. 37:1),173 as
well as in the New Testament epistle of Jude (cf. v. 14), in which the seventh
place of Enoch is explicitly mentioned.
3c. Until when justice and righteousness lasted. Behind “justice and
righteousness” is Aramaic Xu>q , which means “truth” or “righteousness”
(see above n. 150). The term here denotes the absence of sin, although it is
not associated yet with a special community, such as “the plant of right-
eousness/truth” (vv. 5, 10). On the face of it, this statement seems to ignore
the wickedness attributed in the biblical tradition to Adam and Eve (Gen. 3)
and Cain (Gen. 4) before the time of Enoch (unlike Anim. Apoc. 85:1–10).
For the author of the Apocalypse there is no Adamic “fall” or event prior
to Enoch that introduced sin or evil into the world. The text assumes that

172 The scheme of reckoning employed in Jubilees is, however, different from that of
Apoc. of Weeks. Whereas the Apoc. of Weeks assigns Enoch’s birth to the “first
week”, the author of Jubilees locates the event at the time of “the eleventh jubilee …
the fifth week … the fourth year” (4:16). The timelines used by the authors are in-
compatible. See the Introduction section B above regarding the different chronologi-
cal schemes in use during the 2nd cent. BCE.
173 The editor of the opening of Similitudes mentions the seven generations; this is per-
haps not only based on the biblical tradition, but also influenced by the detail given
about Enoch in the present text.
1 Enoch 93:3 89

during the time of Enoch things essentially, though not necessarily actually,
began to go awry.174 The author, therefore, may presuppose that cosmic evil
originated through a rebellion against God by angels, called “watchers”
(Bk. of Watchers at 1 En. 6; Anim. Apoc. at 1 En. 86–88; Jub. 4:22–24;
Bk. of Giants at 4Q203 8; 4Q530 2 ii + 6–7 i-ii + 8–12; 4Q531 1). The
rebellion and advent of these angels from heaven, caused by their infatu-
ation with the beauty of the women of the earth, resulted in the birth of
giant offspring who violently oppressed humanity. In turn, humans were
given reprehensible instruction, not only becoming victims but also corrupt
in the process. These events, narrated in early Enochic interpretations of
Genesis 5:21–6:4 (1 En. 6–11; 88–89), are regarded as having taken place
during or just after Enoch’s lifetime; they provide the reason for a divine
judgement that manifested itself through (a) intramural killings amongst
the giants (1 En. 7:5; 10:9, 12; Jub. 5:9; cf. 7:22) and (b) the Great Flood as-
sociated with Noah (1 En. 88; Bk. of Giants).
In the Apocalypse the fallen angels tradition does not occur explicitly until
week ten when, at least according to the Ethiopic version, an “eternal judge-
ment” is carried out against the “watchers” (91:15; see Note). This con-
clusion implies that the fallen angels are regarded as cosmic powers that must
be dealt with in order for sin and evil to be completely, and finally, eradicated.
Between the first and tenth weeks, however, the language of the author fo-
cuses more on instances of human sin and wrongdoing. In this way any belief
in demonic powers (probably assumed by the author and his community) is
not be allowed to detract from the accountability of humanity before God.175
This view, on the face of it, seems to be in conflict with that of the Epistle
(1 En. 98:4), the author of which insists that the origin of sin is human rather
than from outside the world. To be sure, the Epistle does not specifically
blame the first man for sin, and therefore does not imply an Adamic fall.
The presence of sin in the world and its consequences are not narrated
until the author’s sacred history reaches the second week (v. 4). Enoch’s life,
then, marks a bridge between the first two weeks, with his birth marking
the close of the first.

174 Presumably the writer may have received a tradition about the Adam and Eve similar
to what is related in the Bk. of Watchers (at 1 En. 32:1–6). The passage affirms that
they “learned wisdom” from eating of “the tree of wisdom” and were driven from the
garden when their eyes were opened, but does not denounce or bemoan what hap-
pened in any way.
175 This is not dissimilar to Jub., according to which the flood comes on account of
human sin, though the increase of sin leading to a crisis came about largely because of
the erring angels (cf. 5:1–32).
90 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

The Second Week (93:4)

(4) “And after me, in the second week, great evil will arise and deceit will
have sprouted up; and in it there will be the first end, and in it a man will be
rescued. After it has ended, iniquity will increase, and a law will be made for
sinners.”

Textual Notes
Ethiopic: “And … will arise” (wa-yeqawwem, masc.; Tana 9, Berl, BM 485,
BM 491, Abb 35, EMML 1768, EMML 6281) – EMML 2080, Ryl and Eth.
II mss. have the fem. wa-teqawwem. // “In the second” (ba-kale’t) –
Ull reads kale’t (“the second”); EMML 2080 and BM Add. 24185 have
ba-kale’; BM 492 reads kale’ (“the second”). // “Great evil” (‘abay ’ekay;
EMML 2080 (‘abay), Berl, Abb 35, Abb 55, EMML 1768 (‘abay)) –
BM 485, BM 491 and EMML 6281 have ‘abiy ’ekay; Tana 9 reads ‘abiy
wa-’ekay (“great and evil”); Ryl and Eth. II mss. have ‘abay ’ekit. On the
absence of “great” in Aram., see Textual Note to Aram. // “And deceit”
(wa-g wehlut) – EMML 6281 reads wa-sag welat (“and divination”). // “Will
have sprouted up” (baq walat fem.) – EMML 1768 spells baq walat;
EMML 6281 has baqalat; Curzon 56 spells baq welat; BM 492 reads masc.
with conj. wa-baqal (“and will have sprouted up”). // “There will be”
(tekawwen) – BM 485 reads yeqawwen (auditory error(?) or influence
from beg. of v., “there will arise”). // “The first end” (qadamit fesame;
EMML 2080, Berl, BM 491, EMML 6281) – Tana 9 has qadamita fesame;
Abb 35, Abb 55, EMML 1768, Ryl and most Eth. II mss. transpose to
fesame qadamit; BM 499 and Westenholz Ms. transpose to fesame za-qa-
damit (lit. “the end which is first”); BM 485 has qadame fesame. // “Will be
rescued” (yedexxen) – EMML 2080 spells yedaxxen; EMML 1768 reads
dexna (“will have been rescued”); Abb 55 reads yelehheq (“will grow old”;
influenced by vb. telehheq “will increase” later in this v.?); Tana 9 corrupts
to yeydexxen. // “A man” (be’si) – Tana 9 spells be’se (as 93:5). // “After it
has ended” – Nickelsburg emends to “and after this, at its conclusion” (wa-
’em-dexra-ze ba-tafsameta) to conform to the style of 93:5, 6, 7, 8, 10;
91:13. He argues that the text otherwise reads as if the week has finished,
which is not yet the case.176 The difficulty is only apparent: It is the “first
end” that has reached a conclusion, not the second week.177 // “After” (’em-

176 Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 436.


177 See further, VanderKam, “Studies in the Apocalypse of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10;
91:11–17)”, CBQ 46 (1984), p. 519.
1 Enoch 93:4 91

dexra; Tana 9, EMML 2080, Berl, BM 491, Abb 35, EMML 1768,
EMML 6281) – BM 485, Ryl and most Eth. II mss. read with the conj. wa-
’em-dexra (“and after”); Abb 55 reads only wa- (“and”); omitted in Frank-
furt Ms. // “It has ended” (tafassama, masc. sing.; EMML 2080, Berl,
BM 491, Abb 35, EMML 6281) – BM 485 and EMML 1768 read plur.
form tafassamu; Tana 9 reads fem. tafassamat; omitted in Abb 55. // “And a
law will be made” (wa-šer‘at yetgabbar; Berl, Ull, BM 492) – BM 485,
BM 491 and EMML 1768 have wa-šer‘at yegabber; Tana 9, EMML 2080,
Abb 35, EMML 6281, Ryl and most Eth. II mss. emend the last reading
to wa-šer‘ata yegabber (“and he will make a law”).178 // “For sinners”
(la-xate’an) – Berl has la-xaten (“for the sinner”).

Coptic: ayv MPNsvei tmeäSNte Näebdomas […]te Näebd[omas


(recto col. i 8–10 and col. ii 2) – “and after me, the second week (Ψβδομ«)
[…]… we[ek (Ψβδομ«)”. // The last word of the v., “week”, does not have a
corresponding term in the Eth.

Aramaic: ]v ]xmjy Xcmxv Xrq> hb yd ]ynt [ivb> (“the second [week] in


which there will sprou[t] deceit and violence” (4QEng 1 iii 24–25), follow-
ing the restoration of Milik179). The Eth. reading of “great evil and
violence” probably reflects an Aramaic text that read hbr instead of hbd
(an earlier or alternative form for hb yd ).

General Comment
It is during the second week that events in the world turn bad. The perpe-
trators of the “deceit and violence” are not identified, that is, whether they
are fallen angels and their gargantuan offspring or wicked humanity.
Though it is possible that the texts here refer to the activities of both, the
reference to “sprouting” may be an allusion to the illicit sexual activity
between bad angels and human women from which the watcher tradition
derived.
The protology of the first week is carried forward into the second. The
“first end” or decisive judgement is executed against evil, and so anticipates
a second, more final punishment that is described for weeks seven through
ten (91:11–16). Similarly, the rescue of Noah (called “a man”) is a prolepsis
for the conversion of “all humanity” at the end of the ninth week (91:14).

178 See Dexinger, Die Zehnwochenapokalypse, p. 112 n. 11 and Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1,


p. 436, who follow Charles, The Ethiopic Version of the Book of Enoch, p. 195.
179 Milik, The Books of Enoch, p. 264.
92 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

By including both a further time of wickedness and the “law … for


sinners” in week two, the author establishes a pattern of contrasts that will
resurface during the eras leading up to his own time (93:8–10, weeks six
and seven). While there is no criticism of the “law”, it seems in the narrative
to function as a temporary expedient to deal with wrongdoers;180 here the
reference is perhaps to the Noahic covenant (Gen. 9:1–17), which is not so
much presented as a solution to sin as it is a restrainer.

Notes
4a. And after me, in the second week. “After me” does not necessarily
mean after the departure of Enoch. The expression, which is found amongst
all the Ethiopic manuscripts, has been suspected as a corruption, since it
seems inconsistent with the tradition that associates the fall of the angels
with “the days of Jared” (1 En. 6:1; Jub. 4:16).181 However, the text here
is internally consistent with the focus in 93:2 on Enoch to indicate time
(93:3c – “until when”). Moreover, any inconsistency is only apparent; the
expression may be taken as a further specification of when, during the days
of Jared, evil sprang up.
From this point on in the Apocalypse the verbs denote events in the fu-
ture from the fictive perspective of Enoch.
4b. Great evil will arise and deceit will have sprouted up. The second
week contrasts markedly from the first. Whereas the first week is marked as
a time of righteousness, the second is characterised as a time during which
evil has its beginning. This underscores further that the author’s schematic
view of sacred history does not include either an Adamic fall or the murder
of Abel by Cain. How is this to be explained? Several explanations are pos-
sible: (a) the author did not know these traditions, (b) he did not consider
them momentous enough to affect his essential caricature of the first week
(cf. 1 En. 32:6), and (c) he is not, strictly speaking, making any claim about
the beginning of sin. The difficulty of imagining the author not knowing
these traditions from Genesis chapters 2–4 strengthens the likelihood of
either (b) or (c) or, more probably, both.

180 Such a tradition may underlie Paul’s argument in Gal. 3:19, if he has applied such a
view of the Noahic covenant to the Torah which was “added on account of trans-
gressions”.
181 Dexinger, Zehnwochenapokalypse, p. 122 and Black, The Book of Enoch, p. 289,
who argue that “after me” deviates from the temporal expression otherwise used
to introduce each week: “thereafter” (i.e. the same word without the affixed 1st pers.
sing. suffix).
1 Enoch 93:4 93

“Sprout up” (Aram. xmj ) extends the planting metaphor introduced


in 93:2 and is developed in verses 5 and 10. Whereas in verses 2, 5, and 10
the substantive “plant” or “planting” is used to reflect positive images of
God’s chosen community, here the verb denotes the growth of malevolent
activity.182 The contrast, which metaphorically pits good and bad plants
over against one another, is picked up and applied in generalising terms in
Matthew 7:17–20. The term does not in itself refer to sin at its inception,
but rather to the growth of evil that follows. Nevertheless, the planting im-
agery – that is, the inception – probably does not lie far in the background.
The Aramaic term “planting” (hbjn ) could refer neutrally to insemination
resulting from sexual activity, and does so within the context of the fallen
watchers tradition.183 It is possible, then, that the time of Enoch is being im-
plicitly associated with the fallen angels. If so, the author does not wish to
lay stress on this, as he is mostly concerned with the consequences of this for
humanity.
Both the terms “deceit” and “violence” occur elsewhere as descriptions
of ante-diluvian activities. The Aramaic term rq> may be translated as
either “deceit” or “lie”. As a verbal form, it is used in the Book of Giants
(4Q533 4.1) to refer to ante-diluvian activities probably carried out and fo-
mented by the fallen angels and their offspring.184 In this context, the verb
is co-ordinated with the word “lies” (]ybdk , l.2). In 93:4, in its substan-
tive form, rq> provides a contrast with the “truth” (u>q ) that has charac-
terised the preceding first week (v. 3). The term for “violence” (cmx , Heb.
and Aram.) is already used in the biblical tradition at Genesis 6:11, 13
to describe the activity of “the flesh” on the earth before the flood. This
is picked up in a number of texts and applied to the malevolent deeds
committed by the watchers and their offspring, the giants: see especially
Book of Watchers (9:1185, 6); Book of Giants (esp. 4Q531 19.2186; 4Q203

182 This is comparable to the metaphor as used in Deut. 29:18 (see Nickelsburg,
1 Enoch 1, p. 443), though the contrast with a good plant or root there is missing.
183 See 1QapGen ii 15, in which Lamech is assured that “the planting of fruit” (tbjn
Xyrp ) is not that of the fallen watchers, but his own. The expression is used neutrally,
and the text shows no concern to distance such language from the activity of the re-
bellious angels.
184 The reading hrq [>l is a preferable to that of Milik’s hrq [bl (“to inspect”;
The Books of Enoch, p. 237); for discussions of this, see Stuckenbruck, The
Book of Giants, pp. 195–96 and Puech, “533. 4QLivre de Géantse ar”, DJD 31,
pp. 110–11.
185 4QEna 1 iv 8 (hcmx ) par. XQpapEnoch l.4 (hcmx ).
186 See Puech, “531. 4QLivre de Géantsc ar”, DJD 31, p. 71.
94 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

5.2187); and Genesis Apocryphon (1QapGen v 18–19; vi 5). In particular,


both terms occur together in 1 Enoch 91:11, which bridges both the Exhor-
tation and the seventh week from 93:10 into the eighth week of the Apoca-
lypse, perhaps under the influence of the present verse.
4c. And in it there will be the first end. Together with 1 Enoch 91:5–9
and 106:19–107:1, the author draws on the widespread contemporary
tradition that finds in the Noahic flood an analogy for eschatological
events. Echoes of this are developed in relation to the eighth, ninth, and
tenth weeks (see 91:12–16 below). Several early Enochic texts draw on this
typology, in order to underscore the significance of the Noahic tradition on
the readers. One important passage in this connection is in the Book of
Watchers at 1 Enoch 10. The chapter opens with a message to Noah an-
nouncing the flood from which he is to escape (vv. 2–3). This is followed by
divine instructions to Raphael (vv. 4–8), Gabriel (vv. 9–10), and Michael
(vv.11–16a), respectively, who are to oversee the punishment to be meted
out to the watchers and their giant offspring (vv. 7–8, 9–10, 11–15). The
theme of destruction associated with the deluge re-emerges as the text he-
ralds events of the eschaton. On the one hand, uncleanness and wickedness
will be completely destroyed before the beginning of an (eschatological) age
of exceptional unprecedented reproductivity. On the other hand, the right-
eous will be rewarded, and all the nations of the earth will worship God. In
an inclusio the chapter concludes with the divine promise, in an allusion to
Genesis 9:11, that a flood will never again be sent upon the earth to cleanse
it from corruption and sin (v. 22). In the Book of Giants (at 4Q530 2 ii +
6–7 i + 8–12, ll. 6–20a), the typology contributes to the imagery of two
giant brothers’ dream visions. Hahyah’s dream (ll. 6–12) recounts, drawing
on plant imagery, the destruction to come upon the watchers and the giants,
who are called “shoots” (]y>r> , l.8). If Puech’s reconstruction is correct,
that 6Q8 2 provides some of the missing text in the lacunae for lines
8–11,188 then the same passage also refers, by contrast, to Noah’s three
sons as “three shoots” (l.9; text in 6Q8 2.1). The vision, which contrasts
between the giants and sons of Noah, on the one hand, and between the
watchers and Noah himself, on the other, is followed by a further dream
vision recounted by ’Ohyah (ll.15–20). In this second dream, the giant tells
of a divine courtroom of thrones erected on the earth; here, with the books

187 Probably occurring here as a verbal form; see Stuckenbruck, “203. 4QEnochGiantsa
ar”, DJD 36, pp. 17–19, though Milik (The Books of Enoch, p. 312) construes the
word as a substantive.
188 Émile Puech, “Les fragments 1 & 3 du Livre de Géants de la Grotte 6 (6Q8 1–3)”, RevQ
74 (1999), pp. 227–38; “530. 4QLivre de Géantsb ar”, DJD 31, pp. 28 and 33–34.
1 Enoch 93:4 95

(of deeds) opened, judgement is held. The dream, which bears a strong af-
finity with heavenly scene of judgement in Daniel 7:9–14,189 evokes a sense
of finality that is suggestive of the day of eschatological judgement, when
evil will be completely eradicated. The later Similitudes adapts the typology
in much the same way (1 En. 67:1–69:29). The flood story, then, narrati-
vises the conviction of God’s decisive triumph over evil in the past, one that
provides assurance of this, in an even more conclusive way, in the eschato-
logical future.
In the New Testament the flood typology is used in several ways:
(a) exorcism tradition from Jesus’ ministry (Mk. 5:1–20); (b) day of judge-
ment tradition involving the Son of Man (Mt. 24:36–44; Lk. 17:26–27);
and (c) baptismal tradition (1 Pet. 3:18–22). While retaining the future,
eschatological thrust of the flood typology (b), the essential difference
emerging in the early Christian materials is the use of Noahic tradition to
illustrate the fulfilment of eschatological hope in Jesus’ ministry (a) and
early Christian initiation (c).
4d. And in it a man will be rescued. This unmistakable reference to
Noah serves as the positive counterpart to the allusion to the flood in the
previous phrase. Just as the flood serves as a type for the anticipated de-
struction of evil in the eschaton, so also Noah is linked to the righteous who
will be rewarded for their faithfulness in the eschatological age. The stereo-
typing of each of the weeks might seem reductionistic, in this case, the men-
tion of only “a man”190 who will survive the flood. The Book of Watchers
likewise refers only to Noah in relation to the deluge (1 En. 10:1–3). This
statement does not, however, amount to a claim that only Noah survived.
Noah is being understood as a collective, representative figure for the right-
eous who would follow him.191
In emphasizing the same, other texts, while focusing on Noah, refer at the
same to his sons. For example, while referring to Noah exclusively when

189 Concerning the possible tradition-historical relationship between Dan. 7:9–14 and
’Ohyah’s dream vision, see Stuckenbruck, “The Throne-Theophany of the Book of
Giants: Some New Light on the Background of Daniel 7”, in eds. Stanley E. Porter
and Craig A. Evans, The Scrolls and the Scriptures. Qumran Fifty Years After (JSP
Supplement Series, 26; Sheffield: Academic Press, 1997), pp. 211–20.
190 Concerning the use of “man” (be’esi) in the Apocalypse, see under v. 5 below. Here it
suffices to note that the Anim. Apoc. (1 En. 89:1) stresses that Noah “became a man”
just before building the vessel that would ensure his and his sons’ survival during the
flood. Regarding the text, however, see n. 1026 below.
191 As e.g. is made explicit in 1 En. 10:3 (the extension of plant imagery; see Note to
93:2c), Wis. 14:5–6 and Jub. 10:1–6.
96 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

narrating the flood events (5:20–6:16), the author of Jubilees nevertheless


does specifically mention the birth of Noah’s sons (4:33) and in the after-
math of the flood refers to each of them, both specifically (8:10–9:15) and
generally (10:1–6), implying that his sons were with him during the deluge
(similarly, see Sim. 64:1–13). The specific mention of Noah’s sons alongside
their father occurs in other texts in order to underscore the reproductive link
between pre- and post-diluvian times and, accordingly, the continuation of
God’s purposes (particularly through the line of Shem) as well as of sin. This
occurs in the Animal Apocalypse (cf. 89:1–10), according to which Noah the
“white bull” is joined in the vessel by “three bulls” who are protected with
him from the waters of the deluge (89:1); after the flood, the three bulls as
then characterised: one is “white” (whose line would lead to Abraham),192
while the other two are “black” and “red” respectively (89:9–10). The ref-
erence to the three sons of Noah in the Book of Giants (see Note on v. 4c
above) serves the immediate purpose of providing a contrast with the giants
who cannot escape punishment through the flood, while Noah himself is
contrasted with the fallen angels.193
Noah’s escape is attributed to divine activity (passivum divinum) which
salvages the cataclysmic effect of “the first end”. God’s preservation of
Noah ensures the continuity of his purposes amongst humanity.194 Signifi-
cantly, as in the Book of Watchers (1 En. 10:1–3), there is no mention of an
ark or vessel. The absence of this detail may be due to the need to schema-
tise in the Apocalypse or may simply reflect the influence of the Book of
Watchers. Perhaps the building of the ark by Noah (in accordance with
God’s instructions) in the biblical tradition (cf. Gen. 6:13–22) would have
distracted from the emphasis here on Noah’s survival as God’s action,
an emphasis which will be developed in the Similitudes (1 En. 67:2) which
attributes the building to the angels, not Noah.195

192 A similar, though much more elaborate, emphasis on the preference of Shem, is nar-
rated in Jub. 8:12–21 and 10:14 (Noah “loved him more than all his sons”).
193 On the other hand the focus on Noah in Wis. 14:6 results in a contrast between Noah
himself and the giants who perished in the flood waters.
194 See Birth of Noah (and General Comment on 106:18). In Ben Sira’s encomium of
exemplary ancestors, Noah is commended for his perfect and righteous character and,
“in the time of wrath he kept the race alive”; therefore a remnant was left on the earth
when the flood came” (Sir. 44:17). In Wis. 14:6 he is called “the hope of the world”
who “took refuge on a raft” and “left to the world the seed of a new generation”.
195 This possibility is no surprise, since in the Anim. Apoc. (89:1) Noah’s transformation
into a “man” (which in that document denotes elevation to an angelified state) occurs
just before his builds the ark.
1 Enoch 93:4 97

4e. After it has ended, iniquity will increase. The second week does not
finish with the flood itself (see Textual Note), but during its aftermath when
a covenant is established with Noah (see below). For all its significance as
an act of divine punishment on the wickedness arising during the ante-dilu-
vian period, the flood does not do away with evil (‘amada, “iniquity”) en-
tirely.196 Early apocalyptic traditions that draw on the flood as a type for
judgement in the eschaton are at pains, in coming to terms with the biblical
account,197 to describe how, after such a definitive punishment, wrongdoing
could once again arise. In the Book of Watchers (ch.’s 15–16), this is pri-
marily explained as the residue remaining from the punishment of the
giants, whose bodies were destroyed while their spirits go on to afflict hu-
mans and cause them to sin (15:8–16:3). The author of Jubilees, while mak-
ing more room for the notion of the flood as punishment for human sins
as well as for the angels and giants’ misendeavours, explains the contin-
uance of evil after the flood (cf. 7:20–29) on the basis of a negotiated ar-
rangement between the chief of demons, Mastema, and God; while nine-
tenths of the demons are completely incarcerated until the end, one-tenth
are allowed to continue their activities of harming and corrupting humans
(10:7–14).198
The notion of iniquity increasing may be a continuation of the plant meta-
phor in verse 4b. The verb (telehheq “will increase”), however, also occurs in
the similar contexts of Exhortation 91:5, 7 and Birth of Noah 106:19.
However, the focus in the Apocalypse seems to be more on human,
rather than on angels’ (and giants’) wrongdoing, and corresponds to a basic
pessimism with regard to the human race. Similarly, the Animal Apocalypse
singles out the “black” and “red” bulls – references to Ham and Japheth
essential re-producers of wickedness after the flood (1 En. 89:10–11).199
However, the Animal Apocalypse makes more explicit that the persistent

196 The same term recurs in 91:11 in the context of its complete eradication.
197 See God’s response to Noah’s sacrifice, promising not to destroy the earth again in
Gen. 8:21; here “the inclination of the human heart” is said to (continue to) be “evil
from youth”, as a given of the human condition.
198 See further, VanderKam, “The Demons in the Book of Jubilees”, in eds. Armin Lange,
Hermann Lichtenberger and K. F. Diethard Römheld, Die Dämonen – Demons. Die
Dämonologie der israelitisch-jüdischen und frühchristlichen Literatur im Kontext
ihrer Umwelt (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2003), pp. 339–64.
199 This may be inferred from the animal symbolism that follows in the vision. To be
sure, Anim. Apoc. allows for a continuing role of the fallen angels (i.e. if they are the
same as the “seventy shepherds” overseeing the punishments of Israel) while the
giants are completely destroyed in the flood.
98 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

post-diluvian evil is not restricted to Ham and Japheth, but affects the
progeny of Shem as well. This corresponds to the interest of the author in
his own community as the locus of God’s activity within Israel. Much the
same may be implicit in the Apocalypse from this reference to “wicked-
ness”; that wickedness includes Israel as well as the other nations in the
aftermath of the flood may be inferred, and is confirmed by the focus on
“the plant of righteousness” and “the eternally chosen”, that is, a commu-
nity within Israel (93:2, 5, and 10).
4f. And a law will be made for sinners. The term for “law” (Eth. š/ser‘at)
may also carry the meaning of “covenant”, so that is could be an equivalent
for either Greek *δια$κη or *νμο«.200 Indeed, a number of scholars have
interpreted the text along these lines.201 The problem with this conventional
view is the implication that, outside this particular covenant (given the spe-
cific instruction on shedding of blood), other forms of wrongdoing and
wickedness perpetrated between the time of the flood and the covenant are
not considered. In a broadly caricaturing document such as the Apocalypse,
one would expect an instruction that is more comprehensive in scope.
Therefore, Dexinger, followed by Black and Nickelsburg, has argued that
this statement does not have the Noahic covenant in view (cf. Gen. 8:20–21;
9:1–17), but rather another specific law for “sinners”.202 The basis for their
view lies in Jubilees 6–7, according to which Noah, in the twenty-eighth
jubilee, “began to command his grandsons with ordinances and command-
ments and all of the judgments which he knew” (7:20). The instructions are
concerned with several areas: (a) covering the shame of nakedness; (b) wor-
shipping “the one who created them”, expressed through honouring one’s
parents and loving the neighbour; and (c) separation from “fornication and
pollution and from injustice” (v. 20). The text goes on to explain that the
flood was sent to destroy “because of these three” (probably referring to
the activities under (c), specifying such activities as but a continuation of
the sort of wrongdoing brought about by the pre-diluvian watchers. After
all, the watchers had (1) fornicated with the daughters of humanity,
(2) fomented impurity through this forbidden union, and (3) through their
offspring, were the cause of much bloodshed and injustice upon the earth

200 See Knibb, The Ethiopic Book of Enoch, 2.224 and Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 444,
both of whom refer to Dillmann, Das Buch Henoch, p. 295.
201 See Dexinger, Zehnwochenapokalypse, pp. 123–24, and n.’s 27 and 28 for a list of
those scholars, mostly from the late 19th – early 20th century, who have taken this
view.
202 Dexinger, Zehnwochenapokalypse, p. 124; Black, The Book of Enoch, pp. 289–90;
and Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 444.
1 Enoch 93:5 99

(vv. 22–24). According to this reading, the “law” was given to curtail the
same sort of evil that had been so rampant before the deluge, that is, activity
that Noah’s grandsons were engaging in due to demonic seduction by the
spirits of the giants (7:27–29). Whereas the prohibition against eating
flesh with its lifeblood in it and the shedding of blood in Genesis 9:1–7
reinforces the respect due to humanity made in God’s image, the account
of Jubilees has integrated this into the watcher tradition in order to under-
mine repetition of transgression (see Note to 98:11). At the same time, how-
ever, the author of Jubilees retains an interpretation of the covenantal
passage from Genesis 8:21–9:17 that makes no attempt to remedy the
damage and legacy left by the fallen angels or their offspring (cf. Jub.
6:1–16). If the reference to sprouting of “deceit” and “violence” at the
beginning of 93:4 has anything to do with the fallen angels, then the
“sinners” here are likely those who have revived the sin which the flood had
been sent to destroy.
The association of “the law” with “sinners” may have influenced later
statements in the New Testament regarding the giving of the law as a means
of keeping wrongdoing in check or from getting out of hand. See, for in-
stance, Mark 10:3–5 (and pars.) and Galatians 3:19 in which, however, the
association is made with the Mosaic Torah.

The Third Week (93:5)

(5) “And after this, in the third week, at its end, a man will be chosen as the
plant of righteous judgement, and after him there will go forth the plant of
righteousness forever and ever.”

Textual Notes
Ethiopic: “In the third” (ba-šalest) – EMML 2080, Berl and BM 491 have
ba-šales. // “At its end” (ba-tafsameta) – Tana 9 reads ba-tafsameta (“at (its)
end”). // “A man” (be’si) – Tana 9 spells be’se (as 93:4). // “Judgement”
(kwennane) – omitted in Ull. // “And after him … righteousness” – omitted
in BM 485 through homoioteleuton (sedq … sedq, “righteousness …
righteousness”). // “And after him” (wa-’em-dexrehu) – Berl reads
wa-’em-dexra-ze (“and after this”). // “The plant of” (la-takla; Tana 9,
EMML 2080, Berl, BM 491, Abb 35, Abb 55, EMML 1768, EMML 6281) –
Ryl and Eth. II mss. have takla. // “Will go forth” (yewadde’; Tana 9, Berl,
BM 491, Abb 35, Abb 55, EMML 1768, EMML 6281) – EMML 2080, Ryl
and Eth. mss. read yemasse’ (“will come”). // “Forever and ever” (la-‘alam
‘alam; Tana 9, EMML 2080, Berl, BM 491, Abb 35, EMML 1768,
100 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

EMML 6281) – Ryl, Eth. II mss. and Abb 55 read la-‘alam (“forever”);
BM 485 reads za-la-‘alam (“which is forever”).

Coptic: ] ayv MNNsa nai tmeäöomte Näebdomas na övpe , ayv ÄN


pesèvk ebol sepasvTP N oyrvme eytv [(recto col. ii 3–9) – “And
after this will come the third week (Ψβδομ«); and when it has been com-
pleted a man will be chosen (elected) as a pl[ant”. // The verb “will come”
(subj. of “the third week”) is not in the Eth.

Aramaic: Nothing survives.

General Comment
The third week is marked by the election of a group from a man who him-
self is selected. The text adapts the widespread tradition, biblical and post-
biblical, regarding those who are the legitimate heirs to the covenant bless-
ings given to Abraham. Of course, in Jewish tradition, the covenant identity
of Israel was traced back to the divine choice of Isaac over Ishmael and,
further, Jacob over Esau. This was strengthened by the renaming of Jacob as
“Israel”, already in biblical tradition (Gen. 35:1–15, esp. v. 10).

Notes
5a. And after this, in the third week, at its end. The schema to be followed
in introductions to the later weeks essentially begins here. The initial phrase
(“and … week”) corresponds to that for the fourth (v. 6), fifth (v. 7), sixth
(v. 8), seventh (v. 9), ninth (91:14), and tenth (91:15) weeks. “At its end”,
however, occurs only in relation to the fourth and eighth weeks (v. 6 and
91:13).
The beginning of the third week is not described. The author seems to
suppose, however, that it has begun with the instructions associated with
Noah (v. 4), extending from that time until the time of Abraham and Jacob.
Whereas the author fills the second week with a sequence of events, it is ul-
timately the end of the third week that takes on any special interest.
5b. A man will be chosen as the plant of righteous judgement, and after
him there will go forth the plant of righteousness forever and ever. This is
the second of three references to a “man” (Eth. be’esi) in the Apocalypse,
the first instance referring to Noah (v. 4) and the third relating to Elijah
(v. 8). While there is no question in the Apocalypse that those given this des-
ignation are human, the term denotes someone of special importance. The
events associated with each “man” involve rescue (Noah), election (Abra-
ham; on this identification, see immediately below), and ascension (Elijah)
of a “man” suggests. The text does not disclose, however, whether – beyond
1 Enoch 93:5 101

the simple meaning of “human being” – the term carries in it an idealisation


of human nature at its best or implies an angelomorphic status. While the
former seems a straightforward idea to suppose, the possibility of the latter
cannot be dismissed out of hand. If tradition preserved in the Animal
Apocalypse was known to the writer of the Apocalypse, it is interesting to
note the application of “man” to special figures in sacred history in a vision
otherwise dominated by representations of humans by means of animal
symbols. In the Animal Apocalypse, the ones designated as “man” are
Noah (89:1), Moses (89:36), and the angelic scribe who keeps records in the
eschatological judgement (90:14, 22). In the cases of Noah and Moses, the
status of being a “man” is acquired through transformation (i.e. from being
a “sheep”), for Noah in advance of his building the ark and for Moses just
before he built the ark of the covenant. Thus the term “man”, which results
from elevated status, is closely associated with the construction of edifices
that are of significance for Israel’s sacred history. In addition, the term may
imply some sort of angelification.
The “plant” imagery is here applied for the first time in the vision proper
(see Note on 93:2c). Neither of the two occurrences in this lemma associates
the image with Noah, whose appearance in the history has been assigned to
the second week (v. 4). Since the fourth week refers to the Sinai event, there
is little question that the first mention of “plant” here is a reference to Ab-
raham, while the second instance, the eternal “righteous plant”, represents
Abraham’s offspring. Here, two obvious differences from the usage of
“plant” in the Book of Watchers at 1 Enoch 10:3 (on which see Note on
v. 2c above) are apparent: (1) the metaphor here is applied to two referents,
whereas in 10:3 only the offspring of Noah are essentially in view; and (2)
here it is applied to the story of Abraham, not to that about Noah.
It is unclear from verse 5, however, whether the second “plant” – that is,
the one that follows Abraham – refers (a) to a particular individual (such as
Isaac or even Jacob203); (b) to a corporate, ethnic Israel which shall last
eternally through a righteous remnant; or (c) to a righteous remnant which
only consists of the chosen ones (see v. 10). Any decision on which amongst
these possibilities is to be preferred depends on how the “plant” is related to
the expression “for ever”. The word “for ever” alone (Eth. la-‘alam) cannot
be limited to a single person in biblical history; this weakens the case for (a).
At the same time, the term qualifies how long it is that “the plant of truth/

203 See, concerning the difficulties in the text and its interpretation, Isaac, “1 (Ethiopic
Apocalypse of) Enoch”, p. 74 and n. 1; Black The Book of Enoch, p. 372; and Tiller,
“The ‘Eternal Planting’ in the Dead Sea Scrolls”, p. 321 and n. 22.
102 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

righteousness” shall endure in the divine plan; one would therefore be hard
pressed to suppose that this is simply a reference to ethnic Israel in its enti-
rety, which if anywhere has just been mentioned in relation to the figure of
Abraham.204 It is, rather, none other than a designation for a select, collec-
tive offspring of Abraham concerning which the Apocalypse has been auth-
ored, as the introduction in 93:2 makes clear. Given the significance of this
“plant” in the seventh week just before the eschaton (v. 10), “plant of right-
eousness/truth” denotes a group, a “true Israel” selected from amongst
Abraham’s offspring, that provides a continuous link between biblical and
eschatological time. See the Note to 93:10b below.

93:6: The Fourth Week

(6) “And after this, in the fourth week, at its end, visions of holy and right-
eous ones will be seen, and a law for every generation, and an enclosure will
be made for them.”

Textual Notes
Ethiopic: “And after this” (wa-’em-dexra-ze) – Berl has wa-’em-ze. // “In the
fourth week” (ba-rab‘et sanbat) – BM 491 reads only ba-rabe‘t (“in the
fourth”); BM 485 transposes to ba-sanbat rabe‘t; Berl has ba-rabe‘ sanbat. //
“At its end” (ba-tafsameta) – BM 491 reads wa-tafsameta (“and (at) its end”);
Berl and EMML 1768 have ba-tafsamita; Abb 35 has wa-ba- tafsameta (“and
at the end”); Ull reads ba-tafsameta yetra’’ayu (“and at its end there will be
seen”); EMML 6281 reads za-ba-tafsameta (“which is in its end”); Ryl and
Eth. II mss. have wa-ba-tafsameta (“and at its end”). // “Visions of holy and
righteous ones” (ra’yata qedusan wa-sadeqan; Tana 9, EMML 2080, Berl,
BM 491, Ryl, Eth. II mss.) – EMML 6281 has re’yata qedusan wa-sadeqan;
Ull has ra’yat qedusan wa-sadeqan; Abb 35 reads ra‘yat qedusat wa-sadeqan
(“holy visions and righteous ones”); BM 485 reads ra’ya qedusan wa-sedq (“a
vision of holy ones and righteousness”), making the text easier to compre-
hend, since it has a particular vision (that given to Moses at Mt. Sinai?) in
mind – the reading is preferred by Black (see under the Note to 93:6b).205 //

204 That is, the text is at this point not concerned with establishing God’s election of Isaac
over Ishmael or of Israel (i.e. Jacob understood collectively) over against Esau, as is
done in Jub. 17:4–18 and e.g. 19:15–31, respectively.
205 The Book of Enoch, p. 290. Opting for the plural are, e.g., Dexinger, Zehnwochen-
apokalypse, p. 113; Knibb, The Ethiopic Book of Enoch, 2.224; and Nickelsburg,
1 Enoch 1, p. 434.
1 Enoch 93:6 103

“Will be seen” (yetra’’ayu, plur.; EMML 2080 (yetre’’eyu), Berl, BM 491,


Abb 55, EMML 1768 (yetra’’eyu), Ryl, most Eth. II mss.) – BM 485 and
BM 484 read sing. yetra’’ay; Tana 9 has yetra’’ay; Abb 35 reads ’itre’’ayu
(“will not be seen”, auditory error?); EMML 6281 reads yetxarreyu (“will
be chosen”). // “And a law” (wa-šer‘at) – Tana 9, Berl, EMML 6281,
BM 499 and Westenholz Ms. have wa-ser‘ata; omitted in Abb 55. //
“For every generation” (la-tewleda tewled) – EMML 6281 has la-tewleda
tewleda; Curzon 56 reads only la-tewled (“for the generation”); Bodl 5
spells tewlet. // “Will be made” (yetgabbar) – Berl reads yegabber (cf. v. 4).
Since no verb accompanies the phrase “and a law for every generation”,
Berl adds the vb. to address the difficulty. // “For them” (lomu) – Nickels-
burg, following Copt., emends the text to bomu (“amongst them”).206

Coptic: ] vn , ayv se namoyNK Nte skhnh ära$ NähTS , (verso i 2–5) –


“]… and a tent (σκνη) will be built among them”.

Aramaic: Nothing survives.

General Comment
Week four encompasses a time span that stretches from Abraham until the
building of an “enclosure”, probably a reference to the ark of the covenant
erected after the giving of the Torah at Sinai. Significantly, this is the only
explicit mention of the Mosaic Torah in 1 Enoch.

Notes
6a. And after this, in the fourth week, at its end. Concerning the stylised
phraseology, see the Note under 93:5a. Again, as in the third and fifth
weeks, the author shows less interest in the period as a whole than in what
happens at its conclusion. The events summarised in the following phrases
bring the fourth week into the time of Israel’s wilderness wanderings, dur-
ing which the ark of the covenant is constructed.
6b. Visions of holy and righteous ones will be seen. The precise meaning
of this lemma is open to debate. Black has, for example, argued that the sin-
gular “vision” constitutes a better reading (on the ms. evidence, see Textual
Note above).207 However, the plural “visions” is to be preferred as the lectio
difficilior. The plural might, for example, be problematic if the text has in

206 Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 436.


207 The Book of Enoch, p. 290.
104 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

view the giving of the law on Mt. Sinai.208 A number of interpreters, how-
ever, have tried to take the plural form seriously. In one vein, A. G. Hoff-
mann argued at an early stage of interpretation that the “visions” refer gen-
erally to the series of revelations (“Offenbarungen”) that were given to the
pious descendants of Abraham.209 This construal, however, would require
this week to overlap chronologically with the third week, which includes
mention of Abraham’s offspring, “the plant of righteousness”. In another
vein, there is the more widespread view that the plural may refer to the
plagues or miracles experienced by Israel at the time of their exodus from
Egypt.210 This view is not impossible; however, it may be problematic,
especially if the verb “will be seen” (yetra’’ayu) includes the Sinai event as
well.
A more important question for interpretation is the precise meaning
of “holy and righteous ones”. Are they (a) the elect, humans of Israel who
are wandering in the wilderness211 or (b) angelic beings who are involved
in the giving of the Torah?212 If the text is referring to the human elect, the
nomina recta would probably have to be understood as the subject of
the action: “visions by …”. This would construe the passive verb “will be
seen” as tautological to the “visions”, since all the text would have needed
to state is that “there will be visions by holy and righteous ones”. As such,
the “holy and righteous ones” refer to Israel. The other way of under-
standing the nomina recta is to render them as the object of the action
implied in “vision”: there will be visions involving holy and righteous

208 Black, The Book of Enoch, p. 290, assumes that this phrase is part of a single
Mt. Sinai event. His reasoning for preferring the singular “vision” does not make
sense, namely, that the “holy and righteous ones” are angels involved in the Sinai
event.
209 Hoffmann, Das Buch Henoch in vollständiger Übersetzung mit fortlaufendem Com-
mentar (2 vols.; Jena: Croeker, 1833–1838), p. 800.
210 For a listing of authors behind this view (Charles, Beer, Martin, Dillmann, Riessler),
see Dexinger, Zehnwochenapokalypse, p. 127. For Thorndike the expression “un-
identified visions” suggests without warrant that the author refers to an event which
parallels the secret history of his own sect (“The Apocalypse of Weeks and the Qum-
ran Sect”, p. 167).
211 This interpretation might be suggested if the other Enochic texts using the same
double designation are taken into account; cf. esp. the Epistle at 99:16b and 100:5a
(further Sim. at 38:4; 51:2; and 65:12).
212 As maintained by Nickelsburg (1 Enoch 1, pp. 446, 500) and Black (The Book of
Enoch, p. 290). This interpretation seems to be supported by the omission of “right-
eous ones” in Abb 55.
1 Enoch 93:6 105

ones which will be seen (by the Israelites). In this case, the holy and right-
eous ones are thought of as angelic beings who have participated in
the theophany at Mt. Sinai (Deut. 33:2 – “the myriads of his holy ones”
[see also LXX: κ-ριο« #κ Σινα >κει κα! #πωφανεν #κ Σηιρ 9μ?ν … σ3ν
μψρισιν Καδη« #κ δε,ι&ν ατο Aγγελοι μετ’ ατο “the Lord came
from Sinai and appeared to us from Seir … together with a myriad of
Kades <viz. “holy ones“>, at his right hand his angels with him”]; cf. also
Book of Watchers 1:9). The claim in Exodus 24:9–11 that Moses, Aaron,
Nadab, Abihu, and the seventy elders saw “the God of Israel” on the
mountain could have been taken as a vision of the heavenly throne room,
from which the notion of the presence of an angelic entourage is not
remote. By extension, angels as worshippers of the God who revealed
the Torah on the mountain, are supporters, indeed upholders, of the
law. Their presence enhances the divine glory with which the Torah is
associated.
The author’s selective focus is thus less directed towards angels per
se than to their supportive role in relation to God’s activity. The implied
subject, namely Israel or their representatives in the wilderness, suggests
that a seeing of angels as they, for example, engage in the worship of
God is a mark of piety. This ideal becomes an important component in the
experiences attributed to apocalyptic seers whose ultimate visions involve
the divine throne and all the activity surrounding it. It is here, in the
experience, that the seers often find themselves participating in angelic
worship of God. The author of the Apocalypse may assume such a
piety, and associates this with the momentous event at Mt. Sinai;
the Torah was borne out of a context in which heaven and earth came
together.
In this way, the author’s understanding of the Sinai event seems to differ
from the account given in the Animal Apocalypse (89:29–35). Differences
are as follows: (a) the animal vision does not actually refer to the Torah (see
below), since in the account the main event of revelation has occurred when
God assuaged the people’s thirst with water and then instructed them
to keep his commandments (89:28 (cf. Exod. 15:25–26); (b) there is a vision
of “the Lord of the sheep” (89:30) at Mt. Sinai (introduced as “that high
rock” in 89:29; cf. vv. 32, 33); (c) unlike 93:6, it contains the motif of Is-
rael’s apostasy; and (d) accordingly, a different form of piety is operative,
namely one that focuses on the capacity (or lack thereof) to see God and to
stand in God’s presence.
In Jubilees the Angel of the Presence is instructed to reveal to Moses the
Torah at Sinai, that is, “the tablets of the divisions of the years from the time
of the creation of the law and the testimony … [until] the day of the new
106 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

creation …” (1:27–29; cf. 2:1).213 The angelic mediation functions as a


means of authenticating the writer’s particular interpretation of the Torah.
This compares to the present text if the visions of the “holy ones” are
understood as part of the giving of the law “for every generation” in verse
6c. If the “holy and righteous ones” are angelic beings who play a role in the
disclosure of the Mosaic Torah, then the Apocalypse opens with a similar
claim about an earlier period in which Enoch received revelation through
heavenly tablets mediated by the angels.
It is not clear, however, that the text actually assumes that angels have
participated in the giving of the law.214 The participation by the angels was
well in place by the first century CE, as demonstrated by several New Tes-
tament authors (Acts 7:38, 53; Gal. 3:19–20; Heb. 2:2–3), for whom the
idea undermined the immediacy of the Sinai revelation, and by Josephus
(Ant. 15.136, though the reference to “angels” there could mean prophets).
In addition, the idea would later be received positively in a number of rab-
binic texts.215 This function of angels probably went hand-in-glove with
the general growth of interest in angelic roles in carrying out divine activity
during the Second Temple period.216 In relation to the Torah, it became
a contested motif, not only in the New Testament texts mentioned above,
but also in rabbinic literature.217 For the author, the notion of the angels’
presence as seen during the event is significant; it both underscores the reve-
latory character of what happened at Mt. Sinai and, correspondingly, re-
flects a visionary piety idealised in apocalyptic circles.218

213 For discussions of the mediary role of the Angel of the Presence in Jub. and the de-
bates regarding angelic involvement in the unveiling of the Sinai Torah, see, respec-
tively, James C. VanderKam, “The Angel of the Presence in the Book of Jubilees”,
DSD 7 (2000), pp. 378–93 and Hindy Najman, “Angels at Sinai: Exegesis, Theology
and Interpretive Authority”, DSD 7 (2000), pp. 313–33.
214 Black, The Book of Enoch, p. 290, mentions this possibility and simply notes that it is
“a later development”.
215 See the discussion of the literature in David J. Halperin, Faces of the Chariot. Early
Jewish Responses to Ezekiel’s Vision (TSAJ, 16; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1988),
pp. 171–79.
216 As such, it may be analogous to the development of interpretations of Gen. 1:27 that
emphasized the angels’ involvement in the creation of humanity (see the references in
the Note to 106:12a).
217 Najman, “Angels at Sinai: Exegesis, Theology and Interpretive Authority”, pp. 326–32.
218 Such a piety, which combines ascetic rigours derived from Torah-piety with a particu-
lar interest in angels, may be reflected among those against whom the author of Co-
lossians later polemicises (Col. 2:8–23); see Fred O. Francis, “Humility and Angel
Worship in Colossae”, in eds. Fred O. Francis and Wayne Meeks, Conflict at Colos-
1 Enoch 93:6 107

6c. And a law for every generation. Nickelsburg observes that “This is
the only explicit reference to the Mosaic covenant/Torah in the whole Eno-
chic corpus.”219 The absence of explicit mention in the 1 Enoch corpus (in-
cluding the Book of Giants) continues to has been stressed by scholars such
as Milik, Sacchi, and Boccaccini, who find therein a form of Judaism
centred around the figure of Enoch which, while not outright rejecting the
Mosaic law, minimises its significance as the core of Jewish tradition. This
view is elaborated in several ways. Milik, for example, has argued that,
early on, the Enochic works were being gathered into a five-part corpus
which functioned as counterpart to the five books of the Torah (see volume
Introduction, section B.2). Along these lines, but developing the notion
further, Boccaccini has attempted to distinguish different apocalyptic
groups which were forming separate identities during the second century
BCE on the basis of their ideological differences: an Enochic Judaism, on
the one hand, and a Torah-centred Judaism (represented e.g. by the book of
Daniel), on the other (see Introduction to the Epistle, section C). While the
absence of emphasis in the Enochic corpus is conspicuous, this verse and its
integration – along with the rest of the Apocalypse – into the 1 Enoch ma-
terials at a very early stage (i.e. at least the copying of 4QEng ca. the mid-1st
cent. BCE) means that such a differentiation should not be pressed too far,
that is, this does not mean that the postulated groups were in open ideologi-
cal (and social) conflict with one another.
It is not clear whether the lemma assumes the previous verb (“will be
seen”) or the following one (“will be made”); in the former case, the visions
would be linked to the law, which in turn would be part of the visionary ex-
perience,220 and in the latter case, the law would be that which is given to
the people. Whichever the case, the “law” is closely bound up with both the
former (“holy and righteous ones”, i.e. angels) and the latter (“the enclos-
ure”, i.e. the tabernacle).
The phrase “for every generation” (tewleda tewled) signifies that the law
was intended to be everlasting (see Note on 99:2a).
6d. And an enclosure will be made for them. The term for “enclosure”
(‘asad) denotes a circumscribed area. To what does this refer? Three pos-
sible interpretations present themselves: (1) If understood as a metaphor,
the term could relate to the law in the previous phrase and anticipate the

sae (Missoula, Montana: Scholars Press, 1973), pp. 163–95; Stuckenbruck, Angel
Veneration and Christology, pp. 111–19.
219 1 Enoch 1, p. 446.
220 The “seeing” of the law would be consistent with the content of the heavenly tablets
as subject of the vision given to Enoch at the beginning of the Apoc. of Weeks (93:2).
108 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

well known saying in Pirqe Aboth that the Torah is given as a “fence” for
God’s people (m. Aboth 1:1). (2) It could refer to the promised land taken
after the wilderness wanderings.221 (3) If the immediate literary context is
taken into account, the term may be an allusion to the cult with which the
author of the Apocalypse is concerned (see under 93:7,8 and 91:13). The
use of ‘asad here instead of maqdas (“temple”) elsewhere in the Apocalypse
reflects the difference between the ark of the covenant and the temple
as later erected. According to Exodus 27:9, the ark is designated as “the
enclosure of the tent” (]k>mh rjx ; LXX-αλν τB σκηνB). This is also
the sense of the Coptic text and its Greek Vorlage. In this case, it is assumed
that the establishment of the cult was ordained in the law (reading Exod.
25:1–31:18 as following the Sinai revelation to Moses in 20:1–24:18).222
The passive verb again, as elsewhere, emphasizes that the ark is the result
of divine activity, just as is stressed in the biblical tradition (Exod. 25:8–9).
God’s provision of the ark is “for them”, that is, for the Israelites, the im-
plied subjects of the visions referred to earlier in the verse. Perhaps the
string of events is sequentially linked: the visions of angels (at Sinai) leads to
the giving of the law which, in turn, brings about the establishment of a cen-
tralised cultic worship.

93:7: The Fifth Week

(7) “And after this, in the fifth week, at the end, a house of glory and royalty
will be built unto eternity.”

Textual Notes
Ethiopic: “In the fifth week” (ba-xames sanbat; Tana 9, EMML 2080
(xames), Berl, BM 485, BM 491, Abb 35) – Abb 55, EMML 1768 and
EMML 6281 have ba-xamest (EMML 1768 xamest) sanbat; Ryl and Eth. II
mss transpose to ba-sanbat xames. The sequence in Eth. II is more likely to
reflect that of an Aram. text in which the ordinal no. commonly follows the
noun. Nevertheless, though the sequence in Eth. I could arguably be a cor-
rection, its consistency in the recension renders it text-critically preferable

221 As argued by Charles, “Book of Enoch”, p. 263, who appeals to the use of the same
Ethiopic term in the Anim. Apoc. (89:2). However, in that text “the enclosure” does
not refer to the promised land or the land of Israel, but to the earth into which the
waters of the flood flow.
222 See Black, The Book of Enoch, p. 290; Uhlig, Henochbuch, p. 713 (whose appeal,
however, to 4Q247 is dubious); Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 446.
1 Enoch 93:7 109

in the Eth. tradition. // “At the end” (ba-tafsameta; Tana 9 (tafsamita),


EMML 2080, BM 491, Abb 35, EMML 1768) – Berl, BM 485,
EMML 6281, Ryl, Eth. II mss. read ba-tafsameta (Berl tafdameta, BM 485
defective tafmeta) (“at its end”). // “A house of glory and royalty” (beta seb-
hat wa-mangešt) – Tana 9 reads sebhat beta wa-mangešta (“a glorious
house and kingdom”); EMML 6281 reads beta sebhat za-mangešt (“house
of royal glory”). Following 91:13, Nickelsburg emends the text to read “the
temple of the glorious kingdom”223; see Note below. // “Will be built” (ye-
thannas, masc.) – Abb 352 reads the fem. tethannad. // “Unto” (’eska) –
omitted in Abb 55. // “Eternity” (la-‘alam) – Curzon 55 reads la-‘alam
‘alam (“(unto) everlasting eternity”).

Coptic: ayv MNNsa na$ tmeä< Näebdomas naövpe , ayv HN


pesèvK ebol [ (verso col. i 5–9) – “and after this the fifth week (Ψβδομ«)
will arrive, and when it has been completed [”.

Aramaic: There is no extant text. However, 4Q247 offers what may be


a commentary on the Apocalypse of Weeks, and the section preserved in the
fragment seems to be concerned with “the fi[fth] week” (l. 2).224 The refer-
ences to the time of “Sol[omon” and to “Zede]kiah the king of Judah” in
4Q247 (ll. 3 and 4, respectively) suggest that the time covered by the fifth
week at least corresponds to the building of the Temple by Solomon. While
it is unclear from the fragment itself where the sixth week would have
begun, the reference to Zedekiah would be compatible with the sixth week
during which the First Temple was razed (cf. 93:8).225

General Comment
The period covered in the fifth week may be inferred, generally, as having
spanned from the time of Israel’s taking possession of Canaan until the
building of the First Temple during Solomon’s reign. Though the Temple is
built “unto eternity”, its destruction in the sixth week (93:8) suggests the
writer understands its existence as a structure the existence of which was
conditional on Israel’s covenant obedience.

223 Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, pp. 434, 436–37.


224 Milik, The Books of Enoch, p. 256. For the text’s formal publication, see M. Broshi,
“247. 4QPesher on the Apocalypse of Weeks”, in DJD 36, pp. 187–91.
225 See the discussion by Broshi, “247. 4QPesher on the Apocalypse of Weeks”, DJD 36,
p. 190, who mentions the general association between “Zedekiah the king of Judah”
and the beginning of the exile (and therefore the destruction of the First Temple) in
Miqseh Ma‘ase ha-Torah (4Q398 11–13.2).
110 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

Notes
7a. And after this, in the fifth week, at the end. The stylised introduction
here follows that of the third-fourth and sixth-seventh weeks (see Notes
above on vv. 5–6). As in those weeks, the author frames the length of the
period in terms of an event that occurs at its conclusion. The time covered
by the fifth week, then, extends from the wilderness wanderings until the
building of the Jerusalem Temple during the reign of Solomon.
7b. A house of glory and royalty will be built unto eternity. The Temple
is described as a place in which God’s glory (dvbk ) dwells. The text draws
on the tradition according to which the divine glory filled the Temple of
Solomon (1 Kgs. 8:11 – tyb tX hvhy dvbk Xlm ). The association of
the Temple with divine glory is frequently linked in the Hebrew Bible and
Second Temple Jewish literature to God’s eternal reign; see, for example,
2 Chronicles 5:13–6:2; 7:1–3; Ezekiel 43:4–5; 44:4; Sirach 36:19; 49:12;
Tobit 13:15–17; 14:5–7; 1 Maccabees 15:9; Prayer of Azariah 31–33.
The phrase “for ever” (Eth. ’eska la-‘alam, literally “unto eternity”) is
syntactically difficult. In its present position, it would seem to function ad-
verbially to describe the building activity; however, such a notion is surely
not what the sentence communicates. Another possibility is that the phrase
is placed, albeit awkwardly, at the end of the sentence, so that it describes
the Temple itself.
A similar claim is made for the “house” to be erected at the end of the
eighth week: it will be erected “for the Great One in glory for ever” (91:13).
Since this text is concerned with the eschatological Temple, the question
arises in what sense the “house of glory” in 93:7 is everlasting, as the author
of the Apocalypse shows clearly in the next verse (93:8) his poignant aware-
ness that the Temple was destroyed (as occurred in 586 BCE). Nickelsburg
suggests that the text has in view the Temple as an institution, rather than
the structure itself.226 However, another way of understanding the Temple’s
perpetuity in the text may have to do with an interpretation of “royalty” in
terms of the monarchy rather than as divine kingship. According to 1 Sa-
muel 7:13, the establishment of the Temple as “a house for my name” is
bound up with the institution of the monarchy: “I will establish his throne
forever”, reflecting a situation that not even iniquities of the monarch can
undo (1 Sam. 7:14–16). However, in other texts the perpetuity of the
Temple structure is made conditional on Israel’s covenant obedience. If they
turn away from the covenant, “the house that I have consecreated for my
name I will cast out of my sight” (NRSV; 1 Kgs. 9:7; 2 Chr. 7:20). This is

226 Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 447.


1 Enoch 93:8 111

precisely the scenario that transpires in the fifth and sixth weeks: the rise of
apostasy results in the destruction of the First Temple which was built for
eternity.

93:8: The Sixth Week

(8) “And after this, in the sixth week, those who will be blind in it, all of
them, and the hearts of them all will fall away from wisdom. And in it a
man will ascend. And at its end the house of the kingdom will be burned
with fire, and in it the whole family of the chosen root will be scattered.”

Textual Notes
Ethiopic: “And after this” (wa-’em-dexra-zati; Tana 9, EMML 2080,
Berl, BM 491) – Abb 35 and EMML 1768 have wa-’em-dexra-zentu;
EMML 6281 has wa-’em-dexra-ze zati; BM 485, Abb 55, Ryl2 and Eth. II
mss. have wa-’em-dexra-ze; Ryl1 spells defectively wa-’em-dex-ze. // “In the
sixth week” (ba-sadest sanbat; Tana 9, BM 485, BM 491, Abb 35,
EMML 1768 (šadest), EMML 6281, Ryl1, Curzon 55, Curzon 56, BM 484,
BM 486, BM Add. 24990, BM 492, BM 499) – EMML 2080, Berl, Ryl2,
Bodl 5, Frankfurt Ms., BM Add. 24185, BM 490, Vatican 71 and Garrett
Ms. have ba-sades sanbat; Bodl 4 and Munich 30 transposes to ba-sanbat
sades. // “Those who” (’ella) – omitted in Ull and BM 492. // “In it” (west-
eta, 3rd pers. fem. sing. suff.) – Ull reads with masc. suff. westetu. // “Blind”
(selulan, nom.; EMML 2080, Berl, Abb 35, Abb 55, EMML 1768, Ryl,
most Eth. II mss.) – Tana 9, BM 485, BM 491, EMML 6281, Ull, Curzon 56
and BM 492 have pred. acc. selulana. // “All of them, and” (kwellomu
wa-) – Curzon 55 reads wa-kwellomu (“and all of them”). // “And … will
fall away” (wa-yetrassa‘) – Tana 9 has wa-terasse‘. // “Of them all” (la-kwel-
lomu) – BM 491 reads wa-kwellomu (“and all of them”); omitted in
Abb 55. // “And in it” (wa-bati) – BM 499 reads wa-zati (“and this”). //
“Will ascend” (ya‘arreg) – Berl spells ye‘arreg; EMML 1768 spells
ya‘arreg. // “And at its end” (wa-batafsameta, 3rd pers. fem. sing. suff.) –
Bodl 5 and Vatican 71 have masc. suff. wa-batafsametu. // “Will be burned”
(yewe‘‘i) – Berl spells yewe’’i. // “The house of the kingdom … with fire,
and in it … will be scattered” – omitted in BM 499 and Westenholz Ms. //
“Of the kingdom” (mangešt) – BM 491 reads wa-mangešt (“and the king-
dom”); Curzon 56 reads maqdas (“temple”). // “Will be scattered” (yezar-
rawu, plur.; Tana 9, EMML 2080 (yesarrewu), Berl, Abb 55, EMML 1768,
Bodl 5, Curzon 56, BM Add. 24185, BM 490, BM Add. 24990, BM 492,
Vatican 71) – BM 485, BM 491, Abb 35, EMML 6281, Ryl, Ull and most
112 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

Eth. II mss. read sing. yezarrew. // “The whole” (kwellu) – Berl reads kwel-
lomu (“all of them”); omitted in Abb 55. // “Family of” (zamada) – BM 491
reads zamad (“family”). // “The chosen root” (šerw xeruy; Tana 9,
EMML 2080, BM 485, Ryl, Eth. II mss.) – BM 491, Abb 35 and
EMML 1768(?) read šerwa xayl (“root of strength”); Berl reads serw xayl
(“strong root”); Abb 55 reads only xayl (“strength”).

Coptic: ]taei äebdo[mas] senaanalambane Noyrvme epèise ,


ayv HN pèvk ebol Nta$ äebdomas , senaövw Mperpe ÄNoy krvm ,
ayv h[ (verso col. ii 2–10) – “in ]this wee[k] (Ψβδομ«), a man will be taken
up on high; and when this week (Ψβδομ«) has been completed, the temple
will be burned with fire, and it [”. // “In] this week” – Eth. “in it”. // “Will
ascend on high” – Eth. has “will ascend”. // “The temple” – Eth. “the house
of the kingdom”.

Aramaic: No extant text. However, there is a reference to “Zede]kiah the


king of Judah” in 4Q247 (l. 4), the extant text of which may comment on
the Apocalypse (cf. Textual Note to 93:7).

General Comment
Whereas the author is concerned with events of the end of the third, fourth
and fifth weeks, the sixth week – as the second – is characterised by events
throughout the period. The importance of this period for the writer is sug-
gested in the extent of details recorded. From here on the description of the
weeks (six through ten) is invested with more detail than is the case in the
preceding weeks. In all, the sixth week is comprised of five statements
(numbered below) that refer to three events (denoted by a-c):

(a) (1) blindness


(2) straying from wisdom
(b) (3) ascension of a man
(c) (4) burning of the temple
(5) exile

Given that the fifth week concludes with the building of the Temple, the
sixth week spans from the end of the monarchy (i.e. the splitting of Israel
into the northern and southern kingdoms) until the destruction of the
Temple and the exile.
Unlike all the preceding and succeeding weeks, the sixth culminates with
a catastrophic event, the destruction of the Temple and the resulting exile.
The writer perhaps considers this to be the logical end to a beginning char-
1 Enoch 93:8 113

acterised by rampant apostasy. The essentially evil nature of the sixth week
is comparable to the second, which is chiefly described as one of violence.
Analogous to Noah in the second week, the ascension of a man provides the
redemptive link during this period.

Notes
8a. And after this, in the sixth week. The introduction, as in the third-fifth
and seventh weeks, is stylised. The formula may be due in part to the em-
phasis in the foregoing weeks on events at the end of the respective periods.
Here, the formula does not open by referring to the end of the sixth week.
The writer, instead, recounts a series of events that span the period as a
whole.
8b. Those who will be blind in it, all of them, and the hearts of them all
will fall away from wisdom. The double emphasis on “all” indicates how
completely the sixth period is marked by an abandonment from the unfold-
ing plan of God through Israel’s election (week 3), the giving of the Torah
and the ark of the covenant (week 4), and the Temple cult (week 5). With-
drawal from these is tantamount to blindness that corresponds to a lack of
insight into the divine purpose.227
A state of metaphorical “blindness” combines readily with the notion of
going astray since, as an extension of the metaphor, wandering off the
(right) path is a consequence of not knowing or being able to delineate it
clearly. This is, of course, a major theme in the Animal Apocalypse, accord-
ing to which the sheep’s dim-sightedness and going astray has its beginning
during the time of Moses (1 En. 89:32). This state is associated, during the
time of the judges, with recurrent idolatry. However, for the pre-exilic
period the blindness manifests itself most clearly in relation to the Temple
cult: (a) towards the end of the divided monarchy, it leads to a complete
abandonment of “the house of the Lord of the sheep and of his tower”
(89:54), the result of which is the fall of the northern kingdom (89:55)
and ultimately to the destruction of the Temple (89:56, 66–67); and (b) the
improper observance of the Temple cult after the return from the exile, the
result of which is the oppression and violence suffered by the people
through Alexander the Great and his successors (89:74). The weight placed
on events in the Animal Apocalypse that occur towards the end of the pre-
exilic period is already anticipated when the monarchy is divided; without

227 Broshi (“4QPesher on the Apocalypse of Weeks”, p. 190) speculates that the meta-
phor of blindness in the Apoc. of Weeks may derive from the account of Zedekiah’s
eyes being put out at the beginning of the exile (cf. 2 Kgs. 25:7).
114 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

specifically referring to “blindness”, the writer does mention that the


diverse ways taken by the sheep proved to be a distraction from the Temple
(89:51). If there is any relationship between the Animal Apocalypse and the
Apocalypse of Weeks, the specificity of the former, in picking up and apply-
ing the categories of blindness and going astray more broadly in relation to
sacred history, suggests that the latter preserves an earlier stage of theologi-
cal development within the early Enochic tradition. See the volume Intro-
duction on the relative dating of these Enoch traditions (sections B.2.d-e)
and Introduction immediately above on the date of Animal Apocalypse
(section D).
The sequence of events in the sixth week establishes a connection be-
tween Israel’s miserable religious state and the destruction of the Temple (cf.
Note to 98:7). It is likely that the author had in mind an improper observ-
ance – or, as he perhaps thought, non-observance – of worship that was
either not fully centred around the Temple cult or not properly observed.
If how the sixth week begins is any anticipation of the way it ends, then
the author may have linked “wisdom” with the Temple. As it is likely that
the Aramaic or Hebrew hmkx ultimately lies behind the Ethiopic term
tebab, the author is making a claim that fits well with similar ideas known
through contemporary sapiential sources. If straying from wisdom was
linked with a neglect of the Temple, then the Temple must have been the
place where “wisdom” resides. From where might the author have derived
this association? According to Proverbs 8:12, Wisdom, who makes procla-
mations to those passing by, announces that “I, Wisdom, have dwelt
(ytnk> ) with prudence; I find out knowledge of discretion” (NRSV). The
verse, however, may also be read thus: “I, Wisdom, have tabernacled: I find
out prudence and knowledge of discretion.” Since the verb ]k> frequently
refers in biblical tradition to the divine presence in the Temple (cf. Deut.
12:11; 16:2; 26:2), it may be that the author presupposes such a view of
wisdom. A case for Proverbs 8:12 providing a background for Ben Sira 24
has been made,228 though its possible relation to the Apocalypse has not
been explored. While Ben Sira identifies wisdom with the Torah as well as
with the cult, in the Apocalypse the link between the law and Wisdom is less
clear. Both the Apocalypse and Ben Sira, however, would have agreed that
Wisdom’s home is in the Temple, the unique domain of the divine presence.
Thus, along with Ben Sira, the writer offers, those more implicitly, a fusion

228 See C. T. R. Hayward, “Sirach and Wisdom’s Dwelling Place”, in ed. Stephen C. Bar-
ton, Where Shall Wisdom Be Found? (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1998), pp. 31–46,
esp. pp. 33–35.
1 Enoch 93:8 115

of divine wisdom with the cult. However, it is not so clear, as in the case of
Ben Sira (and some other Second Temple authors229), whether the writer
idealises the Jerusalem Temple of his own day; no mention is made in either
this or the seventh week about any rebuilding of the First Temple. It is the
first, on the one hand, and the future, heavenly temple, on the other, to
which the author attaches God’s purpose in history (91:13). If the author
did not outright reject the Temple cult of his own day, the absence of any
mention thereof in the text suggests that he was at the very least unim-
pressed by it,230 and probably to such an extent that he thought “wisdom”
no longer resides there.
Within the Enochic tradition, the perspective of the Apocalypse may
have been picked up by the author of Similitudes, especially if it was
composed some time before the destruction of the Second Temple in
70 CE.231 In a short hymn, the writer’s dim view of the Second Temple is im-

229 So, e.g., the epistolary forewards in 2 Macc. 1:18–2:16, in which the author extols the
Temple (drawing attention to its miraculousness and holiness) in an attempt to per-
suade Egyptian Jews to remain loyal to the Jerusalem cult (not necessarily as a polemic
against the Jews at Leontopolis); see Jonathan A. Goldstein, I Maccabees. A New
Translation with Introduction and Commentary (AB; New York: Doubleday, 1971),
pp. 546–48 and II Maccabees. A New Translation with Introduction and Commen-
tary (AB 41A; New York: Doubleday, 1983), pp. 24–27.
230 In this respect, the writer may be said to share the view of the Temple found in the
Book of Tobit: while Tobit’s upright character is elaborated in ch. 1 in relation to his
Temple piety (vv. 4, 6–8) and a hymn near the end of the work extols the heavenly
Jerusalem (13:10–18), the present state of Jerusalem is one of affliction (13:9), as the
temple rebuilt after the exile is “not like the former one, until the time of fulfilment
comes” (so the main Grk. recensions; cf. 4Q198 1.10: [yd ] Xndi [di , ]dq Xl [v ].
A similar view is possible for Anim. Apoc., which refers to “a new house” that is
“greater and higher than the first one” (1 En. 90:29). Though several recent scholars
have interpreted the passage as a reference to the eschatological Jerusalem, and not to
the Temple itself (see e.g. Tiller, Commentary on the Animal Apocalypse, pp. 45–51
and 376; Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination, p. 55), drawing inter alia on the ref-
erence in Isa. 2:2–4 to Jerusalem as “the mountain of the house of the Lord”, it is mis-
leading to imply that the Temple is not in view. See further n. 239 below.
A number of later rabbinic texts suggest that the Second Temple was less effective
and holy than the First Temple; see j.Ta‘an. 2:1,65a; Makkot 2:7,32a; Hor. 3:2,47c;
Song Rab. 8:9; b.Yoma 21b. This was due either to missing objects (including the
Urim and Thumim), the lack of effectiveness (e.g. the sacred fire), or to the absence of
the Holy Spirit and/or the Shekina.
231 Whereas Milik dated Sim. to around or just after 270 CE (The Books of Enoch, pp. 4,
58, 78, and esp. 94–98, most scholars have settled for a date of composition sometime
between the end of the 1st cent. BCE and 100 CE. The essential issues have been iden-
116 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

plied when he declares the failure of “wisdom” (tebab) to find a dwelling


place (wa-’i-rakabat mexdara) on earth amongst humanity. Alternatively,
wisdom is able to return to her proper place, which is amongst the angels,
that is, to reside in the heavenly cult.232
8c. And in it a man will ascend. During the time of blindness and apos-
tasy of the divided monarchy, one righteous man is identified: the prophet
Elijah. The allusion is to his departure from Elisha told in 2 Kings 2:11; the
active voice of the verb reflects the author’s use of a tradition that follows
the Hebrew (liyv, “and he went up”) rather than the Greek version, which
renders the verb with the passive ( νελμφ$η, “he was taken up”).
The mention of Elijah resumes what occurs for week two in relation to
Noah (93:4): the theme of one righteous person in the midst of an otherwise
evil period. Any possible corporate significance for either Noah or Elijah, if
implied, is not developed. In view of the reference to the exiled people as
“the chosen root” (cf. below), the punishments meted out to Israel do not
cancel out her election. During the sixth week, Israel’s privileged status, for
all the apostasy throughout the period, in principle remains intact.
The text here is not as detailed as the account about Elijah in the Animal
Apocalypse (1 En. 89:52), in which Elijah’s ascent is interpreted as an act of
God to rescue the prophet from persecution. It is possible, then, that here
the stress falls less on the manner of Elijah’s departure than on his escape
from the evil generation. Reading the text this way strengthens the analogy
between Elijah and Noah’s deliverance.

tified by Jonas C. Greenfield and Michael E. Stone, “The Enochic Pantateuch and the
Date of the Similitudes”, Harvard Theological Review 70 (1977), pp. 51–65; Michael
Knibb, “The Date of the Parables of Enoch: A Critical Review”, New Testament
Studies 25 (1979), pp. 344–57; and Christopher L Mearns, “Dating the Similitudes of
Enoch”, NTS 25 (1979), pp. 360–69. For a discussion of the debate, see George W.E.
Nickelsburg, Jewish Literature Between the Bible and the Mishnah (Minneapolis: For-
tress Press, 2005, 2nd ed.), pp. 255–57. Allusions to an invasion of Judah by Parthians
and Medes in 40 BCE (1 En. 56:5–8) or to the loss of farmland to rich landowners
(much maligned in Sim.) during the reign of Herod the Great are not specific enough to
be much help. Nickelsburg rightly emphasizes that, at the very least, traditions con-
tained in Sim. were known around the turn of the common era. Drawing attention to
the identification of Enoch with the Son of Man at the end of Sim. (71:14), he cites
Wisdom of Solomon’s allusion to Enoch, a prototype for the persecuted righteous who
will become judges over their enemies (4:10–15; cf. 4:16–5:23). Most important for
the early date, however, remains the absence in Similitudes of any overt response to
Christian tradition, especially in relation to the “Son of Man” figure.
232 The Apoc. of Weeks, however, has no apparent conception of the Temple having any
heavenly counterpart.
1 Enoch 93:8 117

8d. At its end the house of the kingdom will be burned with fire. The
burning of the First Temple is the first of two events which come about as a
direct consequence of the people’s apostasy. The conflagration occurred in
586/587 BCE at the hands of the Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar’s
rule and was accompanied by the removal of the Temple treasures (2 Kgs.
25:8–21; Jer. 27–29; 34; 37–39).
The guilt of the period is so far-reaching that the centre of cultic worship,
which had become bereft of wisdom and thoroughly corrupt, could not
survive. There is no sign here of the nuance invested in this episode in the
Animal Apocalypse (1 En. 89:66). According to the latter, the destruction of
the Temple and the exile, while similarly resulting from the sins of blinded
sheep, was excessive; the shepherds, to whom God had given responsibility
to oversee the punishments for the people’s sins, “killed more than they
were commanded” (89:65) as they gave the “sheep” into the hands of the
Babylonians (variously designated as “lions”, “tigers”, and “wild boars”).
Unlike the Animal Apocalypse, the author here does not explicitly resort to
widespread notions of involvement by disobedient angels in catastrophic
events. The stress is rather on direct human responsibility and accountabil-
ity before God. The divine source of punishment is implied by the passive
verbs, both here (“will be burned”) and in the next phrase (“will be scat-
tered”).
Given the emphasis on apostasy in Israel, the author is unconcerned
about naming those who carried out the destruction of the Temple (i.e. the
Babylonians), nor does he narrate the specific circumstances around it.233
To have done so would have been a distraction from his focus on the main
characters in the sacred history: God and Israel, whose relationship is the
sustained focus of the account.
8e. And in it the whole family of the chosen root will be scattered. Israel
as a whole suffers consequences for a religious apostasy during the sixth
week. As far as punishment is concerned, there is no attempt to distinguish
between the righteous and wicked; Israel, as a collective whole, is affected.
This punishment, which takes the form of a “scattering”, refers to the
collective deportations of Jews from Jerusalem which occurred during the
years 597 (2 Kgs. 24:12–16), 586/587 (2 Kgs. 25:8–21), and 582 BCE
(2 Kgs. 25:22–26; Jer. 40–44), respectively. For the author the exile does not

233 Dexinger, Zehnwochenapokalypse, p. 131, in drawing attention to the absence of


such details, states, “Es ist hier einfach ein verborgener Plan vorausgesetzt, der im
Lauf der Geschichte verwirklicht wird, ohne daß den sekundären Ursachen besondere
Bedeutung zukäme.”
118 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

only happen to apostates themselves, but extends to “the whole family”. It


is a defining moment for the whole of Israel, and as cataclysmic as it was,
nonetheless carries a divine, hidden, purpose for those who are the chosen
elect (see 93:10a).
Just how “the chosen root” (šerw xeruy) is related to the progeny of Ab-
raham, in 93:5 called “the plant of righteousness” (takala sedq), is not clear.
Nickelsburg contemplates two possibilities: either the family, i.e. Israel, is as
a whole the chosen root or the family is the progeny of the chosen root, that
is, from Abraham.234 If the latter of these alternatives is adopted, then the
author may be working with a distinction between the elect, on the one
hand, and the apostate, on the other. Election, by implication, would then
depend on the righteousness of individuals or people at any given time, in
accordance with the divine plan. This would fit well with the author’s em-
phasis on human responsibility. If, however, the chosen root is such despite
the sins of the people and their punishment, then Israel remains privileged
as the bearer of God’s plan despite her wrongdoing and the punishments
suffered as a result. It seems that the author ultimately wishes to retain both
ideas at once: while Israel is and remains God’s special people, the fact that
they descend from Abraham has not provided any guarantee that they
would not be punished for their sins. Election must be confirmed through a
further event of choosing.

93:9–10 and 91:11: The Seventh Week

(93:9) “And after this, in the seventh week, there will arise a wicked gener-
ation, and many will be its deeds, and all its deeds will be wicked. (93:10)
And at its end, there will be chosen the chosen righteous ones from the eter-
nal plant of righteousness, to whom will be given the sevenfold instruction
with respect to the whole of his creation. (91:11) And after that the roots of
oppression shall be cut off, and sinners shall be destroyed by the sword;
from every place the blasphemers will be cut off, and those who plan op-
pression and those who commit blasphemy will be destroyed by the knife.”

Textual Notes
Ethiopic: (93:9) “In the seventh” (ba-sabe‘t; BM 485, BM 491, Abb 35,
EMML 1768, EMML 6281, BM 484, BM 492, BM 499, Vatican 71,
Westenholz Ms.) – EMML 2080, Berl, Ryl and most Eth. II mss. spell

234 Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 447.


1 Enoch 93:9–10 and 91:11 119

ba-sabe‘ (EMML 2080 ba-sabebe‘). // “Wicked generation” (tewled ‘elut;


EMML 2080, Berl, Abb 35, EMML 6281, Ryl, Eth. II mss.) – BM 485,
BM 491 read only tewled (“generation”); Abb 35 and EMML 1768 spell
tewled ‘elewt (alternative fem. form); Tana 9 has ‘eluta. // “And many”
(wa-bezext, fem. sing.; Berl, BM 491, Abb 35, EMML 1768) – BM 485,
EMML 6281, Ryl and Eth. II mss. wa-bezux (masc. sing.); and Tana 9 has
wa-bezuxata (fem. plur.); EMML 2080 has wa-bezuxa. // “Its deeds” (first
occurrence; megbaratihu) – EMML 6281 reads megbaratihu ‘elewt (“its
wicked deeds”). // “And all its deeds” (wa-kwellu megbaratiha) – omitted in
EMML 2080, Berl, Curzon 56 and BM 484 (through homoioteleuton meg-
baratiha “deeds” … megbaratihu “deeds); Tana spells wa-kwello megba-
ratiha. // “Wicked” (‘elwat) – BM 485, Frankfurt Ms. spell ‘elewt, and
Tana 9 has ‘elewata. (93:10) “At its end” (ba-tefsameta Tana 9,
EMML 2080, Berl, BM 491, Abb 35) – Ryl, Ull and Eth. II mss add the
conj. wa-ba “and at its end” (wa-ba-tefsameta) – BM 485 has an alternative
suffix wa-ba-tafsametahi; Bodl 5, Ull, other Eth. II mss. have wa-ba-tafsa-
meta; and Ryl spells wa-ba-ta-sameta. // “There will be chosen” (yetxar-
rayu, plur.; Tana 9, EMML 2080, BM 485, Abb 35, Abb 55, EMML 1768,
EMML 6281, Bodl 4, Frankfurt Ms., BM Add. 24185, BM 484, BM 486,
BM 490, BM 492) – BM 491 reads sing. yetxarray; Ryl has ’e-yetxarra‘a
(error mark over ’e); Bodl 5, BM Add. 24990, BM 499, Vatican 71, Mu-
nich 30, Garrett Ms. and Westenholz ms. read yet‘assayu (plur. “there will
be rewarded”); Curzon 55 has yet‘assay (sing.). // “The chosen righteous
ones” (xeruyan sadeqan; EMML 2080, Berl, EMML 1768, Bodl 4, Bodl 5,
BM Add. 24185, BM 484, BM 486, BM 490, Vatican 71) – Ull, Curzon 56
and BM 492 read xeruyan wa-sadeqan (“the chosen and righteous ones”);
Tana 9, BM 485, Curzon 55, BM Add. 24990, BM 499, Munich 30,
Garrett Ms. and Westenholz Ms. read xeruyana sedq (“chosen ones of
righteousness”), with Abb 35 reading the same with xeruyan sadeq;
EMML 6281 reads xeruyan ’em-sadeqan (“chosen ones from the righteous
ones”); BM 491 reads only “a righteous one” (sadeq); and Abb 55 reads
only xeruyan (“chosen ones”). // “From the eternal plant of righteousness” –
omitted in Abb 55. // “From the plant of righteousness” (’em-takla sedq) –
Ryl reads ’em-takla sudqa (“from its righteous plant”, referring back to
“the plant of righteousness” in 93:5); Abb 35 reads ’em-takla sadeq (“from
the plant of the righteous one”). // “To whom” (’ella … lomu) – Abb 55
reads wa- … lomu (“and … to them”). // “Sevenfold” (“7” mek‘ebitata;
EMML 2080, Berl, Ryl, Bodl 4, Bodl 5, Curzon 56, BM Add. 24185,
BM 484, BM 490, BM Add. 24990, BM 492, Vatican 71, Garrett Ms.) –
Abb 35 has sab‘atu mek‘ebitata; EMML 1768 has sab‘atu mek‘ebit;
BM 491 spells sab‘atu mak‘ebitata; EMML 6281 spells “7” mak‘ebita;
120 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

Tana 9, Ull and Abb 55 have “7” mek‘ebita; Frankfurt Ms., Curzon 55,
BM 486, BM 499 and Westenholz have “7” mak‘ebitata; and BM 485 has
sab‘ata mak‘ebita. // “Instruction” (temhert) – Tana 9 and Berl spell with
acc. temherta; Ull reads plur. te’mertat (“instructions”); EMML 6281 reads
mehrat (“mercy”; error < *temhert, with “t” from plur. ending of previous
word. // “Creation” (fetrata; EMML 2080, BM 491, Abb 35, Abb 55,
EMML 1768, Ryl, Eth. II mss.) – BM 485, Berl, and Tana 9 have terita
(without initial syllable); and EMML 6281 spells teritata. (91:11) “And
after that” (wa-’emennehu) – BM 485 reads without conj. ’emennehu
(“after that”); Abb 55 reads only wa- (“and”). Isaac translates renders the
phrase “and through him”, identifying the 3rd masc. sing. pron. suffix with
“the righteous one” (sing. in Eth.) who arises from his sleep in 93:10.235
Since 93:11 shows signs of having been redacted in order to provide a tran-
sition from 90:1–10 to the secondary placement of weeks eight through ten
in 93:12–17, it is possible that at an early stage of Eth. transmission – i.e.
when material from weeks seven through ten of the Apocalypse was dis-
placed – an original ’em-dexra-ze or its equivalent (as for weeks three
through seven in 93:5–10 and weeks eight through ten in 93:12, 14, and 15)
was replaced by the more ambiguous ’emennehu. // “Shall be cut off” (plur.
yetgazzamu; Tana 9, EMML 2080, Berl, Abb 35, Abb 55, EMML 1768,
Ryl, most Eth. II mss.) – BM 485, BM 491 and BM 499 read sing. yetgaz-
zam (masc.), while EMML 6281 has tetgazzam (fem.). // “Roots of” (’aš-
rawa; BM 491, Abb 35, Abb 55, Ryl, Eth. II mss.) – BM 485 reads ’em-
šerwa (“from the root of”); Berl corrupts to ’ošrwa. // “And sinners shall be
destroyed by the sword; from every place the blasphemers will be cut off”
(wa-xate’an yetxag walu ba-sayf ’emmena serufan yetgazzamu ba-kwellu
makan) – Ull reads wa-xati’at wa-yetxag walu ba-sayf ’em-serufan wa-yet-
gazzamu ba-kwellu makan (“and sin and blasphemers will be destroyed by
the sword, and they will be cut off from every place”). // “And sinners” (wa-
xate’an) – Tana 9 spells with acc. xate’an. // “Will be destroyed” (first oc-
currence; yetxag walu) – Berl reads yexag walu (“they (i.e. the righteous) will
destroy”). // “From … the blasphemers” (’emmena serufan) – omitted in
Abb 55; most Eth. II mss. have ’em-serufan. // “Will be cut off” (second oc-
currence; yetgazzamu) – Tana 9 reads yegazzamu (“they (i.e. the righteous)
will cut off”). // “Every place” (ba-kwellu makan) – omitted in EMML 2080;
BM 485 reads only ba-kwellu (“every”). // “And those who” (first occur-
rence; wa-’ella) – Curzon 56, BM 484 and Abb 99 have wa-’ellahi. // “Plan”

235 Thus Eth. 93:11 is paragraphed by Isaac within the unit 91:1–11 (“1 (Ethiopic
Apocalypse of) Enoch”, p. 73).
1 Enoch 93:9–10 and 91:11 121

(yexelleyewwa, plur. with 3rd pers. fem. sing. obj. suff.; EMML 2080,
Abb 35, EMML 1768, EMML 6281) – Abb 55, Bodl 4 and Westehholz Ms.
have yexellewwo (masc. obj. suff.); BM 491 has sing. yexelley; Tana 9 has
yaxalleyewwa; Berl reads yexeyyelewwo (“gain dominion over”, masc. obj.
suff.); BM 492 reads yegabberewwa (“commit”). // “Blasphemy” (la-gef‘) –
Berl has la-gefu‘; omitted in BM 485. // “And those who commit” (wa-’ella
yegabberewwa) – Abb 5 and BM 492 reads only wa- (“and”). // “Will be
destroyed” (second occurrence; yetxag walu; Tana 9, EMML 2080, BM 485,
Abb 35, Abb 55, EMML 6281, Ryl, most Eth. II mss.) – Berl, BM 491 and
EMML 1768 read with the conj. wa-yetxag walu (EMML 1768 defective
wa-texag walu (“and will be destroyed”); BM 485 has yetxag wilu; Curzon 56
reads yetqattalu (“will be killed”).

Aramaic: Reads, with restorations: (93:9) Xtvi ]ub yhv [dbi , “its [deeds]
(shall be) in er[ror” (4QEng 1 iv 11). (93:10) y <h >dh>l ] [yryx ]b ]vrxbt [y
b ]hytt idmv hmkx ] [ymi ]p hib> yd X [m ]li u>q [tbj ]n ]m u>q , “c[hosen
one]s [w]ill be chosen as witnesses of truth from the etern[al] pl[ant of]
truth, to whom sevenf[ol]d wisdom and knowledge will be giv[e]n” (4QEng
1 iv 12–13). (91:11) ]yd ] dbiml hb Xrq> dbiv Xcmx y>X ]yrqi ]vhlv, “and
they236 (will) uproot the foundations of violence and the work of deceit in it
in order to execute [judgement”. The indirect subject of the verb rqi prob-
ably gave way to the more conventional “will be cut off” (yetgazzamu) of
the Ethiopic (cf. 93:5, 8). The Aramaic, especially for 93:11, reads as a
shorter text, while the longer Ethiopic contains additional material in the
mention of punishment by “sword” and “knife”.237

General Comment
In 4QEng, we have confirmation that the Ethiopic tradition displaced the
original order of the Apocalypse, as 91:11 follows directly upon 93:10 as
part of the seventh week (see Introduction, section A.2).238 However, the
Aramaic text is more abbreviated than the later Ethiopic tradition, which is
expanded in order to bridge the foregoing Exhortation to the displaced text
from the conclusion to week seven (93:11) and weeks eight, nine, and ten
that follow (vv. 12–17).

236 On use of the preposition l plus suff. to resume the subject of the main clause (from
93:10), see Beyer, Die aramäischen Texte vom Toten Meer, p. 614. Alternatively, ]vhl
could be translated “for their sake” (so Dexinger, Zehnwochenapokalypse, p. 135).
237 Dexinger, Zehnwochenapokalypse, pp. 103–104; VanderKam, Enoch and the
Growth of Apocalyptic Tradition, pp. 146–47.
238 Milik, The Books of Enoch, pp. 247–48.
122 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

The author invests his most extensive description in this week, which
extends from the exile until his own time. Significantly, there is no mention
of any return from the exile and, with it, of the Second Temple. Instead, the
scattering of Israel in the sixth week is seamlessly followed in the seventh by
the rise of “a wicked generation”. The seventh week, which concludes with
the divine revelation to a group of elect within the elect of Israel, marks a
pivotal turn in history, culminating in events which, from the author’s per-
spective, are either already underway or imminent. The writer reinforces
the significance of this week by reintroducing motifs of sin and divine activ-
ity mentioned in his descriptions of weeks two, three, and six.

Notes
93:9a. And after this, in the seventh week. This stylistic opening formula is
also used for the third through sixth weeks. Though the opening formula
(“after this”) suggests a period starting after Israel’s dispersion into exile,
the text makes no mention of a return to the land that marks an end to the
exile. This point is developed immediately below.
9b. There will arise a wicked generation, and many will be its deeds,
and all its deeds will be wicked. Instead of narrating a return to the land
from the dispersion, the author stresses that the seventh week is inaugur-
ated by a time of pervasive wickedness. The absence of any reference to the
people’s return to the land or to the rebuilding of the Temple is striking. It is
in stark contrast with references to the making or building of “an enclosure”
in the fourth week (93:6) and to building of the “house of glory” in the fifth
(v. 7). The author thus leaves the impression that, as far as he and his com-
munity are concerned, the Second Temple is of no consequence in relation
to God’s plan for Israel. In this respect, he may be as, or even more, radical
than the Animal Apocalypse, in which the author, despite serious misgivings
about the Second Temple, could nevertheless at least give Judas Macca-
beus – and, by association, the cult – principled, though temporary, support
in the conflict against the Seleucid oppressors.239

239 The Anim. Apoc. says nothing in relation to Judas’ career in relation to the Temple,
that is, neither the Temple’s desecration by Antiochus Epiphanes nor its cleansing and
rededication. While Temple ideology is by no means absent in the Anim. Apoc. (cf.
e.g. 89:50–51,54 concerning the “house” during the time of Solomon), nothing sug-
gests that the author(s) had special affinity to the Second Temple, even during the
time when God was seen as acting on behalf of Judas and those fighting with him.
The author(s) and early redactor(s) of the document thus belonged to a group of Jews
whose piety does seem to have allowed military engagement on the side of Judas, but
who nonetheless probably did not participate in Temple worship.
1 Enoch 93:9–10 and 91:11 123

As in the sixth week, the beginning of the seventh is categorically de-


scribed as a time of sin. This is especially clear in application of the term “all”:

(v. 8) – those will be blind, “all of them”


(v. 8) – “the hearts of them all will fall away from wisdom”
(v. 8) – “the whole family of the chosen root will be scattered”
(v. 9) – “all its deeds will be wicked”

This underlines the author’s view of the present age as increasingly and un-
equivocally evil. The divine response to such unprecedented malevolence
must, correspondingly, manifest itself in on a scale hitherto unequalled. The
stage is set for a clash that will result in the overturning of the untempered
wickedness of this age.
93:10a. And at its end, there will be chosen the chosen righteous ones
from the eternal plant of righteousness. The reference to the plant or plan-
tation here is confirmed by the fragmentary Aramaic text. (Concerning the
Enochic background for “plant” see the Note to 98:2a.) This reference
draws upon the second “plant” in 93:5 that emerges from Abraham during
the third week.
God’s intervention during a time of evil replicates a pattern already en-
countered in the second and sixth weeks (93:4 and 8, respectively). Indeed,
the author’s eschatology reflects a typological understanding of the flood
story, which he already knows from Enochic tradition (cf. 10:1–3, 16–22;
1 En. 84:4–6) and from which he may more immediately have derived the
“plant” metaphor. This pattern, accordingly, reinforces the contrast be-
tween the righteous and the wicked. What happens in week seven, however,
is distinctive. Whereas God’s salvific acts are directed toward representative
individuals in the author’s past – Noah (93:4) and Elijah (93:8) – in week
seven the author looks forward to the imminent reconstitution of God’s
people from within “the chosen plant of righteousness”. This new commu-
nity, an “elect” one within the elect, represents the group with which the
author identifies.
The meaning of “the eternal plant” in verse 10 picks up on the second
“plant” in 93:5 (week three). This is illustrated by the Aramaic text from
4QEng 1 iv 12–13, which is preserved well enough to read as follows, as-
sisted by restorations based on the Ethiopic:

“And with its end] there shall be chosen e[lect one]s (] [yryx ]b ]vrxbt [y )
as witnesses of righteousness (u>q ydh>l ) from the eternal plant of
righteousness (X [m ]li u>q [tbj ]n ), to whom shall be given sevenf[old]
wisdom and knowledge (idmv hmkx ).”
124 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

The “eternal plant of righteousness” is distinguished from the elect ones


who come out of it; if this plant is the same as the one which followed Ab-
raham in the third week (93:5), then it denotes Israel as a larger unit, while
the chosen ones refer to the author’s ideal community. Thus the Apocalypse
uses “plant” to speak of the socio-religious matrix (Israel) within which and
out of which the righteous (the true Israel) will identified. The influence of
the Book of Watchers, if 10:3 and 10:16 are taken together, is clear: in
sacred history the “plant” of Israel is an “open” community, within which
the eschatological community of the elect will be formed.
The author’s special concerns are to be seen in two things: First, his dis-
tinction between “chosen ones” and “the eternal plant of righteousness” re-
flects a view that membership in Israel is no guarantee of future sal-
vation.240 The privilege of being within the chosen plant carries obligations
that cannot be taken lightly.241 Second, the author characterises the “chosen
ones” as those who will be endowed with special knowledge. Indeed, the
“plant”, chosen by God during the time of Abraham, is regarded as the base
community in relation to and around which the eschatological activity of
God will take shape.
10b. To whom will be given the sevenfold instruction with respect to the
whole of his creation. The giving of “wisdom” here probably lies behind the
mention of “wisdom” being given to the righteous in the Ethiopic versions
of 91:10, where it will serves as an editorial link between the Exhortation
in 91:1–9/10a and the (already) split up seventh week of the Apocalypse.
The author anticipates that the elect community will come into possession

240 A similar designation, “elect ones of righteousness” (qdj yryxb ), can refer to the
community at Qumran which, unlike the author of the Apocalypse, already may be
regarded as having been visibly set apart; cf. 1QHa x 13. On the other hand, it is less
clear whether in 4Q184 (=4QWiles of the Wicked Woman) 1.14 “the elect ones of
righteousness” (qdj yrvxb ) refers, as in the text cited from 1QHa, to a community
which applies the designation to itself or, analogous to Apoc. of Weeks, the ex-
pression is not a technical term for a visible fixed group, but refers to a body that will
be constituted as such in the future (i.e. they are those who are “chosen for righteous-
ness”).
241 The nature of these obligations is nowhere specified in Apoc. of Weeks beyond
the general references to “uprightness”, “truth”, “righteousness”, “wisdom” and
“knowledge”. To the degree that the author has a righteous contemporary commu-
nity in view, this coded language presupposes a shared understanding that does not
require further explanation. The integration of the Apoc. of Weeks into a larger liter-
ary context (i.e. Epistle) in which these virtues are anchored in a social setting and
contrasted with a lengthy account of misdeeds, ensured its reception and established
its longevity.
1 Enoch 93:9–10 and 91:11 125

of knowledge as it is fully disclosed to them. “Seven[fold] wisdom and


knowledge” (so the Aram. of 4QEng) denotes salvific knowledge in its enti-
rety. Precisely what sort of knowledge this entails – that is, whether it per-
tains to the cosmos or eschatological judgement – remains obscure. Though
the phrase presupposes the acquisition of new information, this in itself is
less where the interests of the author lie. Of chief concern, rather, is the right-
eous community’s identity as the definitive receptacle of divine disclosure.
The correlation between “eternal plant” and “knowledge” in this text is
shared with Musar le-Mevin and a number of sectarian documents pre-
served amongst the Dead Sea scrolls. Whereas the latter evidence specifi-
cally applies the metaphor of “plant” or “planting” to the Qumran com-
munity which is defined by its exclusive possession of knowledge and
understanding (1QHa xiv 15; xvi 6; 1QS viii 5–6; xi 8),242 the Musar’s use
of this language does not apparently relate to a Jewish group that already
defines itself formally against all others. In this respect, ideas in Musar,
which at one point refers to the addressees as “chosen ones of truth”
(4Q418 69 ii 10), are comparable with those of the Apocalypse. On the
basis of a comparison, Elgvin has even argued that the Apocalypse has di-
rectly influenced the Musar, so that both writings arise from communities
which regarded themselves “as the nucleus of the future-restored Israel”.243
However, the comparability between these documents does not require that
the one has necessarily influenced the other. Indeed, for reasons to be given
below, it is possible – if not preferable – to suppose that both the Apoca-
lypse and Musar participate in a larger stream of biblical interpretation
which (a) construed the Isaianic “plant(ing)” metaphor244 eschatologically,
and (b) related it to the possession of revealed knowledge. Thus a closer

242 On the possession of knowledge as a means of drawing social boundaries, see esp. the
discussion of Carol A. Newsom, The Self as Symbolic Space. Constructing Identity
and Community at Qumran (STDJ, 52; Leiden: Brill, 2004), pp. 73–75 and passim.
243 Elgvin, “The Mystery to Come: Early Essene Theology of Revelation”, in eds.
F. H. Cryer and T. L. Thompson, Qumran between the Old and New Testaments
(JSOT Supplements, 290; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1998), p. 121: “Similar
to the Enochic books, 4QInstruction does not ascribe to the remnant community a
clearly-defined role in history as do later sectarian writings, although the designation
‘eternal planting’ indicates that the community is the nucleus of the future-restored
Israel.” Cf. also Elgvin, “Wisdom and Apocalypticism in the Early Second Century
BCE – The Evidence of 4QInstruction”, in eds. L. H. Schiffman, E. Tov and J. C. Van-
derKam, The Dead Sea Scrolls Fifty Years after Their Discovery: Proceedings of the
Jerusalem Congress, July 20–25, 1997 (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society/Shrine
of the Book, Israel Museum, 2000), pp. 242–43.
244 See the Note to 93:2c above.
126 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

look at these motifs in the Musar may provide clues about the broad tradi-
tion-historical context within which the Apocalypse – indeed, parts of the
Book of Watchers (1 En. 10:16) and Book of Dreams (84:6) – emerged.
Two fragmentary passages in Musar refer to “planting” (tium ) 4Q423
1–2.7, ]iumbv (“and in a planting”) and 4Q418 81.13, ,l ]vi tium (“in an
eter[nal] planting”). For purposes of comparison with the Apocalypse,
these are discussed in turn below.
In the first mentioned passage from 4Q423, the expression may be trans-
lated as either “through the planting/plantation or” or “by the plant of”.245
Its isolation from much of the text on the fragment requires a series of
inferences to consider its meaning. The preceding lines refer to agricultural
conditions couched in language that alludes to the Eden narrative in Gen-
esis: 2:9 and 3:6 (1–2.1), 2:15 (l. 2); 3:18 (l. 3); 3:14 (l. 4); and 3:16 (l. 5). In
particular, the use of the 2nd pers. sing. in line 2 may be significant: “and
he has caused you to rule over it to till it and to keep it”. If the pronoun
specifically refers here to the one being addressed, then the terminology
from Genesis 2–3 is being recast to function as an exhortation in which
terms such as “tree”, “garden” (l. 1), “thorns and thistles” (l. 3) and even
“plant(ing)” (l. 7) are metaphors. In such a case, the addressee is being rem-
inded of his responsibility to provide nurture to those assigned under his
care. The “eter[nal] plant(ing)” then denotes a community, whether it be a
larger one (i.e. Israel as a whole) which needs instruction or a specific, more
narrowly defined community for which he acts as a sage or leader.
In the second passage, 4Q418 81.13, more can be observed about the
phrase “eter[nal] plant(ing)/plantation” which occurs towards the end of a
larger running, though fragmentary, text in lines 1–15. In its context, the
phrase could denote (1) present or (2) future insight and understanding
given to the “holy” community (cf. ll. 2–3, 14, 20); (3) the present or (4) fu-
ture community of “holy ones” (cf. l. 12); or (5) the community of angels
(cf. ll. 1–2, 11–12). In order to determine which option is best, it is important
to recognise the major role of insight and understanding, not only in Musar
as a whole but also in the present text. In line 9, for example, the addressee
is told that he has been given understanding (lk> ), dominion over his (sc.
God’s) treasure (hkly>mh vrjvXbv; cf. 4Q423 1–2.2), and “an ephah of truth”
(tmX tpyXv ). He is thus addressed as “you who understands” (]ybm htX ,
l. 15; cf. 4Q417 2 i 14, 18) and as “son of the instructor” (lyk>m ]b ; 4Q417
2 i 25). However, the addressee’s knowledge is provisional and incomplete;

245 4Q423 is published by Elgvin, “423. 4QInstructiong (Mûsar lěMevîng)”, DJD 34,
pp. 505–533 (Plates XXX–XXXI), with discussion of frg. 1 on pp. 507–513.
1 Enoch 93:9–10 and 91:11 127

he is reminded that further understanding will come to him as he continues


to seek it. Thus elsewhere in Musar, although revelatory knowledge called
“the mystery of being” has been disclosed to the addressee (4Q416 2 iii
17–18) and although there are some who already understand it (4Q418 123
ii 4), he is nevertheless exhorted to investigate, observe, meditate on and
understand it (4Q416 2 i 5; 2 iii 14; 4Q417 2 i 2, 18, 25; 4Q418 43–45 i 4 –
“your mysteries”). The provisional possession of this knowledge leaves
little room to infer that, from the addressee’s perspective, it in itself is an
“eternal plant(ing)” in anything beyond an inceptive sense.
Elgvin interprets “eternal plant” in 4Q418 as the “remnant community”
of “holy” elect ones to whom God has already opened “a fountain of in-
sight” (4Q418 81.11).246 This community is, in Elgvin’s view, not a sec-
tarian group that has “a clearly-defined role in history”; rather, the plant
metaphor is a fitting image for an open group that anticipates the future res-
toration of Israel, much as in Isaiah 60:21, 61:3, and Ezekiel 31.247 The ab-
sence of “remnant” terminology aside, 4Q418 81 does provide support for
the notion of hium as community. If the reading “fountain” in line 12 is
to be accepted248 – that is, if it refers to the opening of “a fountain of all
holy ones” – then it is possible to interpret the term in relation to the
plant(ing) metaphor in line 13.249 If the fountain is intended for “all the
holy ones”, then it is plausible that the watering metaphor may be extended
to the community understood as an “eternal plantation”. In this way, the
fountain (perhaps wisdom given to the teacher addressed) is the instruction
that feeds or waters the eternal plantation (that is, the community of “holy
ones”).
Less clear, however, is what sort of community may be referred to. While
Elgvin assumes this is a human community, Tiller is correct in noting the

246 Elgvin, “The Mystery to Come: Early Essene Theology of Revelation”, p. 125 (bibl.
in n. 243).
247 Ibid. and Elgvin, “The Reconstruction of Sapiential Work A”, RevQ 15 (1995),
pp. 561–62.
248 That is, reading rvq [m ] xtp (see the same expression on line 1, also in the context of
blessing “the holy ones”) instead of rv> [b ] xtp , as e.g. García Martínez and Tigche-
laar, The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition, 2.872. The ligature atop the left vertical
stroke of a letter following the lacunae is more consistent with a q than with > ; contra
Strugnell and Harrington (“4Q418. 4QInstructiond (Mûsar lěMevînd)”, DJD 34,
p. 308), the lacunae on line 12 and the variegated shape of the tail of q in the manu-
script make it possible to restore rvq [m .
249 This association between “plant(ing)” and “fountain” is proposed by Tiller, “The
‘Eternal Planting’ in the Dead Sea Scrolls”, p. 326.
128 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

close alignment in lines 11–12 between the angelic “holy ones” whom the
addressee is told to honour (l. 11; cf. also l. 1) and those holy ones who will
be called by his name (l. 12b), the latter no doubt referring to the human
community.250 It is between these references that the expression “open a
fountain (for?) holy ones” occurs. While the text in line 12 certainly com-
prehends an elect human community, it would be misleading to suppose
that the angelic are therefore not included. The phrase is ambiguous: the
fountain is either for (implied) the holy ones or of the holy ones. The latter
rendering would signify that the chosen community is being allowed to
receive or participate in that which belongs to the angels. Indeed, in 4Q418
55, the vigilant “angels of holiness” (l. 8 – >dvq ykXlm ) who pursue “after
all the roots of understanding” (l. 9) are contrasted with a lazy and seden-
tary humankind (l. 11).251 It is these angels or “sons of heaven” who will (in
the future) become heirs of an “eternal holding” (4Q418 55.12-,lvi tzxX )
and inherit “eternal life” (4Q418 69 ii 12–13 – ,lvi ,yyx ). Significantly,
this contrast does not function so much to differentiate between the human
and angelic spheres as to hold out the activities of the angels as exemp-
lary.252 In fragment 81 the watering from the fountain may thus signify the
participation of the community in the activities which now characterise
God’s holy ones in heaven. In turn, in Musar the “eternal plant(ation)”
would, in principle, be the elect community insofar as it participates in the
angelic community in anticipation of eternal life. The association of the
plant metaphor with the angelic “holy ones” and “sons of heaven”, though
restricted to a more clearly identifiable group in the present, is picked up
again in the Qumran Community Rule (1QS xi 7–9) and Hodayot (1QHa
xiv 12b–16a).253
The Apocalypse, unlike Musar, makes no explicit attempt to define the
elect community in terms of an angelic status. However, the contemporary
documents share an ideology that defines the eschatological community of
the elect in relation to the special knowledge with which they shall be en-
dowed.
91:11a. And after that the roots of oppression shall be cut off, and
sinners shall be destroyed by the sword. The verse opening is textually prob-
lematic. In its present form within the Ethiopic tradition, it can be under-

250 Tiller, “The ‘Eternal Planting’ in the Dead Sea Scrolls”, p. 326.
251 A similar contrast is in 4Q418 69 ii 10–15.
252 The implication of 4Q418 69 ii 12–14 is that since the angels do not slacken in their
pursuit of insight and knowledge, neither should the human elect.
253 See the discussions of these texts in Tiller, “The ‘Eternal Planting’ in the Dead Sea
Scrolls”, pp. 328–31.
1 Enoch 93:9–10 and 91:11 129

stood as following on from either 91:10 or 93:10.254 With the former possi-
bility in view, one may observe that nothing in the Ethiopic immediately
relates to week seven (i.e. it contains nothing that corresponds to the Aram.
text’s reference to the week in the phrase “in it”). Moreover, Isaac’s trans-
lation of wa-’emennehu (“and from him”; cf. Textual Note above) results in
the punishment described in verse 11 as if it is preceded by a resurrection of
“the righteous one” in 91:10.
If, however, the punishment described in 91:11 falls within the seventh
week, it then follows the disclosure of knowledge to the author’s group in
93:10. The Aramaic text confirms the latter alternative, though with differ-
ent wording. With respect to the early Jewish tradition, then, one may ques-
tion the extent to which the Ethiopic can be derived at all from an earlier
version preserved in the Aramaic. Though the term “roots” in the Ethiopic
tradition might be explained by appealing to the Aramaic “they (will)
uproot”, the remaining words from verse 11a of the Ethiopic cohere with
what follows in verse 12 about the eighth week (“oppression” – “oppres-
sors”; “sinners” – “sinners”; “sword” – “sword”), while the formulations
from verse 11b (see below) represent a secondary introduction of material
absent in the Aramaic and without any apparent derivation from the
Exhortation.
It is possible, nevertheless, that the Ethiopic in verse 11a is be secondary
as well. Both the term for “oppression” and the motif of injustice being “cut
off from roots” in the Ethiopic resonate with earlier portions of the fore-
going Exhortation in 91:1–10 that describe eschatological judgement. In
particular, the wording of the Ethiopic, and less so the Aramaic, is reminis-
cent of the Ethiopic tradition in verses 5 and 8. The parallels to both the
Aramaic (underlined) and Ethiopic (in italics) of verse 11 are as follows: “ …
all iniquity will be come to an end and will be cut off from its roots (v. 5)
and “wrongdoing will be cut off from its roots and the roots of iniquity
together with deceit” (v. 8). The preponderance of parallels within the
Ethiopic underlines how much the wording here and in verse 11b is second-
ary, added to provide a transition from verses 1–10 of the Exhortation to
the Apocalypse in its dislocated position. If parallels to and departures from
the Aramaic text are taken into account, one may reasonably conclude that

254 For this reason, Charles treated v. 11 as an interpolation made by a redactor who was
trying to link vv. 1–10 and 12–17 together (“Book of Enoch”, p. 262; The Ethiopic
Version of the Book of Enoch, p. 191). The identification of an Aramaic text in
4QEng that includes v. 11 within the Apoc. of Weeks, however, removes such a pro-
posal from consideration.
130 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

verse 11a in the Ethiopic tradition is a conflation of both the original con-
clusion to the seventh week and the conclusion to the Exhortation’s lengthy
description of eschatological judgement.
The anticipation of week eight in the Ethiopic is not without precedent;
the phrase “to execute judgement” occurs in both verses 11 and 12 as an ac-
tivity to be carried out by the chosen elect. However, unlike the Ethiopic,
the transition in the Aramaic from verse 11 to 12 is more gradual: the
uprooting of the foundations of violence and deceitful deeds is not a refer-
ence to the punishment per se, but rather denotes how they are rendered
powerless in the face of punishment.
It is possible that the Aramaic verb “uproot” extends the vegetation
metaphor from 93:10. This does not mean so much that the author’s com-
munity is being directly contrasted with those who are blamed for violence
and deceit. Instead, the emphasis lies on what God has established to en-
dure: Israel is “the eternal plant of righteousness” which in the end will be
restored, whereas the days of violence and deceit are numbered.
If week seven reflects the author’s time, the terms “violence” and “de-
ceit” are difficult to correlate to any particular events. Dexinger has none-
theless suggested, at least in the case of “deceit”, that there may be an allu-
sion here to the waywardness of Jews who have succumbed to Hellenistic
influences (cf. 1 Macc. 2:48) and aberrant halakhic practices.255 Much
more, however, it is to be noted that the same terms are used to describe the
prediluvian wickedness in week two (likewise preserved in the Aramaic
as Xcmx and Xrq> ). The terminology in week seven thus functions as an
inclusio that reflects the author’s conviction that eschatological events are
anticipated by “the first end” (93:4), that is, the time during which the great
wickedness committed during the time of Noah was punished through
the flood. Therefore, the events behind the terms “violence” and “deceit”,
whatever they may have been, mark the resumption of a mythical evil
which, even more than as happened through the deluge, will be utterly
destroyed.
The main difference between “the first end” of the second week and that
described in the seventh and eighth weeks is that the righteous are given a
role in carrying out the judgement itself. What is strongly suggested in the
“uprooting” of the Aramaic referred to in week seven is made more explicit
in Ethiopic’s reference to “the sword” and strengthened by the description
of events of week eight (cf. under 91:12b below).

255 Dexinger, Zehnwochenapokalypse, p. 136.


1 Enoch 91:12–13 131

11b. From every place the blasphemers will be cut off, and those who
plan oppression and those who commit blasphemy will be destroyed by the
knife. This part of the verse is only extant in the Ethiopic tradition and func-
tions to elaborate the previous description of judgement. Several elements
are thus picked up from the previous part of verse 11: references to (a) being
“cut off”, (b) the description of evil to be punished as “oppression”, and (c)
destruction, with “the knife” standing as a complementary parallel to the
aforementioned sword. The novel feature is an emphasis on “blasphemers”
and “blasphemy” (Eth. serufan and serfat), which is a later development in
the Ethiopic tradition (see Eschat. Admon. 108:6a).

91:12–13: The Eighth Week

(12) “And after this there shall be another, an eighth week, which is (of)
righteousness, and to it shall be given a sword, so that judgement and right-
eousness will be executed on those who oppress, and sinners will be de-
livered into their hands. (13) At its end, they shall obtain possessions
through their righteousness, and the Temple of the Great King shall be built
in glory for ever.”

Textual Notes:
Ethiopic: (12) “And after this” (wa-’em-dexra-ze) – Abb 55 has wa-’em-ze
(lit. “and from this”). // “Another” (kale’t) – added in the Eth. tradition. //
“An eighth week” (sament sanbat; Tana 9, EMML 2080, BM 485) –
Abb 35 and EMML 1768 have samenit sanbat; Berl has samant sanbat;
EMML 6281 has samanta sanbat; BM 491 reads only samenit (“eighth”);
Ryl and Eth. II mss. transpose to sanbat samenit (the same sequence as Ara-
maic256). // “By way of righteousness” (’enta sedq). // “Which is (of) right-
eousness” (’enta sedq) – Tana 9 and EMML 6281 read “righteous one”
(sadeq). // “To it (f.)” (lati, ΒΧ) – inner-Ethiopic corruption from “in it”
(bati, ΑΧ; cf. Aram.); Tana 9 has “to it (m.)” (lotu). // “Judgement and right-
eousness” (kwennane wa-sedq; EMML 2080, BM 491, Berl, EMML 1768,
EMML 6281, Ryl, most Eth. II mss.) – Tana 9 reads “judgement in right-
eousness” (kwennane ba-sedq); BM 485 and Curzon 55 have kwennane sedq
(“righteous judgement”). // “Will be executed” (yetgabbar) – EMML 6281
has tegbar; Berl reads yetwahhab (“will be given”). // “On those who
oppress” (’em-’ella yegaffe‘u) – EMML 1768 spells ’em-’ella yetgaffu‘u;

256 Cf. Milik, The Books of Enoch, p. 268.


132 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

Berl has “those who oppress them” (’ella yegaffe‘ewwomu); omitted in


Abb 55. // “And … will be delivered” (wa-yetmettawu, plur.) – BM 485
spells wa-yetmattawu; Bodl 5 reads the sing. wa-yetmettaw. (13) “At its
end” (ba-tafsameta; Abb 35, EMML 1768, Ryl1, Bodl 4, Curzon 55,
BM 490, BM Add. 24990, BM 499, Munich 30) – BM 490 reads la-tafsa-
meta (confusion of Α ba for Β la); EMML 6281, Bodl 5, Ryl2, Ull, Frankfurt
Ms. Curzon 56, BM Add. 24185, BM 484, BM 492 and Vatican 71 read
with conj. wa-ba-tafsameta (“and at its end”); Berl spells wa-batafsamita;
Tana 9 and EMML 2080 spell ba-tafsameta and BM 491 has ba-tafsamet
(“at the end”). // “Possessions” (newayata; EMML 2080, as Aram.) –
Tana 9 reads “great things” (‘abiyata); all other mss. read “houses”
(’abyata; a secondary reading, perhaps under the influence of Epistle 99:13;
cf. Isa. 65:21); Curzon 56 omits “houses” here, but transposes it after
“through their righteousness” (see next entry). // “Through their righteous-
ness” (’em-sedq zi’ahomu) – omitted by Abb 55. // “Temple of the Great
King” (beta neguš ‘abiy) – EMML 2080, BM 485 and EMML 6281 spell
bet la-neguš ‘abiy; EMML 1768 conflates the readings to beta la-neguš
‘abiy. // “In glory” (ba-sebhat; BM 485, BM 491, EMML 6281) – Tana 9
reads with the conj. wa-ba-sebhat (“and in glory”); EMML 2080,
EMML 1768, Ryl, and most Eth. II mss. read “for glory” (la-sebhat, with
la- corrupt from ba-?); BM 499, Munich 30 and Westenholz Ms. read only
sebhat (“glory”); BM 485 and BM 491 spell ba-sebhat; while Tana 9 adds
“and” (wa-ba-sebhat). // “For ever” (’eska la-‘alam) – Ull has za-la-‘alam
(“which is eternal”).

Greek: (13) γωγραπται γρC κα! "σται τ0« Ψβδομδο« σψντελοψμωνη«


ο2κοδομη$σ-εται να/« $εο #νδ,« #π! τ( Dνματι κψροψ, “for it is
written, ‘and it shall be when the seventh (week) is completed, a temple of
God will be splendidly built for the name of the Lord” (Barn. 16:6).257 The
Greek citation of 91:13b in Epistle of Barnabas 16:6 assigns the building of
the eschatological Temple to the end of the seventh week. The quotation is
not important for establishing the text. Its secondary status may be argued
on two grounds. First, the “seventh (week)” is not an original reading: it re-
flects either a different text of the Apocalypse that assigns the eschatological
Temple to the seventh week (for which there is no other textual evidence) or
a chronological adjustement from the eighth to the seventh week (by the
author of the Epistle or his source). Second, the phrase “for the name of the
Lord” has no parallel in any other part of 1 Enoch 91–108.

257 Text cited in Black, Apocalypsis Henochi Graece, p. 13.


1 Enoch 91:12–13 133

Aramaic: (12) lvkl [brx b ]hytt hbd uv>qd ynymt ivb> ,vqy hrtb ]mv
]vhdyb ]vbhytyv ]yiy>r lvk ]m uv>q ]yd dbiml ]yuy>q (4QEng 1 iv 15–17),
“And after it there will arise an eighth week which is of righteousness, in
which [a sword] will be giv[en] to all righteous ones in order to exact a right-
eous judgement from all wicked ones. And they shall be delivered up into
their hands.” (13) Xbr tv [k ]l [ m ] lkyh Xnbtyv uv>qb ]yckn ]vnqy hpvc ,iv
]ymli yrd lvkl hvz tvbrb (4QEng 1 iv 17–18), “And with its end, they
shall acquire possessions through righteousness, and there shall be built a
Temple of the kingdom of the Great One in his splendorous greatness for all
generations of eternity.”

General Comment
Following the retributive justice described in the seventh week, week eight
inaugurates a series of eschatological events that are ever expanding in
scope: the “oppressors” known to the author and his community receive
punishment (weeks seven and eight), wickedness throughout the world is
judged (week nine), with a final judgement thereafter (week ten), followed
by “weeks without end”.
The eighth week “of righteousness” is the first period in the author’s
scheme during which everything happens in accordance with divine justice.
As such, it lies in the real author’s future, when he anticipates a categorical
reversal of the oppression suffered by the righteous community with which
he identifies. The violence and deceit suffered by the community of right-
eous ones will be repaid in kind, as a “sword” is given to them to exact
judgement on the wicked. Here, divine judgement takes on the character of
revenge justice, and comes close to the notion of a reverse triumphalism
more clearly developed in the Epistle (cf. 95:3). The text may presuppose
some kind of battle, the successful outcome of which is assured.
Perhaps the gain of wealth by the righteous likewise represents a reversal
of circumstances. The text presupposes a group of righteous ones that is (a)
poor through the injustice committed by the wicked and that, unlike the
wicked who have achieved wealth through violence and deceit (cf. 97:8), (b)
will acquire their wealth through what the writer regards as a legitimate
way, that is, “through righteousness”.
The final reversal of the eighth week is the building of a temple that is
to last for ever. As “the royal house of the Great King”, it replaces and is
superior to “the royal house” erected during the fifth week (93:7) and
destroyed by fire in the sixth week (93:8). The absence of any allusion to
the Second Temple in the Apocalypse suggests that the author and his com-
munity do not support the Jerusalem cult or at least do not have any direct
involvement in it.
134 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

Notes
12a. And after this there shall be another, an eighth week, which is (of)
righteousness. While the notion of a future period in which the wrongs of
the present age are redressed is widespread in apocalyptic literature, it is
rare that a future time is specifically called an age “of righteousness”. The
only extant parallel expression from the Second Temple period is found
within 4Q215a (=4QTime of Righteousness) 1 ii 3–11, which contrasts
“the age of wickedness” (i>rh /q ) that is complete and whose iniquity will
pass away (l. 4) from “the time of righteousness” (qdj ti ) that has come
(l. 5) and is also called “the age of peace” (,vl>h /q , l. 6). Whereas
4Q215a does not seem to draw the distinction between these periods in
strict chronological terms,258 the periodization in the Apocalypse assumes
that the period of righteousness is exclusively that, and thus occurs after the
previous eras during which righteousness and wickedness co-exist (esp.
weeks one, six, and seven – 93:4, 8, and 9–10).
By designating the eighth week as one of righteousness, the author picks
up a term that has figured prominently in his descriptions of several of the
previous weeks (93:4, 5, 6, 10). God’s activity in the world – which has been
exemplified in the pre-diluvian period of “righteousness” (week one, 93:4)
and in the selection of Israel as “the plant of righteousness” (week three,
93:5), and which will be evidence when “the elect ones of righteousness”
are chosen from Israel (week seven, 93:10) – is teleological; the era inaugur-
ated by week eight can be the only proper conclusion to all that has hap-
pened before.
12b. And to it shall be given a sword, so that judgement and righteous-
ness will be executed on those who oppress, and sinners will be delivered
into their hands. The age of “righteousness” is not yet an age of peace (as in
the 4Q215a 1 ii 6), nor is it in itself an age of unending goodness and peace,
as anticipated, for example, in the Book of Watchers (1 En. 10:17–22) and
the weeks without end at the conclusion of the Apocalypse (cf. Note to
91:17b). It is, rather, a time of retribution during which the righteous elect
participate in reversing the oppression under which they are thought to
suffer. This involvement of human agents is stronger in the Aramaic (which
specifically mentions “all the righteous ones”) than in the Ethiopic.259 In
this way, the author considers it important that the wicked face up to their

258 That is, the ages are in tension with one another, with the passing of the one brought
on by the advent of the other.
259 The role of the righteous in punishment of the wicked is picked up more explicitly in
the Epistle at 95:3, 96:1b and 98:12b.
1 Enoch 91:12–13 135

punishment in every respect, that is, that they will undergo retribution in
the presence of the righteous. The Aramaic “to execute righteous judge-
ment260 from the wicked ones” recalls 91:11a (Aram.), which associates the
wicked with violence and deceit. “To execute (lit. to do) righteous judge-
ment” occurs in a similar way in Aramaic Levi Document, where the patri-
arch Levi prays that he might do “a true/righteous judgement” (u>q]yd ,
4Q213 (4Q213a) 2.9; Grk. κρσιν λη$ινην 2 ), which he carries out in
the story when he kills the “doers of violence” against Dinah. The Ethiopic
wording “judgement and righteousness” is an accommodation to biblical
phraseology (2 Sam. 8:15; 1 Kgs. 10:9; 1 Chr. 18:14; 2 Chr. 6:9; Prov. 2:9;
Isa. 33:5; esp. Jer. 22:3 and 23:5).260a
As happens often in apocalyptic writings – with the exception of 1QMil-
hamah (War Scroll) – the text here does not in any way attempt to provide a
narrative or account of a battle between God’s people, the righteous, and
the wicked.261 Instead, it is assumed that because the righteous will be
armed with “a sword” (i.e. by God), the defeat of the oppressors is inevi-
table. The description of divine judgement as involving a sword is common
in the Hebrew Bible262; indeed, according to Amos 9:10 “all sinners (i.e. in
Israel) shall die by the sword”, as a prelude to the restoration of the Davidic
kingdom and the age of abundance thereafter. As such, the biblical tradition
often implies that God uses human agents to carry out punishment in a vi-
olent manner. In the eschatological context, however, the sword symbolises
a definitive victory over evildoers, whether this is carried out by God (1 En.
62:12–13; cf. Jub. 5:7; 23:22; 1QHa xiv 29; Rev. 19:21), by the righteous

260 See Ezek. 7:26 and 1QapGen xx 14 for the same idiom “to execute (i.e. to exact)
judgement from”.
260a Cf. the discussion in Drawnel, An Aramaic Wisdom Text from Qumran, pp. 222–24.
261 Cf. Dan. 7:21–22; 12:1; Rev. 12:7–9. The Anim. Apoc. (90:19), perhaps inspired by

Apoc. of Weeks, provides a slightly more embellished account in which the righteous
community (“the sheep”) is given “a great sword” in order to proceed against and kill
all the wicked (“the beasts of the field”) who flee from their presence.
262 So esp. Lev. 26:7–8, 25, 33; Deut. 32:41–42; Job 19:29; Ps. 63:10; 78:62, 64; Jdg.

7:20; Isa. 34:6: 37:7; 41:2; 65:12; 66:16; Jer. 9:16; 11:22; 12:12; 14:12, 15–16;
15:2–3; 16:4; 18:21; 19:7; 20:4; 21:7, 9; 24:10; 25:16, 27, 29, 31; 32:36; 34:17; 38:2;
42:16–17, 22; 43:11; 44:12, 13, 27; 46:10, 14, 16; 47:6; 48:2; 49:37; 50:35–37;
Ezek. 5:2, 12, 17; 6:3, 11–12; 7:15; 11:8, 10; 12:14; 14:17, 21; 16:40; 17:21; 21:3–5,
9–12, 14–17, 19–20, 28; 23:25, 47; 24:21; 25:13; 26:6, 8, 11; 28:7, 23; 29:8; 30:4–6,
11, 17, 22, 24–25; 32:10–11, 20–24, 25–26, 29–32; 33:2–4, 6, 27; 35:8; 38:21;
39:23; Dan. 11:33; Hos. 7:16; 13:16; Amos 4:10; 7:11, 17; 9:1, 4, 10; Mic. 5:6; 6:14;
Zeph. 2:12; Zech. 11:17.
136 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

(cf. also Anim. Apoc. at 90:19, 34),263 or even by the wicked themselves
(Jub. 5:9; 7:22; cf. 4Q531 7.5).264 It is therefore unnecessary to think that
the “sword” imagery used here provides any historical allusion to the pun-
ishment said, according to 1 Maccabees 2:42 (cf. 3:3), to have been exacted
from “sinners” who had compromised with the policies being enforced
under the Seleucids.265
It is not clear that the wicked meet their ultimate destruction in either the
Aramaic or Ethiopic tradition. Whereas they are decisively defeated here,
the judgement that does away with them altogether seems to take place in
ninth week (91:14).
13a. At its end, they shall obtain possessions through their righteous-
ness. The term for “possessions” in the Aramaic (]yckn ) does not, in this
context, so much denote lavish, material wealth associated with precious
metals and jewellery266 as it refers to domestic, agricultural and agrarian
goods.267 This expectation is more in line with the enjoyment of labour-pro-
duced goods described for the future Jerusalem in Isaiah 65:21–22 and
66:12. It is not surprising that the acquisition of wealth should be associ-
ated with being righteous, as this is a notion well documented in biblical
tradition.268 Whether the author allows for the possibility that the righteous
in his own time can be wealthy is not clear. He looks forward to the escha-
tological acquisition of material wealth, qualifying it by an expression that

263 Cf. also Epistle 98:12 and 99:16a. Perhaps more restraint is shown in 2 Bar. 72:6,
which does not specify who carries out the killing, stating that the nations to whom
Israel has been subjected “will be delivered up to the sword”.
264 The latter group of texts refers almost exclusively to the pre-diluvian destruction of
the giant offspring of the rebellious watchers and the human daughters, who carry
out divine punishment by turning against and murdering one another (cf. Bk. of
Watchers 7:4; 10:9, 12; 12:6; 14:6; 16:1), possibly dying by a means that they had in-
troduced into the world (Bk. of Watchers 8:1 – instruction about making swords is at-
tributed to ‘Asa’el).
265 Week eight has clearly crossed over into the predictive part of the Apoc. of Weeks;
so Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 449, contra Dexinger, Zehnwochenapokalypse,
pp. 137–39.
266 The almost categorical denunciation thereof in the Epistle (94:7–9; 98:1–3a), in
which such materials are closely linked with oppression, would be hard to reconcile
with such an understanding of eschatological wealth.
267 See the evidence (including legal documents) cited under ]yckn in Beyer, Die ara-
mäischen Texte vom Toten Meer, p. 637 and Die aramäischen Texte vom Toten Meer
Band 2, p. 441.
268 See the Notes to Epistle 96:4a and 99:2b.
1 Enoch 91:12–13 137

emphasises “righteous means”.269 Perhaps the means to the wealth may be


the activity associated with the sword in verse 12. If so, then the writer,
while receptive to the notion of eschatological abundance, may have found
upright behaviour and acquisition of wealth irreconcilable as far as the
present is concerned.270 This underscores all the more how much he expects
eschatological conditions to mark a reversal of fortunes for the righteous
community. This attitude would be in contrast with the more differentiating
views adopted by Ben Sira271 and in Musar le-Mevin.272
“Through righteousness” (so the Aram.) implies a criticism of those who
have gotten their wealth in the wrong way (cf. Sib. Or. 2.56 – “Do not be-
come rich unjustly”; Ps.-Phoc. 5; 1QpHab viii 11 and ix 4–7 – the ill-gotten
wealth of the Wicked Priest and later priests of Jerusalem). This accords
with the emphasis throughout the Epistle in which the those involved in the
oppression of others are blamed for having gained their wealth by unjust
means (97:8–10), that is, by making life miserable for the righteous (cf.
94:6–9; 97:8–98:3; 102:9; 103:5–6).
13b. And the Temple of the Great King shall be built in glory for ever.
The erection of the eschatological Temple provides a fitting conclusion
to previous references to the Temple in the Apocalypse: in the fifth week,
the Temple “of the glorious kingdom” is built “for ever” (93:7), while in
the sixth week the burning of this Temple “of the kingdom” (93:8) seems to
undermine its enduring status. Whereas the longevity of the First Temple is
expressed in the phrase “for ever”, the author makes no mention anywhere
of the Second Temple, so that there is a gap between the destruction of the
First Temple and the week eight. Although the Apocalypse does not contain

269 For a contrasting formulation, see Jer. 22:13: “Woe to the one who builds his house
without righteousness, and his upper rooms without justice.”
270 As, arguably may be the case in the Epistle (see references cited below).
271 See Benjamin G. Wright and Claudia V. Camp, “Who Has Been Tested by Gold and
Found Perfect? Ben Sira’s Discourse of Riches and Poverty”, Henoch 23 (2001),
pp. 153–74.
272 The sage of this document does not endorse povery unequivocally, but rather deals with
the problem of economic hardship while aiming at a reception of wisdom that leads to
social stability; see the discussions by Eibert J. C. Tigchelaar, “The Addressees of 4QIn-
struction”, in eds. Daniel K. Falk, Florentino García Martínez and Eileen Schuller,
Sapiential, Liturgical and Poetical Texts from Qumran. Proceedings of the Third Meet-
ing of the International Organization for Qumran Studies Oslo 1998. Published in
Memory of Maurice Baillet (STDJ, 35; Leiden/Boston/Cologne: Brill, 2000), pp. 62–75;
Catherine Murphy, Wealth in the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Qumran Community
(STDJ, 40; Leiden: Brill, 2002), esp. pp. 163–209; and Matthew J. Goff, The Worldly
and Heavenly Wisdom of 4QInstruction (STDJ, 50; Leiden: Brill, 2003), pp. 127–67.
138 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

any explicit polemic against the Jerusalem Temple of his day, the author
(and his community) would have regarded it as uninspiring and of no sal-
vific import.273 More explicitly, the writer of the Animal Apocalypse, and
perhaps under the influence of the Apocalypse, associates a state of “blind-
ness” and impurity with the rebuilding of the Second Temple (1 En. 89:73)
and makes no mention of it when referring to the military success of Judas
Maccabeus (90:6–19).274 However, the reservation of the Animal Apoca-
lypse goes beyond that of the Apocalypse as no explicit mention of made of
the restored Temple per se in its vision of restoration.275
In its expection that a new eschatological Temple will be erected, the
Apocalypse shares with other documents the hopes that build upon the vision
of its restoration found in Trito-Isaiah (e.g. 56:7–8) and Ezekiel (40:5–43:17).
In particular, Isaiah 66:1 (“what is the house that you would build for me?”)
implies the need for an appropriate temple on grounds that created materials
are ultimately inadequate as a dwelling for One whose throne is heaven and
footstool is earth (cf. 4 Ezra 10:54). Especially close is the anticipation in
Tobit 13:16 that “Jerusalem will be built as his house for all ages”, though
here it will be erected with precious metals (Tob. 13:16–17; cf. Isa.
54:11–12). Similar to Tobit, Jubilees 1:17, 29 and 4 Ezra 10 (v. 42 Lat.),276

273 A view that is expressed in Tob. 14:5; referring to the Second Temple, the Sinaiticus
text states, “they will rebuild the temple of God, but not like the first one until the
period when the times of fulfilment shall come”.
274 Similarly, the author of Jub. does not acknowledge the Temple’s existence either,
though allusions to the use of a wrong calendar and other “gentile” activities are
made (1:7–14); rather, God’s promise that “I will build my sanctuary in their midst,
and I will dwell with them” is concerned with the eschatological temple. Likewise, in
its cursory review of Israel’s covenant history, the Dam. Doc. says nothing about the
establishment of the Second Temple (CD A i 3–11).
275 See Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination, p. 55. The reference in 90:28 to the “old
house” being transformed (including pillars, beams, and ornaments) does not neces-
sarily denote the Temple, but may more broadly include the replacement of the old
with a new Jerusalem. It is this new Jerusalem which in 90:29 is metaphorically called
a “new house, larger and higher than the first one” (with new pillars and ornaments)
in 90:29 (compare with 89:50 and especially 89:72–73). It is best not to interpret the
imagery and vocabulary too precisely, that is, as applying either to a “new city” or to
a “new temple” (contra Tiller, A Commentary on the Animal Apocalypse, p. 376,
who overstates the distinction), as the reference to Jerusalem does not exclude that
here the Temple or, more specifically, the cult is in view.
276 Following the Lat. tradition (whereas the Armen., Syr., and Eth., in reading “estab-
lished” regard the city as already built); cf. B. M. Metzger, “The Fourth Book of
Ezra”, p. 547 and n. h and Bruce Longenecker, 2 Esdras (Guides to the Apocypha and
Pseudepigrapha; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1995), pp. 67–68.
1 Enoch 91:14 139

the writer holds the view that the eschatological Temple will be built rather
than that it is a heavenly structure which, in an ideal form, has always been in
existence.277 The location of this Temple in week eight suggests that it must be
in place before the final judgement extending to the entire cosmos can be car-
ried out.278
The new Temple is envisioned as the place where divine rule will finally
be established. Before this point, there is no messianic rule or agency. The
author anticipates a theocracy in which every form of evil will be banished
(vv. 14–17).279

91:14: The Ninth Week

(14) “And after this, in the ninth week, the righteous judgement will be re-
vealed to all the world, and all the works of the wicked will depart from the
whole earth. And the world will be written down for destruction, and all
people will look to the path of uprightness.”

Textual Notes
Ethiopic: “Ninth” (tase‘t; Tana 9, EMML 2080, Berl, BM 491, Abb 35,
Abb 55, EMML 1768, EMML 6281) – BM 485, Ryl and Eth. II mss. have
tase‘. // “Will be revealed” (tetkaššat) – BM 485 reads tekatesa (metathesis
of t(e) and sa?); Abb 55 reads with the conj. wa-tetkaššat (“and … will be
revealed”); EMML 6281 has tekaššet. // “And all the works of … for de-
struction” – omitted in Abb 55 through homoioteleuton (wa-kwellu “and
all” … wa-kwellu “and all”). // “Works of” (tegbara) – omitted in BM 485. //
“From” (’em-diba) – Berl reads ’em-xaba; EMML 1768 reads ba-diba
(“in”). // “The whole earth” (kwellu medr) – BM 491, Ull, Curzon 56,
BM Add. 24990 and Garrett Ms. omit kwellu (“the earth”). // “And the

277 For the notion of the existence of a heavenly, ideal Temple that contrasts with the
earthly one, see Isa. 6:1–6; this is developed in the Book of Watchers (1 En. 14:8–25)
and assumed in 2 Bar. 4:2–6. The views of 2 Bar. on the Temple are, however, not
consistent; 32:1–6 anticipates that after the (Second) Temple has been destroyed, it
“will be rebuilt” (v. 2), “renewed in glory” and “perfected into eternity”. The passage
implies that this will happen when the new creation takes effect (v. 6).
278 Jub. 1:29, which may be familiar with the Apoc. of Weeks, has the sequence the other
way around: the text refers to erection of the Temple after it has mentioned the rene-
wal of heaven and earth and all their creatures.
279 For a just criticism of casual interpretations of this text as referring to “the messianic
age” in which a messiah figure wields the sword, see Dexinger, Zehnwochenapoka-
lypse, pp. 136–37.
140 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

world will be written down280 for destruction” (wa-yessehhaf la-hag wel


‘alam; Berl, BM 485 la-hag wela, EMML 6281) – Tana 9, Abb 35, and
EMML 1768 have wa-yessehhef la-hag wel la-‘alam (“and it will be written
down for the destruction of the world”); BM 492 reads wa-yessehhaf
la-hag wel wa-‘alam (“and it will be written down for destruction and the
world”); Munich 30 reads wa-yessehhaf la-kwellu ‘alam (“and it will
be written down for the whole world”); EMML 2080 reads wa-yessahhaf
la-hag wel la-‘alam (“and it will be written down for the destruction of
the world”281); Ryl reads wa-yessahhaf la-hag wel ‘alam (“and the world will
be written down for destruction”). // “Will look at” (yenesseru, plur.;
EMML 2080, EMML 1768, EMML 6281, Ryl, most Eth. II mss.) – Ull
reads yenessera (sing. verb, with fem. sing. obj. suff.); Curzon 55 reads
yenessero (sing. verb, with masc. sing. obj. suff.); Tana 9 and BM 490 read
the sing. yenesser. // “To the path of uprightness” (la-fenwata ret‘; BM 491,
sing. as Aram.) – Tana 9, EMML 6281, Ryl and most Eth. II mss. have la-
fenota ret‘ (“to the paths of uprightness”); EMML 2080 and BM 485 have
la-fenawata ret‘ (“to the paths of uprightness”, EMML omitting or erasing
la-); BM Add. 24185 and BM 484 spell la-fenawata ret‘et; Berl has la-fena-
wata sedq (“to the paths of righteousness”); Abb 35 and EMML 1768 read
la-fetwata ret‘ (“to the desire for uprightness”).

Aramaic: ,v ]qy yi>t ivb> hrtb ]mv (4QEng 1 iv 19), “and after this a ninth
week will ar[ise”. Milik reads and restores uv> ]qv (“and ri[ghteousness”),
noting that ,vqy was erased before ivb> .282 The erasure, however, may have
been a scribal correction of an original misplacement rather than of a wrong
word; the proposed reading takes the Ethiopic into account and follows
from the compatibility of the visible letters with qy and the opening formula
for week eight (albeit, where the verb is found in a different position).283 //
Xlgty [ uv>q ]yd h ]b [ yd … (4QEng 1 iv 19), “in [which a righteous
judgement ]will be revealed”. The restorations by Milik result in the trans-

280 Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 437, following Charles (“Book of Enoch”, p. 264), plau-
sibly explains the Eth. as derived from a Grk. verb καταγρφ (“to write down”, in
the fut. form καταγρχονται) which, in the Grk. transmission had been confused
with κατγ (“to bring down”, in the fut. form καταγσονται), originally trans-
lated from Aram. ]vmry (“they will throw”).
281 Knibb, The Ethiopic Book of Enoch, 1.345, refers to “2 mss.” that have the same
meaning but have wa-yessahhaf la-hag wela ‘alam. I am unable, however, to verify
these from the editions of Charles and Flemming.
282 Milik, The Books of Enoch, pp. 266 and 268.
283 In agreement with Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 437.
1 Enoch 91:14 141

lation, “and righteousness [and right] judgement will be revealed [in it]”
(Xlgty [ hb uv>q ]y ]d [v uv> ]qv ). // hlk XirX ynb lvkl (4QEng 1 iv 20), “to
all the children of the whole earth”. // hlvk ]m ] [vrbiy Xyiy>r yd ]bi lvkv
XirX (4QEng 1 iv 20–21), “and all the wor[ks of the wicked284 wil]l [pass
away] from the whole earth”. // xrXl ]vhlk [ X>vnX ]vzxyv ,li ]rybl ]vmryv
Xmli u>q (4QEng 1 iv 21–22), “and they will be thrown into an/the [eter-
nal?] pit[ and] all[ men] shall see the path of eternal righteousness”.

General Comment
The sequence of events in the eighth and ninth weeks has been regarded as
problematic: the righteous carry out punishment (eighth week), the world is
destroyed in the judgement, and then all humanity is converted (ninth
week). Charles, for example, has argued that since the conversion must
happen before the destruction of the world, the last part of 91:14 is a dis-
placement from the end of week eight.285 As such an order of eschatological
events (including the conversion of the nations) is documented elsewhere
(esp. Anim. Apoc. 90:19–39; cf. also Bk. of Watchers 10:21; Epistle
105:1–2(?); Tob. 14:6; Rev. 19:11–22:4), any rearrangement of the ma-
terial, failing textual evidence to the contrary, is unnecessary. However,
the global vision of righteousness for all people seems to conflict with the
destruction anticipated for the godless Gentiles in the Exhortation 91:9.
Whereas the eighth week is concerned with the righteous of Israel
and the establishment of the Temple cult, the ninth week takes up eschato-
logical events on a broader stage that in week ten will be extended
even further to encompass the cosmos as a whole. Week nine, therefore,
marks a transition between weeks eight and ten; with the former, it shares a
focus on events on earth, while with the latter, it focuses on completeness.
This broader focus in week nine suggests that the “wicked” whose deeds
are expunged from the earth are not the same group as the oppressors men-
tioned in week eight. While week eight gives account of what the author ex-
pects will happen to inimical opponents with whom he and his community
are acquainted, it is possible that in week nine the “doers of wickedness”
also include demonic powers which lie behind evils perpetrated in human
history. If the text refers to “deeds of the wicked” (or “of wickedness”) as in

284 Restoration accords with the Ethiopic. Milik (The Books of Enoch, pp. 260–61)
reads and restores: Xyi>r yd ]bi (“those who commit impieties”); similarly, Nickels-
burg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 437, who with Koch (“Sabbatstruktur der Geschichte: Die soge-
nannte Zehn-Wochen-Apokalypse”, p. 410) emphasizes the tenuousness of deciding
between “works” and “doers”.
285 Charles, “Book of Enoch”, p. 264.
142 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

the Ethiopic and possibly the Aramaic (cf. Bk. of Watchers 10:16 and Birth
of Noah 107:1), then the description of eschatological punishment may
suggest a distinction between iniquitous activity and the human beings who
engage in them. This, in turn, makes it possible to anticipate that all humans
“will look to the way of uprightness”. Thus their conversion or turning to-
wards uprightness is not so much an unanticipated event as it reflects a
proper conclusion (cf. Isa. 49:6) to a narrative in which God, the Creator of
the world and the One who has fixed each of the weeks from the beginning,
renews the created order.

Notes
14a. And after this, in the ninth week, the righteous judgement will be
revealed to all the world. Whereas “the righteousness judgement” in week
eight is carried out against all the wicked (cf. Aram., 91:12b), now it is real-
ised throughout the world.286 This larger arena of divine judgement reflects
the author’s underlying conviction that God, as Creator of the world, must
hold the entire world into account, that is, not just those with whom the
author and his community most immediately concerned. It has been sug-
gested that this disclosure of “the righteous judgement” refers to the revel-
ation of the divine law as a necessary prelude to the conversion of humanity
described later in the verse.287 This revelation, however, is best understood
in tandem with what happens immediately thereafter (v. 14b), namely, the
complete obliteration of wicked deeds.288
14b. And all the works of the wicked will depart from the whole earth.
It may seem unusual that “works” are punished instead of those who
do them. However, in week two (93:4), the “first end” occurs in relation
to “deceit” and “violence” without there being any mention of those
engaged in these activities. Moreover, on the notion of punishing “works”
or “deeds” rather than “workers” or “doers”, see already the Book of
Watchers (10:16,289 20), which may have influenced this passage. It is pos-
sible, in turn, that the Epistle, at 97:6c, has been influenced by a pre-

286 For the same expression, see 4Q213a (= 4QLevib ar) 2.9 (u>q ]yd ), which occurs in
the patriarch’s petition and refers either to God’s judgement against the wicked or to
his execution of justice as God’s agent; see bibl. in n. 260a above.
287 So Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 449.
288 The double use of lk (“all” or “whole”) in the first two clauses of the verse suggests
that their meaning is interrelated.
289 Among the instructions to the archangel Michael (cf. 10:11), is that he “destroy in-
justice from the face of the earth, and every wicked deed will pass away (wa-kwellu
megbar ekuy yehlef)”.
1 Enoch 91:14 143

Ethiopic version of this verse: “every work of oppression will be thrown


out/he will throw out (wa-yetgaddaf or wa-yegaddef)”.290 The Two Spirits
Treatise focuses on divine judgement against deeds caused by the “spirit of
injustice” (1QS iv 20–21); these deeds are removed from the human being,
in whom the spirits of both truth and injustice co-exist, so that the judge-
ment – in the case of the righteous, at least – functions as a refinement or
cleansing rather than as a destruction of the entire person. By distinguishing
between deeds and the human being, the Two Spirits Treatise opens the
way, at least in theory, for a conversion of the wicked following judgement.
Though in contrast to the Two Spirits Treatise, the author of the Apoca-
lypse does not reflect on human nature, the destruction of “works”, rather
than of “wicked ones”, is at least consistent with a similar anthropology
and may explain the subsequent statement that all humanity will turn to
righteousness (see below, v. 14c).291
Two further interpretations suggest themselves. First, it remains pos-
sible, nevertheless, that the author originally had the destruction of the
wicked (humans) per se in view. If this was the case, then divine judgement
is being depicted in a much more conventional way while, however, this in-
terpretation makes it difficult to explain how this could be followed by the
conversion of all.
Second, a focus on “deeds” rather than the humans who do them may
imply a view that ultimately holds demonic forces accountable. In this sense
the Apocalypse would cohere with the Two Spirits Treatise (see above), but
also, and especially, the Book of Watchers (ch.’s 6–16) in which it is the
fallen of rebellious angels which introduce evil into the world, engaging
through their gargantuan offspring in the oppression of humanity, and in-
structing humans in deplorable ways.
14c. And the world will be written down for destruction, and all people
will look to the path of uprightness. The Ethiopic tradition “will be written
down for destruction” is probably secondary to the Aramaic (see n. 280),
which reads, “and they will be thrown into an/the [eternal?] pit”. Thus,
whereas the Ethiopic has the destruction of the entire world in view, the
Aramaic is more specifically concerned with the wicked (whether it be their
works or they themselves) referred to in the immediately preceding state-
ment.

290 However, emphasis in the Epistle, more so than any of the other early Enochic works,
is placed on the destruction of evildoers as well.
291 Nickelsburg raises the further possibility that “deeds” might also refer to things fash-
ioned by humans (i.e. idols and temples), finding support for this in 91:9 which, how-
ever, does not so much underlie as provide a possible reading of v. 14.
144 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

The Aramaic term ryb , though often meaning “well” or “fountain”,


refers in this context to a “pit”, that is, a place of confinement. If it is de-
monic forces that underlie the author’s “doers” or “deeds of wickedness”,
then a punishment by being hurled into a hole or pit fits well with the place
of confinement assigned to the fallen angels for their activities in other Eno-
chic tradition (1 En. 10:4 – Raphael is told to make an opening [’abqewa] in
the wilderness for ‘Asa’el/‘Azaz’el; 88:2–3 – the first fallen “star” and the
fallen angels’ offspring thrown, respectively, into the abyss [ma‘meq] and
pits [’anqe‘t] of the earth). Here, the “pit” is not a place of annihilation, but
rather a holding place until the final judgement is carried out, as occurs in
week ten (cf. 1 En. 10:12; 88:2–3 and 90:23–24). In addition, it fits well
with a conversion of all humanity who apparently have not met the same
end as just described.
The conversion of all humanity may come as a surprise after the empha-
sis on judgement in weeks eight and nine. However, the theme occurs else-
where,292 especially in the Enochic corpus itself. In particular, inspiration
for week nine may have come from the Book of Watchers, according
to which the cleansing of the earth from every form of evil is followed by
a prediction that “all people will become righteous” (10:20–21), that is,
those who were previously wicked and not yet righteous (cf. 10:17). More
contemporary to the Apocalypse, the author of the Animal Apocalypse en-
visions that the “animals”, “beasts of the field”, and “birds of the sky” –
the same metaphors used to describe groups previously associated in the
narrative with the oppressive Gentiles – will be converted, that is, will peti-
tion and obey the righteous (90:30), make petition to a messianic figure
(90:37), and even be assembled into a “house” (Jerusalem) (90:33).293 Fin-

292 See Tob. 14:4–5, which refers to the Gentiles after the eschatological Temple is
erected. A similar pattern obtains in the later Apocalypse of John: after the author has
repeatedly underlined an religiosity along very strict lines (ch.’s 2–3) and has de-
nounced all others (Rome, her allies, and even compromising Christians) as subject to
imminent divine punishment, his description of the New Jerusalem nevertheless in-
cludes “the nations” and “the kings of the earth” (21:24). Regarding this reversal in
Jewish tradition and Revelation, see Ronald Herms, An Apocalypse of the Church
and for the World (BZNW, 13; Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 2006),
pp. 61–77 (Tobit) and 169–261 (Revelation).
293 See Herms, An Apocalypse for the Church and for the World, pp. 120–35. The theme
is further picked up in Similitudes (50:2–5), though the ones mentioned seem to be
neither those who are already righteous nor those who are unrepentant and involved
in oppression, but rather “others” consisting of those who repent and forsake their
deeds; they “will be saved” through the name of the Lord of the spirits, who will have
mercy on them (v. 3).
1 Enoch 91:15–16 145

ally, the Epistle picks up this theme, though with more reluctance
(cf. 100:6a), and in the closing section may imply some kind of conversion
in 104:12–105:2.294

91:15–16: The Tenth Week

(15) “And after this, in the tenth week, the seventh part in it, there will be
eternal judgement. And it will be executed against the watchers of the eter-
nal heaven, a great (judgement) that will be decreed in the midst of the an-
gels. (16) And the first heaven shall disappear and pass away, and a new
heaven shall appear, and every power of the heavens shall shine sevenfold
for ever.”

Textual Notes
Ethiopic: (15) “And after this” (wa-em-dexra zentu; Tana 9, EMML 2080,
BM 491, Berl, Abb 35, EMML 1768, EMML 6281, Ryl, most Eth. II mss.) –
In harmony with the formula for the other weeks, BM 485, Ull, BM 490
and BM 492 have wa-em-dexra-ze. // “Tenth” (’ašert) – EMML 1768 spells
‘ašert; Abb 35 and EMML 6281 have ’ašarta (EMML 6281 ’ašarta);
EMML 2080 has ’ašartu; and Ull ’ašer. // “Seventh part” (sab‘et ’ed;
EMML 2080 sab‘et, Berl) – Abb 55, Bodl 4, Curzon 55, BM 484, BM 486,
BM 490, BM 499, Garrett Ms. and Westenholz Ms. have Ζ’eda; BM 491
has wa-Ζ’ed (“and the seventh part”); Bodl 5, Frankfurt Ms., Curzon 56,
BM Add. 24185, BM Add. 24990, BM 492, and Vatican 71 Ζ’ed; Abb 35
has sab‘ata ’eda; EMML 1768 spells sab‘eta ’eda; EMML 6281 spells
sab‘eta ’eda; Tana 9 reads wa-Ζ’eda (“and the seventh part”); BM 485 reads
only ’ed (“part”). // “In it” (bati) – Tana 9 reads with the conj. wa-bati
(“and in it”). // “Eternal” (’enta la-‘alam, lit. “which is for ever”) – Ull reads
za-la-‘alam (as also in 91:13). // “And it will be executed against the
watchers of the eternal heaven” (wa-tetgabbar ’em-teguhana samay za-la-
‘alam; Tana 9, Abb 352, BM 486) – EMML 2080, Abb 351, EMML 6281,
Ryl, Bodl 4, Bodl 5, Frankfurt Ms., Curzon 55, Curzon 56, BM Add.

294 So Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 450. As the motif of wisdom and righteousness coming
into all the world can be explained by reference to other texts in the Enochic tradi-
tion, this is to be distinguished from the view that wisdom will pervade the world
after those who are without wisdom have been destroyed; for this, see The Book of
Mysteries (1Q27, 4Q299–301): “all who restrain the marvellous mysteries will no
longer exist, and knowledge will fill the world, and folly will no longer be there”
(tlvX [d ]il ,> ]yXv lbt Xlmt hidv dvi hmnyX Xlp yzr ykmvt lvkv ; 1Q27 1 i 7).
146 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

24185, BM 484, BM 490, BM Add. 24990, BM 499, Vatican 71, Munich,


Garrett Ms. and Westenholz Ms. have wa-tetgabbar ’em-teguhan (Abb 351
’em-teguhana) wa-samay za-la‘alam (“and it will be executed against
the watchers and eternal heaven”); BM 492 has wa-tetgabbar ’em-teguhan
za-samay wa-la‘alam (“and it will be executed against the watchers of
heaven and for ever”); BM 485, BM 491, Berl, Abb 55 and EMML 1768
omit, probably due to homoioteleuton (la-‘alam “eternal” … la-‘alam
“eternal”).295 // “A great (judgement) that will be decreed” (‘abiy za-ye-
baqwel 296) – EMML 2080 spells ‘abiy za-yebaqwel; BM 491 has ‘abiy za-yet-
beqal; Berl has ‘abiy za-yebaqqel (“the Great One who will punish”);
Abb 55 reads only za-yetbeqal (“that will be decreed”); BM 491 and Abb 35
have ‘abiy za-yetbeqqal; Ull and Curzon 56 reads only yebaqwel (“will be
decreed”); and Munich 30 reads za-yebaqqu‘ (“which will be beneficial”). //
“In the midst of the angels” (’em-ma’kalomu la-mala’ekt; BM 485,
EMML 6281, Ryl, Eth. II mss.) – Tana 9 and Abb 35 have ’em-kwellomu
mala’ekt (“from (among) all the angels”); Berl and BM 491 have ’e(m)-
ma’kalomu mala’ekt; EMML 2080 has ’em-ma’kala mala’ekt; EMML 1768
reads only ’e(m)-ma’kalomu (“in the midst of”); omitted in Abb 55. (16)
“And … heaven” (wa-samay) – Berl omits the conj. samay (“heaven”). //
“First” (qadamay) – EMML 2080 and EMML 6281 have qadamawi;
Abb 55 reads dagemay (“second”). // “Will disappear” (lit. “go forth”;
yewadde’) – Bodl 5 and Vat 71 read yemasse’ (“will come”, a misreading
of similar Δ wa- as Ε ma-); and Frankfurt Ms. has wa-yemasse’ (“and will
come”). // “And every power of the heavens” (wa-kwellu xayla samayat;
EMML 2080, BM 485, BM 491, Abb 35, Abb 55, EMML 1768) – Tana 9,
Berl and EMML 6281 have wa-kwellu xayla samay (“and every power of
heaven”); Ull, Bodl 4, Curzon 56, BM 484, BM 490 and BM 492 read
wa-kwellu xaylata samay (“and all the powers of heaven”); and Ryl has
wa-kwellu xaylata samayat (“and all the powers of the heavens”). // “Will
shine” (yaberhu, plur.; EMML 1768) – BM 485, Bodl 4, BM 484 and
BM 490 reads wa-yebarrehu (“and they will shine”); EMML 6281 and Ull
read yebarrehu (“they will shine”); Ryl, Ull and most Eth. II mss. read
yebarrehu la-‘alam (“they will shine for ever”); Tana 9 reads sing. yebarreh
(“it [i.e. every power] will shine”); Abb 55 reads sing. yabarh (“will
shine”). // “Sevenfold” (sab‘ata mak‘ebita; BM 491, Abb 35, BM 499,

295 Thus Milik argues the section “and it will be executed against the watchers of the
eternal heaven” is “a gloss on the next hemistich”, i.e. the statement about judgement
being executed “in the midst of the holy ones” (The Books of Enoch, p. 269).
296 Charles, The Ethiopic Version of the Book of Enoch, p. 192 regards the verb as corrupt
from yebaqqel, “he will punish” (with “the Great One” ‘abiy as the subj.; cf. Berl).
1 Enoch 91:15–16 147

Westenholz Ms.) – EMML 1768 has sab‘ata mek‘ebita; Ryl has Ζmek‘ebita;
EMML 6281 has Ζmak‘ebita; EMML 2080 has seb‘ati mak‘ebita.

Aramaic: (15) Xmli ]yd hi [yb>bd … hrtb ] ]mv (4QEng 1 iv 22–23),


“and af[ter it … in the seve]n[th (part)] (there will be) eternal judgement”. //
]Xbr Xnyd /qv (4QEng 1 iv 23), “and the time of the great judgement[”. The
original text in what follows is uncertain. Milik reconstructs according to
shorter Ethiopic text (i.e. the one in BM 485, BM 491, Berl, and Abb 55):
Xy>ydq iyjmb ,qnty, “the Great Judgement [shall be executed in ven-
geance, in the midst of the holy ones]”.297 Nickelsburg argues, however,
that both the shorter Ethiopic text, which refers to “the great eternal judge-
ment”, and the longer text, which refers to “the great eternal heaven”, are
corrupt; instead, considering the double reference to “judgement” in which
succession in the Aramaic as problematic, he posits that 4QEng stems
from a longer Aramaic original that contained two parallel statements, one
referring to the “watchers” (dropped through homoioteleuton) and the
next referring to “holy ones” (as in the longer Ethiopic). Nickelsburg thus
considers the possibility that both the extant Aramaic and the shorter
Ethiopic have been abbreviated because of homoioteleuton at the same
place. Though relying on considerable reconstruction, Nickelsburg’s propo-
sal is plausible to the extent that the mention of judgement, especially
if twofold, requires an identification of those to whom it relates. (16) ]ym>v
lvkl ]yxndv ]y [ rh ] j Xym> [… ]vzxty ]ytdx ]y ] m> ]vrbiy hb ]ymdq
] ]ymli (4QEng 1 iv 23–25), “And the first heaven will pass away in it, and
[a new] heav[en will appear … of] heaven (will) s[hin]e and rise for all eter-
nit[y …”.

General Comment
The description of week ten draws on motifs from the previous eras: the
“seventh part” of the week is reminiscent of week one (93:3); “the first
heaven” contrasts with the “new heaven” in a way that “the first end” of
week two (93:4) contrasts with “the eternal judgement” (91:15); and “the
sevenfold” illumination of the heavenly powers recalls the “sevenfold” in-
struction disclosed to the righteous elect in week seven.
Whereas the eschatological events occur on earth during weeks seven,
eight and nine, in week ten the arena of divine judgement is extended to
heaven. It is here that, if one follows the longer Ethiopic text, the fallen
watchers are to be punished, a judgement directed at powers ultimately held

297 Milik, The Books of Enoch, pp. 266–67 and 269.


148 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

responsible for the existence of evil and sin in the world.298 So cataclysmic
and far-reaching is this “great” judgement that not even the “first heaven”
can continue in its present form. Indeed, the conclusion to week ten involves
a new, creative act (cf. Isa. 65:17, 66:22–23) that establishes a cosmic order
in which there is no further opposition to righteousness.

Notes
15a. And after this, in the tenth week, the seventh part in it, there will be
eternal judgement. In this part of the verse, the Ethiopic corresponds closely
to the Aramaic. The “seventh part” is reminiscent of the time of Enoch’s
birth in week one (93:3). Concerned with rebellious angelic powers (see
below), this judgement is the culmination, not only of the tenth week, but
also of the series of punishments administered in eschatological weeks seven
(against violence and deceit), eight (against the wicked ones), and nine
(against the works of the wicked). The judgement is “eternal” because it
marks the complete, unrepeatable defeat of evil.
15b. And it will be executed against the watchers of the eternal heaven,
a great (judgement) that will be avenged in the midst of the angels. On the
problem concerning an original text for this part of the verse, see the Tex-
tual Notes above. Though the short Ethiopic text does not mention the
fallen watchers, its reference to the “eternal judgement” without any object
of punishment suggests that part of the tradition has gone missing. It is at
least clear enough that the arena of judgement now involves the angelic
world, with the fallen angels to be punished on the one hand, with the good
angels probably functioning as agents. The judgement of rebellious angels
at the end comes as no surprise; though they are seen in some early Enochic
traditions to have been punished at the time of the great flood (1 En.
10:4–8; 18:14–15; Jub. 5:6, 10–11; 7:21; 10:5–9; Bk. of Giants 4Q530 2 ii
+ 6–7 i + 8–12, ll. 5–12,299 6Q8 2, and 2Q26; and 1 En. 88:1), their ultimate
punishment and final destruction remains for the end (1 En. 10:12–13;
18:16; 90:24; cf. 39:2 and 69:28).300 If the fallen angels are in view at all,
then their judgement may be the ultimate reversal of the “deceit” and “vi-
olence” suffered in the second week (93:4). While “the first end” in week
two was decisive, it was not final, as evil persists during the subsequent peri-
ods. The deluge is only a precursor for the final judgement when all malevo-

298 Cf. esp. Milik, The Books of Enoch, pp. 22–41, who argues that the passage presup-
poses the angelic rebellion described in the Bk. of Watchers (ch.’s 6–16).
299 Within the fragment combination 2 ii + 6–7i, 8–12; cf. the edition of É. Puech,
“4Q530. 4QLivre des Géantsb ar”, DJD 31, pp. 28–38.
300 For the same expectation in the New Testament, see 2 Pet. 2:4 and Jude 6–7.
1 Enoch 91:15–16 149

lent powers are destroyed.301 On the phrase “great” judgement, see the
Note on 94:9.
16a. And the first heaven will disappear and pass away, and a new heaven
will appear. Just as “the first end” (93:4) is overtaken by the “eternal judge-
ment”, so also “the first heaven” is not the final order of creation. The break-
ing up of eschatological events into several periods makes it possible for the
author to present each in turn. Here, the focus is on the creation of a new
heaven, frequently mentioned by other traditions in conjunction with the es-
tablishment of the Temple (as Isa. 65–66; cf. 2 Bar. 32:1–6; Jub. 1:29 and pos-
sibly 1 En. 45:1–6302).303 The necessity for the new creation confirms the cos-
mic proportions of the punishment in week ten. As it stands, the text is inspired
by Isaiah 65:17 and 66:22304 and is founded on the assumption that while the
present created order is temporary, while God (and God’s ultimate purposes)
endure for ever (cf. Ps. 102:24–27; 1 En. 72:1). The text in Jubilees 1:29 shares
this expectation in language that is also strongly reminiscent of weeks eight
and ten; the “tablets”, received by the Angel of the Presence, contain

“the divisions of the years from the time the law and the testimony were
created – for the weeks of their jubilees, year by year in their full number,
and their jubilees from [the time of the creation until] the time of the new
creation when the heavens, the earth, and all their creatures will be
renewed like the powers of the sky and like all the creatures of the earth,
until the time when the temple of the Lord will be created in Jerusalem
on Mt. Zion.”305

301 On the proleptic nature of the flood as a type for eschatological judgement,
see Stuckenbruck, “The ‘Angels’ and ‘Giants’ of Genesis 6:1–4”, DSD 7 (2000),
pp. 362–74. See 1 En. 91:5–9; 106:15, 17.
302 While Similitudes in this passage retains the general structure of the Apocalypse, it
brings together and condenses events which in the latter are kept more distinct: the
punishment of the wicked and reward of the righteous through the “Chosen One”
seated on God’s throne (in the future Temple) precedes or accompanies the creation of
a new heaven and earth.
303 Since weeks seven through nine have been concerned with events on earth and given
the author’s focus on what happens in “heaven”, the recreation of the earth is not
mentioned here (in contrast, e.g., to Isa. 65–66; Jub. 1:29; and 1 En. 45:4).
304 See the study by J. T. A. G. M. van Ruiten, “The Influence and Development of
Is 65,17 in 1 En 91,16”, ed. J. Vermeylen, The Book of Isaiah. Les oracles et leurs re-
flectures unite et complexité de l’ouvrage (BETL, 81; Leuven: Leuven University Press
and Peeters Press, 1989), pp. 149–74.
305 Translation by VanderKam, The Book of Jubilees, pp. 6–7; cf. Wintermute, “Jubi-
lees”, p. 54.
150 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

Unlike Jubilees, in which the building of the future Temple and the new cre-
ation occur either together306 or in close sequence, the establishment of a
new order in the Apocalypse happens only at the very end, that is, after the
Temple, the place of divine rule, has been set up (91:13). The author’s peri-
odization involves a scheme in which God’s rule from the Temple expresses
the basis for the renewal of creation rather than, as in Jubilees, is the result
of it.
16b. And every power of the heavens will shine sevenfold for ever. The
creation of heaven includes the renewal of the luminaries (cf. Jub. 1:29 –
“the powers of heaven”), here termed “power(s) of the heavens”. Signifi-
cantly, the beginning of the Astronomical Book (1 En. 72:1) presents the
work as a description of the courses of heavenly bodies which anticipates
that they will be caught up and transformed when the new heavenly order is
established.
Just as the righteous elect will be given “sevenfold” instruction regarding
the whole creation (93:10), the heavenly bodies are made to shine with
“sevenfold” eternal light (cf. Epistle 104:2, 4, 6; Eschat. Admon. 108:15;
Dan. 12:3). While in this context, “sevenfold” (as in 93:10) connotes com-
pleteness, the use of the term derives from Isaiah 30:26, according to which
the “sevenfold light of the sun”, shining as the light of seven days, happens
on the day when the people of God are healed.
The shining motif has led some, such as Grelot,307 to interpret this pas-
sage in relation to the expection that in the afterlife, the righteous will
illuminate as heavenly bodies, as found in Daniel 12:3308 and the Epistle
at 104:2b.309 Such a connection could mean that the righteous are being
described in their ultimate state, that is, as celestial powers. In this case, the
reference to “sevenfold” instruction for the elect in week seven (93:10)
finds its culmination in the “sevenfold” illumination here. A similar idea,

306 As perhaps also in 2 Bar. 32:4–6. In addition, Beyerle, Die Gottesvorstellungen in der
antik-jüdischen Apokalyptik, pp. 332–35, notes that unlike the parallels, the Apoc. of
Weeks makes the “new heaven” into the active subject of the verb, so that the tradition
of God’s role in the recreation of the cosmos (so Isa. 43:19; 65:17; 66:22) is assumed.
307 “L’eschatologie de la Sagesse et les apocalypses juives”, in ed. Xavier Marpus, A la
recontre de Dieu. Memorial Albert Gelin. BFC TL, 8; Paris: Le Puy, 1961), p. 170 and
as speculated by Dexinger, Zehnwochenapokalypse, p. 143.
308 Mt: “And those who give understanding (,ylyk>m ) will shine as the brightness of the
firmament (iyqr rhz vrhzy ) and those who make many righteous like the stars
(,ybkvkk ) for ever and ever.”
309 In contrast to their present life of toil, the righteous are told, “you will shine like the
light of heaven (tebarrehu kama berhana samay) and you will be seen (wa-tetra’’ayu).”
1 Enoch 91:17 151

perhaps influenced by this text, would be reflected in the War Scroll at


1QM i 8–9: “And [the sons of righ]teousness shall shine (vryXy qd [j ynb ]v )
to all corners of the earth; continuously, there will be light until the end
of all the appointed times of darkness. And in the appointed time of God,
his great exaltedness shall give illumination for all times of e[ternity].” See
further the Note on 92:4c.
An allusion to angels, however, seems more likely for two reasons. First,
as the tenth week is concerned with judgement in the celestial arena and in-
volves good and bad angelic beings, its final outcome would logically con-
tinue to have such beings in view. Second, as Nickelsburg notes, early Eno-
chic tradition associates angels with heavenly bodies: in the scene of
punishment in the Book of Watchers, rebellious angels are identified as “the
seven burning stars” (18:12–16), while in the Astronomical Book rebellious
angels correspond to both wayward stars (80:6–7; cf. Anim. Apoc. at 86:1;
88:1; 90:24) and to those obedient angels who execute the ideal calendar of
a 364-day year (82:7–20).

93:17: Weeks Without End

(17) “And after this there will be many weeks without number into eternity;
they will be in goodness and righteousness; and sin will no longer be men-
tioned for ever.”

Textual Notes
Ethiopic: “And after this” (wa-’em-dexra-ze) – Tana 9 reads wa-’em-dexra
(“and afterwards”). // “Without” (’albon, fem. plur. suff.; Berl, BM 485,
Abb 55, Ryl, many Eth. II mss.) – Tana 9, BM 491, Abb 35, Bodl 5, Cur-
zon 55, BM Add. 24990, BM 499, Munich 30, Garrett Ms. and Westenholz
Ms. read with masc. plur. suff. ’albomu. // “Number” (xolqwa; Berl,
BM 485, EMML 1768, EMML 6281) – Tana 9 spells xolqa; BM 491, Ryl,
and most Eth. II mss. have xwelqwe; Abb 35, BM 484 and BM 490 have
xwelqwa; Abb 55 has xwalqu. // “Into eternity” (la-‘alam) – Berl, BM 491,
Abb 35, Abb 55 and EMML 1768 read ba-‘alam, a confusion of Φ with
similar Β; BM 485 reads la-‘alam wa-kwellomu (“for ever, and all of them”,
referring to the “many weeks without number”). // “They will be” (yekaw-
wenu) – Tana 9 has yekawwen (“it will be”). // “In goodness” (ba-xirut) –
Berl reads ba-xirutkemu (“in your goodness”); Tana 9 and EMML 6281
read wa-ba-xirut (“and in goodness”). // “And sin” (wa-xati’at) – Tana 9
reads with acc. form wa-xati’ata; EMML 2080 spells wa-xati’at. // “Will
no longer be mentioned” (’em-heyya ’i-tetbahhal, fem. vb.) – Abb 55 and
152 The Apocalypse Of Weeks (1 Enoch 93:1–10; 91:11–17)

EMML 6281 read only ’i-tetbahhal (“will not be mentioned”); Berl has
’em-heyya yet<te>hhal310 (masc. vb.; defective spelling without -ba-);
EMML 2080 and Westenholz Ms. have ’em-heyya yetbahhal.

Aramaic: ]vhnyn ]m lvkl [vc ytyX [Xl yd ] yg> ]yib [> … (4QEng 1 iv 25–26),
“ …]many [w]eeks for [whose number] there is [no] end”. // ]vdbiy Xu[>q …
(4QEng 1 iv 26), “righ]teousness will be done311”. The end of the verse will
have extended to the top of column v of the manuscript.

General Comment
This period after the tenth week signifies the permanence of the new order
of things, and thus denotes “eternity”. This everlasting, unbounded age is
characterised by irreversible “goodness” and “righteousness”.

Notes
17a. And after this there will be many weeks without number into eternity.
Whereas everything before has been divided into periods, here the Apoca-
lypse finally arrives at a new age that cannot be periodised into eras.312 Fin-
ally after, and not during, the ten weeks, the author’s scheme arrives at an
new age that will persist and be without change.
17b. They will be in goodness and righteousness; and sin will no longer
be mentioned for ever. Whereas the Aramaic (literally, “they will do
[righ]teousness”) thinks of the activities of those who exist in the era of eter-
nity, the Ethiopic tradition is more ambiguous. “In goodness and righteous-
ness” could denote either what the righteous will do or God’s character
which defines the age (cf. Ps. 145:7).
Mention of the disappearance of “sin” might seem unnecessary, after the
passing away of “the first heaven” has been narrated for week ten (91:15).
However, the text here does not tell of the eradication of “sin” so much as
it declares that the memory thereof will be erased (cf. Ps. 109:15). In
Isaiah 65:17, the recreation of heaven and earth has the result that “the first
things will not be remembered (tvn>Xrh hnrkzt Xl ), nor will they occur to
the heart”. In other words, no further possibility exists that evil will ever
recur again.

310 So the reading of Knibb, The Ethiopic Book of Enoch, 1.346.


311 The passive translation follows from the assumption of an impersonal subject of the
verb.
312 Cf. Dexinger, Zehnwochenapokalypse, p. 144.
The Text Traditions 153

Chapter Three

Part Two
Exhortation (91:1–10, 18–19)

Introduction

A. The Text Traditions

A.1. The Ethiopic. The entire Ethiopic tradition splits the Exhortation be-
tween 91:10 and 91:18 by inserting the conclusion to the Apocalypse of
Weeks (91:11–17). The end of the Exhortation is followed by the beginning
of the Epistle at 92:1. This is not the original sequence, as the Dead Sea
evidence shows (see below). The Ethiopic text at 91:10–11 shows some
editorial attempt to link the awkward (and secondary) juxtaposition of the
Exhortation and Apocalypse at this point. In the Ethiopic tradition this dis-
location is so well established that the editorial seam may be thought to have
occurred at the very earliest stages of Ethiopic transmission, if not before.
On the basis of the presently available evidence, it is not clear how much
the form of the Ethiopic conveys an original. This is born our by differences
between it and the Aramaic preserved in 4QEng (see immediately below).
In terms of structure, the Ethiopic manuscripts do not begin chapter 91
with a heading that marks out a new section of Ethiopic Enoch. The fifth
section usually begins in chapter 92 at the opening of the Epistle.

A.2. The Aramaic. The sequence of the fragmentary 4QEng differs from the
Ethiopic form of the text. In the Aramaic the Exhortation in the manuscript
was probably continuous, that is, not interrupted by the Apocalypse which,
instead, was inserted as a whole in its original sequence (93:1–10 +
91:11–17) within the Epistle between 92:1–5 and 93:11–14.
The Aramaic fragments in 4QEng preserve a longer text than what
comes down to us through the Ethiopic. This is clear different content of the
Aramaic for 91:10, an additional phrase for 91:19, and the possibility sug-
gested by Milik that columns i and ii contain enough room for a longer text
for 91:1–10. See the Textual Notes to 91:5–10 and 19.
154 Exhortation (91:1–10, 18–19)

B. Literary Analysis

B.1. Literary Relationship with the Apocalypse of Weeks and Epistle. The
shape of the Exhortation is the product of composition and reshaping that
took its literary context into account. Exhortation is often treated as part of
the Epistle, whether it is thought to have served as its introduction or func-
tioned as a secondary expansion that presupposes its existence. In regarding
it as a constituent part of the Epistle and noting its interruption by the
Apocalypse of Weeks at 91:11/12–17, several scholars early on attempted
to restore an original sequence of passages. Beer and Martin, for example,
considered 91:1–10, 18–19 as the beginning of the Epistle and, therefore, as
its introduction313: this section was originally followed by the Apocalypse
of Weeks (ch. 93 minus 93:11–14; 91:12–17), then by 92:1–5 and 93:11–
104/105. By contrast, Charles’ reconstruction of the sequence reflected an
attempt to take 91:1–10, 18–19 as part of the Epistle more seriously.314 For
him the Epistle originally opened with 92:1–5, was then followed by
91:1–10, 18–19 and by the Apocalypse, before continuing on from chapter
94. The earliest preserved manuscript (4QEng) reflects, again, a different
order. If we follow Milik’s sequencing of the Dead Sea fragments from this
manuscript (see section A.2, Introduction to Apoc. of Weeks), the sequence
ran as follows: 91:1–10, 18–19; 92:1–5; 93:1–10; 91:11–17; 93:11ff.
The sequencing proposed by Charles betrayed a recognition that, unless
91:1–10, 18–19 is simply placed within the Epistle, its source-critical rela-
tionship to that work is problematic. If an original part of the Epistle, its
doublets with both the Epistle and Apocalypse are suspicious:

91:3 – Epistle 94:1 (exhortation to “love uprightness/righteousness and


walk in it”)
91:5b, 8 – Apocalypse 91:11 (uprooting of evil)315
91:10 – Apocalypse 93:10 (eschatological giving of wisdom)
91:10 – Epistle 92:3 (rising of the righteous one from sleep)
91:18–19 – Epistle 94:2–3 (two-ways exhortation)

The status of the Ethiopic version of 91:10 in relation to the literary context is
of special interest, given its overlaps with both Apocalypse and Epistle. Com-

313 See Beer, “Das Buch Henoch”, pp. 224–30; Martin, Le Livre d’Hénoch, p. 237.
314 Charles, The Book of Enoch, pp. 218 and 224.
315 On the reliance of Exhortation at this point on Apoc. of Weeks, see Black, “The
Apocalypse of Weeks in the Light of 4QEna”, VT 28 (1978), p. 466.
Literary Analysis 155

parison of the Ethiopic and Aramaic texts makes it likely that during the pro-
cess of transmission the tradition underwent reworking, probably motivated
by the split-up and dislocation of the Apocalypse of Weeks. The adjustment is
observable in the Ethiopic text to 91:10, in which the reference to the escha-
tological giving of wisdom (not preserved in the Aram. fragment) parallels
the “sevenfold instruction” revealed to the community in 93:10. If the men-
tion of wisdom in 91:10 has been influenced by 93:10, then the Ethiopic text
is not only deliberate but also reflects an awareness that the Apocalypse was
out of order. Similarly, the overlap between 91:10 and 92:3, which is also not
extant in the Aramaic, may be a seam that connects 91:10 with the beginning
of the Epistle as well. We are left to infer that at this point the Exhortation,
rather than originally composed in a way to anticipate both the (initially in-
dependent) Apocalypse and Epistle, went through resumptive editing.
It is impossible to determine whether 91:3 and 91:18–19 are similarly
resumptive of the Epistle at 94:1, 2–3. Indeed, it could be argued that the
influence may have worked in the other direction. As far as 91:3 is con-
cerned, no extant text is preserved in the Aramaic; it is thus too speculative
to infer from Milik’s suggestion of an originally longer text in 91:1–10
that 94:1 was made to conform to it. Moreover, it is possible that the
exhortation in 91:18–19 has influenced the wording in 94:2–3.316 The re-
sulting impression is that between the early (Aram.) and later (Eth.) stage of
development, the placement of the Exhortation alongside the Apocalypse
and Epistle led to editing activity that yielded a text which shows signs of
interdependence between the traditions.

B.2. Ideological and Terminological Links with Other 1 Enoch Works.


The Exhortation throughout shares themes and motifs with other parts of
the Enochic tradition. The following summary focuses on possible links
beyond those given in the previous section:

91:1–2 (Enoch’s communication to Methuselah and his brothers)


– Astronomical Book 82:1 (more generally, 81:5–82:4)
– Book of Dreams 83:1
91:5a (ante-diluvian increase of evil)
– Book of Watchers e.g. 6:1–8:3
91:7b (divine epiphany to execute judgement on the earth)
– Book of Watchers 1:9

316 In 91:18 the statement that the writer will show his readers “again” the contrasting
ways is, in turn, secondary, as it assumes the presence of 94:2–3 to follow.
156 Exhortation (91:1–10, 18–19)

91:5–9 (the flood as a type for eschatalogical judgement)


– Book of Watchers 10:16, 20, 22; Book of Dreams 83:7–9 and
84:4–6; and Birth of Noah 106:13–107:1. However, see under sec-
tion C below (and n. 317).
These links, taken together with those mentioned in section B.1 above,
underscore the derivational and generic character of the language of the Ex-
hortation. This in turn fits with the supposition that the author was supply-
ing a literary bridge between already existing Enochic traditions on either
side. While there is no evidence that the manuscript 4QEng contained the
Book of Watchers or 81:5–82:4 of the Astronomical Book, the text presup-
poses an intertextuality with these traditions.

C. The Exhortation as an Independent Tradition

Despite the thematic overlaps between the Exhortation and predecessors


from other parts of 1 Enoch, it introduced several motifs that were without
precise parallel in the already existing Enochic tradition:
(1) the description of wickedness as having “a double heart” (91:4a)
(2) the transparent modelling of eschatological salvation and judge-
ment on the Great Flood (91:5, 7)317
(3) the eschatological destruction of idols (91:9)318

D. Date

Since nothing in the Exhortation itself provides a clue for date, the time of its
composition can only be assessed in relative terms. If, as argued here, it orig-
inally was written to provide a bridge between the Apocalypse of Weeks and
Epistle, on the one hand, and the earlier Enochic traditions, on the other, it
may be dated to sometime between the integration of the Apocalypse into the
Epistle and the terminus ante quem set by the mid-1st century BCE date for
4QEng. Composition by an Enochic editor during the second half of the 2nd
century BCE is thus not unreasonable.

317 The text may have influenced Birth of Noah 106:13–107:1, which VanderKam thinks
formed an inclusio based on the pattern of sin – flood – greater sin – judgement
(Enoch and the Growth of Apocalyptic Tradition, pp. 174–75).
318 The Epistle (99:7, 9, 14 and 104:9) condemns those who practise idolatry rather than
refers to the destruction of idols themselves.
1 Enoch 91:1–2 157

COMMENTARY

91:1–2: Enoch Summons His Sons through Methuselah

(1) “And now, O my son Methuselah, call to me all your brothers and
gather to me all the children of your mother, for a voice is calling me and
a spirit is being poured out upon me, in order that I may show you
everything which will happen to you for ever.” (2) And after this, Me-
thuselah went and called all his brothers to himself and gathered his
relatives.

Textual Notes
Ethiopic: (1) “All” (kwello) – Berl has nom. kwellu; omitted in Abb 55. //
“Your brothers” (’axawika) – BM 485 reads daqiqa ’emmeka (“children of
your mother”). // “And gather to me” (wa-’astagabbe’omu lita, with 3rd
pers. masc. plur. obj. suff.) – BM 485 wa-’astagabbe’ lita (“and gather to
me”); BM 491, BM Add. 24185 and BM 492 omit lita (“and gather”). //
“All the children of your mother” (kwello daqiqa ’emmeka) – BM 485 reads
’axawika (“your brothers”). // “And a spirit” (wa-manfas) – Ull has “and
my spirit” (wa-manfasya). // “Is being poured out” (take‘wat, fem.; Tana 9,
BM 485, BM 491, Abb 35, EMML 1768) – EMML 2080, Berl, Abb 55, Ryl
and Eth. II mss. read the masc. take‘wa. // “Upon me” (ba-la‘leya; BM 491,
Abb 35, EMML 1768, Ryl, Eth. II mss.) – Berl, BM 485, Abb 55 and
Ull have la‘leya. // “That I may show you” (kama ’ar’ikemu) – BM 491
and EMML 1768 have ’ar’eykemu. // “Everything” (kwello) – omitted in
Abb 55. // “For ever” (’eska la-‘alam) – Abb 55 reads only la-‘alam. (2)
“And after this” (wa-’emmenehu) – omitted in Abb 55. // “And called
(them)” (wa-sawwe‘omu) – Tana 9 has “and he called” (wa-sawwe‘a). //
“All” (la-kwellomu) – omitted in Tana 9. // “His brothers” (’axawihu) –
Tana 9, BM 485, BM 491, Abb 35 and EMML 1768 read ’axawihu wa-
sawwe‘omu (“his brothers and he called them”), a repetition of the earlier
vb. that is erased on EMML 2080. // “His relatives” (la-’ezmada zi’ahu) –
Tana 9 and EMML 2080 have la-tezmada zi’ahu; Berl spells with poss.
pron. suff. la-’azmadihu.

General Comment
The opening words in 91:1a are precisely those of 82:1 and 83:1. On the
basis of the affinity of 91:1–2 with 82:1 and its context (81:1–82:4), Nick-
elsburg argues that the sequence of texts 81:1–82:4 + 91:1–10, 18–19 +
93:1–10; 91:11–17 (Apocalypse of Weeks); 93:11–94:5 + 104:10–105:2
reflects a literary unity which, in turn, presupposes a prior existing Book of
158 Exhortation (91:1–10, 18–19)

Watchers (ch.’s 1–36).319 Notwithstanding the echoes of early Enochic


tradition, it is not clear, however, whether these testament-like addresses to
Methuselah count as evidence for a literary unit that pre-existed and lay be-
hind the present form of Ethiopic Enoch and to which the Book of Dreams
material (ch.’s 83–90) and main body of the Epistle (94:6–104:8) were later
added. Indeed, without requiring continuity in authorship, we may instead
have to do with a growing collection of different Enochic pieces that re-
sembled one another due to composition and transmission within the same
circles. In any case, in relation to the pre-Ethiopic state of the material, we
are in no position to say whether, for example, 81:1–82:4 in its present form
either preceded or followed 91:1–10, 18–19.
The testamentary form does not seem to have played any significant part
in the earliest Enochic tradition (e.g. Book of Watchers and Astronomical
Book at 72:1–80:8). Therefore, it may be asked why it gained such promi-
nence within the Enochic corpus, especially since the Enochic authors of
1 Enoch at the same time distance the patriarch from any notion of death.
The answer is two-fold. First, the form provided a convenient way to aug-
ment earlier teaching which had been built around Enoch’s integration into
the story about the rebellious angels (cf. Gen. 6:1–4) and his association
with “elohim” (whether “God” or “angels”; cf. Gen. 5:22).320 Another nar-
rative setting made it possible to attribute further instructions to the patri-
arch. Second, whereas there are only hints of a testament in Enoch’s dis-
closure of revealed knowledge to generations after him (1 En. 1:1–2), the
increasing prominence of Methuselah concretised Enoch’s message as one
not simply to later generations but also to those who, specifically, are going
to fall heir to his teaching. In other words, use of the testamentary form ex-
presses a more formal understanding on the part of the authors that they be-
long to a community for whom the patriarch’s instructions are intended.

Notes
1a. And now, O my son Methuselah. Enoch’s summoning of his son – who,
in turn, summons Enoch’s other offspring – suggests that the scenario is con-
structed around a testamentary setting found elsewhere in the early Enoch lit-
erature. Such an address by Enoch to Methuselah also occurs in the follow-

319 Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, pp. 335–37.


320 See n. 162 above. The earliest material was shaped by several forms: (a) theophanic
vision (14:8–25, recounted by the patriarch himself); (b) heavenly journeys conveyed
through angelic mediation (17:1–36:4; 72:1–80:8); and (c) biblical paraphrase plus
extended interpretation (6:1–11:2; 12:1–14:7; and 15:1–16:4).
1 Enoch 91:1–2 159

ing passages: 76:14; 79:1 (secondary, and with the name only in Eth. Abb 35
and Eth. II recension mss.,321 after the vision of 74:1–78:17); 82:1–2 (within
the testamentary section 81:1–82:4 and before a description of the seasons);
83:1 (before a vision of the deluge and an intercessory prayer; cf. also 83:10);
85:1–3a (before the animal vision); and 92:1 (the opening of the Epistle ac-
cording to the restored Aram. of 4QEng 1 ii 22). In addition, a testamentary
interaction between Enoch and Methuselah occurs in 108:1 where, however,
the setting is described by a narrator in the third person rather than as words
by Enoch himself. A different scenario is presumed in 106:1–107:3, which is
concerned with the birth of Noah: the pregnancy of Lamech’s wife is ex-
plained when Methuselah consults Enoch and so bears little resemblance to a
testament per se (cf. 1QapGen ii 21–26 and v 9–10).
1b. Call to me all your brothers and gather to me all the children of your
mother. This passage is reminiscent of the opening to Moses’ farewell dis-
course to the Levites before his death in Deuteronomy 31:28: “Gather to me
all the elders of your tribes and of your officials, so that I may recite these
words (i.e. of the book) in their hearing and call heaven and earth to witness
against them” (NRSV). The allusion to Mosaic tradition is not placed in
service of anchoring Enochic instruction within the Torah given at Mt.
Sinai.322 Rather, the attribution to Enoch’s name reflects an appeal to a
tradition far older than that associated with Moses. Anyone who believed
that these instructions came from Enoch himself and who recognised in
these words a similarity with Mosaic tradition would have regarded the
latter as not only chronological later but perhaps also as derivative.
The request by Enoch that Methuselah summon his relatives represents
a more developed testamentary form than anywhere else in the 1 Enoch
(i.e. more formally than in 81:5–6; 82:1–3). At the same time, the notion of
a son convening relatives on behalf of a patriarch does not occur elsewhere
in extant testamentary literature, in which it is the patriarch himself who
does the summoning (cf. Gen. 49:1; T. Reub. 1:1; T. Sim. 1:1; T. Levi 1:1;
T. Jud. 1:1; Test. Job 1:4; and see Deut. 33:1). Whereas Enoch’s revelations
in 82:1–3 and 83:1 are written in the form of communication given to
Methuselah alone, Enoch is here represented as issuing instruction to his

321 So Uhlig, Henochbuch, p. 662.


322 Similar reminiscences of Deut. may be observed in 91:3 (Deut. 31:19, 21, 26; 32:1)
and 91:8 and 11 (Deut. 29:18, 20); see Nickelsburg, “The Nature and Function of
Revelation in 1 Enoch, Jubilees, and Some Qumranic Documents”, in eds. Esther
Chazon and Michael Stone, Pseudepigraphic Perspectives. The Apocrypha and Pseu-
depigrapha in Light of the Dead Sea Scrolls (STDJ, 31; Leiden, Boston and Cologne:
1999), pp. 91–119 (here, p. 101 and n. 25).
160 Exhortation (91:1–10, 18–19)

relational offspring as well. Nonetheless, the larger familial setting is con-


ditioned by 81:6, 10: the patriarch is told by three angels that he will be
given one year to teach his “children” (v. 6) and after this goes to be with his
family for this purpose (v. 10). The disjuncture between the emphasis on
Enoch’s communication with his family (81:6, 10), on the one hand, and on
the communication with his son Methuselah (81:5; 82:1), on the other, sug-
gests that the material in 81:6–10 may be a secondary insertion created to
reconcile the use of a full testamentary form at 91:1–2 with the belief that
Enoch himself had not actually died.
The testamentary idiom, in which the recipients are called “my
children”, is continued in 91:3, 18–19; 93:2; 94:1.
1c. For a voice is calling me and a spirit is being poured out upon me.
The source of the forthcoming instruction by Enoch is distinct when com-
pared with introductions of the other Enochic visions. Whereas Enoch is
transported to be shown visions by intermediary angels (14:8; 17:1–2, 4;
21:1, 7; 22:1; 23:1; 24:1; 26:1; 28:1; 29:1; 32:2–3; 33:1; 34:1; 35:1; 36:1),
simply shown a vision by an angel or angels (1:2; 72:1–81:10), functions as
a visionary (83:1; 85:1; 90:42), or is shown by angels heavenly tablets and
books to recount (82:1–20; 93:1; 108:1), here he takes on the function of a
prophet who reveals instruction as it is being given to him.
While the beckoning voice may be understood as a motif that prepares
for a vision (cf. Rev. 4:1), the reference to “a spirit being poured out” upon
the patriarch makes sense against the backdrop of prophetic tradition. Of
course, the language of God’s spirit being poured out is associated with the
disclosure of divine revelation in Joel 2:28–29 (cf. Acts 2:16–21). Moreover,
the Isaianic servant speaks of the spirit poured upon him to declare the
words of God to “the poor” and to proclaim liberty to the oppressed (61:1;
cf. 59:21), while Micah is filled with the spirit of God in order to condemn
Israel for her wrongdoing (Mic. 3:8). The double function of the spirit in
conveying at once both words of comfort and of rebuke anticipates the al-
ternating message to the righteous and the wicked in the main body of the
Epistle (94:6–104:8).
1d. In order that I may show you everything which will happen to you
for ever. The content of the revelation given to Enoch is described in terms
of what is going to happen (Rev. 1:19; 4:1; cf. 1:1; 22:6).323 This statement,

323 Nickelsburg (1 Enoch 1, p. 411) notes that the statement does not say anything about
ethical instruction. While this point is true in itself, it does not imply that ethics is
somehow less of a concern for the author, as clearly indicated by the ethical opposi-
tion between righteousness and iniquity in 91:2–9.
1 Enoch 91:1–2 161

as originally conceived, would have had the brief description of judgement


in verses 5–9 in view. This focus on eschatology, however, may have pro-
vided a warrant to split up the Apocalypse of Weeks, placing the last several
eras of the Apocalypse of Weeks (i.e. everything deemed to have been in the
real future) into verses 11–17.
The patriarch’s claim to reveal “everything … for ever” in relation to the
course of events in history is found elsewhere (81:2; 90:42; and 93:2). This
may imply that, as far as the Enoch authors were concerned, revelation
from a source other than Enoch is unnecessary or superfluous.324 As the
subject of the action, Enoch is here presented as the mediator of revelation.
Though this function is more often assigned to angels in the Enochic tradi-
tions, Enoch’s prominence does accord with his position in the Book
of Giants (4Q530 2 ii + 6–7 i + 8–12, ll. 14 and 22; 4Q203 8.4 – “the scribe
of interpretation”; 4Q530 7 ii 10 – the interpreter of the giants’ dream
visions).
2. And after this, Methuselah went and called all his brothers to himself
and gathered his relatives. As noted above, Methuselah’s role in the scene
differs from the one described in 1 Enoch 82:1–3, where Methuselah is
given a book by Enoch to pass on to his children. Also by contrast, in 83:1
Methuselah is the only one to whom Enoch’s dream vision is communicated
(cf. also 106:4, 7–8; 107:3). Less clear is the final vision in chapter 108, in
which “another book” of Enoch, though directed at both Methuselah and
his offspring (v. 1325), may nevertheless be understood as addressed in the
first instance to Methuselah alone.
However, Enoch’s permission in 81:5–6 to teach both Methuselah and
Enoch’s other children during a period of one year may be connected with
this text. Here, as in 81:5–6, the narrative assigns Methuselah first place in
organising the rest of the family to listen to Enoch’s instruction. Since
91:3–10, 18–19 expands on the twin themes of reward for the righteous
and punishment for the wicked which is more concisely laid out in 81:7–9,
it is likely that the author’s narrative framework has been shaped by 81:5–6.

324 A similar claim is attributed to the Teacher of Righteousness in the Dead Sea Habakkuk
Pesher by the Yahad: he was inspired to interpret “all the words of his servants the
prophets” (1QpHab 8–9) and “all the mysteries of the words of his servants the
prophets” (vii 4–5). The more sectarian identity of the Qumran community emerges
from the conviction that such comprehensive authority has happened in the recent
past rather than in remote times (as in the case of Enoch).
325 In the later, Christianised, Test. Isaac, the Sahidic Copt. version similarly has the
patriarch address his written testament to “Jacob his son and all those who were ga-
thered together with him”; cf. Stinespring, “The Testament of Isaac”, p. 905.
162 Exhortation (91:1–10, 18–19)

91:3–4: Opening Ethical Exhortation

(3) And he spoke to all his children (about) righteousness and said, “Listen,
children of Enoch, to every word of your father, and pay close attention to
my mouth, for I am testifying and speaking concerning you, beloved ones:
Love uprightness and walk in it. (4) And neither draw near to uprightness
with a double heart, nor associate with those who have a double heart; in-
stead, walk in righteousness, my children, and it will lead you in the ways of
goodness, and righteousness will be your companion.”

Textual Notes
Ethiopic: (3) “And he spoke to all” (wa-tanaggaromu (masc. plur. obj. suff.)
la-kwellomu) – Abb 55 reads only wa-tanaggaromu (“and he spoke to”). //
“His children (about) righteousness” (weludu sedqa; EMML 2080, Ryl,
Curzon 56, BM 484, Garrett Ms.) – Abb 35 and EMML 1768, as a second-
ary reading, has “his children (about) his righteousness” (weludu sedqo);
BM 491 and Abb 55 read only sedqo (“his righteousness”); Tana 9, Berl,
BM 485, Munich 30 and Westenholz Ms. emend to weluda sedq (“the
children of righteousness”). // “Children of Enoch” (daqiqa henok; Tana 9,
Berl, BM 485, BM 491, Abb 35326, EMML 1768) – EMML 2080 reads
“children” (daqiq, initially daqiqa before the erasure of henok); Ryl and
Eth. II mss. read daqiqeya (“my children”). // “Every” (kwello) – Tana 9,
BM 491 and EMML 1768 read kwellkemu (“all of you”), reinforcing the
address rather than functioning as an adjective, in the accusative, for nagara
“word”); omitted in Abb 55. // “Close” (ret‘, lit. “uprightness”) –
EMML 1768 and Ryl read ba-ret‘ (lit. “in uprightness”); Abb 35 reads ba-
retu‘ (lit. “uprightly”); and EMML 6281 has la-ret‘a. // “To the voice of …
beloved ones” – omitted in Abb 55. // “To my mouth” (’afuya; Tana 9,
EMML 2080, Berl, BM 491, Abb 35, EMML 1768, EMML 6281) –
BM 485, Ryl and Eth. II mss. read qala ’afuya (“to the voice of my mouth”).
// “I am testifying” (’asame‘; Tana 9, EMML 1768, EMML 6281, Ryl,
Eth. II mss.) – BM 485 has ’asem‘a; EMML 2080 and Berl have ’asem‘. //
“Beloved ones” (fequran; Tana 9, EMML 2080, Berl, BM 485, BM 491,
Abb 35, EMML 1768, EMML 6281) – Ryl and Eth. II mss. read “my be-
loved ones” (fequraneya). // “Love” (’afqerwo, masc. sing. obj. suff.; Tana 9,
Berl, BM 491, EMML 6281) – EMML 2080, Abb 35, EMML 1768, Ryl
and Eth. II mss read with fem. sing. obj. suff. ’afqerwa. // “Uprightness and

326 Corrected by another scribe to “my children” (daqiqeya; cf. Knibb, The Ethiopic
Book of Enoch, vol. 1, p. 341).
1 Enoch 91:3–4 163

walk in it” (la-ret‘ wa-bati horu; EMML 2080, Berl, Abb 35, EMML 1768,
Ryl and Eth. II mss. huru) – BM 491 reads la-’amlakena ba-ret‘ wa-botu
huru (“our Lord in uprightness, and walk in it”); Tana 9 reads la-ret‘ bahtu
[read batu] (“uprightness, in it”, taking both dir. obj. and pron. suff. as
masc. and omitting horu); EMML 6281 has la-ret‘ wa-botu horu (“upright-
ness and in it walk”). (4) “And neither draw near” (wa-’i-teqrabu) – Abb 55
reads wa-’i-teqarrabu (“and you shall not draw near”); Curzon 56 has wa-
’i-qerabu. // “With a double heart” (first occurrence; ba-kel’e leb) – Frank-
furt Ms. reads ba-kel’e lebbu (“with his double heart”). // “Nor associate
with those who have a double heart” (wa-’i-texbaru mesla ’ella ba-kal’e
leb) – omitted in BM 485, Abb 55, EMML 1768 and EMML 6281, perhaps
due to homoioteleuton with “double heart” (kale’ leb … kale’ leb). //
“Those who have a double heart” (’ella ba-kele’ leb) – Tana 9 and
EMML 6281 read ’ella yahawweru ba-kale’ leb (“those who walk with a
double heart”); EMML 2080 has ’ella ba-kale’ leb (“who have a double
heart”). // “But walk” (’alla horu; Berl, BM 485, BM 491, Abb 351,
Abb 55) – Tana 9, EMML 2080, BM 491, Abb 352, Ryl and Eth. II mss.
have ’alla huru. // “In righteousness, my children” (ba-sedq daqiqeya) –
BM 485 leaves out the address and reads ba-ret‘ wa-ba-sedq (“in upright-
ness and in righteousness”; Abb 55 inverts the word order with daqiqeya
ba-sedq (“my children, in righteousness”); BM 492 reads only ba-sedqeya
(“in my righteousness”); Munich 30 reads only ba-ret‘ (“in uprightness”);
EMML 6281 reads za-’enbala sedq (“except for righteousness”). // “And it
will lead you … in righteousness” – omitted in Abb 55. // “And it will lead
you” (wa-ye’eti temarrehkemu) – Vatican 71 has wa-ye’eti temarrehani
(“and it will lead me”); BM 484 reads wa-ye’eti tamahharkemu (“and it
will have mercy on you”). // “In the ways of goodness” (ba-fenawat xerat;
Berl xeran, Abb 35, EMML 1768 fenawata, EMML 6281 xeran, Ryl, most
Eth. II mss.) – BM 485 reads wa-ba-fenawata xeruta (“and into good
ways”); BM 491 has ba-fenwat xerut (“in good ways”); EMML 2080 has
ba-fenawat xerut; Bodl 5 has ba-fenwat xerat; Abb 35 has ba-fenawat
xeret; and Tana 9 has ba-fenot xerat. // “Will be your” (yekawwen (masc.)
lakemu) – Berl spells the verb with an obj. suff. (yekawwenakemu); Abb 55
has wa-tekawwen (fem.) lakemu.

General Comment
The opening words of the patriarch strike up several themes that will be
prominent, both in the remainder of the Exhortation, the Apocalypse of
Weeks and the introduction of the Epistle to follow: (a) The address to the
patriarch’s “children” in verses 3a and 4b not only extends the testamentary
setting inaugurated in 91:1–2, but also anticipates the same at the 93:2 and
164 Exhortation (91:1–10, 18–19)

94:1. (b) The motif of loving righteousness is reiterated in the Epistle at


94:1. (c) The notion of walking on upright ways is developed in 91:18–19
and elaborated further in 94:1–5.
The overlaps between verses 3–4 and the introduction of the Epistle are
conspicuous, especially as 94:1–5 incorporates instruction about good and
bad ways within a (fictive) prediction of what will happen in the future
(94:2, 5). In the present and the following passage (91:5–10), the two-ways
instruction and prediction of future wickedness are presented separately,
leaving the impression that the more compact 94:1–5 may lie behind the
Exhortation. The direction of influence, however, is hard to establish since,
subsequent to the addition of the Exhortation to the tradition, it may have
contributed to the wording of the Epistle (see introduction above to Exhor-
tation, section B.2).
The mention in verse 4a of the “double heart” (see Note) is unique
within the early Enoch tradition, though frequently attested in contempor-
ary Jewish writings.

Notes
3a. And he spoke to all his children (about) righteousness. Although in
verse 2 the patriarch describes his discourse as being about his progeny’s
future, the text initially summarises the content of his words as having
to do with ethics. This is not a contradiction, as in the testamentary
form events in the future (whether through the course of this age or escha-
tological) happen in direct consequence of behaviour (Tob. 14:4–11a; Jos.
23:6–16).327 The emphasis on righteousness as subject reveals the moti-
vation behind the patriarch’s speech. Through the words of Enoch, the
author uses the testamentary form to exhort his contemporaries to proper
behaviour.
3b. And said, “Listen, children of Enoch, to every word of your father,
and pay close attention to my mouth. The reading “children of Enoch”, as
the lectio difficilior, is preferable to “children” or “my children”. Though
the narrative in verses 1–2 refers specifically to those of physical descent
from Enoch, the address to “all his children” in verse 3a implies a specifi-
cally Jewish audience. This raises the question regarding the degree to
which the text assumes that Enoch is a Jew or at least a progenitor of those
who are truly Jewish.

327 On the juxtaposition of ethics and eschatology, especially in the Testaments of the
Twelve Patriarchs, see the still useful discussion by Eckhard von Nordheim, Die
Lehre der Alten (2 vols.; ALGHJ, 13; Leiden: Brill, 1980, 1985), 1.232–37.
1 Enoch 91:3–4 165

“Listen … pay close attention”. For a similar double verb of enjoinment,


see Genesis 49:2 and Proverbs 4:1; in the Enochic tradition, it also occurs in
the Book of Dreams at 85:2 (“hear my words and incline your ear”). The
text adopts a form employed in prayers of petition (e.g. Ps. 61:1; 81:8; 4 Ez.
8:19, 24; 9:30), prophetic admonitions (e.g. Isa. 34:1) and wisdom instruc-
tion (esp. Prov. 7:24; Job 13:6; Sir. 16:24; 31:22; Wis. 6:11; 4Q185 1–2 i 3;
CD A i 1 par. 4Q268 1.9; 4Q298 1–2 i 2; 3–4 ii 4).328 It is also widely at-
tested at the beginning of instructions in testamentary literature (cf. Gen.
49:2 and esp. T. Reub. 1:5; T. Iss. 1:1; T. Zeb. 1:2; T. Dan 1:2; T. Naph. 1:5;
T. Jos. 1:2). The importance attached to the instruction is not only under-
scored by this formula, but also by the expression for “close” (ba-ret‘),
literally “with uprightness”, which demands that the instruction be heeded.
A similar summons by Enoch to his children to adhere closely to his words
is found in 2 Enoch 53:4.
3c. For I am testifying and speaking concerning you, beloved ones. The
song of Moses opens with the words, “Incline your ear, O heavens, that
I may speak; may the earth hear the words of my mouth” (Deut. 32:1).
The song is a “testimony” (Deut. 31:19, 21, 26; 32:46) that recalls Israel’s
salvation history, upholding God’s persistent faithfulness towards Israel
in contrast to Israel’s unfaithfulness. If there is an allusion here, the lan-
guage of “giving witness” or “testifying” (’asme’a) may be modelling
Enoch on the figure of Moses. Thus the text may have been composed with
the prior inclusion of history recounted in the Apocalypse of Weeks within
the Enoch corpus in mind.
The expression “beloved ones” is not sectarian and refers to God’s cov-
enant people Israel as a whole (esp. Deut. 7:7; 10:15; Ps. 60:5; 108:6; Jer.
12:7; Hos. 3:1; Jdt. 9:4; Sir. 24:11; Pr. Azar. 1:12 [referring to Abraham]; 3
Macc. 6:11; cf. Rom. 11:28), not more narrowly to Enoch’s spiritual heirs.
The instruction implies a hope that God’s purpose for Israel as a whole will
be fulfilled. At the same time, it is assumed that Israel will be defined as
Enoch’s spiritual heirs, that is, those who correctly understand the revealed
instruction that follows.
3d. Love uprightness and walk in it. This statement is paralleled by the
following exhortation to “walk in righteousness” (v. 4) which is also elab-
orated by two further clauses.329 Precisely the same phrase is found in 94:1

328 Cf. further Deut. 32:1; Prov. 4:1, 10; 5:7; 7:24; 23:19, 22; Job 13:6; 33:2 and 34:16
(ironically, in Elihu’s discourse to Job); Jer. 17:23; and Sir. 6:23.
329 Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 411 rightly sees here “two parallel tristichs based on the
two-ways teaching.”
166 Exhortation (91:1–10, 18–19)

in a context that similarly contrasts “the ways of righteousness (sedq)” with


“the ways of iniquity (‘amada)”. The expression does not occur in the
Hebrew Bible, where instead it is God who is said to “love righteousness”
(Ps. 33:5; 45:7), while the enemy is one who loves “evil more than good”
(Ps. 52:3–4; cf. 97:10; Prov. 8:13). The implicit ethical contrast is expressed
in Amos 5:15: “hate evil and love good” (inverted in Mic. 3:2- the wicked
are those who “hate the good and love the evil”; cf. Rom. 12:9). Somewhat
closer is Job’s insistence on his own blamelessness when he asserts, “I hold
fast to my righteousness” (Job 27:6). However, a more explicit parallel is
found in the opening of Wisdom of Solomon (1:1) which calls upon “the
rulers of the earth” to “love righteousness ( γαπσατε δικαιοσ-νην) and
to “seek him with sincerity of heart (#ν 4πλτητι καρδα«)”.330 Much as
in Wisdom, the verb “love” denotes here a single-minded devotion and
reflects a development from the command to love God in the Shema‘ (Deut.
6:5; cf. 10:12; 30:6; Ps. 116:1) – closely bound up with doing God’s com-
mandments (Exod. 20:6; Deut. 5:20; 7:9; Jos. 22:5; Neh. 1:5) – to the love
of the Name, the Torah, the commandments, testimonies, and salvation
of God (Ps. 40:16; 69:36; 70:4; 119:97, 113, 127, 159, 163, 165, 167;
Isa. 56:6). In addition, the opening instruction may have its background in
the exhortation to love wisdom in Proverbs 4:6. For a similar exhortation,
see Testament of Levi 3:9.
Ultimately, the exhortation is to be interpreted within the framework of
ethical opposition between good and bad, righteousness and iniquity and
so forth. Though the ancient readers of the Enochic tradition are nowhere
enjoined to “hate” iniquity or evil, they are warned to stay away from it
(cf. General Comment to 94:1–5), as the exhortations to goodness and
righteousness in 91:3–4 imply.
4a. And neither draw near to uprightness with a double heart, nor as-
sociate with those who have a double heart. The expression “double heart”
(kale’ leb) derives ultimately from the Hebrew or Aramaic blv bl (Eth. leb
wa-leb). The expression does not stem from an understanding of human
nature that is concerned with inner moral conflict, as found for example
in the Two Spirits Treatise (1QS iii 13 – iv 26, between truth and iniquity)
and Philo (Gig. 56; Her. 183; cf. also Her. 167, 232; Congr. 26; Quaest.
Exod. 2.33). Rather, one who is “double-hearted” is usually regarded as a
sinner.

330 Wis. links righteousness with wisdom (σοφα), and refers favourably to those who
“love her” (6:12, 17; cf. also Sir. 40:20).
1 Enoch 91:3–4 167

Several examples illustrate this. According to Sirach 1:28, though it is


possible for the righteous and sinner alike to participate in the religious
community, God is not to be approached “in a double heart” (#ν καρδG
δισσB). In effect, having a “double heart” is tantamount to having a “heart
full of deceit” (1:30; cf. Ps. 12:2 – “they utter lies to each other; with flat-
tering lips and a double heart they speak”).331 Significantly, the Testament
of Qahat from Cave 4 (4Q542) contrasts a “double heart” (blv bl ) from
“walking in uprightness … with a pure heart, and with a righteous and
good spirit” (frg. 1 i 9–10). Here again there is no hint of conflict or opposi-
tion within the human being.332 A further reference among the Thanksgiv-
ing Hymns (1QHa xii) suggests much the same: the hymnist calumniates
“mediators of deceit” (xii 8, hymr yjylm ) for many things; “they, being clan-
destine, devise plots of Belial, and they search you [God] with a double
heart (blv bl ) and are not established in your truth” (xii 14–15).
Whereas the above texts apply the expression categorically (with Sirach
being a possible exception), the exhortational context of the present text
may allow for a distinction between the first and second ways it is used in
the lemma. While the second instance, which brands “those of double
heart” as a group, does not allow for ambiguity that conceives of them
doing good as well as bad, the first occurence holds open the possibility that
anyone, perhaps even the righteous, might be subject to the “double heart”,
and so warns them away. This point cannot, in the end, be pressed too far.
The remaining emphasis on “two ways” throughout chapters 91–105 dis-
tinguishes the righteous and sinners or oppressors as social groups to such a
degree that it is more likely that the righteous are simply being warned away
from getting into a state of dividedness (i.e. sinfulness) to begin with.333
Whether behind the expression lies the Greek καρδα or χψξ – or
bl (leb) or >pn (nepheš) – the image of inner dividedness, similar to Ben

331 For the author of Ben Sira, there is an analogy between double-heartedness and the
state of being “double-tongued” (δγλσσο«), which is equivalent to being a
“sinner” (Sir. 6:1 – H 4μαρτλ«; cf. also 5:14; 28:9, 13). Jas. 1:8 and 4:8 similarly
refer to one who is “double-minded” (δχψξο«).
332 Similarly, the condition of those who are “two-faced” (διπρσποι) is picked up
later in T. Asher 3–6, where it is assigned to “sinners” or those who commit evil deeds
(4:1–2; cf. also 3:1,2; 4:3; 6:2), while single-mindedness (or rather, “single-faced-
ness” – μονοπρσποι; cf. 4:1; 6:1) is the essential character of the righteous who,
though able to do both good and evil, are nevertheless to be considered good as a
whole. See further T. Zeb. 9:4 and the much later Apoc. Elij. 1:25–27.
333 A similar use of the motif of “double-mindedness” occurs within the “two ways” in-
struction in Did. 1:1–6:3; see esp. 2:4 and 4:4.
168 Exhortation (91:1–10, 18–19)

Sira 1:28, is contrasted with a state of being implied by the exhortation fol-
lowing the Shema‘ in Deuteronomy 6:5: “You shall love the Lord your God
with your whole heart (MT – bl lkb ; LXX – καρδα), and with all your
soul (MT – >pn lkb ; LXX – χψξ), and with all your strength.” Double-
heartedness, then, is a disposition that cannot even begin to pursue right-
eousness, which in the following verse (v. 5) is presented as its opposite.
4b. Instead, walk in righteousness, my children, and it will lead you in
the ways of goodness, and righteousness will be your companion. On walk-
ing in righteousness, see the comment in verse 3d above. The phrase is given
in the form of an exhortation; the notion itself occurs, with additional terms
for “ways” and “paths”, in Proverbs 7:20 (“I walk in the way of righteous-
ness, along the paths of justice”) and 1Baruch 4:13 (idolaters “did not walk
in the way of God’s commandments, and they did not treat the paths of in-
struction by his righteousness”). A close parallel may be found in the Book
of Tobit, in which the protagonist claims that “I walked in the ways of truth
and in righteousness all the days of my life” (1:3, Cod. Vat.334) and, in a tes-
tamentary setting, exhorts his son, “Do not walk in the ways of wicked-
ness” (4:5, μ πορεψ$B« τα?« Hδο?« τ0« δικα« – both Sin. and Alex.-Vat.
recensions). On the “ways of righteousness/truth”, which presupposes the
metaphor of walking, see also 91:18–19; 92:3; 94:1; 99:10 (Eth.); and
104:13, where there is usually a contrast with the “ways of wickedness/in-
iquity”; cf. further 1QS iv 2, 17 (par. 4Q259 iii 4); 4Q184 1.16; 4Q416 2 iii
14 (par. 4Q418 9+9a–c.15); 4Q420 1a ii – 1b, 5; 4QLevia ar [4Q213a] 4.5;
4QLevib ar [4Q214] 1.12; 4QpsDana ar [4Q243] 7.3; and 4Q525 2–3 ii
1–2.335 The notions of righteousness and faithfulness are intertwined. The
contrast between the way of righteousness and the way of iniquity presup-
poses that the human being is free to choose between them (such as in Deut.
30:15; Josh. 24:15). For a discussion of the “two ways” in 1 Enoch 91–105,
see the General Comment under 94:1–5.
The personification of righteousness as a companion may have its back-
ground in Proverbs 7:4 (“say to wisdom, ‘You are my sister,’ and call insight

334 While Cod. Alex. reads, “the ways of truth and of righteousness”, and the longer
recension in Cod. Sin. may use the plur. form of “righteousness” perhaps to draw
a specific association with almsgiving: “I walked in the ways of truth and in
just deeds (δικαιοσ-ναι«) all the days of my life, and I gave many alms to my
brothers …”.
335 Among the biblical texts, see Prov. 16:31; 17:23; Job 24:13; Ps. 119:30; Wis. 5:6.
For a close parallel in an eschatological context, see Aramaic Apocalypse in 4Q246
ii 5 (“and all his [the Son of God/of the Most High or the people of God] paths will
be in truth”, uv>qb htxrX lkv ).
1 Enoch 91:5–10 169

your relative [Lat. Vulg. amicam tuam] with “your friend”), being discourse
about wisdom applied here to “righteousness” (cf. Prov. 4:6–13; Sir.
51:13–20 cp. 11Q5 xxi 11–17; 4Q185 1–2 ii 8–15; 4Q525 2–3 ii 1–8). If
the writer of the Exhortation already knows the Epistle, then associating
with righteousness as if it is a companion contrasts with those who have
made themselves “companions” of sinners (97:4; cf. 99:10), and echoes the
admonition that the righteous not associate with sinners but rather become
companions of angels (Eth. 104:6b).

91:5–10: The Eschatological Destruction of Iniquity

(5) “For I know that the state of wrongdoing will grow strong upon the
earth, and a great punishment will be carried out on the earth; and all in-
iquity will come to an end, (and) it will be cut off at its roots, and its entire
structure will disappear. (6) And iniquity shall recur once more and be car-
ried out on the earth. And every work of iniquity and of wrongdoing and
of ungodliness will prevail a second time. (7) And when sin and iniquity
and blasphemy and wrongdoing in all deeds increase, and (when) apostasy,
and ungodliness and uncleanness increase, there will be a great punishment
from heaven upon all these. And the holy Lord will go forth in wrath
and punishment in order to execute judgement upon the earth. (8) In those
days wrongdoing will be cut off from its roots – and the roots of iniquity
together with deceit – and they will be destroyed from under heaven. (9)
And every idol of the peoples will be given up; with fire a tower will be
burned, and they will remove them from the whole earth. And they will be
thrown into the fiery judgment and be destroyed through wrath and
through a powerful judgement which will be for ever. (10) And the right-
eous one will be raised from his sleep, and wisdom will be raised up and be
given to them.”

Textual Notes
Ethiopic: (5) “I know” (’a’mer) – BM 485 reads ’a’mero (“I know it”). //
“The state of wrongdoing” (hellawe gef‘) – Ryl spells xellawe gef‘; Berl and
EMML 6281 have hellawe gefu‘ (“wrong state”). // “Will grow strong”
(yesanne‘, masc.) – Berl has fem. tesanne‘; EMML 6281 has the adj. senu‘
(“strong”). // “Upon” (diba) – BM 485 reads ba-diba. // “Will be carried
out” (wa-tetfessam, fem.; Tana 9, BM 485, BM 491, EMML 6281) –
EMML 2080, Ryl and Eth. II mss. read with masc. wa-yetfessam; Berl has
wa-tefessem (defective?); Abb 35, Abb 55 and EMML 1768 have tetfassam.
// “A great punishment” (maqšaft ‘abiy; EMML 6281) – EMML 2080 has
170 Exhortation (91:1–10, 18–19)

maqšaft ‘abay (with masc. vb.); EMML 1768 has maqšaft ‘abay (with fem.
vb.); BM 485 has maqsafta ‘abiya, the subj. of vb. taken as a fem. in the acc.
case; Tana 9 and BM 491 have maqšaft ‘abiy, the subj. of vb. as fem. in
nom. case (BM 491 adds botu, “in it”); Berl has maqšafta ‘abiya, acc. case
with fem. vb.; Abb 35 maqšaft ‘abiy, nom. case with fem. vb. // “And all in-
iquity will come to an end, (and) it will be cut off at its roots” (wa-tetfessam
kwella ‘amada wa-tetgazzam ’em-šerawiha; BM 485, Ryl, most Eth. II
mss.) – Tana 9 and Abb 35 have wa-tetfassam kwellu (Tana 9: tetfassam wa-
kwellu) ’em-šerawiha tetgazzam (“and all of it shall be carried out; it shall be
cut off from its roots”); EMML 2080 reads tetgazzam ’em-šerawiha (“it
will be cut off from its roots”) and, to be inserted before this phrase, has
wa-tetfessam kwellu ‘amada wa- (“and all iniquity will come to an end
and”) in the margin; 3 mss. read masc. yetfessam; BM 491 alternatively
reads wa-tetfessam kwellu ‘amada wa-em-šerawiha tetgazzam (“and all in-
iquity will be carried out, and from its roots it will be cut off”); Berl, which
includes a different verbal form, reads wa-tefessem maqšaft kwello ’em-še-
rawiha tetgazzam (“and punishment shall be carried out (against) all of it; it
shall be cut off from its roots”); EMML 1768 reads wa-tetfassam kwellu
’em-šerawiha tetgazzam (“and everything will be put to an end; from its
roots it will be cut off”); EMML 6281 reads wa-tetfassam wa-kwello ’em-
šerawiha tetgazzam (“and will be put to an end; and everything will be cut
off from its roots”); and Abb 55 reads only wa-’e<m>-šerawiha tetgazzam
(“from its roots it will be cut off”). // “Its … structure” (hensa, Berl,
BM 485, BM 491, Abb 35, EMML 1768, EMML 6281, Ryl, Eth. II mss.) –
EMML 2080 reads hensa (“structure”); Tana 9 spells hassa. (6) “And …
shall recur once more” (wa-tedaggem ka‘eba) – Curzon 56 reads wa-’i-ted-
aggem ka‘eba (“and … will not recur again”); Abb 55 reads only wa-tedag-
gem (“and … will recur”). // “And be carried out” (wa-tetfassam; Tana 9,
BM 491, Abb 35, EMML 1768) – EMML 2080, Berl, BM 485, Ryl and
Eth. II mss. spell wa-tetfessam; Berl spells wa-tetfessem; EMML 6281 has
tefassem; omitted in Abb 55. // “Every” (kwellu; EMML 2080, BM 485,
BM 491, most Eth II mss.) – Tana 9, Berl, Abb 35, EMML 1768 and
EMML 6281 read acc. kwello; Ryl, Ull, Bodl 4, Curzon 55, BM 486
and BM 492 the fem. kwella; omitted in Abb 55. // “And … will prevail”
(wa-tet’axxaz; EMML 2080, BM 491, Ryl, Eth. II mss.) – Berl, Abb 35,
EMML 1768 and EMML 6281 have te’exxez; BM 485 reads te’ezzaz (“will
be commanded”); omitted in Abb 55. // “Work of” (gebra) – EMML 6281
has gebr; omitted in Tana 9 and Abb 55. // “Of wrongdoing” (gef‘; Tana 9,
EMML 2080, Berl, BM 485, BM 491, Abb 35, Abb 55, EMML 1768,
EMML 6281 gef‘a) – Ryl and Eth. II mss. gebra gef‘ (“work of wrong-
doing”). // “A second time” (ka‘ebta; BM 485, Ryl, Eth. II mss.) – BM 491
1 Enoch 91:5–10 171

reads with the conj. wa-ka‘ebt (“and a second time”); EMML 6281 has wa-
ka‘ebat; Tana 9, Abb 35, EMML 6281 have ba-ka‘ebat; Berl has ba-
ka‘ebata; and EMML 2080 ba-ka‘ebt; omitted in Abb 55. (7) “And when”
(wa-’emmani; Tana 9, EMML 2080, Berl, BM 485, EMML 6281, Bodl 5,
Ryl1, Ull, most Eth. II mss.) – Ryl2 omits conj. ’emmani (“when”); BM 491
has wa-’emmenehu (“and afterwards”); Abb 35 reads wa-’em-ze (“and
after this”); EMML 1768 reads wa-’emuna (“and truly”); omitted in
Abb 55. // “Sin and iniquity” (xati’at wa-‘amada; Tana 9, EMML 2080,
BM 485, BM 491, Abb 35, EMML 1768, EMML 6281) – Berl has xati’a<t>
wa-‘amada; Abb 55 reads only xati’at (“sin”); Ryl and Eth. II mss. trans-
pose to ‘amada wa-xati’at (“iniquity and sin”). // “And wrongdoing” (wa-
gef‘) – omitted in Abb 55. // “In all deeds” (ba-kwellu tagbar; BM 485,
BM 491, Abb 35, Abb55, EMML 6281) – EMML 1768 reads ba-kwellu
gebr (“in every deed”); EMML 2080 and Berl read wa-kwellu tegbar (“and
all deeds”); Tana 9 reads ba-kwellu tetgabbar (“in everything will be done”);
Ryl and Eth. II mss. read wa-kwellu gebr (“and every deed”). // “And … in-
crease” (wa-telheq) – omitted in Ull and Westenholz Ms.; Curzon 55 has
wa-tahalleq. // “Apostasy” (‘elwat) – EMML 6281 reads ’abasa (“ungodli-
ness”). // “And ungodliness” (wa-’abasa) – EMML 6281 reads xati’at
(“sin”); omitted in BM 485 and Abb 55. // “And uncleanness” (wa-rekwes) –
omitted in Abb 55. // “And there will be a great punishment” (wa-maqšaft
‘abay tekawwen, fem.; EMML 2080, BM 491, Abb 35, EMML 1768) –
Berl and EMML 6281 read wa-maqšaft ‘abiy tekawwen; Tana 9 has wa-
maqšaft ‘abiya tekawwen; Abb 55 reads wa-maqšaft yemasse’ (“and pun-
ishment will come”); Ryl and most Eth. II mss. read without the conj.
maqšaft ‘abiy yekawwen (“there will be a great punishment”, taking the
subj. as masc.). // “From heaven” (’em-samay) – omitted in BM 485. // “All
these” (’ellu kwellomu) – Abb 55 reads only kwellomu (“all of them”); Bodl 4
reads ’ellu kwellomu wa-yewasse’ ’egzi’ qedus ba-ma‘at wa-maqšaft ‘abiy
yekawwen ’em-samay diba ’ellu kwellomu (“all these, and the holy Lord
will go forth in anger, and there will be great punishment from heaven upon
all these”). // “And … will go forth” (wa-yewasse’; Tana 9, EMML 2080,
BM 485, Abb 55, EMML 6281, Ryl, Eth. II mss.) – Berl, BM 491, Abb 35
and EMML 1768 omit the conj. yewasse’ (“will go forth”); BM 485 reads. //
“The holy Lord” (’egzi’ qedus) – BM reads only qedus (“the Holy One”);
Abb 55 reads only ’egzi’ (“the Lord”); BM 485 reads ’egzi’ qedus diba medr
(“the holy Lord (will come) upon the earth”). // “In wrath and punishment”
(ba-ma‘at wa-maqšaft; Tana 9, EMML 2080, Ryl2, Bodl 4, Curzon 56, BM
Add. 24185, BM 484, BM 490, BM Add. 24990, BM 499, Garrett Ms.,
Westenholz Ms.) – BM 485, Berl, Abb 35, EMML 1768, EMML 6281,
Bodl 5, Ryl1, Ull, and other Eth II mss. have ba-ma‘at wa-ba-maqšaft (“in
172 Exhortation (91:1–10, 18–19)

wrath and in punishment”); BM 491 reads la-ma‘at wa-la-maqšaft (“for


wrath and for punishment”, a confusion of Φ ba- for Γ la-; Abb 55 reads
only maqšaft (“punishment”). // “To execute” (yegbar) – BM 485 reads yet-
gabbar (“might be executed”). // “Upon” (diba) – Tana 9 reads ba-diba. (8)
“In those days” (ba-’emantu mawa‘el) – Tana 9 and Ull add a conj. wa-ba-
’emantu mawa‘el (“and in those days”). // “Will be cut off” (tetgazzam) –
BM 499 and Westenholz Ms. have tegazzem. // “From its roots” (’emmena
’ašrawiha; Tana 9 ’asrabiha, EMML 2080, BM 491, EMML 1768,
EMML 6281) – Berl, BM 485, Abb 35, Bodl 5, Frankfurt Ms., Curzon 55,
BM 486, BM Add. 24990, BM 499, Vatican 71, Garrett Ms. and Westen-
holz Ms. have ’emmena šerawiha; Bodl 4, Curzon 56, BM Add. 24185,
BM 484, BM 490, BM 492, Abb 99 and Abb 197 have ’em-šerawiha; and
Ull reads the sing. ’em-šerwa (“from its root”). // “And the roots of iniquity
together with deceit, and they will be destroyed from under heaven” (wa-
’asrawa ‘amada mesla g wehlut wa-yethag walu ’em-tahta samay; Tana 9,
EMML 20801, Ryl1, BM 491, Abb 35, EMML 1768 yethag wal,
EMML 6281, Ull ’em-tehta, most Eth. II mss.) – BM 485 and Berl, omitting
the verb, have wa-‘amada (Berl without wa-) mesla g wahlut ’em-tahta
samay (“and the roots of iniquity together with deceit from under heaven”);
EMML 20802, Ryl2, Bodl 5, Frankfurt Ms., BM Add. 24185 and BM 484
read without the second wa-: wa-’asrawa ‘amada mesla g wehlut yethag walu
’em-tahta samay (“and the roots of iniquity together with deceit, they will
be destroyed from under heaven”). (9) “And every idols of the peoples will
be given up” – omitted in Abb 55. // “With fire” (ba-’essat) – EMML 6281
has wa-bo ’essat (“and in (it) fire”). // “A tower” (maxfada; Tana 9, Berl,
EMML 1768) – EMML 2080, BM 491, Abb 35, EMML 6281, Ryl, most
Eth. II mss. read nom. maxfad; BM 485 reads wa-maxfada (“and a tower”);
BM 499 and Westenholz Ms. have wa-maxfada. // “And they shall remove
them” (wa-yawadd’ewwomu; Tana 9, Berl without wa-, EMML 1768, Ryl,
most Eth. II mss.) – Abb 35 spells wa-yawa‘ddewwomu; BM 492 reads wa-
yawadd‘ewwa (“and they will remove it”); EMML 2080 and EMML 6281
read sing. wa-yadde’omu (“and he will remove them”); omitted in Abb 55.
// “From the whole earth” (’em-kwellu medr) – Ull reads ’em-medr; omitted
in Abb 55. // “And they will be thrown” (wa-yetgaddafu) – Tana 9, BM 485
and EMML 6281 read sing. wa-yetgaddaf (“and it will be thrown”). //
“And be destroyed” (wa-yethag walu; EMML 2080, Berl, BM 485, BM 491,
Abb 35, Abb 55, EMML 1768, Ryl, Eth. II mss.) – Tana 9 and EMML 6281
read sing. wa-yethag wal; BM 485 has wa-yehag wel. // “Through wrath”
(ba-ma‘at) – BM 486 has ’em-ma‘at; EMML 6281 reads ba-ma‘at xayl
(“through powerful wrath”). // “And … judgement” (wa-kwennane; Berl,
BM 485, BM 491) – Tana 9, EMML 2080, EMML 1768, Ryl and Eth. II
1 Enoch 91:5–10 173

mss. have wa-ba-kwennane (“and … through judgement”); EMML 6281


reads without the conj. ba-kwennane (“through judgement”). // “Powerful”
(xayal) – Tana 9 and Berl spell xayl; omitted in EMML 6281 (but see
above). (10) “Righteous one” (sadeq) – BM 491 and EMML 6281 read
sedq (“righteousness”). // “From his sleep” (’em-newamu; Tana 9, Berl,
BM 485, BM 491, Vatican 71) – EMML 2080, Abb 35, Abb 55,
EMML 1768, EMML 6281, Ryl, most Eth. II mss. read ’em-newam (“from
sleep”). // “Wisdom” (tebab) – Berl spells with the accusative tebaba; Tana 9
reads tabib (“the wise one”). // “And be given” (wa-yetwahhab) – Tana 9
has wa-yetwahhab; Berl and BM 491 read without the conj. yetwahhab
(“be given”).

Aramaic: (10) – 4QEng 1 ii 13–17 yields the following text:

13 ] .[336 ]. [
14 . . . . ]klhv h [ . . . ]h and go[337
15 . . . . hx ]b>t hl [v and] to him pra[ise
16 . . ]m Xi ]rX xvntv and [the] ear[th] will rest [from
17 . . . ] ]ymli yrd lk all generations of eternit[y

Since lines 18–26 correspond to 91:18–92:2 and nothing in lines 13–17 cor-
responds in sequence to anything in 91:11–17, it is possible that the text be-
longs to a text for verse 10 that is now at least partly lost. On the basis of
the sequence of content in lines 15–17 (praise to God, the earth’s reprieve,
and eternal generations), Nickelsburg suggests that the Aramaic text was
an allusion to 1 Enoch 10:21–22 and, hence, may have referred to the “con-
version” of humanity. In addition, he suggests that the Aramaic to verse
11 anticipates similar imagery used for week 9 of the Apocalypse of Weeks
(91:14) which comes later in the manuscript (4QEng 1 iv 19–22).338 The
suggestion is plausible: line 16 is consistent with a description of eschato-
logical bliss, while line 17 may provide a fitting ending to the section (just
before vv. 18–19). Moreover, the restoration in line 15 (“praise”) seems
likely on the basis of the grouping of the letters b>t .

336 Milik (The Books of Enoch, p. 260), retroverting from Eth., restores: ]vryty ] X [yuy>qv
]vhtn> ]m (“and th]e [righteous ones shall be awakened from their sleep”).
337 If the he belongs to a fem. ptc. of the verb ,vq (“to rise”; e.g. restored as h [mXq ),
then “wisdom” (hmkvx , fem.), as in the Eth., would be a compatible subject for the
verb.
338 Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 413.
174 Exhortation (91:1–10, 18–19)

The notion of an originally longer text in the Aramaic behind verse 10


fits with what Milik has inferred regarding the length of the text in 4QEng
1. If the manuscript may be said to have begun with 91:1, then columns i–ii
13 contain ample room for a text which, as a whole, would have been
longer than what is preserved in the Ethiopic tradition.339 In view of the
Ethiopic textual tradition, it is possible, then, that some of the original was
either lost or slightly adumbrated. When the text underwent change is not
clear, through a Hebrew or Aramaic background for the expression “double
heart” behind verse 4 is probable. In the end, we are not in a position to
ascertain how much the Ethiopic text retains from the earliest form of the
tradition.

General Comment
The description of judgement is given in two phases, both of which are pre-
ceded by an upsurge of evil. The first phase, which is very brief (v. 5), has
Enoch, the fictive author, predict a great punishment that will rid the earth
of “all iniquity” (cf. Birth of Noah at 106:15, 17b, 18b; 107:1). As in the
Birth of Noah, this is probably a reference to the Great Flood. The second,
more elaborate description (vv. 6–10), is concerned with eschatological
events and, just as verse 5, borrows language known elsewhere in the early
Enochic tradition (esp. from the Book of Watchers and the Apocalypse
of Weeks). One expression that characterises verses 5–10 is the reference to
divine intervention against evil as “the great punishment” (vv. 5, 7; cf.
106:17b)340 which, together with the phrase “double heart” in verse 4, may
reflect the language of an author who was different from writers behind the
Apocalypse of Weeks and the Epistle.

Notes
5a. For I know that the state of wrongdoing will grow strong upon the
earth. From the fictive perspective of Enoch, the prediction of wrongdoing
may be concerned with events just prior to the Great Flood. The author very
briefly describes the prelude to divine judgement as a time of increasing evil
(yesanne‘, “will grow strong”); as seen in verses 6b–7a, this resurgence
(using the verb telehheq, “will increase”) will be repeated. The term gef‘,
translated here as “wrongdoing”, may also refer to violence or oppression
(i.e. by the wicked against the righteous). The gathering momentum of
wickedness just before it is held to account is a widely attested pattern in

339 Milik, The Books of Enoch, pp. 246–47.


340 The phrase “great judgement” (Xbr Xnyd ) occurs also in 1 En. 22:3 and 91:15.
1 Enoch 91:5–10 175

apocalyptic literature that, ideologically, is intertwined with and elaborates


the ante-diluvian story. It is implied in the description of week seven in the
Apocalypse of Weeks (93:10), and illustrated in the Epistle (100:1–3;
104:6a). Within the early Enochic tradition, this expectation that things
will get worse is closely bound up with language deriving from and related
to the great deluge, as apparent from Book of Watchers at 1 Enoch 10. In-
deed eschatological events are modelled on the prediluvian period which
has witnessed the growth of cataclysmic evil through the fall of the angels
(1 En. 6:1–8:3; 86:1–6; 106:14–15; 107:1; Book of Giants at 1Q23
9+14+15, 4Q531 1–3, and 4Q206a 1-5–7) before divine intervention takes
effect (9:1–10:22; 87:1–88:3; 106:16–17).
The Ethiopic for “state of wrongdoing” (hallawe gef‘) is synonymous
with the “structure” (hensa) in the last part of the verse. Thus that which
grows strong before the flood is destroyed when divine punishment takes
effect (v. 5b).
5b. And a great punishment will be carried out on the earth; and all in-
iquity will come to an end, (and) it will be cut off at its roots, and (its) entire
structure will disappear. The term for “iniquity” (‘amada) is synonymous
with the wrongdoing (gef‘) just mentioned (v. 5a). Divine punishment (ex-
pressed through a passivum divinum, “will be carried out”) is unleashed
against this evil, not in heaven, but upon the earth itself (cf. also vv. 7 and
9), where the wrongdoing has taken place (see also vv. 7b, 9). Unlike the
Apocalypse of Weeks (91:15), no judgement is envisaged that takes place in
“heaven” itself.
It could be argued that this language is simply eschatological and there-
fore makes more explicit the location that is assumed in the Apocalypse of
Weeks during the first part of the eighth week (91:12; cf. also the judgement
scenes on earth in Anim. Apoc. at 90:17–19), when at an earlier stage of di-
vine judgement, the righteous wield a sword against the wicked. Along
these lines, one could find another allusion to the Apocalypse if the meta-
phor of being cut at the roots here derives from what happens in the seventh
week (91:11). In terms of language, it is possible, then, that the metaphor,
found also in verse 8, is modelled on the Apocalypse. Hence, like the begin-
ning of the verse, the language could be related to eschatology.
Again, however, if the perspective of the fictive author (Enoch) is kept in
view, the earthly location of the coming punishment is concerned with the
Flood. This is consistent with the visions given in the Book of Giants to the
giants of divine judgement on earth (cf. 4Q530 2 ii + 6–7 i + 8–12, ll. 8–11
and 16–20). Of course, the metaphor of being cut at the roots is likewise
applied within the seventh week of the Apocalypse (91:11), upon which it
and the image in 91:8 are modelled. Nevertheless, an echo of Enoch’s
176 Exhortation (91:1–10, 18–19)

future, yet prediluvian, events is suggested if the cutting off iniquity’s roots
builds on the plant metaphor for wickedness implied in its sprouting during
the second week of the Apocalypse (93:4).341 As such, vegetation imagery of
wickedness find its counterpart in the more explicit references to the elect
and the righteous as plants in 93:5, 10 (cf. also comments on 93:2a; 91:11;
cf. 4Q530 2 ii + 6–7 i + 8–12 and 6Q8 3).342
Thus, as a whole, the language of this verse reflects that of the Apoca-
lypse: the punishment on the earth (cf. 91:12); iniquity coming to an end
and being cut off (91:11–12); and the structure of iniquity passing away
(Aram. 91:11; cf. 91:14, 16). The metaphorical “structure”, which draws
on the image of a building, may have influenced or is reminiscent of the
Epistle at 99:12–13. The distinct emphasis of this text, however, is its con-
cern with the more immediate future of Enoch and his progeny at the time
of the Great Flood, that is, not with the eschatological era per se.
6. And iniquity shall recur once more and be carried out on the earth.
And every work of iniquity and of wrongdoing and of ungodliness will pre-
vail a second time. The second rise of evil on the earth refers now to the real
author’s eschatological future, which is understood as a repeat, though on a
grander and even more comprehensive scale, of sin and its punishment that
took place before and during the Great Flood (as e.g. in 1 En. 10; cf. also
Mt. 24:37 par. Lk. 17:26). The increasing intensity of language used to de-
scribe the eschatological period compares with the beginning of the seventh
week in the Apocalypse (93:9).343 To underscore the cosmic scale of escha-
tological evil, a further term ’abasa (“sin, ungodliness”) is employed along-
side the words already used in verse 5 (cf. comment on v. 7a below).
Beyond any direct borrowing from the prediluvian period in Genesis, the
eschatological expectation of worsening conditions on earth develops inde-
pendently and into a topos on its own. In particular cataclysmic events are
more elaborately portrayed – variously, and by no means uniformly – in
terms of warfare, natural disasters, and suffering for the righteous – in
mostly later texts (e.g. 1QM i 11–12; 4 Ez. 5:1–13; 6:24; 9:1–4; 13:30–31;
2 Bar. 70:2–8; Sib. Or. 2.154–173; 6 Ez. 15:13–20; cf. Mt. 24:7–12, 21;
Mk. 13:19; Lk. 21:23; 2 Tim. 3:1–4; Rev. 6:2–8; 8:7–9:21; 16:1–21; and
m.Sota 9:15). See already, however, the Epistle at 99:3–5 and 100:1–3.

341 See Dan. 7:8; Sir. 10:15.


342 In Musar le-Mevin there is a more developed form, by contrasting “the roots of under-
standing” (hnyb y>rv> ; cf. 4Q418 55.9) with “the root(s) or iniquity/evil” (hlvi y>rv> ,
4Q416 2 iii 14 par. 4Q418 9+9a-c.15; ir >r> ; cf. 4Q418 243.3).
343 So, correctly, Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 413.
1 Enoch 91:5–10 177

7a. And when sin and iniquity and blasphemy and wrongdoing in all
deeds increase, and (when) apostasy, and ungodliness and uncleanness in-
crease, there will be a great punishment from heaven upon all these.
Whereas in verse 5 the initial strengthening of evil is described by the use of
two terms (gef‘ and ’amada), the addition of further expressions in verse 6
(’abasa) and especially here (xati’at “sin”; serfat “blasphemy”; rekwes “un-
cleanness, impurity”; ‘elwat “apostasy, perversity, transgression”) rein-
forces how comprehensive in destroying evil the coming judgement will be.
The expression “every deed” refers generally to all evil activity (cf. 1 En.
10:16; 91:14b). This complete annihilation is further emphasized by the last
phrase “upon all these”.
The expression “great punishment” (maqšaft ‘abay) parallels and builds
upon the first one mentioned in verse 5. Except for Birth of Noah 106:17b,
these are the only two instances of the expression throughout 1 Enoch (cf.
General Comment above), and thus may be assigned to the author’s particu-
lar idiom.
For the notion of evil increasing during the eschatological period, see the
Note to verse 6 and the General Comment to 106:19–107:1.
7b. And the holy Lord will go forth in wrath and punishment in order
to execute judgement upon the earth. Though in verse 7a the punishment
is already mentioned, the author now formulates the commencement of di-
vine judgement by drawing on language from the opening to the Book of
Watchers (1 En. 1:3–9; cf. Jude 14–15) which also describes judgement on
the earth. A comparison with the more detailed account in 1 Enoch 1 is thus
instructive. According to chapter 1, there are two references to the coming
of God: (1) In verses 3–4, “the Holy and Great One” is expected to proceed
“from his dwelling” onto Sinai from where judgement is to be executed.344
This judgement will come upon all, including the righteous who will go un-
harmed (vv. 7–8). (2) In verse 9 divine judgement is described the advent of
God “with myriads of holy ones to execute judgement on them … and to
contend against all flesh”; here the judgement focuses exclusively on the
“wicked” (rasi‘an) and “sinners” (xate’an). The author of the Exhortation
implies, as 1:3–4, that the coming judgement will proceed from heaven (i.e.
not from Sinai) and, like 1:9, initially focuses the description on what will
happen to the wicked while a reference to the righteous is not picked up
until verse 10.

344 The imagery of location in 1 En. 1:3–4, in turn, draws upon Deut. 33:2 where, how-
ever, God’s activity proceeds from Mt. Sinai; in having God proceed from a heavenly
dwelling, the writer of ch. 1 comes closer to Jer. 25:30; Mic. 1:3; and Test. Mos. 10:3, 7.
178 Exhortation (91:1–10, 18–19)

The author makes no attempt to locate specifically where the judgement


itself will take place on earth, that is, whether Mt. Sinai (as 1 En. 1:4) or
somewhere in the Land. However, the latter may be implied, if there is any
connection between this text and the description of judgement in the Animal
Apocalypse and Apocalypse of Weeks. The Animal Apocalypse assumes a
location of earthly judgement in the Land in its reference to two advents of
“the Lord of the sheep”. One has occurred during the writer’s recent past in
an allusion to the success of Judas Maccabeus’ military success against the
Seleucids (90:15), and another is anticipated in the author’s future when
God will come with “a staff of anger” to strike the earth and set up the final
judgement (90:18–28). Furthermore, in the Apocalypse of Weeks the pun-
ishment and reward during the eighth week assumes that this activity will
be centred around Jerusalem (cf. General Comment on 91:12–13).
8. In those days wrongdoing will be cut off from its roots – and the roots
of iniquity together with deceit – and they will be destroyed from under
heaven. The destruction of evil by its roots resumes and elaborates the
imagery already used for the first judgement in verse 5b (cf. Deut. 29:18).
The pairing of “iniquity” (’amada – which may also mean “violence”) and
“deceit” (g wehlut) is paralleled in the Apocalypse of Weeks in relation
to prediluvian evil of the second week (93:4, Aram. Xcmxv Xrq> , “deceit
and violence”) and the evil punished during the seventh week (91:11,
Xrq> dbiv Xcmx y>X , “the foundations of violence and the work of
deceit”).
“From under heaven” (’em-tahta samay) goes back to the Hebrew or
Aramaic expression (,ym>h txtm or Xym> tvxtm , respectively). In the He-
brew Bible the phrase is always used in the context of divine punishment;
“from under heaven”, either everything is destroyed through the flood
(Gen. 6:17) or the name or memory of a transgressor is blotted out (Exod.
17:14; Deut. 7:24; 9:14; 25:19; 29:20; 2 Kgs. 14:27). The expression thus
denotes, in terms of space, the complete removal of evil from the cosmos
that God has created.
9a. And every idol of the peoples will be given up; with fire a tower will
be burned, and they will remove them from the whole earth. The destruc-
tion of idols may be a development from the context of Deuteron-
omy 29:20,345 according to which the Israelites who worship the idols of the
nations will be subject to a curse that results in the erasure of their memory;
see also Ezekiel 6:6. The eschatological destruction of idols and other gods
is more widely attested. In particular, several passages come into consider-

345 Cf. Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 413.


1 Enoch 91:5–10 179

ation: (a) Testament of Moses 10:7, which also has resonances with verse
7b: “For God Most High will surge forth, the Eternal One alone. In full
view will he come to work vengeance on the nations. Yea, all their idols will
he destroy.”346 (b) According to Tobit 14:6, when the Gentiles turn to wor-
ship God, they will throw away all their idols (cf. esp. Cod. Sin. – φσοψ-
σιν π(ν)τε« τ εJδλα ατ&ν το3« πλαν&ντα« χεψδ τν πλνησιν
ατ&ν “the all shall discard their idols which have falsely deceived (them)
into their error”; 4Q198 1.13 – ]hy ]lylX lk ]vmryv [, “]and they shall throw
away all [their] idol[s”). (c) Wisdom of Solomon anticipates a similar judge-
ment: “There will be a visitation (#πισκοπ) upon the idols of the gentiles”
(14:11) (d) In the Epistle at 99:7–9 the author pronounces that those who
have fashioned idols will be instantly destroyed. Though the text of 91:9a
does not make clear how the idols will be “given up”, the passive verb
(cf. also 98:9) suggests activity on the part of God (as in Test. Moses).347
In the Book of Watchers, there is a close association between the fallen
angels and idolatry; the angels, who are blamed for leading people astray
“to sacrifice to demons as gods”, will be judged “on the great judgement
day” (19:1); for a fuller discussion, see the Note to 99:7a.
The term maxfad (“tower”) occurs frequently in the Animal Apoca-
lypse, where it refers either to the “heavenly Temple” (87:3) or to the
Temple in Jerusalem (89:50, 54, 56, 66–67, 73). Here it probably refers to
the Jerusalem Temple. The mention of its burning as divine judgement,
then, would reflect an even more negative evaluation of the Second Temple
than is implied in the Apocalypse of Weeks (cf. Note on 91:13a). In this
respect, the author’s view comes closer to that of the Animal Apocalypse:
the First Temple was razed (89:66) after the sheep “left the house of the
Lord of the sheep and his tower” (89:54) and God “abandoned their house
and their tower” (89:56). The author of the Animal Apocalypse does not
specifically narrate what will happen to the Second Temple, even though he
regarded it as polluted (89:73).348 However, a conflagration analogous to
what happened to the First Temple would be a logical outcome, which the
Exhortation now takes up. There is no reason, therefore, to derive from the
text a vaticinium ex eventu, that is, a fictive prophecy that, for example,
refers to the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE. If this particular

346 Translation by Priest, “Testament of Moses”, p. 932.


347 The is little hint here, therefore, of gentile conversion, as supposed by Nickelsburg,
1 Enoch 1, p. 413, who appeals to an analogy with the Apoc. of Weeks (91:14) and
supposes that here the Gentiles are thought to be surrendering their idols.
348 Concerning the “tower” in the Anim. Apoc. see Tiller, A Commentary on the Animal
Apocalypse, pp. 312–14 and 321–22.
180 Exhortation (91:1–10, 18–19)

part of v. 9 goes back to the Second Temple period, it expresses the author’s
genuine anticipation of divine punishment against the Temple and its estab-
lishment.349
Neither the subject nor the object of the phrase “they shall remove
them” are clear. The clause is perhaps resumptive of the foregoing refer-
ences to idols and the tower, so that “from the whole earth” reinforces their
complete annihilation.
9b. And they will be thrown into the fiery judgment and be destroyed
through wrath and through a powerful judgement which will be for ever.
For the verb “to be thrown”, see the Aramaic to 91:14. Unlike Nickelsburg,
who in analogy with 91:14 suggests that the deeds of the Gentiles (i.e. idols)
will be destroyed,350 Knibb thinks that the judgement will be directed at the
“the nations” themselves who are associated with the idols (v. 9a; see the
Note to 92:5).351 To the extent that the latter is the case, the Exhortation’s
vision of the end is in conflict with the global conversion to righteousness
anticipated for the ninth week in Animal Apocalypse at 91:14.
10. And the righteous one will be raised from his sleep, and wisdom will
be raised up and be given to them. Concerning the difficult text-critical
problem surrounding the fragmentary Aramaic text and Ethiopic recen-
sions, see the Textual Notes above. For all the Exhortation’s focus on sin
and wickedness among eschatological events (91:5–9), the text as it stands
in the Ethiopic finally refers to the righteous. In the Ethiopic, such a men-
tion has acquired the function of providing, as Nickelsburg correctly main-
tains, “a necessary prerequisite for the action described in vv 11–17 now
displaced to this location.”352 If Ethiopic verse 10 may be taken as followed
by 91:18–19 (whether on the level of Hebrew/Aramaic or Ethiopic), the
reintroduction of the righteous prepares for the author’s return to the patri-
arch’s exhortational form of address.
The Ethiopic of this verse, together with 91:3–4 and 91:18, bears an af-
finity with 92:3: “the righteous one will arise from sleep; he will rise and
walk in the ways of righteousness …”. Concerning the question of whether

349 Tiller draws attention to Barn. 16:5: “And it shall be in the last days (#π #σξτν
τ&ν 9μερ&ν) that the Lord shall hand over the sheep of the pasture and the sheepfold
and their tower (τ/ν π-ργον ατ&ν) to destruction”. The Enochic echoes of the
tradition picked up in Barn. may not only be to the language of 89:56 but also to the
ultimate outcome predicted for the Second Temple in 91:9.
350 Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 413.
351 Knibb, The Ethiopic Book of Enoch, vol. 2.218.
352 Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 415.
1 Enoch 91:18–19 181

or not the expression “to rise from sleep” refers to some kind of resurrec-
tion, see the Note to 92:3a.
Nickelsburg’s view that the Aramaic fragments originally contained
“a reference to the sons of men becoming righteous” is based on purported
parallels in the Book of Watchers (10:21) and Apocalypse of Weeks
(91:14), and has no real support from the fragmentary Aramaic itself.
Nonetheless, that “the] ear[th] will rest” in the Aramaic (4QEng 1 ii 16)
does contrast with the several elements in the previous verses which have to
do with the effects and removal of wickedness on the earth (vv. 5b, 6, 7b,
9a). Without necessarily implying a conversion of humanity, this would fit
in well with an accompanying reference, not extant in the Aramaic, to a re-
ward for the righteous.

91:18–19: Closing Exhortation

(18) “And now then, my children, I am saying to you and I am showing you
the ways of righteousness and the ways of wrongdoing; and I will show
(them) to you again so that you may know what will happen. (19) And now
listen to me, my children, and walk in the ways of righteousness, and do not
walk in the ways of wrongdoing for all those who walk in the ways of in-
iquity will be destroyed for ever.”

Textual Notes
Ethiopic: (18) “My children, I am saying to you” (’ebellakemu daqiqeya) –
Bodl 5, Frankfurt Ms. and Vatican 71 transpose to daqiqeya ’ebellakemu;
EMML 6281 has ’ebellakemu ’a-daqiqeya. // “And I am showing you” (wa-
’are’yakemu) – Ull spells wa-’are’yakemu; BM 485 has wa-’are’yakemu
kwello (i.e. “I am showing you all (the ways of)”); EMML 6281 reads
wa-’are’yomu (“and I am showing them”); omitted in Abb 55. // “The ways
of righteousness and the ways of wrongdoing” (fenawata sedq wa-fenawata
gef‘eni) – BM 491 and Bodl 4 spell fenwata sedq wa-fenwata gef‘eni; Ull has
fenota sedqeni wa-fenawa gef‘eni; Tana 9 has fenota sedqa wa-fenawata
gef‘eni; EMML 6281 reads fenawata sedqu wa-fenawita gef‘ (“the ways of
his righteousness and the ways of wrongdoing”). // “And I will show … to
you” (wa-’ar’aykukemu; Tana 9, EMML 2080, BM 485, Berl, Abb 35,
EMML 1768, EMML 6281) – BM 491, Ryl and Eth. II mss. have wa-
’ar’eyakemu; Ull has wa-’are’yakemu; omitted in Abb 55. // “Again”
(ka‘eba) – omitted in Abb 55. (19) “Listen to me” (sem‘uni; Tana 9,
EMML 2080, Berl, Abb 35, Abb 55, EMML 1768, EMML 6281) – Ryl and
Eth. II mss. have sem‘u (“listen”); omitted in BM 485; and BM 491 reads
182 Exhortation (91:1–10, 18–19)

sem‘uni sem‘uni wa-sem‘uni (“listen to me, listen to me, and listen to


me”). // “And walk” (wa-horu) – BM 485 reads horu (“walk”); Abb 35, Ryl
and Eth. II mss. spell wa-huru. // “In the ways of (righteousness)” (ba-fena-
wata; Berl, BM 485, Abb 35, Abb 55, EMML 1768, EMML 6281, most
Eth. II mss.) – Tana 9, Bodl 5, Ryl, Ull, Frankfurt Ms., BM 486, Vatican 71
and Garrett Ms. have ba-fenota; EMML 2080 has fenawata; BM 491 and
Westenholz Ms. have ba-fenwata. // “In the ways of (wrongdoing)” (ba-fe-
nota; Tana 9, EMML 2080, Bodl 5, Frankfurt Ms., Vatican 71) – BM 491,
BM Add. 24990, Garrett Ms. and Westenholz Ms. have ba-fenwata;
Abb 35, EMML 1768, EMML 6281, Ryl and most Eth. II mss. have ba-fe-
nawata; Ull has ba-fenawa. // “In the ways of (iniquity)” (ba-fenawata;
Tana 9, Berl, BM 485, EMML 1768) – EMML 2080, EMML 6281,
Ryl, Eth. II mss. have ba-fenota; BM 491, Abb 35 and Abb 55 have ba-
fenotata. // “All those … for ever” (la-‘alam kwellomu; EMML 2080, Berl,
EMML 1768, EMML 6281, Ryl, most Eth. II mss.) – Tana 9 and BM 485
read la-‘alam wa-kwellomu (“for ever and all those”); while Ull and BM 484
transpose to kwellomu la-‘alam (“all those for ever”); Curzon 56 reads only
la-‘alam (“for ever”).

Aramaic: (18) X ]u>q txrX (4QEng 1 ii 18), “ways of truth”.353 //


]hm ]vidt yd (4QEng 1 ii 19), “in order that you may know what[”.
(19) ]. ]vhb „hml Xu>vq (4QEng 1 ii 20), “truth to walk in them”. //
]XndbX [vcl dbX hl [vi (4QEng 1 ii 21354), “the one who walks in the ways
of iniqu]ity perishes to the full point of destruction”.355 While the Aramaic
is close to the Ethiopic for verse 18, the additional phrase “to walk in them
(the paths)” in verse 19 suggests a slightly longer text in 4QEng.

Notes
18. And now then, my children, I am saying to you and I am showing you
the ways of righteousness and the ways of wrongdoing; and I shall show
(them) to you again so that you may know what will happen. On the ex-
pression “the ways of righteousness”, see the Note to 91:4b. Having pre-
dicted in general terms the judgement of wickedness in two stages (vv. 5–6

353 On the rendering of Xu>q as “righteousness”, see Note on 93:2 and n. 145.
354 I follow here the reconstruction of Beyer, Die aramäischen Texte vom Toten Meer,
p. 246. Milik (The Books of Enoch, p. 260) reads yd l [i in place of hl [vi and re-
stores and translates, “because [every one who has walked in the way of wickedness]
will be utterly destroyed.”
355 Beyer, who restores from the Eth., reads: Xml ]i ]dbX [vcl dbX , “kommt zu einem
Ende des ewigen Verderbens” (Die aramäischen Texte vom Toten Meer, p. 247).
1 Enoch 91:18–19 183

and 7–9, respectively), the patriarch takes up the testamentary address to


his children with which the Exhortation has begun (vv. 3–4). The emphatic
and comprehensive terms used, especially in verses 7–9, ultimately function
as a warning that those who are of the elect actually remain that way.
The declarations by the fictive speaker seem proleptic in character;
righteousness and wrongdoing have been referred to throughout this sec-
tion, but have not been “shown” or described with any particularity. This
bolsters the view that the writer composed the Exhortation with other Eno-
chic pieces in view; and, in referring to opposing paths of conduct, the text
92:3; 94:1 (note the similarity presupposes the opening words); 94:2; and
104:13. Thus the ethical contrasts implied in 91:3–10 are here articulated
more fully. In this sense the text may be said to be “open” or incomplete, as
the author expects another writing to carry out the function that he claims
for himself here.
Together with the text’s return to the form of admonition, the contrast
between the ways of righteousness and wrongdoing leaves readers with
a decision to choose between one and the other. In addition, readers are led
to expect to be further addressed about the two ways righteousness and
wrongdoing. This expectation is reinforced by the writer’s promise to in-
form his readers “again”, this time so they may know what will happen.
Despite its location in the Ethiopic tradition after the conclusion to the
Apocalypse of Weeks, the reference to the future in this verse may, when
composed originally, have not only have anticipated (and therefore presup-
posed) the Epistle but also the Apocalypse of Weeks as well (as is the case in
4QEn9).
19a. And now listen to me, my children, and walk in the ways of right-
eousness, and do not walk in the ways of wrongdoing. The announcement
of verse 18 is followed by an exhortation formulated in antithetical paral-
lels which will be more fully developed in the Epistle at 94:1–5 (esp.
vv. 1–3). Behind the patriarch’s opening summons to listen to him (cf. Note
to 91:3b) is the real author’s appeal to readers to heed his own message.
If he knew the Epistle the writer would have been sympathetic, if not fully
aligned, with an Enochic community that did not think that its sapiential in-
terpretation of faithfulness to God was being heeded by more socially and
economically privileged Jews (cf. 98:9; 99:10; and 103:10).
Concerning the instruction of the “two ways”, which implies that hu-
mans have the capacity to decide between righteous and wrongful behav-
iour, see Note on 91:4a. Concerning the “way(s) of righteousness” or
“uprightness”, see 91:4b; 92:3; 94:1–5; 99:10; and 105:2.
19b. For all those who walk in the ways of iniquity will be destroyed for
ever. For the same emphasis, see 94:1b. The Aramaic text (“perishes to the
184 Exhortation (91:1–10, 18–19)

full point of destruction[”) is even more emphatic. For the closest immedi-
ate parallel, see 94:1 and 3. The thought is an eschatological embellishment
of Psalm 1:6, especially in view of the contrast between the two ways: “For
the Lord knows the way of the righteous, but the way of the wicked will
perish” (dbX ,yi>r „rdv ,yqydj „rd idvy hvhy yk ; cf. also Ps. 146:9). In
the Epistle such eschatological destruction is promised to a catalogue of
those engaged in wickedness: the wealthy (94:7; 98:3), doers of iniquity
(95:6), “sinners” (96:1; 97:1), “fools” (98:9), liars (98:16), the godless and
deceivers (99:1), and idolaters (99:9).
The Text Traditions 185

Chapter Four

Part Three
The Epistle Of Enoch
(92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

Introduction

A. The Text Traditions

A.1. The Ethiopic. As in all major sections of 1 Enoch, the Epistle is only
fully preserved in Ethiopic. While the two Ethiopic recensions (on which see
section C in the volume Introduction) are preserved in manuscripts much
later than the Greek Chester Beatty Papyrus, they provide an invaluable
textual witness since the latter contains a slightly shorter text marred by a
number of errors (see below).

A.2. The Greek. Photographs of the Chester Beatty-Michigan Papyrus were


first published by Frederic G. Kenyon in 1941,356 though before this in
1937 Campbell Bonner had presented the text, drawing in part on Kenyon’s
observations.357 In 1976 Nickelsburg published a major study of the papy-
rus,358 comparing it with manuscript readings of the Ethiopic I and II recen-
sions. His conclusion that the best readings are to be found where the Greek
overlaps with Abb 35, on the one hand, and the Eth. II recension, on the
other, has yet to be tested precisely in relation to the several Ethiopic I
manuscripts that have since come to light.359 In addition, as is illustrated

356 Kenyon, The Chester Beatty Biblical Papyri, fasc. 8: Enoch and Melito (London:
E. Walker, 1941).
357 Bonner, The Last Chapters of Enoch in Greek, pp. 26–27.
358 Nickelsburg, “Enoch 97–104: A Study of the Greek and Ethiopic Texts”, pp. 90–156.
359 Black’s critique of Nickelsburg on this point (see The Book of Enoch, pp. 424–27)
rightly attempted to focus once again on the importance of the other Eth. I evidence,
but too quickly sidelined the main point of Nickelsburg’s findings and, in any case,
was not in a position at that time to consider four further Eth. I mss. (see volume
Introduction, section C.2.a).
186 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

below, the text, which seems to have been hastily copied, is riddled with er-
rors and can only be used with caution.
The Chester Beatty-Michigan Papyrus preserves most of the Epistle, be-
ginning with the middle of 97:6 and running through 104:13 (after which
it also contains all of the Birth of Noah in 106:1–107:3). The text after 97:6
is continuous in the Epistle, though there are several small exceptions of
missing text:

(a) where the bottom of the papyrus sheets are torn – 98:3b–4a;
98:11b–12a; 99:5b–6; most of 100:1; 100:10; 101:7b; 103:1;
103:13b; 104:9b;
(b) the manuscript did not contain 105:1–2 (see below); and
(c) a number of (mostly) smaller omissions through homoioteleuton –
98:15; 99:4, 8, 9, 16; 100:11, 13; 102:7, 8; 103:3–4, 5–6, 12, 15;
104:1, 12.

In addition, in numerous instances the text requires some emendation in


order to make sense. Good examples of this may be found in 97:8, 10; 98:3,
13, 14; 99:13, 16; 100:3, 5, 9; 101:2; 102:1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9; 103:2; 103:7, 9,
11, 12, 15; 104:1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 11, 13.
The complete absence of 105:1–2 seemed initially to support Charles’
earlier suspicion that the Ethiopic version of this passage, which inter alia
refers to “my Son” in a possibly messianic sense,360 did not originally be-
long to the Epistle.361 However, the fragmentary text corresponding to these
verses in 4QEnc (esp. to 105:2) leaves no doubt about its genuineness,362
and it is possible that the omission of this material in the papyrus may be
another instance of homoioteleuton (see Textual Notes to 105:1–2).
Finally, it is the colophon of the Chester Beatty papyrus from which the
designation for chapters 91 (or 92) through 105 has derived its name as
“The Epistle of Enoch”; see section B.1 below.

360 Charles, The Book of Enoch, pp. 262–63.


361 So Bonner, The Last Chapters of Enoch in Greek, pp. 4 and 76.
362 See esp. Milik, “Problèmes de la literature hénochique à la lumière des fragments
araméens de Qumrân”, HTR 64 (1971), p. 365 and idem, The Books of Enoch,
pp. 206–207. Cf. further Knibb, The Ethiopic Book of Enoch, 2.243; Uhlig, Henoch-
buch, p. 742; Black, The Book of Enoch, p. 318; Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 535;
Olson, Enoch, p. 262.
The Text Traditions 187

A.3. The Aramaic. Only the frame of the Epistle is preserved among the
Dead Sea Scrolls, and in very fragmentary form. We have to do with two
manuscripts which, respectively, preserve portions from the beginning and
the end: 4QEng (mid-1st cent. BCE – 92:1–5, 93:11–14 and 94:1–2) and
4QEnc (last third of 1st cent. BCE – 104:13–105:2). This evidence has fur-
nished Nickelsburg and Boccaccini with reason to suppose that the frame of
the Epistle (92:1–5; 93:11–94:5; 104:10–105:2) was composed before the
main body of the Epistle (94:6–104:9), which was an independent work
inserted into the frame at a later time.363 This hypothesis is largely driven by
arguments related to the Epistle’s literary unity (see section B.3.a below).
The absence of the main body of the Epistle among the Dead Sea frag-
ments should not be overinterpreted. On the one hand, it is impossible to
say what 4QEnc did not originally contain (e.g. 94:6–104:9, in addition to
Book of Watchers, Animal Apocalypse, end of Epistle, and Birth of
Noah364). On the other hand, 4QEng does not easily lend itself to the as-
sumption that the text preserved from chapters 92–94 comes near the end
of the manuscript, that is, just before 104:10–105:2 or even 104:10–107:3
(if, as in 4QEnc, the ms. included Birth of Noah). There is no evidence on
the big fragment c of 4QEng which suggests that the manuscript at this
point was rolled in small turns; it seems more likely, instead, that the frag-
ment occurred within a section of the manuscript in which the turns were
wide enough to have included a text of sufficient length to cover the main
body of the Epistle.
As observed in the Introduction to the Apocalypse of Weeks (section
A.2), the text of the Apocalypse occurs between 92:5 and 94:1 of the
Epistle. Together with the addition of material from the Exhortation to
connect the Epistle with earlier Enoch materials, this insertion left the text
behind 92:1–5 in a new position (i.e. after the Exhortation, before the
Apocalypse) and hence vulnerable to editorial adjustments.
For a more general discussion of the Aramaic fragments in relation
to their larger Enochic context, see Section B of the Introduction to this vol-
ume.

363 Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, pp. 426–27 (and pp. 32, 34) and n. 6; Gabriele Boccaccini,
Beyond the Essene Hypothesis. The Parting of the Ways between Qumran and
Essene Judaism (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998), pp. 104–113.
364 On the problem of whether or not the ms. included the Bk. of Giants, see discussion
in the volume Introduction B.2.e (and n. 31).
188 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

B. Introduction to the Epistle


(Title, Outline, Literary Analysis of Formulae, and Use of Tradition)

B.1. Title. The original title for this work remains uncertain. The evidence
for the designation “Epistle” is as follows: In the Chester Beatty-Michigan
Papyrus, which covers 97:6 until 107:3, the title “Epistle of Enoch” (Επισ-
τολη Ενξ) is appended as a two-line subscription on page xii of the
manuscript. However, in addition to (presumably) chapters 92–105, this
title would have covered Birth of Noah (106:1–107:3) as well. The desig-
nation of “Epistle” is, in turn, suggested by references within the text itself.
In 100:6c, the Greek text maintains that after the eschatological judgement,
the children of the earth will understand “these words of this epistle” (το3«
λγοψ« το-τοψ« τ0« #πιστολ0« τα-τη«; Eth. kwello nagara zati mashaf,
“the entire discourse of this book”). It is initially unclear whether the ex-
pression “all the words” refers (a) to the “Epistle” itself (i.e. ch.’s 92–105),
(b) to a larger collection of Enochic writings (e.g. to the content of ch.’s
91–107), or perhaps even (c) to 1 Enoch as a whole.365 However, since the
extent of the Chester Beatty Michigan Papyrus does not appear to have in-
cluded anything beyond or outside the chapters 92–107, the manuscript
itself limits the options to either (a) or (b) or, if (b), more than the Epistle but
not necessarily everything else that was copied with it (e.g. Birth of Noah).
Finally, the opening words of the work in 92:1 a refer, according to Ethiopic
BM 485, to “the book (mashaf) which was written by Enoch”. If, as in
100:6, the term underlying “book” is the same, then at least in the Greek
tradition the title of “Epistle” might be assumed. However, most Ethiopic
manuscripts read “that which was written by Enoch” (see Textual Notes to
92:1). Moreover, it would be precarious to posit an underlying Aramaic
term hrgX (“letter, epistle”), unless a different Aramaic recension behind the
Ethiopic and Greek is to be assumed. As matters stand, the fragmentary Ara-
maic text of 4QEng 1 ii 22, which survives at the beginning of 92:1, seems
consistent with a reading that does not refer to a “book” or “epistle”:
xl>v]tml bhyv b[tk yd (“that which] he[ wro]te and gave to Me[thuselah”).366

B.2. Outline. What we designate here as the Epistle is broadly comprised of


a frame (92:1–5 + 93:11–94:5 and 104:9–105:2) that encompasses three
major “Discourses” (i.e. in 94:6–100:6, 100:7–102:3 and 102:4–104:8).
These sections may be broken down into smaller units as follows:

365 As suggested by Uhlig, Henochbuch, p. 730 n. 6c.


366 On the reading and restoration, see the Textual Note to 92:1.
Introduction to the Epistle 189

A. Introduction (92:1–5; 93:11–94:5)


A.1. The Superscription 92:1
A.2. Opening 92:2–5;
93:11–94:5
A.2.a. Opening Statement on Eschatological Reward and
Punishment 92:2–5
A.2.b. Reflection on the Inscrutable Greatness of God 93:11–14
A.2.c. Exhortation on Contrasting Ways of Righteousness
and Wrongdoing 94:1–5

B. Main Body (Three Discourses) (94:6–104:8)


B.1. Discourse One –
Woe-Oracles and Words of Consolation-94:6–100:6
B.1.a. First Woe-Oracles Against the Wicked
(Linking Wealth with Social Oppression) 94:6–95:2
B.1.b. First Consolation of the Righteous (“Do not Fear”) 95:3
B.1.c. Second Woe-Oracles Against the Wicked
(Violence Against Others) 95:4–7
B.1.d. Second Consolation of the Righteous
(“Hope; Do not Fear”) 96:1–3
B.1.e. Third Woe-Oracles Against the Wicked
(Linking Wealth with False Piety) 96:4–8
B.1.f. Third Consolation of the Righteous
(“Take Courage”) 97:1–2
B.1.g. Address to the Sinners Concerning Their Judgement 97:3–6
B.1.h. Fourth Woe-Oracles Against the Wicked
(Unjust Wealth) 97:7–10
B.1.i. Oath to the Wise (Linking Wealth with Ignorance) 98:1–3
B.1.j. Two Oaths to the Wicked
(Responsibility, Deeds not Hidden) 98:4–8
B.1.k. Fifth Woe-Oracles Against the Wicked
(Folly, False Instruction) 98:9–99:2
B.1.l. Exhortation to the Righteous
(Testimony Against the Wicked) 99:3
B.1.m. Eschatological Woes (Dissolution of Social Order) 99:4–5
B.1.n. Oath Denouncing Sinners
(Folly of Idolatry and Visions) 99:6–9
B.1.o. Blessing on the Obedient Who Receive Wisdom
and Walk on the Path of Righteousness 99:10
(cf. 94:1–5)
B.1.p. Sixth Woe-Oracles Against the Wicked (Summary of
Their Misdeeds: Make Others Evil, False Knowledge,
190 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

Gain of Wealth Through Oppression, Idolatry,


Persecution of the Righteous) 99:11–16
B.1.q. Eschatological Woes
(Dissolution of Social Order and Judgement) 100:1–4
B.1.r. Eschatological Bliss for the Righteous and
Understanding of “the Words of This Book” for
the Children of the Earth 100:5–6
B.2. Discourse Two –
Creation as Agent of Divine Judgement-100:7–102:3
I. Seventh Woe-Oracles Against the Wicked 100:7–9
II. Meterological Phenomena as Instruments
of Judgement 100:10–13
III. Divine Activity in the Created Order
and the Response of the Wicked 101:1–9
IV. Eschatological Judgement on the Wicked Through
the Created Order (no peace for the children of
the earth, who cannot hide) 102:1–3
B.2. Discourse Three –
Theodicy and Death: Words of the Righteous
and Wicked Corrected (102:4–104:8)
I. Exhortation to the Righteous Dead 102:4–103:4
A. Consolation for the Righteous Dead 102:4–5
B. Speech of the Sinners and the Response
of the Righteous 102:6–11
C. Oath to the Righteous About Their Ultimate State 103:1–4
II. Eighth Woe-Oracles Against the Sinners Who
Have Died 103:5–8
III. Exhortation to the Righteous Who Are Still Alive 103:9–104:6
A. The Speech of the Living Righteous 103:9–15
B. The Author’s Response to the Speech
of the Living Righteous 104:1–6
IV. Warning to the Sinners Who Are Alive 104:7–8

C. Conclusion (104:9–105:2)
C.1. Final Exhortations
C.1.a. Warning Against False Instruction and Idolatry 104:9
C.1.b. Righteous to Bring Wisdom to the Children of
the Earth 105:1
C.2. Revelations About the End
C.2.a. False Instruction and True Instruction 104:10–13
(cf. 98:9–99:2)
C.2.b. Final Outcome of Bliss for the Righteous 105:2
Introduction to the Epistle 191

B.3. Literary Analysis

B.3.a. Different Origin of the Frame and Body. Though the Introduction and
Conclusion of the Epistle (Sections A and C) share a number of themes with
the main body of the work, the atmosphere of the three Discourses (Section
B) is for the most part very different.367 The Introduction and Conclusion
make sense within a narrative setting in which the patriarch is addressing his
children (92:1; 94:1), and in this sense retain the mood of the testamentary
address in the Exhortation in 91:1–10, 18–19. In this framework, the Eno-
chic author gives ethical exhortations to his immediate progeny (94:1, 3–4;
cf. 104:12–13) and fictively predicts a future during which sinners will tempt
them away from wisdom (94:2, 5; cf. 104:9–10). Here as in the Exhortation
(91:18–19) and Apocalypse of Weeks (91:14), the language of choosing or
walking on righteous or wicked paths (92:3; 94:1–4; 104:13; 105:2) is very
much at home; though aware that in the future revealed wisdom will be hard
to find (94:5), the writer declares that there will be a reward – perhaps even
in this life – for those who adhere to the revelation they have received (94:4;
104:12–13; 105:1; cf. e.g. Deut. 30:11–20). He expects that, in the end,
those with understanding (i.e. his contemporaries who have received and
adhere to Enochic revelation) will bring their wisdom to the children of the
earth for whom they shall act as guides (104:13–105:1).
A very different accent is laid in the Discourses. This is illustrated in sev-
eral ways. First, unlike the rest of the early Enoch tradition, the writer offers
declarations in the form of a protracted series of assurances to “the right-
eous”,368 denunciations of a group whom he designates “the sinners”,369

367 Affinities between the frame and body of the Epistle cluster around a network of re-
lated motifs: (a) the reception of Enochic books as the locus of revealed knowledge
and wisdom; (b) the understanding of the wicked as false; (c) the ethical opposition
between “righteous” and “sinners”; and (d) the capacity of “the children of the earth”
to comprehend the Enochic wisdom disclosed to the writer and his community. How-
ever, (c) and (d) throw up differences
368 The “righteous ones” (Eth. sadeqan, Grk. δκαιοι) are addressed as such in 95:3;
96:1; 97:1; 99:3; 104: 103:1, 4; 104:6. They are also referred in the 3rd pers. as a
group in 95:7; 96:4, 8; 97:3, 5; 98:12, 13, 14; 99:16; 100:5, 7, 10; 102:6, 10; 103:9.
369 “The sinners” (Eth. xate’an; Grk. 4μαρτλο, δικο) are denounced in the 2nd pers.
in 95:2, 7; 96:4; 97:3, 7; 98:4, 6, 10; 99:6; 100:7, 9; 101:7; 102:3, 5, 9; 103:5; 104:7.
They are also referred to in the 3rd pers. in 94:11; 95:3; 96:1, 2; 97:1; 99:3; 100:3, 4;
101:9; 102:5, 6; 103:5, 11; 104:5, 6. This more narrowly defined group of “sinners”,
who function as the writer and his community’s more immediate opponents, are dis-
tinguishable from another group, likewise called “sinners”, with whom they are as-
sociated; see 97:4.
192 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

and several predictions of calamitous events that will happen in the end
time.370
Second, whereas the frame of the Epistle envisions that some salvific
events are imminent for the contemporary Enochic community, the Dis-
courses draw a firmer, distinguishing line of discontinuity between the pres-
ent world order and the ultimate state of things after the final judgement. In
the text “the righteous” experience the present as a state of unabating social
and economic oppression and persecution, while at their expense it is “the
sinners” who are flourishing in terms of social prestige and wealth. This
state of affairs is ironic: after all, the author regards “the righteous” as the
very ones “who receive the words of the wise and understand them and do
the ways of the Most High” (99:10) and the wicked as those who are with-
out understanding (98:3) and whose activities are marked by falsehood and
a perversion of the truth (95:6; 98:15; 99:1, 2, 9, 12). Thus, a problem of
theodicy runs through the catalogue of alternating assurances and denunci-
ations: why is there no divine justice for the righteous; why are the sinners
allowed to flourish; more acutely, why is it that the wicked who oppress the
author’s community seem to be experiencing the blessings associated with
obedience to God’s covenant with Israel (cf. Deut. 28:1–14) while the right-
eous are subjected to curses that are supposed to come upon the disobedient
(cf. Deut. 28:15–68)? See especially the lament articulated by the righteous
in 103:9–15.
Third, whereas the “righteous” and “sinners” function in the Introduc-
tion as groups about whom, formally, predictions are made (esp. 94:1–5;
104:9–105:2), in the main body the circumstances and activities of these
groups are described in terms of what has happened or is happening in the
present (see on the woe-oracles in section B.3.b.i below).
Fourth, the last point makes clear that the potentially generic vocabulary
of “righteous” and “sinners” is actually being applied by the writer in
a technical sense: while “the righteous” refer to an Enochic community
with which he is aligned, “the sinners” are not just any “sinners” (cf. 97:4)
but rather those whom he blames for the miseries being suffered by his com-
munity.

B.3.b.Recurring Forms. The formal characteristics of the Epistle may be de-


scribed in terms of formulae repeated in the work and borrowed from tradi-
tion. Though these have been discussed in some detail by Nickelsburg,371 a

370 Cf. esp. 98:1–3; 99:3–5; 100:1–4, 5–6; and 102:2–3.


371 Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, pp. 416–20.
Introduction to the Epistle 193

brief examination of them is appropriate here if we are to appreciate the


writers’ self-presentation and the ideas that predominate in the Epistle.
B.3.b.i.Woe-Oracles. As Nickelsburg has observed, this is the “most fre-
quently used form” in chapters 92–105.372 This form characterises no less
than eight sections of the main body of Epistle, occurring six times in the
first and once each in the second and third Discourse (see the outline in B.2
above). As such, they lie at the heart of the way the author addresses the
problem of theodicy facing the righteous; in addition, they say something
about how he understands himself.
For the writer, the woe-oracles have the crucial function of overcoming
the mismatch between the sinners’ malevolent activities, on the one hand,
and their social and economic properity, on the other. The denunciatory or-
acles fulfil this function by drawing a direct line of correlation from the
sinners’ misdeeds and false teaching to the punishments and judgement that
must follow as a consequence. Accordingly, the woe-oracles are structured
into two parts: (1) a condemning “woe” that formally indicts the sinners
and their actions and (2) a description of the judgement with which they
have to reckon, with the stress on their guilt reflected further by the occa-
sional addition in this part of more details about their wrongdoing (see
94:8; 96:7; 97:10).
It is primarily from the first part of the woe-oracles that we learn most
about the profile of “the sinners”.373 The details about them are gathered
and summed up below:

First Woe-Oracles (94:6–95:2)


– “*those who erect iniquity* and wrongdoing and found deceit” (94:5)
– “*those who build their houses* with sin” (94:7)
– “those who acquire gold and silver” (94:7)
– “rich ones” who “have trusted in your wealth” (94:8)
– “in the days of your wealth you did not remember the Most High” (94:8)
– “committed blasphemy and iniquity” (94:8)
Second Woe-Oracles (95:4–7)
– “*you who pronounce curses so that they will not be loosed*” (95:4)
– “*you who repay your neighbour with evil*” (95:5)
– “you, witnesses of falsehood, who weigh out iniquity” (95:6)
– “you persecute the righteous (95:7)

372 Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 416, and cf. p. 417 (for a detailed schematisation of the
woe-oracle formulae).
373 Other such details occur in 97:4; 98:1–3; 103:9–15.
194 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

Third Woe-Oracles (96:4–8)


– “your riches make you appear to be righteous, but your heart refutes you”
(96:4)
– “you who devour the best of the wheat *and drink the strength of the root of
the fountain* and trample on the lowly with your strength” (96:5)
– “*you who drink water all the time*” (96:6)
– “you have forsaken the fountain of life” (96:6)
– “you who commit iniquity and deceit and blasphemy” (96:7)
– “who with strength oppress the righteous” (96:7)
Fourth Woe-Oracles (97:7–10)
– “you who gain silver and gold which is not through righteousness” (97:8)
– “We have become wealthy with riches, and we have possessions and own
everything that we want. And now let us do what we have planned, for we
have treasured up silver, our houses are filled and as much water are the field
labourers of our houses.” (97:8–9)
– “you have come into ownership of everything by means of iniquity” (97:10)
Fifth Woe-Oracles (98:9–99:2)
– “fools” (98:9)
– “you do not listen to the wise” (98:9)
– “hard-hearted ones (Grk.: stiff-necked ones), who do evil and eat blood”
(98:11)
– “you who love works of iniquity” and “hope for good” (98:12)
– “you who rejoice over the distress (Grk.: evils) of the righteous” (98:13)
– “you who treat as void (Grk.: wish to invalidate) the words of the righteous”
(98:14)
– “you who write down lying words and words of the wicked (Grk.: words of
error), for they write their lies so that they will hear them and make others
wicked (Grk.: lead many astray with their lies)” (98:15)
– “you who commit wicked deeds and praise and glorify lying words (Grk.:
who commit errors and who receive honour and glory for your false works)”
(99:1)
– “you who alter the words of truth and violate the eternal law (Grk.: covenant)
and make themselves into those who are not sinners” (99:2)
Sixth Woe-Oracles (99:11–16)
– “you who spread evil unto your neighbour” (99:11)
– “you who lay the foundation of sin and deceit and cause bitterness upon the
earth” (99:12)
– “you who build your houses through the hard labour of others and whose
entire building material is bricks and stones of sin” (99:13)
– “you who reject the foundation (stone) and eternal inheritance of their
fathers and who pursue the spirit of error” (99:14)
– “you who practise wickedness and support iniquity and murder their neigh-
bour” (99:15)
Introduction to the Epistle 195

Seventh Woe-Oracles (100:7–9)


– “when you oppress the righteous in the day of strong anguish and burn them
with fire” (100:7)
– “hard-hearted ones, who stay awake to devise evil” (100:8)
– “the discourse of your mouth and the deeds of your hands which are the
work of your wickedness (Grk.: for <from> the holy works [you] have gone
ast[ray)” (100:9)
Eighth Woe-Oracles (103:5–8) – against sinners who have died
– “when you die in your sinful wealth” (103:5; Eth. only)
– “they have died in well-being and in wealth, and suffering and murder they
have not seen during their life” (103:6; Eth. only)
– “they have died in glory, and a judgement was not executed against them
during their life” (103:6)

The second parts of these oracles draw on an array of imagery, sometimes


repetitive, to portray the punishments that await “the sinners”. These forms
of eschatological retribution are itemised below in groups corresponding to
the woe-oracle units given above.

94:6– “*they will be quickly overthrown* and have no peace”


94:7– “*they will be overthrown from their entire foundation* and they
will fall by the sword”
94:7– “in the judgement they will be quickly destroyed”
94:8– “you will have to depart from your wealth”
94:9– “you have been prepared for the day of bloodshed, for the day of
darkness, and for the day of judgement”
94:10– “the One who created you will overturn you”
94:10– “with regard to your fall there will be no compassion”
94:10– “the One who created you will rejoice over your destruction”
95:2– “the judgement will overwhelm you”

95:4– “*healing will be far from you*”


95:5– “you will be quickly destroyed”
95:6– “*you will be repaid according to your deeds*”
95:6– “you will be quickly destroyed”
95:7– “*you yourselves will be delivered over and persecuted by iniquity*,
and its yoke will be heavy on you”

96:4– “this word will be a testimony against you as a reminder of (your)


wicked deeds”
96:6– “quickly you will be repaid *and will become exhausted and dry
up*”
96:7– “it shall be a reminder against you for evil”
196 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

97:7– “against whom there is an evil reminder”


97:10– “*like water your error will flow away (Eth. only)*, for *your wealth
will not remain*, but will quickly go up from you”
97:10– “and over to a great curse you will be delivered”

98:9– “*you will be destroyed by your folly*”


98:9– “goodness will not find you”
98:10– “you are prepared for the day of great judgement, for the day of
tribulation and great shame for your spirit”
98:11– “you have no peace”
98:12– “you will be given into the hand of the righteous ones, and … they
will cut off your necks and kill you and will have no mercy on
you”
98:13– “graves will not be dug for you”
98:14– “you will have no hope of life
98:16– “they will have no peace (Grk.: have no joy), but will die a sudden
death (Grk.: be quickly destroyed)”
99:1– “you will be destroyed and will not have a good life (Grk.: you have
perished, you will have no salvation for good)”
99:2– “they will be trampled upon the ground”

99:11– “you will be slain in Sheol”


99:12– “they will be brought to an end”
99:13– “you will have no peace”
99:14– “you will not have rest”
99:16– “he will overthrow your glory, and he will bring affliction into your
heart”
99:16– “he will arouse the spirit of his anger in order to destroy you all with
the sword”
99:16– “all the holy and righteous ones will remember your sins”

100:7– “you will be recompensed according to your works”


100:8– “fear will find you, and there will be no one to help you”
100:9– “in the blaze of a flaming fire you will burn”

103:7– “they will bring your souls down to Sheol, and evils will come upon
them; (their) suffering (will be) great”
103:8– “in darkness and in a snare and in flames which burn your spirits will
enter into the great judgement”
103:8– “the great judgement will last for every generation of the world”
103:8– “you will not have any peace”
Introduction to the Epistle 197

While more will be stated below regarding the punishments (see sec-
tion B.4), we introduce the list here with four brief observations. First, the
punishments anticipated by the author will involve a complete reversal of
fortune for the wicked. This means that in the narrative world of the text,
the “woe-oracles” play a rhetorical role in bringing the judgement about
(or at least the description thereof); they function as testimony against the
wicked that will be taken into account at the time of divine judgement; see
96:4, 7; 97:7. Second, the retribution is almost always eschatological, that
is, it comes into effect at the time of the final judgement. Thus the Deutero-
nomistic scheme of covenant blessings and curses is thus not so much given
up as it is postponed (compare 103:9–15 with 104:1–6). Third, the punish-
ments are frequently repeated, especially the following: (a) “you will not
have peace/rest” (94:6; 98:11, 16; 99:13, 14; 103:8); (b) “you will be
(quickly) destroyed” (94:7; 95:5, 6; 98:9; 98:16 Grk.; 99:1); “you are pre-
pared for (the day of great) judgement” (94:9; 98:10). Fourth, in a number
of places, the description of the punishment is made to fit the crime (marked
out by the use of asterisks [*…*] in both lists above). In one case, the pun-
ishment is described in terms of a misdeed referred to in another passage;
compare 99:2 with 96:5.
Taken together, both parts of the woe-oracles (i.e. the woes and punish-
ments) reflect something of the writer’s understanding of his role as a trans-
mitter of Enochic tradition to his readers. In adopting this form, he places
himself in the line of the biblical prophets who had pronounced woe-oracles
against the disobedient of Israel (Isa. 3:9, 11; 10:1–2, 5; 28:1–3; Jer. 22:13;
23:1; Ezek. 6:11; 13:3; 16:23; 24:6, 9; Amos 6:1, 4–6; Hos. 7:13; Mic. 2:1;
Hab. 2:6, 9, 12, 15, 19) and other nations (Isa. 10:5; Jer. 48:46; Zeph. 2:5)
who were regarded as a threat to God’s people. Formally, of particular in-
terest are the prophetic woe-cries which, as here, are followed by threats of
punishment or destruction (cf. Isa. 10:4, 6; 28:4; Mic. 2:3; Amos 6:7; Hab.
2:16). In terms of content, the indictments expressed in texts like Isaiah
10:1–2, Jeremiah 22:13, Amos 6:4–6, Habakkuk 2 (vv. 9, 12, 19), and
Micah 2:1 may have shaped the way the sinners’ circumstances – both their
comfortable social standing and their oppression of the righteous – are de-
scribed (cf. 94:7a; 96:5). The prophetic use of woe-oracles to denounce way-
ward Israelites fits well with their use in the Epistle against “the sinners”
who, because they are Jews and offer religious instruction (98:9, 15; 99:2;
cf. 104:9–13), should be held accountable to “the eternal law” (cf. 99:2).
B.3.b.ii. Oath-formula. Like the woe-oracles just discussed, this form is
unique to the Epistle within the early Enoch tradition. It occurs six times in
the main body of the work, where in each case it is introduced by the phrase
“I swear to … that”. The formula is used to address the “wise” (98:1), the
198 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

sinners (98:4, 6; 99:6), and the righteous (103:1; 104:1). This opening for-
mula is followed by a statement which emphasizes:

98:1–3 – “ … you will see many (Grk.: many lawless) things on


earth.” Following a description of those who engage in such
activities, the writer announces their destruction: “they
(Grk.: you) will be destroyed together with their possessions
and with all their glory and their honour, and (in) shame
and in slaughter and in great poverty their spirit will be
thrown into a fiery furnace”.
98:4 – “ … (as) a mountain has neither become nor will become a
slave, nor a hill (become) a woman’s handmaid, so sin was
not sent to the earth, but the people have created it by them-
selves, and those who commit it will be subject to a great
curse”.
98:6 – “ … all your evil activity is revealed in the heavens and
(that) your deed of wrongdoing is neither covered nor
hidden”.
99:6–9 – “ … sin is prepared for the day of unceasing blood.” After a
description of the activities of sinners, the writer announces
that “they will be destroyed in an instant”.
103:1–4 – “I know a mystery, and I have read the tablets of heaven,
and I have seen the holy books (Grk.: urgent writing), and I
have found what is written in them and inscribed concern-
ing them”. There follows an assurance that the spirits of the
righteous will be resuscitated and an exhortation that they
not fear (Grk. adds: their reproaches).
104:1–6 – “ … in heaven the angels will bring to remembrance con-
cerning you for good before the glory of the Great One,
and your names are written down before the glory of the
Great One”. There follows an extended exhortation that
the righteous have hope and not fear, because they will not
be dealt with as the sinners.

These instances show that the writer’s use of the oath-formula presupposes
a juridical scenario in which he acts as one who testifies. On the one hand,
he takes upon himself the function of a witness against the sinners by de-
scribing their deeds (98:1–3; 99:6–9) and declaring that their guilt cannot
be concealed (98:6–8). On the other hand, in claiming to have received di-
vine revelation, he proclaims the innocence of the righteous and announces
that they will be rewarded (103:1–4; 104:1–6).
Introduction to the Epistle 199

The form used in the Epistle is unusual if compared with oath-formulae in


the Hebrew Bible. In the latter the closest analogies are to be found in divine
speech (ytib>n , Kμοσα; cf. Ps. 89[88]:4, 36; 95[94]:11; 119[118]:106;
Isa. 45:23; 54:9; Jer. 11:5; 22:5; 44:26; 49:13), in several passages of which
the oath is followed by a pronouncement that assures judgement upon the
wicked (Ps. 95:11; Jer. 22:5; 44:26–28; 49:13). In the Epistle it is the writer
himself who testifies and, in 103:1, does so “by the glory of the Great One
and by his magnificent rule and by his greatness”, whereas the Hebrew Bible
has God swearing by himself (Isa. 45:23; Jer. 22:5: 44:26; 49:13). The writer
believes that his testimony is not only divinely inspired but also provides a
definitive account of the religious state and ultimate fate, respectively, of the
righteous who are innocent and of the sinners who wallow in wealth (98:2),
engage in idolatry (99:7), and who oppress his community (104:3).
B.3.b.iii. Exhortations to the Righteous. The exhortations in the main
body of the Epistle differ markedly in emphasis from those which characte-
rise the frame of the Epistle (94:1) and Exhortation (91:3, 4, 19), in which
they are shaped around the two-ways instruction (see B.3.b.iv below). Per-
haps building on Enoch’s instruction that his children not be saddened in
92:2a (cf. 102:5), the writer assumes that his addressees are righteous, and
repeatedly tells them to “have hope” (96:1; 102:4 Eth.; 102:4 Eth.; 104:2,
4 Eth.), “take courage” (Grk. to 102:4; 104:2), “do not fear/be afraid of”
(95:3; 96:3; 103:4; 104:5 <Grk.>, 6; cf. 100:5), or to “have faith” (97:1).
These exhortation formulae, are frequently followed by (a) an acknowl-
edgement of the circumstances being endured by the righteous or (b) rea-
sons why the righteous should take comfort, or both (a) and (b)374:

92:2 – “ … (a) because of the times, (b) for the Holy and Great
One has appointed days for everything”. There follows in
vv. 3–5 a promise of reward for the righteous and of the de-
struction of sin.
95:3 – “ … (a) because of the sinners, (b) for the Lord will again
deliver them into your hand so that you may carry out
judgement on them as you wish”.
96:1 – “ … (b) for the sinners will quickly be destroyed before you,
and you will have authority over them, as you wish”.
96:3 – “ … (a) who have suffered … (b) for you will have healing,
and a bright light will shine upon you, and you will hear a
sound of rest from heaven”.

374 For a schematisation of the form itself, see Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 419.
200 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

97:1 – “ … (b) for sinners will become an object of contempt and


will be destroyed on the day of iniquity”.
102:4–5 – “ … (a) because your souls have descended with grief into
Sheol and because your bodies have not found during your
life (that which is) according to your piety (Grk.: did not
fare during your life according to your holiness) …”
103:4 – “ … (a) their reproaches”.
104:2 – “ … (a) for at first you were put to shame (Grk.: have been
worn down) through evil and toil, (b) but now you will
shine as a light of heaven; you will shine and be seen, and
the gates of heaven will be opened to you”.
104:4 – “ … (b) for you will have great joy as the angels of heaven”
(Eth. only)
104:5 – “ … (b) <do not fear> the evils on the great day of judge-
ment, and you will not be found as the sinners”.
104:6 – “ … (a) when you see the sinners become strong and pros-
perous (in) their ways … (b) for you will become com-
panions to the host of heaven” (Eth.).

The force of the exhortations have their flipside in the woe-oracles. First,
the sinners are told that they have no grounds for hope (98:10, 12a, 14) and
that “fear will find” them (100:8). Second, their brief references to unjust
suffering of the righteous and the sinners’ prosperity are resumptive of what
is more elaborately described in the woe-oracles (see under B.3.b.i above)
and oaths (98:1–3; 99:6–9). Third, the righteous will be allowed to have a
hand in carrying out the punishment of the sinners (95:3 and 96:1),375 as
implied by the woe-oracles (98:12 and 99:11). This feature, which is not
found among the other forms in the Epistle, echoes the Apocalypse of
Weeks (week eight: 91:12b; cf. also 91:11) and is picked up in the Animal
Apocalypse (cf. 90:19). Though the biblical language of holy war ultimately
lies behind this language (cf. Num. 21:34; Deut. 2:24; 3:2; Josh. 6:2; 8:1;
10:8), its function in the Epistle is to depict the sinners’ punishment as a re-
prisal on account of the persecution they have inflicted on the righteous; see
the woe-oracle in 99:15 (cf. 103:15). Fourth, the exhortations provide the
platform on which the frame and body of the Epistle describe the reward
that the righteous may anticipate: resuscitation (92:3; 103:4) and an angel-
like existence in light (see Notes on 96:3a; 104:2b, 4, 6b).

375 Mentioned briefly by Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, pp. 418–19.


Introduction to the Epistle 201

B.3.b.iv. Disclosure Formulae. Here we have to do, first, with claims


made by the writer introduced by the phrases “I know/understand (that)”
(94:5), “I make known (to you)” (94:10; cf. 93:2b), the imperative “know”
(98:8, 10a; 98:12 Eth.), the statement “you know” (98:10b), or “may it be
known (to you)” (97:2; 98:12 Grk.). These formulae both imply and ex-
press openly (as in 103:2) the writer’s belief that he is conveying divine rev-
elation. Here the writer, whether addressing the righteous or the wicked,
claims to know the following:

94:5 – (to the righteous) “ … that sinners will tempt men and make what
is wicked out of wisdom, so that no place will be found for
it, and temptation will not vanish at all”.
94:10 – (to the wicked) “ … that the One who created you will overturn
you, and with regard to your fall there will be no com-
passion, and the One who created you will rejoice over your
destruction”.
97:2 – (to the righteous?) “ … that the Most High is mindful of your de-
struction and that the angels of heaven <will rejoice> at
your destruction”. See Note to 97:2.
98:8 – (to the wicked) “ … that all the wrongdoing which you commit
will be recorded every day until the day of your judgement”.
98:10 – (bis; to the wicked) “ … that you are prepared for the day of de-
struction … that you have been prepared for the day of
great judgement, for the day of tribulation and great shame
for your spirit”.
98:12 – (to the wicked) “ … that you will be given into the hand of the
righteous ones, and … they will cut off your necks (Eth.
only) and kill you and will have no mercy on you (Grk.: not
spare you)”.
100:10 – (to the wicked) “ … he will inquire in heaven from the angels
concerning your deeds, and from the sun, and from the
moon and from the stars concerning your sins, because on
earth you are executing judgement on the righteous”.
103:2 – (on the righteous) “ … a mystery, and I have read the tablets of
heaven, and I have seen the holy books, and I have found
what is written in them and inscribed concerning them”.
103:7–8 – (to the wicked) “ … that they will bring their spirits down to
Sheol, and evils will come upon them; (their) suffering (will
be) great. And in darkness and in a snare and in flames which
burn your spirits will enter into the great judgement. And the
great judgement will last for every generation of the world”.
202 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

104:10 – (on the sinners) “ … this mystery, that many times the sinners
will alter and pervert the word of truth; and they will speak
evil words, and lie, and make big works and write my books
in their own words”.
104:12 – (on the righteous) “ … another (Grk.: second) mystery, that
books will be given to the righteous and to the wise, for joy
and for uprightness and for much wisdom”.

In the main body of the Epistle the verb “to know”, in its various forms,
stands on its own to introduce a section (100:10) or is subordinate to other
formulae such as the woe-oracles (94:10; 98:10; 98:12; 103:7–8), oath-for-
mula (98:8), and exhortation (97:2, though the text is uncertain). Most of
the instances involve disclosures about “the sinners”. Unusual here, there-
fore, is the declaration by the writer that “I know a mystery” in 103:2
which appeals to the origin of his revelation in “the tablets of heaven”. The
knowledge of a mystery is developed along a different line than in the con-
clusion of the Epistle at 104:10 and 12. Whereas the first and second uses of
“mystery” in the latter texts are more broadly concerned, respectively, with
the competing writings of the sinners and the Enochic circle, the “mystery”
in 103:2 is unveiled as the eschatological rewards of which the righteous
may be certain (cf. 103:3). If 103:2 is influenced by the conclusion of the
Epistle (in addition to Apoc. of Weeks 93:2g and ultimately 81:1–2), it has
reinterpreted the “mystery” in response to the problem of theodicy – that is,
the apparent lack of justice for the dead righteous (102:4–5, 7–8, 10) – with
which the argument is more immediately concerned.
A second disclosure formula, “I show to you”, occurs at the end of the
main body of the Epistle in 104:8. Here the writer repudiates the sinners’
claim that their deeds will not be recorded. Analogous to 103:2 discussed
just above, this passage redirects the formula, which in the Exhortation
denotes the disclosure of “everything which will happen” and the two-ways
instruction (91:1, 18), so that it provides an inclusio for a prominent theme
in the central part of the Epistle (98:6–8 and 100:10–11; cf. 96:4, 7; 97:6;
99:3, 16; 103:4).
B.3.b.v. Instruction on the Two Ways. In the Epistle, the contrast
between paths of iniquity and of righteousness occurs most clearly in the
frame (94:1–5, 104:13 and 105:2 (Eth. only). For a discussion, see the Gen-
eral Comment to 94:1–5 and the Note to 91:4b.
In the body of the Epistle, the metaphor, in a slightly altered form, is ap-
plied in 99:10 within a blessing pronounced upon those who are receptive
to “the words of the wise”: they do “the ways (Grk.: commandments) of the
Most High” (99:10a) and “walk on the path (Grk.: ways) of his righteous-
Introduction to the Epistle 203

ness”, and according to the Greek “will not go astray with those who err”
(99:10b).
B.3.b.vi. Imputed Speech. Six times in the body of the Epistle the writer
places words in the mouths of his protagonists; see 97:8; 98:7; 102:6;
103:5, 9; 104:7. In all these cases, the author draws on a widespread rhe-
torical ploy (for examples, see the Note to 97:8b) to “objectivise” or “ex-
pose” opinions in order to rebut them. In the first two instances (97:8; 98:7)
the speech, introduced by the phrase “do not say”, augments the force of
more principal formulae, that is, the woe-oracle in 97:7–9 and the oath-for-
mula in 98:6.
The remaining instances occur within the third Discourse of 102:4–
104:8. Here three of the refuted opinions are attributed to the sinners
(102:6–8; 103:5–6; 104:7), while one is is even ascribed to the righteous
(103:9–15). The last-mentioned case is ironic; the speech of the righteous,
which laments their persecution and inability to find justice with the author-
ities, is refuted by the offer of assurance of eschatological reward (104:1–6).
The opinions of the sinners rejected by the author have to do with the
use of wealth to engage in unproscribed activities (97:8–9), the disbelief
that their deeds will be held to account (98:7–8; 104:7–8), the denial that
the righteous will have any ultimate advantage for their piety (102:6), and
the claim that in their death they are no worse off than the righteous
(103:5).
B.3.b.vii. Makarism. A blessing pronounced in 99:10 functions as an ex-
hortation reminiscent of the two-ways instruction; it is pronounced on
those “who receive (Grk.: have listened to) the words of the wise and under-
stand them and do the ways (Grk.: commandments) of the Most High; and
they will walk on the path of his righteousness, and they do not act
wickedly with those who are wicked (Grk.: not go astray with those who
err) …”. For examples of such a makarism, see the General Comment on
99:10.

The formulae reviewed in this section cover most parts of the Epistle.
Though formally distinct, they are not used in isolation from one another.
We have seen that they not only reinforce the common theme of pronounc-
ing judgement on the sinners and promising retribution and reward to the
righteous, but also – and especially – overlap in the many of the details to
which they are attached. This observation makes it more perceptible how
much the writer, rather than being long-winded or simply “prolix” in his in-
dictments and exhortations, was constructing a highly integrated and inter-
woven symbolic universe. Through such cumulative reinforcement, his
readers would have been left with little doubt that divine justice, though
204 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

eschatological (i.e. not yet in force), will certainly manifest itself on their
behalf. The author’s use of fixed formulae lends a solemn formality to the
description of his community’s circumstances; taken together, they help the
body of the Epistle function as an effective “testimony” that ensures the
sinners will not escape the consequences of their wrongdoing on “the day of
judgement”.376

B.4. Use of and Intertextuality with Formative Traditions. The Epistle does
not explicitly or formally cite any of the traditions which inspired it. How-
ever, it contains an abundance of allusions, especially to biblical tradition
and to the Book of Watchers. Throughout the commentary the possible al-
lusions are discussed in detail. Here it is convenient to draw together some
of this evidence. We do so in two separate lists which require brief notes of
explanation. The first list offers the more obvious examples from biblical
tradition.377 The second list, which focuses on the Book of Watchers, is
lengthier; it includes not only what seem to be direct allusions but also simi-
larities (marked by “*”) which will help illustrate the degree of continuity
(and discontinuity) between the Epistle and its Enochic predecessor. As the
Epistle’s use of its sacred traditions is ironic and subversive on a number of
occasions, such references are underlined.

Biblical Allusions

93:13–14a – “ … who can know what is the breadth and Isa. 40:12
the length of the earth, and to whom has
the extent of them all been shown? Or who
is the one among all humanity who can
know the length of heaven, what (is) its
height, and on what it (is) founded?”

376 Thus the unsympathetic opinions ventured by Vermes and Black about the style of
ch.’s 94–105 do not do justice to the work; see Vermes in Schürer, The History of the
Jewish People, rev.’d ed., III.1, p. 253 (“is all very prolix and repetitive”) and Black,
The Book of Enoch, p. 22 (“repetitious paraenesis, including monotonously repeated
elegiacs or dirges against ‘the sinners’”).
377 A lengthier study of intertextuality with biblical tradition in the Epistle could be
taken. There are many examples in which several biblical passages resonate with a
given text (cf. e.g. 93:11–14; 95:4, 5a, 5b; 96:2e, 3a, 5, 6b, 8b; 100:5a, 11; 101:6b);
here the list is limited to instances in which one biblical text maybe said to have
shaped the wording of the Epistle.
Introduction to the Epistle 205

94:7a – the sinners “build their houses with sin” Jer. 22:13
95:1 – “Who would allow my eyes to become Jer. 9:1(Grk. 8:23)
a cloud of water, so that I could week
over you and pour out my tears …?”
95:4 – “healing will be far from you because of Ps. 119[118]:155
your sins”
96:5–6 – “devour the best of the wheat and drink Amos 5:11; 6:6
the strength of the root of the fountain and
trample upon the lowly …”
96:2d – “you will climb upwards and enter into Ps. 104[103]:18;
the caves of the earth and into the clefts of Prov. 30:26
the cliff forever like the coney”
96:8 – “O strong ones, who … oppress the Ps. 33:11 (Grk.)
righteous … and good days will come to
the righteous in the day of your judgement”
97:3 – “What are you going to do and whither Isa. 10:3
will you flee on the day of judgement …?”
97:8a – “who gain silver and gold which is not Jer. 17:11
through righteousness”
98:2a – “you men will put on yourselves more Deut. 22:5
adornment than a woman and colours,
more than a young girl”
98:9 – “ … goodness will not find you” Jer. 5:25; 32:42
99:14 – “you who reject the foundation (stone)” Ps. 118[117]:22
100:1b – “until a stream flows from their blood” Ps. 79[78]:3
100:8b – “there will be no one to help you” Deut. 28:29, 31
101:4, 6b – “the kings of the ships, how their ships are Jer. 5:22
tossed about by the wave and are rocked by
winds and are in danger … the sand”
101:7a – “at his rebuke, it fears and dries up, and Isa. 50:2
all its fish die along with everything that
is in it”
101:8a – “Has he not made heaven and earth and Ps. 146[145]:6
everything that is in them?”
102:6b – “Just as we have died, so also the righteous Qoh. 2:14–16;
have died; and what gain did they have 3:19–20; 11:7-
from their works?“ 12:7
103:9c – “we have become exhausted and few” Deut. 28:62
103:10b – “ … crushed and destroyed” Deut. 28:7, (48)
103:10b – “we have not hoped to see life from day Deut. 28:66
to day”
206 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

103:11a – “We had hoped to become the head, and Deut. 28:13, 44
became the tail.”
103:11b – “We laboured while working, but did not Deut. 28:33
have authority over our work.”
103:11c – “we became food for the sinners and the Deut. 28:26
wicked ones”
103:11d – “they made their yoke heavey upon us” Deut. 28:48
103:12b – “to those who hated us we bowed the Deut. 28:48
neck, and they did not show us mercy”
103:13 – “We wanted to go away from them, so that Deut. 28:65
we might escape and have rest, but we did
not find any place to escape to and to be
safe from them.”
103:15a – “they helped those who robbed and dev- Deut. 28:29
oured us”

The Epistle follows the sentiments and imagery of biblical tradition when it
decries the injustices being suffered by the righteous, describes the culpable
behaviour of the wicked, and exposes the latter’s vulnerability to divine
judgement. Two biblical motifs, however, are taken up and rejected and
modified, respectively: (1) the idea that after death those who inhabit Sheol
are not distinguished from one another (cf. 102:6b; see further below) and
(2) the view that covenant faithfulness is accompanied by reward in this life
(cf. 103:9–15; see under section B.3.b.i above).

Allusions to Book of Watchers

92:1c – “to the last generations who will do up- 1:2


rightness and peace”
94:6b*; “they will … have no peace” 5:4, 5 (Grk.);
98:11, 16; 12:5;
99:13; 13:1; 16:4
101:3;
102:3;
103:8 –
94:9* – “you have been prepared for … the day 10:4–6
of darkness”
94:9* – “the great day of judgement” 10:12
95:4 – “who pronounce curses so that they will 6:4–5; (8:3)
not be loosed”
Introduction to the Epistle 207

96:2e* – “they will groan because of you and weep 19:2


like sirens”
96:3a* – “a bright light will shine upon you” 1:8; (5:7)
97:3 – “the sound of the prayer of the righteous” 8:4; 9:2
97:5 – “the prayer of the holy ones will go before 8:4–9:3
the Lord”
97:6c – “he will cast away every deed that is estab- 10:16, 20
lished in iniquity”
97:9 – “let us do what we have planned” 6:4
97:10b* – “over to a great curse you will be deliv- 5:5–7
ered”
98:2a* – “you men will put on yourselves more 8:1
adornment than a woman and colours,
more than a young girl”
98:4b – “sin was not sent to the earth, but the passim
people have created it by themselves”
98:11a* – “O hard-hearted ones” 5:4 (Grk.)
98:11a* – “eat blood” 7:5
98:11b* – “where will you eat and drink and satisfy 7:3–5
yourselves …?
99:2a* – “violate the eternal law” 5:4
99:3 – “O righteous ones, be prepared to raise 8:4–9:3
your prayers as a reminder, and bring them
as a testimony before the angels, so that
they bring the sin of sinners before the
Most High as a reminder”
99:7b – “others will worship evil spirits and dem- 19:1
ons and every (kind of) error”
99:11* – “you will be slain in Sheol” 22:13
100:2a* – “the sinner will not be able to withhold his 7:5
hand from his honoured brother”
100:4a* – “the angels will descend to the hidden 6:6
places and gather into one place all those
who have given aid to sin”
100:4b* “the Most High will rise on the day of 1:7–9
(Grk.) – judgement in order to execute a great
judgement among all”
100:6a – “men among the wise will see what is true, 5:8; 10:20–21
and the sons of the earth will understand
the entire discourse of this book”
100:7a* – “the day of strong anguish” 1:1; 10:12
208 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

100:9a* – “sinners, because of the discourse of your 1:9; 5:4


mouth and the deeds of your hands”
100:9b*; “In the blaze of a flaming fire you will 21:7
cf. 102:8a – burn.”
100:11* – “every cloud and mist and dew and rain he 10:17–19
will make to witness against you, for they
will all be withheld from you, so that they
do not descend upon you”
101:1a – “Consider heaven, O children of heaven, 2:1; 5:4–6
and every work of the Most High.”
101:3a* – “you say great and hard things against his 5:4; 27:2
righteousness”
101:6a-b* – “Are not the entire sea and all its waters 2:1–5:3
and all its movement the work of the
Most High, and has he (not) sealed all
its work and bound it completely with
sand?”
102:2 – “all the luminaries will shake with great 1:4–5a
fear, and the earth and everything will
shake and tremble and be anxious”
102:3a – “the Great Glory” 14:20
102:3b – “you, O sinners, are cursed forever” 5:5, 6
102:4a, 13 –“their spirits which died in righteousness 25:6–7
will come back to life, and their spirits will
rejoice”
102:6b, “judgement was not executed against them 22:10
10 – during their life”
102:8a* – “in darkness and in a snare and in fiery 18:15; 21:3–6,
flames your spirits will enter into the great 7–10; (10:6)
judgement”
103:9a* – “the righteous and chosen ones” 1:3
103:9c* – “we have become … few” 8:4 (Grk. Sync.)
103:11b* – “We laboured while working, but did not 7:3
have authority over our work.”
103:11c* – “we became food for the sinners and the 7:4
wicked ones”
103:14 – “And we complained about them to the 8:4–9:3
rulers in our suffering, and we cried out
against those who consumed us, but they
did not recognise our cry and did not want
to hear our voice.”
Introduction to the Epistle 209

104:1b – “in heaven the angels bring to rememb- 8:4–9:3


rance concerning you for good before the
glory of the Great One”
104:2a* – “evil and toil” 7:3–5, 8:4
104:2b – “the gates of heaven will be opened to you” 9:2
105:1a* – “they will summon and give testimony to 5:8; 10:20–21
children of the earth from their wisdom”

The list demonstrates the Epistle’s borrowing of both language and ideas
from the Book of Watchers, especially from chapters 1–5, 6–11, 17–19, 22
and 25. These ideas include ways the sinners’ transgressions and ultimate
punishment are described, the role of angels in conveying the laments of the
righteous, and the post-mortem compartmentalisation of human souls.
An intertextual reading of the Epistle and Book of Watchers, which takes
broader convergences of motifs and language into account (regardless of
whether influence can be established), suggests how the Epistle has res-
haped Enochic tradition. Leaving aside the obvious difference between the
two works – the absence of any journey (to the throne room, ch. 14;
through the cosmos, ch.’s 17–36) in the Epistle – one may observe that this
has happened in three ways in the Epistle: (1) the timing of post-mortem
punishment, (2) the re-application of motifs associated with the fallen an-
gels and giants to “the sinners”, and (3) narrative contrasts.
First, the theme of post-mortem punishment in Book of Watchers occurs
in chapter 22, a passage that influences the Epistle’s third Discourse in
102:4–104:8. Chapter 22 recounts what Enoch is shown during the course
of his second journey through the cosmos. Having been shown a high
mountain near the western limits of the cosmos, he sees therein four
chambers and is informed that they are holding cells for “the spirits of the
souls of the dead” until the final judgement. One of the rooms, which is
bright (v. 3, Cod. Pan.), is inhabited by the righteous dead (v. 9) and from
which lament is made against Cain and his offspring until their destruction
(vv. 5–7). The other three chambers, which are dark, are inhabited by dif-
ferent classes of wrongdoers. In one of the rooms reside sinners who had
not been punished during their lives; they are kept here “until the great day
of judgement” when they will undergo scourgings and torment and be
bound for eternity (vv. 10–11). The Epistle refers to this group in 102:6b,
identifying it with “the sinners” who have oppressed the writer’s commu-
nity. The inhabitants of the next chamber are a less notorious group: “the
spirits of those who have a complaint to present and disclosures to make
concerning their destruction, when they were killed in the days of the
sinners” (22:12). It is not clear who these inhabitants are, and there is no
210 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

evidence that the Epistle attempted to find an equivalent. The last chamber
is inhabited by “sinners” who were “allied with the lawless ones” (22:13),
that is, the sinners in 22:10–11. This class of wrongdoers are not guilty to
the same degree as those of the second room; hence they will neither be
slaughtered nor rewarded on the day of judgement. In all this the Book of
Watchers distinguishes between three phases: life in the body, a disembo-
died existence in Sheol after death in chambers set apart for different out-
comes, and eschatological judgement when punishment and reward are
meted out, respectively, to the wicked and righteous (22:4, 11, 13).
In the third Discourse, the Epistle retains four classes of human souls in
the post-mortem world, refuting words attributed to each of them in turn: the
dead righteous (102:4–103:4), the dead sinners (103:5–8), the living right-
eous (103:9–104:6), and the living wicked (104:7–8). The Epistle adheres to
other aspects of the Book of Watchers’ vision: it distinguishes between escha-
tological and intermediate state of the disembodied dead, and it singles out
the problem of sinners who have not been punished during their lifetime.
Several differences, however, come into focus. First, by putting observa-
tions about the state of the righteous into the mouths of the dead sinners,
the Epistle allows for a degree of social awareness between the dead of
Sheol. Second, the Epistle accentuates the problem of theodicy by evening
out the lots of the righteous and the wicked: both are associated with “dark-
ness” (102:7; contrast 22:3 Cod. Pan.) and both are in a state of “sadness”
and “anguish” (102:5, 7, 11). Third, the Epistle introduces a woe-oracle
into the Discourse (103:5–8) which denounces the wicked by claiming that
they will undergo “evil and great tribulation” and be “in darkness and in
nets and a flaming fire”. Here it is not clear that the punishment follows the
final judgement; instead, the passage leaves open the possibility that it is in
this state the sinners will begin to undergo punishment (103:8a). Such a
reading would be consistent with the reference in 99:11 to the slaughter of
the sinners in Sheol, and would result in a more nuanced construal of the in-
termediate post-mortem existence: whereas the initial state of the righteous
and wicked is indistinguishable, before eschatological judgement the souls
of the wicked will already begin to suffer punishment.378
Second, throughout the Epistle motifs linked with the fallen angels
mythology are redirected to “the sinners” with whom the main body of the
work is so occupied. In doing so, the writer was following a trend already at

378 Nickelsburg (personal communication) thinks it likely that the reference to the final
judgement in the second part of 103:8a is a parallel, rather than subsequent, to the
punishment.
Date and Social Setting 211

work in chapters 1–5 of the Book of Watchers and the Animal Apocalypse.
The list above illustrates some examples of this:

– the pronouncement that there will be no peace (sub 94:6b);


– use of imprecations (95:4);
– deliberateness of wrongdoing (97:9);
– link with adornment (98:2a);
– the introduction of sin into the world (98:4b);
– consumption of blood (98:11a);
– insatiability (98:11b);
– punishment by fire (100:9b);
– consumption of the innocent as “food” (103:11c).

The exclusive focus on the manifestation of evil through human wrong-


doing results in a more rational cosmology in which discourse about the de-
monic is downgraded, if not almost entirely removed.379
Third, in borrowing language from the Book of Watchers, the Epistle
offers several narrative contrasts. In 100:6a, the text refers to the descent of
angels who serve as agents of divine judgement, as opposed to the disas-
trous descent of the rebellious angels (cf. 6:6). The writer refers in 103:14 to
his community’s unsuccessful attempt to find justice against their oppres-
sors by appealing to authorities; while this is assuaged in the Epistle by the
constant promise of eschatological retribution, the community’s lack of
help contrasts with the divine response, mediated by angels, to those who
had been murdered by the giants (8:4–9:3). Finally, “the sinners” are told
that the natural elements which know their deeds will be withheld from
them so that they will not be able to flourish (100:11). Much the opposite,
in the form of bounteous fertility and plentitude, is promised on the earth
when the earth is filled with righteousness (cf. 10:17–19).

C. Date and Social Setting

As the question of date is closely related to the social setting of the Epistle, it
is appropriate here to treat them briefly together. By the beginning of the
20th century, a consensus was emerging that distinguished between the dates

379 It is not clear that in 99:7 the writer attributes any real potency to demons, as the lan-
guage about them is accommodated to what is stated about human-crafted idols: “no
help will be found from them”.
212 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

of the Apocalypse of Weeks and Epistle of Enoch. Whereas the former was
regarded as pre-Maccabean (i.e. before 167 BCE), the Epistle was being
dated to the very end of the 2nd century or to the first third of the 1st century
BCE.380 This view was based largely on the identification of “the righteous”
in the Epistle with the socially and economically disadvantaged Pharisees,
while the Sadducees were seen to be the affluent group behind “the
sinners”. This would fit well with the conflicts reported between these par-
ties during the reign of Alexander Jannaeus.381 There are good reasons,
however, to reject this hypothesis. First, the language of the Epistle in gen-
eral is too imprecise to pin down on these particular groups. Second, as
VanderKam has argued, though the Sadducees were generally more affluent
than the Pharisees and adhered to other instruction, the accusation of idol-
atry (cf. 99:7, 9, 14) does not fit them. On the other hand, the problem of
idolatry amongst Jews is more prominent in the literature concerned with
the time leading up to and during the Maccabeean revolt.382

380 So esp. Charles, The Book of Enoch, pp. li-liii and pp. 218, 221–27 (ch.’s 91–14 from
the the first third of 1st cent. BCE) and “Book of Enoch”, p. 171; Martin, Le Livre
d’Hénoch, pp. xciv-xcvii and 239 (ch. 91–105 between 95 and 78 BCE); Beer, “Das
Buch Henoch”, pp. 230–31 (91:1–11; 94–105 to 104–78 BCE); Tcherikover, Hellen-
istic Civilisation and the Jews, pp. 258–62; Reicke, “Official and Pietistic Elements of
Jewish Apocalypticism”, JBL 79 (1960), pp. 148–50; Dexinger, Zehnwochenapoka-
lypse, p. 182 (and n. 1), where this distinction is implied on literary-critical grounds;
Robert A. Coughenour, “The Woe-Oracles in Ethiopic Enoch”, JSJ 11 (1978),
pp. 192–97 (the woe-oracles to 105–104 BCE); and Black, The Book of Enoch,
p. 288. Milik (The Books of Enoch, pp. 255–56) largely followed this view, though
proposed that Apoc. of Week. was composed around the same time (see below). Elias
Bickerman is an important exception: placing the date of composition for the Epistle
within the span of 300 to 100 BCE, he ventures more specifically that it was written
“probably sometime before Antiochus’ persecution”; cf. The Jews in the Greek Age
(Cambridge, Massachusetts and London: Harvard University Press, 1988), p. 275.
381 Drawing attention to the charge of murder in 103:14–15 and the lack of support
among the rulers, Charles, The Book of Enoch, pp. liii-liv, reasoned that the accu-
sation “is not justified before 95 B.C. As for the later limit, the Herodian princes can-
not be the rulers here mentioned; for the Sadducees were irrevocably opposed to these
as aliens and usupers. The date, therefore, may be either 95–79 B.C. or 70–64 B.C.,
during which periods the Pharisees were oppressed by both rulers and Saducees.”
Elsewhere, Charles argued for the dependence of the Epistle on Jubilees on the basis
of similar words and phrases (The Book of Jubilees, pp. lxix-lxxi) which, however, do
not establish the case of dependence; see esp. VanderKam, Enoch and the Growth of
Apocalyptic Tradition, p. 144.
382 VanderKam, Enoch and the Growth of Apocalyptic Tradition, p. 144. In addition to
1 Macc. 1:43 cited by VanderKam, see 1 Macc. 1:47; 13:47; and 2 Macc. 12:40.
Date and Social Setting 213

A more recent tendency amongst scholars has been to date the Epistle by
linking its composition with that of the Apocalypse of Weeks which is em-
bedded in it. Since none of the evidence (i.e. among the Dead Sea materials)
indicates that the Apocalypse was transmitted apart from the Epistle, these
documents should be co-ordinated. For Milik this meant that both works
may be assigned “towards the end of the second century or at the beginning
of the first century B.C.”.383 Milik’s view runs into difficulties as therein
there is no allusion whatsoever to any events following the Maccabean re-
volt (see section D on the date of Apoc. of Weeks). Others, however, have
construed the link between Epistle and Apocalypse as evidence of a date just
before the Maccabean revolt.384
A modified view of the last-mentioned approach to the question has
linked the frame of the Epistle to the composition of the Apocalypse of
Weeks, while retaining the date ascribed by the earlier consensus to the
body of the Epistle. This is the view advanced by Nickelsburg385 and
adopted in this volume (see below). An adaptation of this position is pro-
posed by Boccaccini, who has attempted to explain the main body of the
Epistle (defined by him as 94:6–104:6) as “post-sectarian”, that is, as hav-
ing been composed after a split between the Qumran community and an
Enochic group whose religiosity was not oriented around the Mosaic
Torah. The polemic in the Epistle is, therefore, to be understood as a work
directed by an Enochic group against the Qumran community, “who claim
that human beings are not responsible because ‘sin has been exported into
the world’” (cf. 98:4).386 Boccaccini’s hypothesis is misguided, as it relies
too heavily on the problem of the origin of evil as the essential point of de-
parture. Moreover, a literary-critical distinction between the frame and
body of the Epistle does not necessarily denote a composition during differ-
ent time periods. Most problematic in the thesis is the difficulty created

383 Milik, The Books of Enoch, pp. 255–56.


384 So H. H. Rowley, The Relevance of Apocalyptic (London: Lutterworth Press, 1963),
p. 59 and n. 2 bibl.); Bickerman (see n. 380); VanderKam, Enoch and the Growth of
Apocalyptic Tradition, pp. 142–49 (esp. p. 145, drawing attention to parallel motifs
and shared language between the Epistle and Apoc.); “Studies in the Apocalypse of
Weeks”, pp. 518–21; García Martínez, Qumran and Apocalyptic, pp. 79–86; Argall,
1 Enoch and Sirach, pp. 6–7; and Knibb, “The Apocalypse of Weeks and the Epistle
of Enoch”, p. 213.
385 See Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, pp. 427–28.
386 Boccaccini, Beyond the Essene Hypothesis, pp. 104–113; “Enoch, Qumran, and the
Essenes”, esp. pp. 127–30; and “Qumran and the Enoch Group”, pp. 48 and 51–53.
Cf. also Sacchi, in “Qumran and the Dating of the Parables of Enoch”, pp. 390–91.
214 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

when one imagines invectives of the Epistle as directed against the Qumran
group: how does what can be known about the Qumran community cohere
with the many caricatures that feature in the Epistle’s polemic against “the
sinners”: their wealth, their elite status, their association with the author-
ities, their idolatry, and their oppression of the righteous?387
In the end, the date of the Epistle must take into account several factors:
(a) the distinction between the frame and the body of the Epistle (see section
B.3.a); (b) the relationship between the frame and body of the Epistle and
the Apocalypse of Weeks (see introduction to Apoc. of Weeks, section E);
(c) the evidence from the Dead Sea materials; (d) clues that might be in-
ferred regarding the social setting of the main body of the Epistle; and (e)
possible allusions to it in contemporary literature. As (a) and (b) are dis-
cussed elsewhere, below more may be said in relation to (c) and (d).
With respect to (c), we not only note the palaeographical dating of two
Aramaic manuscripts (see following paragraph), but also mention the de-
bated Greek fragments from Qumran Cave 7. If any of the latter could be
identified with confidence with parts of the main body of the Epistle, then
we would have important evidence for the existence of it in Greek trans-
lation during the early 1st century BCE. However much this possibility can-
not be entirely discounted, it has to be emphasized that the evidence is any-
thing but probable; it remains way too meagre either to serve the analysis of
the Epistle itself or to provide sufficient grounds for identification from
which to advance an argument about the date.388
As we have seen (volume Introduction section B.1 and section A.3
above), the Introduction and Conclusion to the Epistle (the frame) are at-
tested, respectively, in 4QEng and 4QEnc. Thus the termini ad quem to these
sections can be placed to the palaeographic dates of these manuscripts, the
middle and last third of the 1st century BCE. The terminus a quo for the
composition of the Epistle as a whole is set by its use of the Book of
Watchers (see section B.4), which in its full form may be dated to at least the
late 3rd century BCE.389 The period during which the Epistle was authored

387 Cf. a further critique by Knibb, “The Apocalypse of Weeks and the Epistle of Enoch”,
pp. 213–19 (though I am not convinced by the alternative solution that links the
authorship of the Apocalypse and entirety of the Epistle; see section B.3.a above).
388 In agreement with Nickelsburg, “The Greek Fragments of 1 Enoch from Qumran
Cave 7: An Unproven Identification”, pp. 631–34: “The identification of these frag-
ments as the remnants of the Epistle of Enoch is as unproven as previous attempts to
assign them to the New Testament” (p. 634).
389 The date is based on Milik’s suggestion about the date of the archetype behind 4QEna
(1st half of 2nd cent. BCE); Milik, The Books of Enoch, p. 141.
Author and Community 215

can be set earlier than the manuscript evidence if we follow the reference in
Jubilees to “a testimony” (sama‘t) that Enoch wrote “and deposited …
upon the earth against all the children of men and their generations” (4:19;
cf. also 4:18). The same Ethiopic term (sama‘t), as a substantive, occurs
only in the Epistle at 96:5, 97:4, 99:3 (Grk. διαμαρτψρα), while the verbal
form is preserved in the Exhortation at 91:3, the conclusion of the Epistle at
104:11 and 105:1, and in body of the work at 100:11. The allusion in Jubi-
lees suggests that the author knew of the Epistle in its entirety (i.e. both the
frame and the body).390 The date of Jubilees, then, whether to the early
160’s BCE or sometime during the mid-2nd century,391 would provide a la-
test range by which the entire Epistle was composed. Thus an allusion in
Jubilees renders an early 1st century BCE date (as advanced by Charles and
others) unlikely.
The considerations here suggest that, despite their tradition- and source-
critical distinction, both the frame and body of the Epistle are more consist-
ent with conditions around the time just before of the Maccabean revolt.
Given the lack of any allusion to the Maccabean revolt in the Epistle, the
time period during which its sections were composed may have been years
immediately preceding this conflict, that is, at a time roughly corresponding
to the composition of the Apocalypse of Weeks. This impression is re-in-
forced by probable allusions to it as a whole in Jubilees.

D. Author and Community

Closely related to the questions of date and social setting is that of the
author. Here, as with all the other writings of the Enochic tradition, we pos-
sess no information whatsoever about an individual or individuals who lie
behind the pseudepigraphical “Enoch”. Of more interest, therefore, is what

390 Contra Nickelsburg (1 Enoch 1, p. 427), who claims that Jubilees “indicates no
knowledge of the body of the Epistle”. While “the children of men” and to future
“generations” in Jub. 4:18–19 suggests a link to the conclusion (104:11; 105:1),
Apoc. Wks. (93:1–2) or Exhortation at 91:1, only the body of the Epistle uses the
substantive (in 96:5 followed by “against”, with the same preposition following verbs
in 100:11 and 104:11). For a further position, which in addition proposes allusions to
the Epistle in Jub. 7:29 and 10:17, see VanderKam, “Enoch Traditions in Jubilees and
Other Second-Century Sources”, pp. 231–41.
391 See the thorough discussion of date by VanderKam, Textual and Historical Studies in
the Book of Jubilees, pp. 207–285 and Nickelsburg, Jewish Literature between the
Bible and the Mishnah, pp. 73–74, who opts for the early 160’s BCE.
216 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

can be said about the implied author of the Epistle: How does he position
himself within the document in relation to the Enochic tradition, to “the
sinners”, and to “the righteous”? Here we briefly offer a few suggestions.
In continuity with the Enochic traditions he inherited, the author of the
body of the Epistle regarded himself as a visionary. Unlike his Enochic pre-
decessors, he is not so much shown the cosmos (cf. 1 En. 17–36; 72–80;
82:4–20) or key events of world history (cf. 1 En. 85–90; 93:3–10 and
91:11–17), as he is given to see in “holy writings” the rewards that await
the righteous who are now suffering (103:2; cf. 22:1–9).392 In this respect, it
is significant that in contrast with other Enochic traditions (even Apoc. of
Weeks. 93:1–2 to which it is attached), the revelation he transmits does not
openly involve any angelic mediation; “angels” feature, rather, in state-
ments about them (97:2; 99:3; 100:4–5, 10; 102:3; 104:1, 4; cf. 104:6). Fin-
ally, the writer probably understood himself as a prophet in the biblical
tradition. Such a role is implied by the writer’s use of woe-oracles, oaths and
disclosure formulae (see sections B.2.b.i,ii,iv above). His prophetic function
is not limited to the conveyance of divine revelation that alternatingly ex-
horts and indicts. Analogous to the prophetic books of the Hebrew Bible,
the writer assumes a role as advocate for “the righteous” or “pious”. In this
respect, two points may be noted. First, while the text leaves no doubt that
the author aligns his position with that of the righteous community whose
position before God he repeatedly supports, there is no indication in the
text that his own experience reflects exactly what he describes as having
happened to his community (cf. 103:9–15). Second, the writer’s repeated
denunciations of the sinners frequently combine with an emphasis that their
deplorable deeds will be remembered and not be forgotten (cf. 96:4, 7; 97:2,
7; 99:3, 16; 103:4; 104:1). Though it is the memory of the victims’ suffering
and oppression that will be presented at the eschatological judgement when
justice will be made formally manifest, the writer’s invectives, in and of
themselves, seem to provide such a record. It is possible that the author of
the body of the Epistle regarded his own work as an essential indictment
that not only gave his readers a “voice” in the midst of trying circumstances
but would also carry weight when the sinners’ wickedness will be brought
before God for judgement.

392 For this reason the discourse of the Epistle (esp. the main body) is essentially oriented
around two times: the present (which is categorically and irresolvably miserable for
the righteous) and the eschatological future (which will be one of blessing for the
righteous and punishment for the wicked).
1 Enoch 92:1 217

COMMENTARY

92:1: The Superscription

That which was written by Enoch the scribe (which is a complete sign of
wisdom), praised by all men, and judge of all the earth: “To all my sons who
will dwell upon the earth and to the last generations who will do upright-
ness and peace.”

Textual Notes
Ethiopic: “The scribe” (sahafi; Tana 9, EMML 2080, Berl, BM 491, Abb 35,
Abb 55, EMML 1768, EMML 6281, Ryl, Eth. II mss.) – BM 485 reads
mashaf sahafa ’enka henok (“book; indeed, Enoch wrote”); Bodl 4 reads
sahafa (“he wrote”). // “Which is a complete” (za-kwellu; Tana 9,
EMML 2080, Abb 35, Ryl za-, Eth. II mss.) – Berl, BM 485, BM 491,
EMML 1768 and EMML 6281 have za-kwello; Munich 30 reads only
kwellu (“a complete”). // “Sign of wisdom” (te’merta tebab; Tana 9,
EMML 2080, Berl, BM 491, Abb 35, Abb 55, EMML 1768, EMML 6281) –
BM 485 reads te’merta wa-te’merta tebab (“a sign and a sign of wisdom”);
Ryl and Eth. II mss. read temherta tebab (“instruction of wisdom”). // “By
all” (’em-kwellu) – Ull adds the conjunction, wa-’em-kwellu (“and by all”). //
“Praised” (sebuh) – Tana 9 adds the conjunction, wa-sebuh (“and
praised”). // “And judge of” (wa-makwannena) – Tana 9 and EMML 6281
have wa-makwannen; EMML 2080, BM 485, and BM 491 read without the
conj. makwannena (“judge of”). // “All the earth” (kwellu medr) – Tana 9
reads with the conj. wa-kwellu medr (“and all the earth”). // “My sons” (we-
ludeya) – Tana 9 reads welud (“sons”); BM 491 misspells as weluya. //
“Who will dwell” (’ella yaxadderu) – omitted in Abb 55. // “Upon the
earth” (diba medr) – BM 485 reads diba yabs (“upon dry land”). // “And to
the … generations” (wa-la-tewled; EMML 2080, Berl, BM 485, Abb 55,
Ryl, Eth. II mss.) – BM 491, Abb 351 (?) and EMML 1768 read the acc.
form wa-la-tewleda; Tana 9 and EMML 6281 have wa-la-tewledat (“and to
the generations”); BM 484 reads only wa-tewled (“and the … gener-
ations”). // “Last” (daxareyan; EMML 2080, BM 485, BM 491, Abb 35,
Abb 55, EMML 1768 daxareyan, EMML 6281, Ryl) – Bodl 4, Curzon 56,
BM Add. 24185, BM 484, BM 486, BM 490, BM 499 and Westenholz Ms.
spell daxarayan; Ull, Bodl 5, Frankfurt Ms., Curzon 55, BM Add. 24990,
Abb 99, Vatican, Munich 30 and Garrett Ms. have daxaraweyan. // “Who
will do” (’ella yegabberu) – Bodl 5, Frankfurt Ms., Curzon 55, BM Add.
24990, Abb 99, Vatican 71, Munich 30 and Garrett Ms. read ’i-’ella yegab-
beru (“not those who will do”). // “Uprightness” (ret‘a) – EMML 6281 has
218 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

retu‘a (“uprightness of”). // “And peace” (wa-salama) – Tana 9 and


EMML 1768 spell with nom. wa-salam; EMML 6281 reads salam
(“peace”).

Greek: The Verso of an isolated fragment from the Chester-Beatty Papyrus


is inscribed as follows:

]α ενξL γρα[ “]. Enoch (the) scri[be” or “ … wro[te”


]. εργν και σ[ “]. of deeds and .[”

Since outside 92:1 there is no further reference to either “Enoch the scribe”
or “Enoch wrote” within chapters 92–105 (indeed, in chapters 91–107),
Milik has been able with confidence to identify the fragment with the text of
92:1.393

Aramaic: xl>v ]tml bhyv b [tk yd (4QEng 1 ii 22), “that which] he[ wro]te
and gave to Me[thuselah”.394 // XirX ]ynb [r ]yxbv X>vnX ,yk [xv (4QEng 1 ii
23), “and] the[ w]isest one of humanity and one cho[sen from] the children
of[ the earth”.395 // ybt ]y lvkl XyrxX Xyrdl […]…396[, “]to last generations,
to all [who] d[well” (4QEng 1 ii 24).

393 Milik, The Books of Enoch, pp. 261–62; see also the text and brief discussion of the
fragment in Bonner, The Last Chapters of Enoch in Greek, p. 11.
394 If the beginning of 92:1 occurs at the start of l. 22 of the fragment, then there
would be insufficient room to restore b ]tk yd btkm , “a book which] he[ wrote”.
In this respect, Milik’s reconstruction (The Books of Enoch, pp. 260 and 262),
which is adopted here, is plausible. Beyer reads and reconstructs as follows:
hrb xl>v ]tml bhyv b [tkd X>rp rpc „vnx dy btk (“Schriftstück von der Hand
Henochs, des Schreibers, der deuten kann, das er] schrieb und [seinem Sohn]
Metusalah gab [” (Die aramäischen Texte vom Toten Meer, p. 246). Beyer’s
reconstruction, perhaps under the influence of Eth. BM 485, seems based on the
text of a “letter” or “document” (]g>rp ) by Enoch in the Book of Giants 4Q203 8.4:
] X>rp rpc „vnx dy b [t ]kk .
395 Beyer, less plausibly, has XirX l ]vkb [r ]yxbv X>vnX ,vp [b yd Xu>vq li , “über die
Wahrheit, die im] Munde der Menschen ist und erwählt ist auf der ganzen [Erde”
(Die aramäischen Texte vom Toten Meer, p. 247).
396 Milik, The Books of Enoch, pp. 260 and 263, reads and restores yh ]vnb /[ynb , “the
sons of] h[is] sons” (4QEng 1 ii 23–24), arguing that the 3rd pers. suff. would be a con-
tinuation of the 3rd pers. reference to Methuselah on l. 22. However, a change of pers.,
as given in Eth. to 92:1c, would not be unusual; cf. Uhlig, Henochbuch, p. 709 n. 1d.
1 Enoch 92:1 219

Notes
1a. That which was written by Enoch the scribe (which is a complete sign
of wisdom). Only Ethiopic BM 485 uses the designation “book” (mashaf)
for the work. Thus neither the best textual evidence of the Ethiopic tradi-
tion nor the Aramaic give any indication that the opening words contained
a description of the work as a “book” (i.e. btkm , mashaf) or “letter” (hrgX ,
mashaf).397 Regarding the title for the work as a whole, see the introduction
section A.2 above.
A notable difference in the Aramaic text, if correctly reconstructed, in-
cludes a possible reference to Methuselah. Thus even more than the
Ethiopic, the Aramaic takes up the testamentary genre in a form that has
Enoch communicating with or through his son to progeny of the following
generations (see comment to 91:1a,c). It is possible, therefore, that at the
end of the Epistle, the tradition behind the surprising reference to “I and my
son” may have denoted Enoch and Methuselah (see the Note to 105:2a).
The role of Enoch as “scribe” is widespread in the early Enoch tradi-
tion398: see the Book of Watchers (12:3 – sehafi, “scribe”, omitted in Cod.
Pan.; 12:4 – sehafe sedq, “scribe of righteousness” = Cod. Pan. H γραμμα-
τε3« τ0« δικαιοσ-νη«;399 15:1 – sehafe sedq = Cod. Pan. Aν$ρπο«
λη$ιν/« τ0« λη$εα« H γραμματε-«, “a true man, the scribe of truth”);
Astronomical Book (72:1); Book of Giants (4Q203 8.4 and 4Q530 2 ii +
6–7 i + 8–12, l. 14 – X>rp rpc , “scribe of interpretation”400; cf. 4Q206a
2.2 – rp ]c , “sc[ribe of …”).401 The function is further presupposed in the
Astronomical Book (72:1); Jubilees 4:17–19, 23; and numerous times in
2 Enoch (22:11–12; 33:5-rec. J; 33:8; 35:2; 36:1-rec. J; 43:1; 47:2; 50:1;
53:2–3; 54:1; 64:5-rec. J; 67:3-rec. J; 68:2-rec. J). At an early stage of recep-

397 So, correctly, Milik, The Books of Enoch, p. 262.


398 For a brief summary of some of the evidence, see Michael A. Knibb, “The Book of
Enoch in the Light of the Qumran Wisdom Literature”, in ed. F. García Martínez,
Wisdom and Apocalypticism in the Dead Sea Scrolls and in the Biblical Tradition
(BETL, 168; Leuven: University Press and Peeters, 2003), pp. 193–210 (here
pp. 196–99).
399 Aram. Xu>vq rpc is to be reconstructed behind the expression “scribe of righteous-
ness”; cf. n. 145 above. For the expression see further Apoc. Paul 20.
400 Milik restores this phrase as Enoch’s designation in 92:1 for 4QEng 1 ii 22, and
considers “scribe of righteousness” as another possibility (The Books of Enoch,
pp. 260–61).
401 Generally, see the discussion by Annette Yoshiko Reed, “Heavenly Ascent, Angelic
Descent, and the Transmission of Knowledge in 1 Enoch 6–16”, in eds. Ra‘anan S.
Boustan and Annette Yoshiko Reed, Heavenly Realms and Earthly Realities in Late
Antique Religions (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), p 48.
220 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

tion-history of Enochic writings, Jubilees 4 summarises the scribal activity


of Enoch, who was “the first who learned writing and knowledge and wis-
dom from among humanity who were born on the earth” (v. 17; cf. further
1QapGen xix 24–25402). Thus Enoch’s role as a “scribe” is bound up with
his twinfold activities as writer (Jub. 4:18–19, 21, 23) and teacher. If we
take early Enochic tradition into consideration, Enoch shares the scribal
functions attributed to angelic beings (so esp. Anim. Apoc. at 89:76; 90:14,
17, 20, 22; for this associated function, see 2 En. 22:11–12). This under-
standing of Enoch is picked up in the later tradition of Targum Pseudo-Jon-
athan to Genesis 5:24, in which Enoch is identified with the great angelic
intermediary, Metatron: “He [Enoch] ascended to heaven, and God called
him by the name Metatron, the great scribe” (cf. b.Hag. 15a). This associ-
ation with angels is appropriate, as it is from them that, at least according
4Q227 (4QPsJubc) 2.1–4, he is thought to have acquired this ability (ll. 1,
4 – “E]noch, after which we taught him … and he wrote everything”,
rvhvndml r>X rxX „vn [x lvk tX bvtkyv …) and whose instructions he rec-
ords (cf. 74:2; 82:1). Another view of Enoch as a scribe is underlined in the
Book of Dreams at 83:2, in which the first of his visions in the Book of
Dreams is ascribed to the period when he learned how to write (cf. 83:10).
His special role as scribe par excellence distinguishes him from writing
thought to be objectionable. According to the Epistle at 104:9–13, though
books (the Enochic ones?) will be given to the righteous and wise (vv.
12–13), others have been composed by “sinners” and are reprehensible (vv.
10–11).403 Similitudes (69:8–10) is more categorically negative with regard
to the acquisition of writing “with pen and ink”, which is attributed to the
teaching of the fallen angel Penemu’e (sp. EMML 2080).404
In the Ethiopic, the title of the work is supplemented by its description
as “a complete sign of wisdom”.405 Though the Aramaic does not preserve
such a phrase, a link with wisdom is expressed in the description of Enoch

402 According to this somewhat fragmentary text, Abraham reads from “the [book] of
the words of Enoch” before the princes of Egypt who, during their visit with him,
were expecting instruction in “goodness, wisdom, and truth” (Xu>vqv Xtmkxv Xtbu ).
403 See similarly Jub. 8:1–3: while Enoch’s writing activity is held in high esteem (cf.
4:17–19, 23), the learning and reading ability by Cainan, who sinned for having
understood and copied a lapidary inscription containing the teaching of the fallen
watchers, is considered objectionable.
404 See esp. 69:10: “For humanity was not born for (a purpose) such as this, to make
strong their faith with pen and ink.”
405 Whether or not it is the object of the verb (see Textual Note, e.g., on the reading of
BM 485).
1 Enoch 92:1 221

as “the w]isest one among humanity”. How is this wisdom, mentioned at


the outset of the Epistle, to be interpreted? Is it a claim that the book con-
veys eschatological wisdom in all its completeness, or does it mean that the
book as a whole is wisdom? Along the lines of the former possibility, one
may appeal to the Apocalypse of Weeks (93:10), which for week seven an-
ticipates that the righteous elect community will be given “sevenfold wis-
dom and instruction with respect to the whole of his creation” (cf. Aram.
text). Moreover, according to a passage late in the Epistle (104:12–13; cf.
105:1), it is promised that the righteous and wise will receive “books for
joy, for truth and for much wisdom” (v. 12). It is not clear, however, that
such eschatological instruction is what the author claims to impart in 92:1.
For one thing, the document remains “open”, that is, its message is, at least
nominally, directed not only at the righteous but also at the wicked upon
whom a number of woes are pronounced. At the same time, 104:12–13,
though referring to books to be given to the righteous (who in turn are ex-
horted to show to the children of the earth), seems to have in mind the Eno-
chic writings themselves, which shall be disclosed during the (fictive) future
of the patriarch. Thus, it seems less that the book contains eschatological
wisdom per se than that it claims to be a book of wisdom that openly
addresses Israel. The association of Enoch’s testamentary instruction with
“wisdom” is also made in 82:2–3, where those who understand “will not
sleep, but make their ears listen, in order to learn this wisdom”; thus while
the wisdom is communicated to all, it is only the wise who are capable of
understanding the patriarch’s words. In sum, though we may infer that
Enoch’s writing is here being regarded as “wisdom” (on the strength of
82:2–3; 104:12–13 and 105:1), it does not yet constitute the ultimate wis-
dom spoken of, for example, in 93:10.
1b. Praised by all men, and judge of all the earth. It is possible that the
Ethiopic II recension secondarily includes the first phrase within the fore-
going phrase (v. 1a), so that it is the “complete sign of wisdom” that is
“praised by all men”.406 In focusing entirely on the pre-eminence of Enoch,
the Aramaic seems to agree with recension Ethiopic I, though with different
wording: Enoch is the quintessentially “w]ise” one of humanity and “one
cho[sen from] the children of[ the earth”. The Aramaic and Ethiopic I read-
ings are herewith discussed in turn.
The pre-eminence of Enoch in wisdom assumes that the source of his
knowledge is not human. This is reflected in the close affinity between
Enoch and “God” or the angelic elohim in Genesis 5:24, an affinity that is

406 So Uhlig, Henochbuch, p. 709 n. 1b.


222 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

picked up in Book of Watchers (12:1–2), Book of Giants (see 4Q531 14.6 –


“he did [n]ot dwell among humanity and did not learn from them”), Birth
of Noah (106:19), Genesis Apocryphon (1QapGen ii 20–21 – Enoch “is be-
loved … and they [the angels] tell him everything”) – and Jubilees 4:21. See
also the Note to 92:2c. Enoch’s position is unique; and in the Apocalypse of
Weeks it is not until the end of the seventh week that the identity of the
righteous chosen ones who shall also receive wisdom and instruction will be
disclosed (93:10).
It is unclear where sebuh (“praised”) comes from, that is, whether is
derives from the Aramaic ryxb (“chosen” = Grk. #κλεκτ«, which would
be usually rendered into Eth. as xeruy) or is a translation from a different
Vorlage.407 The phrase essentially distinguishes Enoch from all other
human beings (cf. Sir. 49:14 – οδε?« #κτσ$η #π! τ0« γ0« τοιοτο«
οMο« Ενξ, “no one was created upon the earth such as one like Enoch”;
2 En. 64:5).
The designation of Enoch as “judge” (makwannen) may derive from his
scribal activity as one who records the deeds of humanity. The designation
may anticipate later speculation about Enoch that accords him the role
given to the angelic man-like figure in the Animal Apocalypse (90:14, 17,
22; cf. 89:61, 76).
1c. To all my sons who will dwell upon the earth and to the last gener-
ations who will do uprightness and peace. The Ethiopic leaves out any men-
tion of Methuselah, but has Enoch directly address both his children (in the
testamentary form) and even those who will live during generations remote
in time to him. The latter, described along the lines of the opening to the
Book of Watchers (1:2; cf. also 81:6; 82:1–2), refers to those whom the
author has in mind as the recipients of the work; this double reference is re-
peated in 94:1–3.
The “last generations” are qualified as those who are righteous (cf. 1:2;
94:2; in a similar context, CD A i 1: “listen, all those who know righteous-
ness” par. 4QDc = 4Q268 1.9 and 4QDe = 4Q270 2 ii 19). What is disclosed
to them, however, will not only concern them alone but also the wicked
who find themselves rhetorically addressed throughout the Epistle. Indeed,
according to the Damascus Document (CD A i 11–12), the Teacher of
Righteousness has disclosed a divine revelation “to the last generations”
(perhaps the Qumran community, tvrvdl ,ynvrxX ) which is concerned with
“the last generation, the congregation of traitors” (,ydgvb tdi ]vrxX rvdb );
see similarly the Habakkuk Pesher (1QpHab ii 7; vii 2) and Micah Pesher

407 The question is raised and not resolved by Milik, The Books of Enoch, p. 263.
1 Enoch 92:2–5 223

(1QpMic 17–19.1–5, a citation of Mic. 6:14–15, interpreted in relation the


wicked of “the [l]ast generation”).
For the combination of “righteousness” and “peace”, see 94:4.

92:2–5: Opening Statement on Eschatological Reward and Punishment

(2) Let not your spirit be saddened because of the times, for the Holy and
Great One has appointed days for everything. (3) And the righteous one will
be raised from his sleep; and he will arise and walk in the ways of righteous-
ness, and all his ways and his journeyings (will be) in goodness and eternal
mercy. (4) He will be merciful to the righteous one and to him he will give
uprightness which is eternal; and to him he will given authority, and he
will be in goodness and righteousness, and they will walk in eternal light.
(5) And sin will be destroyed for ever in darkness, and it will no longer be
seen, then, from that day into eternity.

Textual Notes
Ethiopic: (2) “Let not … be saddened” (’i-texezen; Berl, BM 491,
EMML 1768, Ryl, most Eth. II mss.) – BM 485 has ’i-tehazan; BM 484 has
wa-’i-tehazan (“and let not be saddened”); EMML 2080, Abb 35 and
EMML 6281 have ’i-tehezan; Tana 9 wa-’i-tehezan (“and let not be sad-
dened”). // “Your spirit” (manfaskemu) – EMML 1768 has nafsekemu. //
“Because of the times” (ba-’azman) – BM 485 reads ba-’aman (“in truth”
or “truly”); omitted in Bodl 4. // “Days” (mawa‘ela, acc.) – EMML 6281
reads nom. mawa‘el. // “The Holy … One” (qedus) – Tana 9 and
EMML 1768 read qedusa; BM 499 and Westenholz Ms. have la-qedus. //
“And Great” (wa-‘abiy; Tana 9, Berl, BM 485, Ull, Curzon 56, BM Add.
24990, Garrett Ms.) – EMML 1768 reads acc. ‘abiya; BM 491, Abb 35,
EMML 6281, Ryl and most Eth. II mss. read nom. ‘abiy (“great”); EMML
2080 spells ‘abiy; omitted in Abb 55. // “For everything” (la-kwellu) – Berl
reads with accusative la-kwello; Tana 9 and EMML 6281 have ba-kwellu
(“in everything”); omitted in Abb 55. (3) “And the righteous one will be
raised … righteousness” (wa-yitnašša’ sadeq … sedq) – BM 485, perhaps
under the influence of 91:10, reads wa-yitnašša’ tebab wa-yaxallef sedq
(“and wisdom will be raised, and righteousness will wander about”). //
“Righteous one” (sadeq) – BM 491 and EMML 1768 have sedq (“right-
eousness”). // “From his sleep” (’em-newamu; Tana 9, EMML 2080,
BM 491, EMML 6281) – Berl, Abb 35, Abb 55, EMML 1768, Ryl and Eth.
II mss. reads ’em-newam (“from sleep”). // “And he will arise” (wa-yet-
našša’; Tana 9, EMML 2080, EMML 6281, Ryl1, BM 486) – BM 485, Berl,
224 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

Abb 35, EMML 1768, Ryl2 and most Eth. II mss. read without the conj. yet-
našša’ (“he will arise”). // “And walk in the ways of righteousness” –
omitted in Abb 55. // In the ways of” (ba-fenawata; Tana 9, EMML 2080,
Berl, Abb 35, EMML 1768) – BM 491 spells ba-fenwata; Ryl and most
Eth. II mss. have ba-fenota; EMML 6281 has ba-fenawat; omitted in
BM 485. // “And all his ways” (wa-kwellu fenotu; EMML 2080, Berl,
BM 485, BM 491, Abb 35, EMML 1768, EMML 6281, Ryl, Eth. II mss.) –
Tana 9 reads with the acc. and without the suff. wa-kwello fenota (“and all
the ways”). // “And his journeyings” (wa-mehwarihu) – BM 485 reads sing.
wa-mehwaru (“and his journeying”); EMML 1768 spells wa-mehwirihu. //
“In goodness” (za-ba-xirut) – BM 485 and Ull have ba-xirut; BM 491 and
EMML 6281 have za-ba-xirutu (“in his goodness”). // “And in eternal
mercy” (wa-ba-šahel za-la-‘alam; Tana 9, EMML 2080, BM 485, Ryl,
Eth. II mss.) – Abb 352? reads with the accus. form wa-šahela za-la-‘alam
(“and mercy”); Berl, BM 491, Abb 55, EMML 1768 and EMML 6281 read
wa-šahel za-la-‘alam. // “Mercy … uprightness which is eternal” (in v. 4) –
omitted in EMML 6281 through homoioteleuton (za-la-‘alam “eternal” …
za-la-‘alam “eternal”). (4) “He will be merciful” (yešahhalo; EMML 2080,
BM 485, BM 491, Ull) – Berl, Abb 35, Abb 55, Ryl and Eth. II mss. spell ye-
šahhalo; Tana 9 reads with the conj. wa-yešahhalo (“and he will be merci-
ful”); EMML 1768 spells yešehhalo. // “To the righteous one” (la-sadeq;
Tana 9, Abb 35, Abb 55, EMML 1768, Ryl, Eth. II mss.) – EMML 2080,
Berl and BM 485 read la- sedq (“to righteousness”); BM 491 reads la-‘alam
la-sadeq (“forever to the righteous one”). // “And … to him” (wa-lotu) –
omitted in EMML 2080; BM 485 reads wa-botu (“and in him”); omitted in
Frankfurt Ms. // “He will give” (first occurrence, yehub) – EMML 2080 has
wa-yehub (“and he will give”). // “Uprightness” (ret‘a) – Tana 9 has retu‘a
(adj., “what is upright”). // “Which is eternal” (za-la-‘alam) – EMML 2080
has la-‘alam (“for ever”). // “And … he will give” (second occurrence, wa-
yehub) – Tana 9 spells defectively wa-yehu; EMML 6281 reads wa-yebe-
lomu wa-yehubomu šeltana (“and he will speak to them and give them
authority”; cf. Dan. 7:27). // “And he will be” (wa-yekawwen) – Tana 9 and
Abb 35 spell wa-yekwennen; Berl reads wa-yekawwen ba-ret‘ wa- (“he will
be in uprightness and”). // “And they will walk” (wa-yahawweru, plur.;
EMML 2080, Berl, BM 485, Abb 55, EMML 1768, BM 499, Westenholz
Ms.) – Tana 9 has wa-yawweru (with conj. but with defective spelling with-
out “ha”, “and they will go”); BM 491, Abb 35, EMML 6281, Ryl and
most Eth. II mss. read sing. wa-yahawwer (“and he will walk”). // “In …
light” (ba-berhan; EMML 2080, Berl, BM 485, BM 491, Abb 35,
EMML 1768, EMML 6281, Ull) – Tana 9 spells defectively (ba-berna); Ryl
and most Eth. II mss. read without conj. berhan (“light”). (5) “In darkness”
1 Enoch 92:2–5 225

(ba-selmat) – Tana 9, Abb 55 and BM 486 read wa-selmat (“and dark-


ness”). // “For ever” (’eska la-‘alam) – omitted in Abb 55. // “And it will no
longer be seen” (wa-’i-tetra’’ay, fem.; Tana 9, EMML 2080, BM 485,
BM 491, Abb 35, EMML 1768, EMML 6281, Ryl, most Eth. II mss.) – Berl
reads masc. wa-’i-yetra’’ay; Abb 55 reads wa-’i-yetra’’ayu (“and they will
no longer be seen”); BM 484 has wa-’i-tetra’’ayu. // “Then” (’enka) –
Tana 9 mistakenly reads ’eska (“until”) in anticipation of the next phrase. //
“From that day” (’em-ye’eti ‘elat) – EMML 1768 reads ’em-ye’eti sa‘at
wa-‘elat (“from that hour and day”). // “Into” (’eska) – Tana 9 and
EMML 6281 read with the conj. wa-’eska (“and into”); EMML 1768 reads
’enka (“then”).

Aramaic: (2) ?v ]rX Xt>hbb ]v [ht lX ,408 “Do not b]e in shame, fo[r”
(4QEng 1 ii 25). Only the term Xt>hb < Xtthb (“distress, grief, shame”)
seems certain.409 // ]bh .[, “has given(?)” (4QEng ii 26). (3)–(5) Text corre-
sponding to these verses would have taken up at least the first 17 lines of
4QEng 1 iii;410 thus the text would have been longer than what is preserved
in the Ethiopic. (5) Xkv.[, “dar]kness(?) (likely from Xkv>x ) (4QEng 1 iii 16).
//] ]d /<mvy ] [m , “fr]om this day” (4QEng 1 iii 17).

General Comment
The literary relationship between verses 2–5 and the foregoing Exhortation
and subsequent Apocalypse of Weeks, which are originally separate com-
positions, is unclear. Ascertaining the nature of this connection – that
is, which writing shows a dependence on the other(s) – is complicated by the
fact that in 4QEng the Exhortation comes first, while the originally separate
Epistle and Apocalypse of Weeks have already been integrated (i.e. the
Apocalypse interpolated into the Epistle after 92:5). It is necessary, in prin-
ciple, to distinguish between the time of composition, the possibility of lit-
erary influence of the earlier on the later writing, and the derivation of
wording based on the position of a passage within the manuscript. Thus,
whereas the Exhortation may have been composed after the Epistle, the

408 The text follows the reconstructions of Milik (The Books of Enoch, pp. 260, 263), ex-
cept for the last word, which he restores as ]v ]tX (“you” plur.) resulting in his trans-
lation, “Be ye [not] in distress, ye [and your spirits …”. However, the shape of the
partly visible last letter (the upper left) is more consistent with resh than with a taw in
the ms.; therefore, we follow the restoration of Beyer (Die aramäischen Texte vom
Toten Meer, p. 247).
409 See the discussion by Milik, The Books of Enoch, p. 263.
410 So correctly Milik, The Books of Enoch, p. 264.
226 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

wording of the Epistle in the form that we have it – particularly 92:2–5 –


may nonetheless derive from that of the Exhortation (esp. 91:4, 10, and
18–19). Or, given the literary link between the pieces at such an early stage
of the tradition, the texts may with time have been mutually influential to
the extent that it is no longer possible to determine which wording in this or
that instance came first. Similarly, the resonances between this section and
the Apocalypse of Weeks are strong, especially in verses 3–5 where it is
possible that the text bears the ideological influence of the document which
follows immediately in the manuscript of 4QEng.

Notes
2a. Let not your spirit be saddened because of the times. This is the only ex-
hortation per se until 94:1. The negative formulation in these opening
words is intended to function as comfort. As such, they assume that the
audience, who are a community of the righteous (cf. 92:1c), perceive them-
selves to be in difficult circumstances. According to the Ethiopic of 102:4
and 5a, the expression “let not be saddened” (’i-texazan) is treated as syn-
onymous to “do not be afraid” (’i-teferhu). The similarity to 102:4 is under-
scored by the parallel exhortation that the “souls of the righteous” not fear.
(Further exhortations not to fear occur in 95:3; 96:3; esp. 103:4) However,
the souls addressed in 102:4 belong to the righteous who have already died,
while here the words are concerned with the author’s (living) community. In
the Gospel of John similar words of comfort, in a testamentary setting, are
attributed to Jesus who addresses his disciples: “do not let your heart be
troubled” (14:1 – μ ταρρασσωσ$ <μ&ν 9 καρδα) and “do not let your
heart be troubled and do not let it be afraid” (14:27 – μ ταρρασσωσ$
<μ&ν 9 καρδα μηδ Nε δειλιτ).411 The negative formulation anticipates
that reasons will be given to mitigate the anguish that is being attributed to
the readers.
Though a testamentary setting is implied (92:1c), the reason for the sad-
ness of those addressed is not the departure of the one speaking, that is,
Enoch (in contrast, e.g., to T. Zeb. 10:1). The phrase “because of the times”
is a general formulation of reasons why the addressees may have to be in
distress. More specific grounds for the reading community’s plight are ar-
ticulated in the main body of the Epistle (e.g. 95:3; 96:3; 103:9–15).
2b. For the Holy and Great One has appointed days for everything. The
first reason given for why the readers should be consoled is predetermi-
nation on the part of God. Since God has foreordained the course of all

411 See further Mk. 13:7; 6 Ez. 15:3.


1 Enoch 92:2–5 227

events and since the readers, being among the righteous, may assume that
God will ultimately act on their behalf, the future should not be cause for
apprehension. The “days” appointed by God mark a deliberate contrast to
“the times” of present grief (v. 2a). In view of 103:2, in which the seer ap-
peals to heavenly tablets (see the next paragraph below), it may be that the
author is thinking of the reward coming to the righteous rather than specifi-
cally of divine retribution against the wicked who are the cause of the com-
munity’s troubles.
While the Epistle itself contains a number of references to future divine
justice on behalf of the righteous, the mention of “days for everything” ap-
pointed by God will have provided an editor a warrant for interpolating into
the work the succinct, yet comprehensive, covenant history described by the
Apocalypse of Weeks. The setting of periods of time and what is to happen
during them is a prerogative of God, who has created time as well as space
(cf. 1QS iii 14–16; 4Q180 1.1).412 In both the Astronomical Book (81:1–2)
and Apocalypse 93:2 the fixing of times is closely bound up with “tablets”
upon which such divine knowledge is inscribed (cf. the Note to 93:2c).
The designation “the Holy and Great One” (whether in this or an in-
verted order) occurs elsewhere in the Epistle (97:6a – “Great Holy One”;
98:6; 104:9; as “the Great One” in 103:1, 4; 104:1), where it is preferred in
the context of oaths (98:6; 103:1; 104:1). It occurs also in the Book of
Watchers from which it may be ultimately taken (1:3, Aram. 4Q201 1 i 5
h [br h ]>ydq ; 10:1; 14:1; 25:3; cf. further Bk. of Dreams at 4Q530 2 ii +
6–7 i + 8–12, l. 17 and Bk. of Dreams at 84:1).413 In the Enochic tradition
this divine name underscores God’s unrivalled superiority over all the holy
ones (angelic beings) who belong to his heavenly entourage.414 Though the
expression “holy ones” refers several times in the Apocalypse of Weeks to
angelic beings (93:2, 6; cf. 91:15), in the Epistle it occurs only three times,
once to denote angelic scribes (103:2 – “the books of the holy ones”,
though only in BM 485a, BM 491, Ryl and most Eth. II mss.) and at least
twice, significantly, to describe the righteous dead (99:16b; 100:5; cf. 97:5).
3a. And the righteous one will rise from sleep; and he will arise and
walk in the ways of righteousness. The words of the first phrase are resump-

412 The same is expressed in Acts 1:7 in the reference to “the times or seasons set by the
Father by his own authority”, though unlike 1 En., Luke considers such knowledge to
be exclusive to God, it i.e. can not be known to the religious community.
413 Cf. further 1QapGen ii 14; vi 15; vii 7; and xii 17 for the expression Xbr X>ydq . The
Heb. equivalent does not occur in either the Hebrew Bible or Dead Sea documents.
See Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 144.
414 So VanderKam, “The Theophany of 1 Enoch 1:3b–7, 9”, VT 23 (1973), p. 134.
228 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

tive of the Ethiopic text to the Exhortation at 91:10. Though the Exhor-
tation as a whole may have been composed after the Epistle, its location be-
fore the Epistle in 4QEng allows the present text to function as an allusion,
though it remains unclear which of the two passages was composed first.
The image of rising “from sleep” may be interpreted in two ways. First,
it may be a metaphor for physical resurrection from the dead. See 100:5
where the “sleep” of the righteous describes a time after their death during
which evil will be destroyed and the righteous have nothing to fear (see
Note). While death can be understood as “sleep”, the idea of “rising” from
it refers to some kind of resuscitation. The metaphor occurs in Job 14:12,
though here such rising is not contemplated. However, the expectation is
reflected in Isaiah 26:19 and, especially, Daniel 12:2 where it also applies
not only to some righteous but also to some who are wicked: “And many of
those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake (vjyqy ), some to life
eternal and some to shame and everlasting contempt” (NRSV). In an escha-
tological context, the metaphor can be more narrowly applied to the right-
eous who will “awaken” to participate in judgement over the wicked (so
1QHa xiv 29, “all his sons of truth” and 4Q418 69 ii 7, “those who seek
the truth”). Similarly, it is the righteous one (coll. sing.) who shall awaken,
though the immediate emphasis is more on what they will do than on how
they relate to the wicked (cf. 92:5). The theme of a spiritual resurrection is
taken up in 103:4 and 104:1–2 and may be anticipated in this text.
Second, however, Nickelsburg argues that the language of rising from
sleep may have its counterpart in the blindness that plays a prominent role
in the Animal Apocalypse (89:51, 54–56, 66–67, 74)415 and that characte-
rises week six of the Apocalypse of Weeks (93:8).416 Recognition of this
context raises the possibility that, instead of resurrection, the text thinks of
the emergence of the righteous community from a general period of spiri-
tual lethargy, analogous to the image of having “the eyes opened” referred
to in 89:74 and 90:6–7 (see a similar exhortation, formulated with resur-
rection terminology, in Eph. 5:14; cf. further Ps.-Philo 19:13). If this is the
case, the author has Enoch predict the emergence of the faithful community
that is being addressed in the text.
A specific allusion to resurrection, nonetheless, cannot be excluded. The
connection between walking “in eternal light” in 92:4 and the references

415 Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, pp. 432–33. There may, then, be a word play between the
condition of blindness (rvi , ‘iwwer) and the verb “awaken” (rvi ).
416 Cf. also the juxtaposition of “blindness” (rvi ) with rising up (]vmvqy ) in 4QPsDanc
2.3–4, though the text is very fragmentary.
1 Enoch 92:2–5 229

to the righteous shining in 104:2 (cf. Dan. 12:3) indicates that the text may
have the ultimate (rather than the current) state of the righteous community
in view. Moreover, it could be argued that each mention of rising in the pres-
ent lemma is distinguishable in emphasis: whereas the first denotes resur-
rection, the second refers to the activity of the righteous when this event oc-
curs. In this case, the second reference is concerned with the eschatological,
rather than with the present, righteous community. For a similarly ambigu-
ous use of “wake” and “sleep”, see 1 Thessalonians 5:6 and 10.
The phrase “way(s) of righteousness” (fenawata sedq) or the equivalent
occurs also in the Exhortation (91:4, 18–19) and Apocalypse of Weeks
(91:14, ninth week). See the benediction pronounced on the righteous in
82:4 who “walk on the way of righteousness and do not sin as do the
sinners” who err in their computation of the calendar. In addition, it occurs
in a blessing on the wise (99:10b) and at the conclusion of the Epistle
(105:2). See also Eschatological Admonition at 108:13b.
3b. And all his ways and his journeyings (will be) in goodness and
mercy. The vocabulary complements that of the previous clause in verse 3a:
“who way” and “journeyings” parallel “ways”, while “goodness and
mercy” (xirut wa-šahel) extend the mention of “righteousness” (sedq). The
terminology of verse 3a and 3b is reminiscent of 91:4b and anticipates a
similar pairing of “righteousness and goodness” in the next verse (92:4b).
The terms again suggest that the author is concerned with the ultimate state
of affairs for the righteous; in week ten of the Apocalypse of Weeks (91:17),
the “many weeks without number” will be “in goodness and righteousness”
(ba-xirut wa-sedq). In comparison with verse 3a, the phrase “his whole
way” introduces the idea of singularity and undividedness of purpose. This
is, again, reminiscent of 91:4a in which Enoch’s progeny are exhorted not to
associate with righteousness “with a double heart” (see the Note to 91:4a).
The ultimate activities of the righteous thus correspond to what the audi-
ence is exhorted to do in 91:4.
4a. He will be merciful to the righteous one and to him will be given
uprightness which is eternal. The verb “to be merciful” (šahala) picks up on
the foregoing description of the activity of the righteous as “in journeying …
in mercy (šahel)”. As an eschatological motif, the showing of mercy to the
righteous is rare in biblical tradition (cf. Ps. 112:4). Moreover, the mention
of God’s mercy is often concerned with sinners (e.g. 2 Chr. 30:9; Neh. 9:17,
31; Jer. 3:12; Joel 2:13; Jon. 4:2; cf. Wis. 11:23; Sir. 2:11; Pr. Man. 7;
4 Ez. 8:31–32, 36). For a similar formulation within a hymn of praise about
Jerusalem, see Tobit 13:9 (Codd. Vat. and Alex.): after Jerusalem has been
punished for her children’s deeds, the author expects that God “will again
have mercy on the sons of the righteous” (πλιν #λεσει το3« <ιο3« τ&ν
230 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

δικαν). Both clauses emphasize that the pious activity of the righteous
will itself be God-given.
The singular “righteous one” is to be understood as a collective, refer-
ring to those belonging to the eschatological upright community. Nothing
warrants Isaac’s translation of “Righteous One”,417 which would have the
Epistle open with the mention of an intermediary figure who plays no role
in the rest of the work.
4b. And to him will be given authority. The nature of the authority (sel-
tan) is not identified. As an eschatological reversal of social conditions, the
Epistle promises that authority will be given to the righteous over sinners
(96:1). More generally, the dominion of the righteous over the earth is ex-
pected to accompany eschatological events (cf. “the saints of the Most
High” in Dan. 7:18, 22, and 27; 1QM xvii 8; 4Q521 2 ii 7; cf. Rev. 3:21;
5:10; 22:5; Test. Job 33:3–9; Lactantius, Div. Inst. vii 24.15).
4c. And he will be in goodness and righteousness, and they will walk in
eternal light. On the twinning of the terms “goodness” and “righteousness”,
see the Note to 92:3b. Walking in eternal light is synonymous to the
“way(s) of righteousness” or “uprightness” (cf. 91:4, 18; 92:4; 99:10;
105:2). The text may be influenced by the description of week nine in the
Apocalypse of Weeks (91:16), according to which “every power of the
heavens shall shine with a sevenfold light for ever”. Here, however, the
motif of shining for ever relates more specifically to the ultimate state of the
faithful. According to 104:2 the eschatological hope of the righteous will
manifest itself when they shine “as the light of heaven”, an image that in-
fluences the later Eschatological Admonition in 108:13, 15 (cf. also Simili-
tudes at 38:2). This motif is widespread in Jewish apocalyptic thought. In
particular, Daniel 12:3 was an influential passage: those who bring many to
righteousness “will shine like stars for ever”. See also 1QS iv 8 (,ymlvi rvX ,
“eternal light”); 1QM i 8; xvii 26–27 (cf. xvii 7); 4 Ezra 7:97, 125.418 Ac-
cording to Musar le-Mevin at 4Q418 69 ii 12–14, “the s[ons of] heaven …
wal[k] in eternal light (vk ]lhty ,lvi rvXb )”. The association between the
righteous and angelic beings in 104:2 and 4Q418 69 ii 12–14 implies the fu-
ture angelification of the righteous. The text does not, however, share the
view that the righteous have already achieved such a state, as indicated in
several texts from the Dead Sea documents which claim that such illumi-
nation from God has already been bestowed (1QHa xii 5, 27; xvii 27;
4Q511 18 ii 8), perhaps under the influence of the Aaronic blessing of

417 Isaac, “1 (Ethiopic Apocalypse of) Enoch”, p. 74.


418 The motif is taken up in several New Testament texts; cf. Mt. 5:16; 13:43; Phil. 2:15.
1 Enoch 93:11–14 231

Numbers 6:24 (cf. 11Q14 1 ii 7). Indeed, “the sons of light” (rvX ynb ) is one
of the most frequent self-designations of the Qumran community, nomen-
clature deliberately formulated in opposition to “the sons of darkness”.419
See further the Notes to 96:3a and 104:2.
5. And sin will be destroyed for ever in darkness, and it will no longer be
seen, then, from that day into eternity. In contrast to the image of walking in
eternal light, “sin” will be annihilated “for ever”, a point that is stressed by
the final clause, “from that day into eternity”. While a dualistic opposition
between light and darkness may be operative here, it is very weak and not
developed any further in the Epistle (see 104:8; cf. Eschat. Admon.
108:12–14), the dualistic language of which focuses more on righteousness
versus wickedness.420 A more likely reason for the mention of darkness is
that the author elsewhere associates it with the “great judgement” (see the
Notes to 94:9 and 103:8a).
The destruction anticipated shall be carried out against “sin” itself (cf.
Eschat. Admon. 108:3a). While this may imply the eschatological punish-
ment of evildoers (cf. 91:12), the emphasis lies more on the obliteration of
underlying evil. This is consistent with the language of the Exhortation
(91:5–9), and with 91:14 and 17 in the Apocalypse, the latter text of which
Nickelsburg argues may have influenced the formulation here: “sin will no
longer be mentioned for ever”.421
The brief outline of eschatological outcomes for the righteous and for sin
draws to a close. However, prefaced by the statement that God “has ap-
pointed days for everything”, it invites elaboration supplied by the concise
account presented in the Apocalypse of Weeks. This is what an editor be-
hind the sequence of texts in 4QEng decided to do.

93:11–14: Reflection on the Inscrutable Greatness of God

(11) For who is the one among all humanity who can hear the voice of the
Holy One and not be troubled, and who is the one who can think his
thoughts, and who is the one who can see all the works of heaven? (12) And
how is there someone who can see heaven, and who is the one who can
understand the work of heaven and see a soul or spirit and be able to do (it),

419 1QS ii 16; iii 13, 24, 25; 1QM i 1, 11, 13; 4Q174 1–2 i 9; 4Q177 12–13 i 7, 11;
4Q280 2.1; 4Q491 8–10 i 14; 4Q510 1.7.
420 The contrast between light and darkness plays a much more prominent role in the
Eschat. Admon. (108:11–15).
421 Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 433.
232 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

or ascend and see all their ends and comprehend them or act like them? (13)
And how is there someone (among) all humanity who can know what is the
breadth and the length of the earth, and to whom has the extent of them all
been shown? (14) Or (who is the one) among all humanity who can know
the length of heaven, what is its height, and on what it is founded and how
large is the number of stars, and where all the lights rest?

Textual Notes
Ethiopic: (11) “For who” (’esma mannu) – Abb 55 reads only mannu
(“who”); Berl conflates to ’esmannu. // “All” (la-kwellu; Berl, BM 485,
BM 491, Abb 35) – EMML 1768, EMML 6281, Ryl and Eth. II mss. have
kwellu; Tana 9 spells with acc. kwello; omitted in EMML 2080 and Abb 55. //
“Humanity” (weluda be’si, lit. “sons of man”; Tana 9, EMML 2080,
BM 491, Abb 35, EMML 6281) – BM 485, EMML 1768, Ryl and most
Eth. II mss. have weluda sab’ (“sons of men”); Ull omits weluda (“sons”);
Berl and Abb 55 read the coll. sing. walda be’si (“son of man”); omitted
in BM 492. // “The voice of” (qalo, acc. with suff., lit. “his voice”; Tana 9,
BM 485, BM 491, Abb 35, EMML 1768, Bodl 5, Ryl1, most Eth. II mss.) –
EMML 2080, Berl, EMML 6281, Ull, Ryl2, Curzon 56 and Munich 30 read
nom. with suff. qalu. // “Holy One” (la-qedus) – Tana 9 has qedus. // “And
not be troubled” (wa-’i-yetkahhal) – EMML 6281 reads wa-’i-yetwahhako
(“and not be irritated”). // “And who can think his thoughts” (wa-mannu
za-yekkel yahalleyu hallinanu) – copied twice in EMML 6281. // “Think his
thoughts and who is it who can” (kama … za-yekkel) – Ull and Curzon 55
omit the phrase through homoioteleuton (za-yekkel “who can” … za-yekkel
“who can”). // “Think” (kama yaxalli, sing.) – BM 485 omits kama; Tana 9
and EMML 6281 have kama yaxalleyu (plur.); EMML 1768 reads kwellu
yaxalli (“anyone (who can) think”). // “And who is the one who can” (wa-
mannu za-yekkel) – BM 491 has wa-mannu we’etu za-yekkel. // “Who can
see” (za-yekkel nasserota; Berl, BM 491, Abb 35, EMML 1768) – Tana 9,
BM 485 and EMML 6281 have yekkel nasserota; EMML 2080, Ryl
and Eth. II mss. read with 3rd pers. fem. sing. suff. za-yekkel nasserota;
EMML 6281 reads with masc. suff. za-yekkel nasseroto. // “All the works of
heaven” (la-kwellu megbara samay; BM 485, EMML 1768 megbarata,
EMML 6281, Ryl1, most Eth. II mss.) – Tana 9, EMML 2080, BM 491,
Abb 35, Curzon 55 and BM Add. 24185 read la-kwellu megbara šannay
(“all the beautiful works”; the term “beautiful” is added in Ryl mg. by an-
other hand), with “beautiful” a corruption from “heaven”; Abb 35 has an
eclectic text la-kwellu megbara šannay megbarata samay (“all the beautiful
works, the works of heaven”); Frankfurt Ms. has la-kwellu megbara šannay
samay (“all the heavenly beautiful works”); Berl omits everything except
1 Enoch 93:11–14 233

samay (“heaven”); Ryl2 and Ull spell la-kwella megbara samay; Abb 55 reads
only megbara samay (“the works of heaven”). (12) “And how is there some-
one who can” (wa-ment we’etu za-yekkel; Tana 9, Berl, BM 485, BM 491,
Abb 35, EMML 1768, EMML 6281, Ryl) – EMML 2080 and most Eth. II
mss. read wa-mannu we’etu za-yekkel (“and who is the one who can”); and
Abb 55 reads wa-mannu za-yekkel (“and who is able”). // “See heaven and
who is the one who can” (nasserota samay wa-mannu we’etu za-yekkel) –
EMML 2080, Abb 55, EMML 6281, Ryl and Eth. II mss. omit through ho-
moioteleuton (za-yekkel “who can” … za-yekkel “who can”). // “See
heaven” (first occurrence, nasserota samay; Berl, BM 485, BM 491, EMML
1768) – Abb 35 reads ’a’merota samay (“understand heaven”). // “And
who is the one who can understand” (wa-mannu we’etu za-yekkel ’a’mero;
EMML 2080) – EMML 1768 and EMML 6281 read wa-ment we’etu za-
yekkel ’a’mero (EMML 6281 ’a’meroto) (“and how is there one who can
understand”); Tana 9 and Berl have wa-ment we’etu za-yekkel ’a’merota;
BM 485, BM 491 and Abb 35 read wa-ment we’etu za-yekkel nasserota
(“and how is there one who can see”). // “The work of heaven” (gebra
samay) – EMML 6281 has gebra samaya. // “And see” (wa-kama yar’i, sing.;
Tana 9, Berl, BM 485, BM 491, EMML 1768) – EMML 2080, Ryl and most
Eth. II msss have wa-kama yer’ay; Abb 35 and EMML 6281 have yere’i;
BM 499 and Westenholz Ms. read plur. yer’ayu. // “A soul” (nafsa, acc.;
Tana 9, EMML 2080, Berl, BM 485, BM 491, EMML 1768, EMML 6281,
Bodl 5, Vatican 71, Munich 30) – Abb 35, Ryl, Bodl 4, Frankfurt Ms., Cur-
zon 55, Curzon 55, BM Add. 24185, BM 484, BM 486, BM 490, BM Add.
24990, BM 492, BM 499, Garrett Ms. and Westenholz Ms. read nafso (“his
soul”); Abb 55 has nom. nafs. // “Or” (first occurrence; wa-’emma’akko, lit.
“or not”) – BM 485 only reads wa-’akko (“and not”); Berl corrupts to
wa-ma’kala (“and among”). // “Spirit and be able to do (it), or” – omitted
in EMML 6281 through homoioteleuton (wa-’emma ’akko … wa-’emma
’akko). // “Spirit” (manfasa, acc.; Tana 9, EMML 2080, BM 491, Abb 55,
Bodl 5, Vat 71, Munich 30) – EMML 1768 reads manfasa (“its (fem.)
spirit”); Ryl and most Eth. II mss. read manfaso (“his spirit”); BM 485 and
Berl read nom. manfas; omitted in EMML 6281. // “And be able” (wa-yek-
kel) – omitted in Abb 55. // “To do (it)” (gabira; Berl, BM 485, BM 491,
EMML 1768) – EMML 2080, Abb 35, Ryl and most Eth. II mss. read nagira
(“to recount [it]”), in order to make the verb more precise; Tana 9 has nabira
(“to sit”), thus providing a contrast to the following vb. (“ascend”); BM 499
reads ‘arga (“ascending”, anticipating following vb.); omitted in Abb 55. //
“Or” (second occurrence; wa-’emma ’akko) – Berl corrupts to wa-ma’kala
(“and among”). // “Ascend” (‘ariga, inf.) – BM 492 reads ptc. ‘arega (“as-
cending”). // “And see” (wa-yere’i) – BM 485 has wa-yer’ay; Tana 9 has wa-
234 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

yar’i. // “All their ends and comprehend them” – omitted in Abb 55. // “Or”
(third occurrence; wa-’emma ’akko) – Berl reads wa-’e(m)-ma’kalomu
(“and in their midst”). // “Act” (yegabber) – EMML 2080, BM 485, Ull, and
Curzon 55 read the subj. form yegbar; Abb reads with conj. wa-yegabber
(“and act”). (13) “And how” (wa-ment; Tana 9, Berl, BM 491, Abb 35,
Abb 55, EMML 1768, EMML 6281) – EMML 2080, BM 485, Ryl and
Eth. II mss. read wa-mannu (“and who”). // “Know what is” (’a’merota ’efo
we’etu) – BM 485 reads ’a’emrota wa-’efo we’etu (“know it, and what is”);
Bodl 5 and Frankfurt Ms. have ’a’mero ’efo we’etu; Abb 55 reads only
’a’mero (“know”). // “The breadth and length of the earth” (rahba wa-nuxa
la-medr) – EMML 2080 and EMML 1768 spell rehba wa-nuxa la-medr;
Abb 35 and Abb 55 transpose to nuxa wa-rahba (“the length and breadth”).
// “Extent of” (’amtana) – Abb 35 reads ’amtana (“its extent”). (14) “All”
(kwellu) – Berl reads kwello. // “Or (who is the one) among all humanity who
can know” (wa-’emma botu kwellu [Berl kwello] be’esi za-yekkel) –
EMML 2080 and Abb 55 read wa-mannu we’etu botu kwellu be’esi za-yek-
kel (“or who is the one among all humanity who can”). // “Know” (’a’me-
rota) – omitted in Abb. // “What is” (’efo we’etu; Tana 9, EMML 2080,
EMML 6281) – Berl, BM 485, BM 491, Abb 35, EMML 1768, Ryl and Eth.
II mss. read with the conj. wa-’efo (“and what is”); Abb 55 reads only wa-
’efo (“and what (is)”). // “Founded” (san‘at) – Berl and EMML 6281 spell
sen‘et. // “And how large” (wa-mimatana; Tana 9, Berl, BM 485, EMML
6281) – EMML 2080, BM 491, Abb 35, Abb 55, EMML 1768, Ryl and Eth.
II mss. have wa-mimatan. // “Is” (we’etu) – omitted in BM 485. // “The
number of” (xwalqomu la-; Berl, BM 485, BM 491, Abb 35, EMML 1768) –
Tana 9, EMML 2080, EMML 6281, Ryl and Eth. II mss. spell xwelqomu;
Abb 55 spells xwalqwa. // “Stars” (kawakebt) – omitted in Berl. // “And
where” (wa-ba-ayti) – Berl reads without conj. ba-‘ayte (“where”); Tana 9
corrupts to wa-ba-ye’eti (“and in it/what”). // “All the lights” (kwellomu be-
rhanat) – Tana 9 reads wa-kwellomu berhanatu (“and all its lights”); Abb 55
reads only berhanat (“lights”). // “Rest” (ya‘arfu) – BM 485, Abb 55 and
EMML 1768 have ya‘arfu; Berl reads with sing. ya‘arf (“rests”).

Aramaic: Before text that corresponds to what we have in Ethiopic for verse
11, the text reads ] ,iub hm idny l [ky yd (4QEng 1 v 15, with restoration
according to the formulaic wording on ll. 16, 17, and 20), “who ca]n know
what is in the command of[…?”.422 On the basis of the visible text on line

422 Concerning line 15 and considerations of codicology for the beginning of 4QEng 1 v,
see Milik, The Books of Enoch, pp. 269–70.
1 Enoch 93:11–14 235

15 and the observation that the Apocalypse of Weeks (91:17) would have
concluded somewhere in the now lost middle of line 1 of column v in
4QEng, Milik suggests that the text from lines 2–15 (not extant in the
Ethiopic) would have contained a lengthier series of rhetorical questions
than what is preserved in the Ethiopic. This suggestion is at least possible,
though it must be remembered that we do not know exactly where the Ara-
maic Apocalypse of Weeks concluded in this manuscript, nor is it clear that
the entirety of the material between that conclusion and line 15 was taken
up by the same sort of rhetorical questions. Whether one thinks that the top
of the column originally contained 13–14 lines (with Milik) or fewer,423 at
least some of the Aramaic has gone missing. Given the repetition of formu-
laic phrases in questions that open with “who can …?”, it is possible that
the shorter Ethiopic text came about as a result of an omission through ho-
moioteleuton. (11) ]X>dq ylm im>y lky y [d (4QEng 1 v 16), “w]ho can hear
the words of the Holy One[…?”. // yd ] >vnX lvk Xvh vnm vX (4QEng 1 v 17 –
while a plausible reconstruction, the relative pronoun is read into indistin-
guishable traces of line 1 on a small fragment e that Milik has been placed
here), “or who is any man [who …?”. (12) …].[…]nX yd Xyvz (4QEng 1 v
18)424, “]countenance of [his] fa[ce”. The reconstruction by Beyer425
y ]h [vp ]nX (“his face”) is preferable to that of Milik, who derives Xvyz from
Mishnaic Hebrew and translates “angles”; however, as an Aramaic word,
the term takes the fem. form (X )tyvz in DSS texts: 4Q554 2 i 16–17, 22;
4Q554a 1 ii 3; 4Q565 4; 5Q15 1 ii 7 while, on the other hand, the masc.
form is more consistent with Aramaic “countenance, glory” (cf. Dan. 2:31;
4:33; 5:6, 9, 10; 7:28; 4QEnGiantsc 5.2; 11QTgJob xxxv 3 to Job 40:10). //
hyn ]tml btml (4QEng 1 v 19), “to return to te[ll”. This has no direct cor-
respondence to anything in the Ethiopic, though the text makes sense as a
sequel to the expression “ascends”. Since the verses do not focus on move-
ment involved in a heavenly journey, Milik’s reconstruction, followed here,
is preferable to that of Beyer, “zurrückkehren zu [seinem] Wohnsitz (restor-
ing hbt ]vml )”. (13) >vn [X ynb ]m ] Xvh vnm vX ] lky yd (4QEng 1 v 20), “or
who is there [from the sons of m]en who is able [to …”. The lacunae be-
tween the visible text requires several letters more (i.e. ynb ) than the formula
found on line 23. // vnm ] vX hlvk XirX yd hytpv hkrvX (4QEng 1 v 21), “the
length and width of the whole earth, or [who …”. htrjv (4QEng 1 v 22),

423 As suggested recently by Eibert J. C. Tigchelaar, “Evaluating the Discussions concern-


ing the Original Order of Chapters 91–93”, pp. 220–23.
424 Milik (The Books of Enoch, pp. 269–71) reads the letters ]xnty ] [, “]n rests[” on l. 2
of frg. e; this placement, however, cannot be substantiated.
425 Beyer, Die aramäischen Texte vom Toten Meer, p. 249.
236 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

“and its form”? The Aramaic text for this verse corresponds to the Ethiopic,
though both the length of reconstructable space for the lacunae of line 20
and the final word of the verse reflect slight differences (e.g. “its form”, in
contrast to Eth. “its extent”). (14) l ]ky yd >vnX lvk Xvh vnmv (4QEng 1 v 22),
“and is there any man who ca[n”. // ] ]ykmc ]vnX hkyhv ]vhmvr Xvh (4QEng 1
v 23), “what] is their height and how they ar[e] supported[”. The text is
close to the Ethiopic; however, the missing text in line 23 is too short for the
manuscript to have originally contained both the references to the number
of the stars and to the lights.

General Comment
93:11–14 contains a series of rhetorical questions that focus on the inscrut-
ible greatness of God426 and that refer to secret aspects of the created
order. In this respect, it contrasts with 100:10–102:3 and Book of Watchers
chapters 2–5 according to which reflection on nature leads to inferences
about ethics and divine judgement (see the Note to 101:1).
The style, vocabulary, and content of this section do not fit easily with or
correlate to most of 1 Enoch where Enoch throughout stands as the one to
whom such divine revelation about the cosmos has been revealed. However,
in two passages from the earliest Enoch tradition, the uniqueness of God
vis-à-vis all humanity is emphasized in a similar manner. Both passages,
which are prayer texts, occur in the Book of Watchers (9:5) and the first of
the two visions in the Book of Dreams (84:3). These prayers, attributed to
the archangels (9:4–11) and Enoch (84:2–6) respectively, proclaim the rule
and omniscience of God alone who sees everything and from whom nothing
is hidden.
As Michael Stone has shown,427 the listing of undisclosed places and
things in the cosmos, often in combination with rhetorical questions, re-
flects a long line of sapiential tradition found not only in biblical wisdom
texts (Job 38–39, cf. also 11QTgJob xxx-xxxii; Prov. 30:1–4; Qoh. 11:5;
Wis. 9:13–18; Sir. 1:2–3, 9, 16; 18:4–5; cf. Isa. 40:12–14) but also in the
later Jewish apocalypses (e.g. 4 Ez. 3:31; 4:5–9; 5:36–39; 2 Bar. 54:1–13;

426 For a similar idea, though not necessarily expressed in related to the natural order per
se, see 1QHa xv 32–33: “What is the man of vacuity and the master of vanity that he
should understand your marvellous mighty works?”
427 “Lists of Revealed Things in the Apocalyptic Literature”, in eds. F. M. Cross,
W. E. Lemke and P. D. Hanson, Magnalia Dei: The Mighty Acts of God (Garden City,
New York: Doubleday, 1976), pp. 415–52; further, Stone, Fourth Ezra. A Commen-
tary on the Book of Fourth Ezra (Hermeneia; Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1990),
pp. 24–28.
1 Enoch 93:11–14 237

75:1–5). The section 93:11–14 participates in this reflection on the pro-


found and hidden character of the created order.
The declaration in 93:11–14 of the unknowability of God’s thoughts and
of the vast, created cosmos – which is shared with the texts in chapters 10
and 84 mentioned above – runs counter to the emphasis on the disclosure
of special knowledge which is made throughout the early Enochic tradi-
tion.428 To begin with, the divine response to the prayers just referred to
(9:4–11 and 84:2–6) is manifested through salvific activity in which Noah is
rescued from the deluge (10:1–3; 84:5), on the one hand, and the wicked are
brought to divine justice (10:4–15; 84:6), on the other. More than this, the
figure of Enoch functions in the early Enochic tradition as the quintessential
recipient of divine revelation (e.g. the throne vision of 14:8–23; 19:3429). He
receives, for instance, knowledge about the extent of heaven and earth, and
of the heavenly luminaries in the Astronomical Book (72:1–80:8; 82:7–20).
Enoch, moreover, is given in the Book of Watchers to hear God’s voice in
14:24–16:3 (cf. 15:1 and 93:11) and is taken on journeys during which he
is shown the main features and extent of the earth (17:1–19:3; 21:1–32:6;
and 33:1–36:4). Finally, Enoch’s special understanding of God’s works in
creation is emphasized in the later Similitudes (41:3–7; 43:1–2; 60:11–22),
as well as in 2 Enoch (23:1; 24:3; 25:1–30:18; 36:3 [Rec. A]; 40:2–13). In
short, the rhetorical questions, placed within the Enochic tradition, make
Enoch stand out sharply as the unique revealer of wisdom. This, by impli-
cation, diminishes the significance of Moses,430 much in the way that early
Christian tradition would do by focussing on Jesus as the only true source
of divine revelation. In view of 93:11–14, is the patriarch therefore the only
exception within the early Enochic tradition?431
The apparent contradiction between 93:11–14 and much of 1 Enoch is
put into perspective once one recognises that the disclosures about creation

428 For reasons given below, however, this does not necessarily mean that “The whole
periscope can … be explained as a poem on natural theology which could have come
from a source quite independent of Enoch”; so Black, The Book of Enoch, p. 286).
429 The Grk. text of Cod. Pan. reads: “And I alone (μνο«), Enoch, saw the visions, the
ends of all things, and not any among humanity saw as I saw.” In 19:3 both the Eth.
and Grk. (Cod. Pan.) stress Enoch as the sole recipient among humanity of his visions.
This may also be implied in 4Q531 14.6 which refers to the non-human origin of
Enoch’s learning.
430 See Exod. 33:18–23. Similarly Philo, who maintained that God revealed himself
to Moses (Leg. 3.102), denied that Moses ever actually saw God (Spec. 1.40–50;
Post. 169; Fug. 165; and Mut. 8–10).
431 The problem is recognised by VanderKam, Enoch: A Man for All Generations, p. 91.
238 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

are passed on in Enoch’s name to audiences of the constituent writings.


Thus human knowledge about cosmological secrets is now possible for the
righteous who receive it as an eschatological gift. Through “Enoch” the
Israel who was given to hear the divine voice in Deuteronomy 5:26 is now
defined more narrowly. Significant in this respect is the immediate literary
context in which this section is linked to the Apocalypse of Weeks. In the
Ethiopic tradition, the text corresponding to 93:11–14 is located immedi-
ately after the description of the pivotal seventh week in the Apocalypse of
Weeks (93:10), that is, it is inserted at precisely the point at which the
Apocalypse refers to the chosen ones to whom sevenfold instruction about
“the whole of his creation” will be given. This implies that the eschatologi-
cal community of God’s elect will be granted knowledge which humans, ac-
cording to 93:11–14, are otherwise incapable of having.
In its more original literary setting of 4QEng, 93:11–14 follows the con-
clusion of the Apocalypse, that is, not the seventh week at 93:10, but 91:17.
How the connection was made in the Aramaic between the end of the
Apocalypse and the rhetorical questions is, however, is not clear, since
whatever text it was that linked these sections is no longer extant (i.e.
Milik’s 4QEng 1 v 2–15). Even if it be granted that 4QEng 1 v originally con-
tained a lengthier (and now missing) text between 91:17 and 93:11, we still
do not know: (a) whether the Apocalypse had a longer ending than we pres-
ently possess, (b) at what point the kind of material found in 93:11–14 was
already introduced (as in 4QEng 1 v 15), and (c) whether the text originally
contained (now lost) material that bridged the sections together. If in terms
of content the language of 93:11–14 in 4QEng 1 v was seamlessly juxta-
posed to the end of the Apocalypse, then its thematic contrast stands out. To
the extent that this may have been the case, we may suppose that the
Ethiopic preserves an attempt to integrate 93:11–14 more meaningfully
into the literary setting.

Notes
11a. For who is the one among all humanity who can hear the voice of the
Holy One and not be troubled. If the Enoch tradition lies in the back-
ground, then the question implies that Enoch, the fictive author, is precisely
one who has heard the voice of God (15:1 bis; cf. also 14:24) and who is
told not to fear (15:1).432 The question is, therefore, rhetorical, as Enoch

432 Argall, 1 Enoch and Sirach, p. 126 rightly draws attention to the contrast between the
question of 93:11a and Enoch’s ascent to the throne and divine commission in
14:8–16:4. On Enoch hearing God’s voice, see also 2 En. 39:7.
1 Enoch 93:11–14 239

himself provides the exception. Nickelsburg notes a similarity between this


question and the one addressed to Moses in Deuteronomy 4:33: “Has any
people ever heard the voice of God speaking from inside a fire as you have
heard and still live?” Nickelsburg infers that the author of the text draws an
analogy between Enoch’s throneroom vision of God (14:8–25) and Moses’
reception of the Torah at Mt. Sinai.433 This analogy is strengthened by the
fact that in both texts the divine commissioning of Enoch and Moses,
respectively, takes place out of fire (14:22; cf. also Deut. 4:36). Given the
testamentary revelation shared by Deuteronomy (ch.’s 32–33) and the
Epistle, he goes on to argue that Enoch is placed alongside Moses as being
“of at least equal importance for one’s life and salvation”.434 If indeed
93:11–14 implies Enoch’s unique status as recipient and revealer of knowl-
edge and wisdom and alludes to Moses tradition, it is hard not to conclude
that the Sinai event and Moses is being deliberately played down in impor-
tance. If so, however, this point should not be pressed too far in characte-
rising the Epistle as a whole.
11b. And who is the one who can think his thoughts. Significantly, if
read in relation to the Enochic tradition, this statement implies that Enoch’s
wisdom, which extends beyond conventional human thinking, communi-
cates God’s thoughts to his readers. See, for instance, 1 Enoch 82:2, accord-
ing to which Enoch is said to give the kind of wisdom that is “above their
thoughts” (diba hellinahomu).435 Concerning the essential distinction be-
tween divine and human thinking, see Isaiah 55:8–9. In Romans 11:33–36
Paul refers to the unfathomable knowledge and ways of God to underscore
how appropriate it is to give God praise. As such, it influences early Chris-
tian writings which draw on such an idea to emphasize that, analogous to
what is thought of Enoch here, Jesus is sole exception (1 Cor. 2:16; Col. 2:3).
11c. And who is the one who can see all the works of heaven? This ques-
tion, which is slightly reformulated at the beginning verse 12, is elaborated
by a series of questions regarding the created order in verses 12 and 13. It
denies, under normal circumstances, the possibility that someone can “see”
secrets of the created order except through special revelation. On Enoch as
the “only one” who has seen what humans have not been shown, see the
Book of Watchers at 19:3 (cited in n. 429 above; cf. also 2 En. 39:3–6).
Again, the closest analogy in earlier Jewish tradition is Moses (Jubilees 1;

433 Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 452.


434 Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 452.
435 Cf. Argall, 1 Enoch and Sirach, p. 126, who notes the similar vocabulary here (“to
think his thoughts”, yahalli hellinahu).
240 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

4Q377 1 ii; Ezek. Trag. 68–82436; Philo, Mut. 7; Leg. 3.103; Her. 1.262437).
The motif is similarly applied in the Gospel of John to Jesus who alone has
seen God (Jn. 1:18-in contrast to Moses; 6:46).438 By comparison, Ben Sira
can only admit that he has seen a few of God’s works (Sir. 43:32).
On the notion of observing “the work of heaven” in a different context
of the Epistle, see “the work of the Most High” in 101:1.
12a. And how is there someone someone who can see heaven, and
where is the one who would understand the things of heaven. If correctly
reconstructed, the Aramaic text, “]countenance of [his] fa[ce”, may have
referred to a vision of God, the danger of which would then be described in
the fragmentary Aramaic of the next line: “to return to te[ll”. Again, Enoch
would be the exception implied by the rhetorical question. Thus the
Aramaic, which is without precise equivalent in the Ethiopic tradition,
contrasts with Exodus 33:20, according to which Moses is barred from
seeing God: “you cannot see my face, for no one shall see me and live”. The
implicit reference to Enoch’s visionary experience is even a development
beyond the Book of Watchers in which the seer, in analogy with the biblical
Moses, is given a vision of the heavenly throne, but not of God himself
(14:8–23, esp. v. 18). However, in Similitudes, God is seen directly as “the
Head of Days” (46:1; 71:10).439
Whereas the first part of this question reformulates verse 11c by retain-
ing the verb “to see” (re’ya), the second restates the point by using the verb

436 Cited by Eusebius in Praep. Evang. 9.29.5. See Pieter W. van der Horst, “Moses’
Throne Vision in Ezekiel the Dramatist”, JJS 34 (1983), pp. 21–29.
437 On Moses’ unique status as God’s honoured viceregent in Philo, as well as in rabbinic
and Samaritan sources, see Wayne Meeks, “Moses as God and King”, in ed. Jacob
Neusner, Religions in Antiquity. Essays in Memory of E. R. Goodenough (SHR, 14;
Leiden: Brill, 1968), pp. 354–71.
438 And, at a further stage of development, the author of 1 Tim. claims that Christ exists
in such “unapproachable light” that “no one has ever seen or is able to see” him (6:16).
In a development along different lines, the writer of 1 Jn. 3:6 declares that it is not
“sinners” who cannot see or know Christ.
439 “Seeing God” is attributed by Philo to Jacob by means of an etymology derived from
his acquired name Israel (Ισραλ: “one who sees God”, H Hρ&ν τ/ν $εν; cf. Mut.
81–82; Praem. 44; Somn. 2.173; Fug. 208; Qu. Gen. 3.49; and 4.233). The associ-
ation of “Israel” with Jacob not only symbolises the privileged position of Jews, but is
also developed as a philosophical concept denoting those who are capable of seeing
God; see C. T. R. Hayward, “Philo, the Septuagint of Genesis 32:24–32 and the
Name ‘Israel’”, JJS 51 (2000), p. 209 and Interpretations of the Name Israel in
Ancient Judaism & some Early Christian Writings (Oxford: Oxford University Press,
2005), pp. 156–93.
1 Enoch 93:11–14 241

“to understand” (’a’mara).440 For a similar pessimism on human ability to


understand, specifically in relation to metereological phenomena, see
Job 26:14. As in verse 11b, the text implies a distinction between earthly
knowledge and heavenly knowledge, a distinction that is underlined by
the author of 4 Ezra (4:21), who insists that only God, who is “above
the heavens” can understand what is “above the height of the heavens” (cf.
again Isa. 55:8–9). Visions of metereological phenomena and of the cosmos
are frequently attributed to Enoch in 1 Enoch; see especially 17:1–19:3;
21:1–36:4; 41:3–44:1; 52:1–9; 59:1–3; 60:1–25; 69:16–26; 72:1–80:1;
82:7–20. Soon after the turn of the Common Era, such visions would be
attached to the figure of Moses (Ps. Philo 19:10; 2 Bar. 59:3–11), raising the
question of whether this tradition knew and was responding to the Enoch
visions.
12b. And see a soul or spirit and be able to do (it), or ascend and see all
their ends and comprehend them or act like them? The questions imply a
unique privilege ascribed to Enoch who in the Book of Watchers is shown
the “spirits” and “souls” of the righteous and wicked dead (22:3, 5–7,
9, 11–13). For the motif of seeing “the souls” or “spirits” of the dead in
a heavenly vision, see Revelation 6:9 and 20:4; Apocalypse of Zephaniah
2:1–8, 3:8–9, 4:1–7 and 10:1–14; 2 En. 7:1–5 and 10:1–5; 3 Bar. 2:1–3:8
and 4:3–5; Test. Abr. 9–10 [Rec. B] and 12 [Rec. A].441 The meaning
of the verb in the first clause (gabira, “to do”) is unclear; the reading of
EMML 2080 and Ryl (nagira, “to recount”), though secondary, makes
plausible sense.
13–14a. And how is there someone (among) all humanity who can
know what is the breadth and the length of the earth, and to whom has the
extent of them all been shown? Or (who is the one) among all humanity
who can know the length of heaven, what is its height, and on what it (is)
founded. The question echoes Isaiah 40:12: “Who has measured the waters
in the hollow of his hand and marked off the heavens with a span, enclosed
the dust of the earth in a measure, and weighed the mountains and hills in a
balance?”442 In Isaiah, this rhetorical question reinforces the inability of hu-
manity to understand (Heb. ]kt , “measure out”; Grk. "γν, “know”) “the
mind of God” (40:13), which corresponds to the emphasis of verse 11b.

440 These verbs, together with the term for “to think” (hallaya), are also used synony-
mously in 82:1–2.
441 So also the much later Apoc. Paul and Apoc. Peter 24.
442 Cf. further Job 38:4–6: “Where were you when I laid the foundation of the earth? …
Who determined its measurements? Or who stretched the line upon it? On what are
its bases sunk, and who laid its cornerstone?” (NRSV).
242 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

Whereas Isaiah 40 casts doubt on anyone’s ability to measure the


thoughts of God, the measuring of Jerusalem and the Temple is an activity
attributed to the prophet Ezekiel (45:3, 11; 48:30, 33 – the heavenly Jeru-
salem and its precincts; cf. Rev. 11:1–2) and to the angelic figure in Zechar-
iah (2:2; cf. also the New Jerusalem document in 2Q24 3.2; 4Q554 2 i 16,
20, 22; ii 6, 9–10, 12, 18, 22; iii 13; 5Q15 1 i 4, 17; 10.2; 13.1; Rev. 21:15).
The motif of someone measuring the created order is a metaphor for under-
standing God’s creative activity (cf. Job 38:5 and 11QTgJob xxx 3; Sir. 1:9;
6 Ez. 16:57). For a similar denial that humans can undertake to measure
and weigh parts of the cosmos, see 4 Ezra 4:5–6.
The fit with Enochic tradition is here not as clear as in verses 11–12 and
14; very little in 1 Enoch portrays the patriarch as one who actually
measures443 the dimensions of the cosmos.444 Instead, Enoch’s journeys
through heaven and to the ends of the earth emphasize the structure of the
universe, both heaven and earth, and the location of its various parts.
Nevertheless, it may be that the perceptions seen in the name of the patri-
arch suggest the equivalent, so that the imagery of measuring here may be
accounted for by an author’s use of biblical tradition.445
14b. And how large is the number of stars. On this knowledge as strictly
the prerogative of God, see Psalm 147:4 and 6 Ezra 16:56. The same is im-
plied in the rhetorical request in Genesis 15:5 that Abraham count the stars
(which he cannot, because they are numbered beyond measure) to learn
how many his descendants would be. By contrast, Enoch is brought to the
ends of the earth in 33:1–4, where he is allowed to observe the stars, count
the “gates” through which they enter and exit the horizons “for each one
individually according to their number (ba-xwalqomu) and their names”
(33:3; cf. here xwalqomu la-kawakebt, “the number of stars”).
14c. And where all the lights rest? The Aramaic has “how they are sup-
ported[”. The question assumes that the heavenly luminaries – sun, moon,
and stars – are either sustained in their positions by unseen places of rest
(Eth.) or suspended (a possible interpretation of the Aram.). Enoch is again
the quintessential seer of heavenly bodies and in this respect constitutes the
exception to the ignorance of humanity.

443 In 4QEnastrd ar (= 4Q211) 1 ii 2, without immediate parallel in the Astron. Bk. may
refer to the “measure” (tx>m ) of the moon’s light in its different phases.
444 The text, then, is not emphasizing human inability to comprehend God whose
thoughts are “beyond” being able to measure (Job 11:7–9; Ps. 147:5).
445 Argall, 1 Enoch and Sirach, p. 126.
1 Enoch 94:1–5 243

94:1–5: Exhortation on Contrasting Ways


of Righteousness and Wrongdoing

(1) And now I say to you, my sons, love righteousness and walk in it. For the
ways of righteousness are worthy to be accepted, but the ways of iniquity
will be destroyed quickly and vanish. (2) And to notable men from a gener-
ation the ways of wrongdoing and of death will be revealed, and they will
be distant from them and will not follow them. (3) And now I say to you,
O righteous ones, do not walk in the ways of wickedness or in the ways of
death, and do not come near to them lest you be destroyed. (4) But seek
after and choose for yourselves righteousness and an acceptable life, and
walk in the ways of peace so that you may live and flourish. (5) And take
hold of the thoughts of your heart and do not let my words be lost from
your heart. For I understand that sinners will tempt men in order to make
what is wicked out of wisdom, so that no place will be found for it, and
temptation will not vanish at all.

Textual Notes
Ethiopic: (1) “I say to you, my children” (’ebelkemu daqiqeya) – BM 491
transposes to daqiqeya ’ebelkemu (“my children, I say to you”); Abb 55
reads only ’ebelkemu (“I say to you”). // “Love” (’afqerwa) – EMML 1768
has defective ’afqe<r>wa. // “Walk” (horu; EMML 2080, Berl, BM 485,
Abb 35, Abb 55, EMML 1768, EMML 6281) – BM 491, Ryl and Eth. II
mss. spells huru. // “The ways of righteousness” (fenawata sedq) – BM 491
and BM 486 spell fenwata sedq; Berl has fenata sedq-sa; Ull and Curzon 56
read la-fenawata sedq; Abb 55 reads megbarata sedq (“works of righteous-
ness”). // “Are worthy to be accepted” (yedallu yetwakkafewwomu, lit.
“are worth that they be accepted” or “acceptable”) – Berl, BM 485,
EMML 1768 and EMML 6281 read without the pron. suff. yedallu yet-
wakkaf (EMML 1768 yewakkaf) (“are worthy to be accepted”); Tana 9
and BM 491 have read with the conj. yedallu wa-yetwakkafu (“are worthy
and will be accepted” or “acceptable”); Abb 35 reads yedallu yetwakka-
fewwo (either “are worthy that it will be accepted” or an apocopation of
-omu, “are worthy that they will be accepted”); Abb 55 reads only yedallu
(“are worthy”). // “But the ways of” (second occurrence; wa-fenawata) –
BM 491 and Bodl 5 spell wa-fenwata; Tana 9 has fenwatata; EMML 6281
reads wa-fetwat (“the desire of”, corr.). // “Will be destroyed and vanish”
(yethag walu wa-yahassesu, plur.; Tana 9, EMML 2080, BM 491, Abb 35,
EMML 1768, EMML 6281, Ryl, Eth. II mss.) – BM 485 reads with
sing. forms (yethag wel wa-yahadded); Berl reads with sing. and then with
plur. (yethag wel wa-yahassesu); Abb 55 reads only yethag wal (“will be de-
244 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

stroyed”). // “Quickly” (fetuna) – omitted in Berl. (2) “And to notable … of


death” – omitted in Abb 55. // “Notable” (’emuran) – BM Add. 24185
spells ‘emurat. // “From a generation” (’em-tewled) – Tana 9 reads ’em-taw-
aldu (“after they arise”); EMML 6281 spells ’em-tewledat. // “Ways of” (fe-
nawata) – BM 491 spells fenwata; Tana 9 spells fenawa. // “Wrongdoing”
(gef‘) – Berl misspells feg‘. // “And of death” (wa-mot) – Tana 9 has wa-
mota; omitted in EMML 2080, but added in mg.; EMML 6281 reads ma-
sakal wa-mot (“the cross446 and death”). // “Will be revealed” (yetkaššatu,
plur.) – BM 485 reads sing. (yetkaššat). // “And they will be distant”
(wa-yerexxequ, plur.) – Abb 55 reads the sing. wa-yerehheq; BM 491 and
Westenholz Ms. omit the conj. yerexxequ (“they will be distant”). // “And
will not follow them” (wa-’i-yetallewwewwomu) – BM 484 and 491 spells
wa-’i-yetellewwewomu, Berl has wa-’i-yetellewwomu, Tana 9 has wa-’i-tal-
lawwewomu, and EMML 2080 misspells wa-’i-yetawwewomu; Garrett
Ms. and Westenholz Ms.1 read yetallewwewomu (“they will follow them”).
(3) “I say to you” (lakemu ’ebel) – Berl, BM 499 and Westenholz Ms. read
lakemu ’ebelkemu (lit. “to you, I say to you”); Ull has ’ebelkemu; Abb 55
reads only ’ebel (“I say”). // “Do not walk” (’i-tehoru; EMML 2080, Berl,
BM 485, Abb 35, Abb 55, EMML 1768, EMML 6281) – Tana 9 has
’i-horu; BM 491, Ryl and Eth. II mss. spell ’i-tehuru. // “In the ways of”
(ba-fenawata; Tana 9, BM 485, Bodl 5) – BM 491 spells ba-fenwata;
Abb 35, EMML 6281, Bodl 5, and Vat 71 have ba-fenawat (“in ways”);
EMML 2080 reads fenawata (“ways of”); EMML 1768, Ryl and most
Eth. II mss. read sing. ba-fenot (“in the way”); Berl reads sing. ba-fenota
(“in the way of”); Abb 55 reads only ba- (“in”). // “Evil” (’ekuy; Tana 9
’ekay, Berl, BM 485, BM 491, Abb 35, Abb 55, EMML 1768,
EMML 6281) – EMML 2080, Ryl and Eth. II mss. read ’ekuy wa-gef‘ (“evil
and wrongdoing”). // “Or in the ways of death” (wa-’i-ba-fenawata mot,
lit. “and not in the ways of”) – BM 491 spells wa-’i-ba-fenwata mot; Berl
has wa-’i-ba-fenata mot; Ull and BM 499 read the sing. wa-’i-bafenota mot
(“in the way of death”); omitted in Abb 55. // “And do not come near” (wa-
’i-teqarrebu) – EMML 1768 and EMML 6281 have wa-’i-tetqarrabu. // “To
them” (xabehomu) – EMML 6281 reads xabehu (“to him”). // “Lest you be
destroyed” (kama ’i-teth*ag walu; Tana 9, EMML 2080, BM 485, Abb 351?,
EMML 1768, EMML 6281, Ull, Bodl 4, Bodl 5, Frankfurt Ms., BM Add.
24185, BM 484, BM 492, Vatican 71) – Berl, BM 491, Abb 352, Curzon 55,
Curzon 56, BM 486, BM 490, BM Add. 24990, BM 499, Garrett Ms. and
Westenholz Ms. spell kama ’i-teheg walu; omitted in Abb 55. (4) “But seek

446 Probably a Christian interpolation.


1 Enoch 94:1–5 245

after” (’alla feqdu) – EMML 6281 spells ’alla faqdu; BM 485 reads kama
’ella yefaqqedu ’ekuya (“as those who seek after what is wicked”); omitted
in Abb 55. // “And choose for yourselves” (wa-xerayu lakemu) – Tana 9
transposes to lakemu wa-xeryu. // “Righteousness” (sedqa, acc.) – Berl
has nom. sedq. // “And an acceptable life … in the ways of” – omitted in
Abb 55. // “And an acceptable life” (wa-heywata xerita, acc.) – Tana 9
and EMML 6281 spell heywata xiruta; BM 491 and EMML 1768 have
heywata xerit; BM 484 has heywata xeruya. // “And walk” (wa-horu;
Tana 9, EMML 2080, Berl, BM 485, BM 491, Abb 35, EMML 1768,
EMML 6281) – Ryl and Eth. II mss. spell wa-huru. // “In the ways of” (ba-
fenawata; EMML 2080, Berl, BM 485, Abb 35, EMML 1768,
EMML 6281) – Tana 9, BM 491, Ryl1, Ull, Bodl 4, BM 484 and Garrett
Ms. read sing. ba-fenota (“in the way of”); BM Add. 24990 spells ba-fen-
wata. // “Peace” (salam) – Abb 55 reads wa-salam (“and peace”). // “So that
you may live” (kama teheyyawu, plur.; Tana 9, Ryl, BM 490) – Most Eth. II
mss. have wa-teheyyawu; EMML 2080 has wa-teheywu; Berl and BM 491
have wa-tahayyewu; BM 485 and EMML 6281 read the sing. wa-te-
heyyaw; EMML 1768 has sing. wa-tahayyew. // “And flourish” (wa-tedel-
lawu, plur.; Tana 9, Berl, Abb 55, Ryl1, BM 490) – BM 485, EMML 1768
and EMML 6281 read the sing. wa-tedellaw; EMML 2080 has wa-tedal-
lawu; Berl has wa-tedellawu; BM 491 has sing. wa-tadlaw. (5) “And take
hold of the thoughts of your heart” (wa-ta’axzu ba-hellina lebkemu; Tana 9,
EMML 2080, Ull, BM 492) – Berl, BM 491, Abb 35, EMML 1768,
EMML 6281, Ryl and most Eth. II mss. have wa-te’xzu ba-hellina lebkemu;
Bodl 4 and BM 490 read with impv. wa-’exzu ba-hellina lebkemu; BM 485
has ba-te’zazu la-hellina lebkemu (“by the command of the thoughts of
your heart”). // “And do not let my words be lost from your heart” –
omitted in EMML 1768 by homoioteleuton (lebkemu “your heart” … leb-
kemu “your heart”). // “And do not let … be lost” (wa-’i-yedammasas;
Tana 9, BM 485, Berl, EMML 6281, Curzon 55, BM 499, Vatican 71,
Westenholz Ms.) – BM 491, Abb 35, Ryl, most Eth. II mss. spell wa-’i-yed-
ammesas; EMML 2080 spells wa-’i-yedammusas. // “From your heart”
(’em-lebkemu) – Curzon 55 corrupts to ’ebelkemu (“I say to you”). // “Will
tempt” (yamakkerewwomu; Tana 9, Berl, BM 485, Abb 35, Abb 55,
EMML 1768, EMML 6281 yamamakkerewwomu) – EMML 2080,
BM 491, Ryl and Eth. II mss. spell yamekkerewwomu. // “And make what
is wicked out of wisdom” – omitted in Abb 55. // “In order to make” (kama
yegbaru, plur.) – EMML 2080 has yegabberu; Curzon 55 reads the sing.
yegbar. // “What is wicked” (’ekay; Tana 9, BM 491, Abb 35,
EMML 1768) – Berl, BM 485 and EMML 6281 spell ’ekuy; EMML 2080,
Ryl and Eth. II mss. correct to acc. ’ekuya. // “No … will be found” (’i-yet-
246 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

rakkab) – Tana 9 and EMML 6281 read without the negative particle
(Tana 9 yetra[kke]b) (“will be found”). // “For it” (lati) – BM 491 reads bati
(“in it”); Berl reads lita (“for me”). // “And temptation … at all” (wa-kwellu
makra) – Berl has the acc. (wa-kwello makara); Tana 9 spells wa-kwellu
makra; BM 484 reads without conj. kwellu makara (“temptation … at all”).

Aramaic: (1) ]ynb rmX hnX ]vkl ]ikv (4QEng 1 v 24), “and now to you I say,
my sons.” // X ]u>q txrX (4QEng 1 v 25), “the ways of righteousness”[. (2)
Milik restores X>vn ]X (4QEng 1 v 26), “m[en” for the beginning of the
verse.447

General Comment
More than any other passage in chapters 91–105 (91:3–4; 91:18–19), this
one focuses and elaborates on instruction about paths or ways that contrast
sharply from one another. It is possible that 94:1–5 served initially as the
base text that influenced the language adopted in the Exhortation. Here,
the progeny of Enoch are explicitly addressed as “righteous ones” (v. 3a),
while in the Exhortation this is assumed. It is the righteous who, already in
good standing, are in need of further exhortation.
In verses 1–5, the author refers, on the one hand, to the “ways of in-
iquity” (v. 1), “the ways of wickedness or of wrongdoing”, and “the ways
of death” (v. 2), and, on the other hand, to “the ways of righteousness” (v. 1)
and “the ways of peace” (v. 4). This categorical opposition has been
conveniently described as a “two ways” instruction. Such language about
“walking” on one of two opposing paths functions as a metaphor for be-
haviour which classifies human beings as either good or bad, righteous or
wicked, moral or immoral.448 Since the ways are mutually exclusive, there is
no room for compromise between them. It should be remembered, however,
this this form of discourse was used less to describe the intricacies of inner
human experience than simply to exhort and admonish people to proper
behaviour. For example, the notion of being on either one path or the other

447 Milik, The Books of Enoch, p. 270.


448 Concerning the imagery of “ways” in relation to behaviour in the Hebrew Bible, see
Markus Philipp Zehnder’s thorough analysis in Wegmetaphorik im Alten Testament.
Eine semantische Untersuchung und altorientalischen Weg-Lexeme mit besonderer
Berücksichtigung ihrer metaphorischen Verwendung (BZAW, 268; Berlin: Walter de
Gruyter, 1999). This understanding of the “two ways” is to be distinguished from the
woe pronounced by Ben Sira on “the sinner, who treads on two paths” (Sir. 2:12 –
#πιβανοντι #π! δ-ο τρβοψ«) since this is the equivalent of what the author means
by being “double minded”. See the Note to 91:4a above.
1 Enoch 94:1–5 247

is logically incompatible with the complexities of experience, which can in-


clude the simultaneous negotiation between wrongdoing and righteous be-
haviour. The “two ways” motif frequently envisions individuals as standing
before a parting of the road, having to make a choice between two clear al-
ternatives (Deut. 11:26–28; 30:15–20; Ps. 25:12; 119:30, 173; cf. Jer. 21:8;
Sir. 15:17; 4 Ez. 7:129). Though in 1 Enoch 91–105 this capacity to choose
is assumed in the exhortations, it is only the “righteous” who are thus ad-
dressed, while the “wicked” or “sinners” are thus designated because they
have already taken wrong decisions.449 To walk in “the ways of righteous-
ness” is thus both to engage in righteous behaviour and to be in a position
to choose. In biblical and later Jewish and Christian tradition, the ultimate
consequence of such choice is “life” and “peace” (Ps. 16:11; Prov. 5:6; 6:23;
10:17; 12:28; 15:24; Jer. 21:8; Tob. 4:5–6 [Alcalà Bible: uitam eternam],
10; 1QS iv 7–8; 1 Bar. 3:13; 2 En. 42:10; Tg. Neof. to Deut. 30:19), on the
one hand, and “Sheol”, “death”, or destruction (Ps. 1:6; 16:10; Prov. 2:8;
5:5; 7:27; 10:29; 21:16; Jer. 21:8; Tob. 4:5–6 [Alcalà Bible: mors], 19 [Cod.
Sin.: Pδοψ]; 1QS iv 12; 4Q184 1.10 (“her [folly, personified as a wicked
woman] ways are the ways of death); 4Q473 2.4–5; Sir. 21:10; Mt. 7:13),
on the other.
Though none of the early Enochic literature explicitly uses the ex-
pression “two ways” to describe the ethical contrast between the righteous
and the wicked,450 brief consideration of the Jewish and Christian literature
that does so will assist in understanding the special character of the instruc-
tion in the Epistle.451 To begin with, the distinctiveness of the “two ways”
instruction in the Exhortation and Epistle within the earliest Enochic tradi-
tion becomes apparent when one considers its association with “two
spirits” or two angelic beings in other early Jewish sources. As the back-

449 This is in contrast to a number of texts which, using the metaphor, hold out for the
possibility that the wicked or sinners can be brought to the path of righteousness
(Ps. 25:8; cf. Lk. 1:79).
450 The assumption that “two ways” instruction occurs in texts that merely contrast or
distinguish between alternative modes of behaviour is too hasty. So, e.g., Kurt Nieder-
wimmer, The Didache. A Commentary (Hermeneia; Minneapolis: Fortress Press,
1998), p. 60, despite his otherwise fine discussion on pp. 59–63.
451 For recent accounts of the wider “two ways” tradition in Second Temple Judaism and
early Christianity, see Niederwimmer, The Didache, pp. 59–63; Huub van de Sandt
and David Flusser, The Didache: Its Jewish Sources and its Place in Early Judaism and
Christianity (CRINT III/5; Assen and Minneapolis: Van Gorcum and Fortress Press,
2002), pp. 55–111; and Marcello Del Verme, Didache and Judaism: Jewish Roots
of an Ancient Christian-Jewish Work (London: T & T Clark International, 2004),
esp. pp. 126–30.
248 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

ground for this cosmological framework behind dualistic ethical categories


is disputed, we note here several Jewish and Christian examples. The Two
Spirits Treatise in the Community Rule at 1QS iii 13 – iv 26 co-ordinates a
number of contrasting pairs: “the spirits of truth and of deceit” (iii 18–19;
iv 2–14); “spirits of light and of darkness” (iii 25); “paths of light” and
“paths of darkness” (iii 20–21); “the Prince of lights” and “the Angel of
darkness” (iii 20–21). In doing so, the author of the treatise develops the
ethical opposition in two directions: he projects it into the cosmos (iii
20–21), on the one hand, and interiorizes it into the human being (iv 15–26),
on the other. Without considering the inner human conflict, the Aramaic
Vision of Amram (4Q543–548) expresses the choice between wickedness
and righteousness as a choice between “Melki-resha‘”, an angel associated
with darkness, and another angel associated with light (and whose name is
not preserved); see 4Q544 1.10–14, especially line 1a. The Testament of
Asher, in referring to the “two ways of good and of bad” (1:5 – Hδο! δ-ο
καλο κα! κακο, further described in 1:3 as “two intentions”, “two kinds
of behaviour”, and “two manners”), draws a link with “the spirit of evil”
(πονηρο πνε-ματο«) and “the angel of peace” which accompany the evil
and righteous souls, respectively, to their final destination (6:1–5). Oppos-
ing angels or spirits are similarly taken up in early Christian traditions, such
as Epistle of Barnabas 18:1–2 (angels of God vs. angels of Satan, co-ordi-
nated with Light and Darkness, respectively), Mandates in Shepherd of
Hermas 6.2 (angel of righteousness and angel of iniquity); Doctrina Apos-
tolorum 1:1–2 (two angels, one of righteousness, the other of iniquity), and,
less explicitly, Pseudo-Clementine Homilies 7.3.3–5 and 7.5.1–3 (GCS2
1.117–119 – two princes, evil and good, one on God’s right and one on
God’s left hand; two paths [Hδο! δ-ο] “presided over by unbelief and
faith”). Without referring explicitly to angelic or cosmic powers, other
documents link opposing ways of good and evil with light and darkness; so
1 Enoch 108:11, Genesis Apocryphon vi 2 (ways of truth versus ways of de-
ceit452 Book of Mysteries (4Q299 5.2 – “the mysteries of light and ways of
dark[ness”; cf. 4Q300 3.4–5); and 2 Enoch 30:15 (Rec. A).
It is interesting to observe that, unlike the sources just mentioned,
1 Enoch 91–105 nowhere co-ordinates language about contrasting ways
with angelic beings, especially since angels play such an important role else-
where in the Enochic tradition and since disobedient stars are even referred
to as going astray, causing people of the earth to “go astray” by turning

452 Concerning the phrase “ways of deceit” as inadvertently missing from the text, see
Beyer, Die aramäischen Texte vom Toten Meer Band 2, pp. 91–92.
1 Enoch 94:1–5 249

“from all their ways” as a result (1 En. 80:7). This would be in contrast
with the adherence of heavenly bodies to their courses in Books of Watchers
at 2:1–5:6 where they function as an image that contrasts with the wicked
who have turned away from their paths. If anything, the authors of chap-
ters 91–105 steer clear of drawing a link between the different ways and
cosmic powers,453 and instead participate in that stream of tradition that re-
stricts language to ethical dualistic categories. The absence of cosmological
powers behind the ethical instruction about righteousness and wickedness
in chapters 91–105 may be said to reflect the emphasis on human beings as
the origin of sin on the earth; see the Note to 98:4 below.
In restricting dualistic language to ethical behaviour, chapters 91–105
participate in a widespread form of discourse found in the following texts.
Of particular importance is Sirach 33:7–15 – “ … the Lord makes people
unlike: in different paths he has them walk” (v. 11); “As evil is over against
good and death over against life, so also over against the godly one is the
sinner” (v. 14); “so also all of the works of the Most High: they come in
twos, one over against the other” (v. 15). While Ben Sira shares with the
Community Rule a strong predestinarian stance regarding good and evil in
the world as “the works of the Most High”, it does so without recourse to
angelic powers. While one might regard this as similar to 1 Enoch 91:3–4,
18–19, 94:1–5, 99:10, and 105:2, the determinism of Ben Sira, itself a prob-
lem of interpretation,454 is at best only implicit, that is, it would have to be
inferred through a reading of the once originally independent Apocalypse of
Weeks as providing a theological underpinning for the Exhortation and Ep-
istle in its description of each period of time in history. Other Jewish and
Christian sources which, without any obvious recourse to cosmic powers,
come close to the weight 1 Enoch 91–105 places on human responsibility in
choosing the correct “path” of behaviour, include Jubilees 7:36; 4Q473
2.3–4; Wisdom of Solomon 5:6–7; 2 Enoch 30:15; Sibylline Oracles
8.399–401; Philo, Specialibus Legibus 4.108; Legum Allegoriae 2.98; De
Abrahamo 204; De Plantatione 37 ( ρωτη and κακα); De Sacrificiis Abelis

453 As helpfully observed by Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 456.


454 It is, for example, possible that the emphasis of Ben Sira is less on predeterminism
itself than to tone down an opponent’s view which renders God culpable by denying
human freedom; cf. on this, in relation to Sir. 15:11–20, Maurice Gilbert, “God,
Sin and Mercy: Sirach 15:11–18:14”, in ed. Renate Egger-Wenzel, Ben Sira’s God.
Proceedings of the International Ben Sira Conference Durham-Ushaw College 2001
(BZAW, 321; Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2002), pp. 119–21 and the discussion of
human free will in Ben Sira by J. Hadot, Penchant mauvais et volonté libre dans la Sa-
gesse de Ben Sira (L’Ecclésiastique) (Brussels: Presses Universitaires, 1970), pp. 9–31.
250 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

et Caini 20 and De Gigantibus 44 (each soul is joined together with two


wives who loathe and compete against one another, 9δον and ρωτη);
Matthew 7:13–14; Galatians 5:16–26; 2 Peter 2:15; and Didache 1:1–6:3.
Among these, Philo’s terminology, which bifurcates “vice” (κακα) or, es-
pecially, “pleasure” (9δον) from “virtue” ( ρωτη), suggests more of an in-
fluence from the notion of contrasting paths also well-known in sources
from ancient moral philosophy; cf. Hesiod, Works and Days, 287–92;
Xenophon, Memorabilia 2.1.29–40; Theognis, Elygy 911–14; Plutarch,
Life of Demonsthenis 26.7.455 A well-known myth from the classical world
relating to the “two ways” circulated as “the choice of Heracles”. The story,
initially told by the sophist Prodicus of Ceos (late 5th cent. BCE) and pre-
served as the words of Socrates by his younger contemporary Xenophon,
tells of Heracles having to make a decision between “two ways”, symbo-
lised by women, one called “virtue” ( ρωτη) and the other “evil” (κακα).
Whether or not cosmic powers play a role, the antithetical language of
texts discussed above is placed in service of exhortation. This instructional
component, the elements of which have been shaped by biblical tradition
(e.g. Ps. 25:8–9; 27:11; 32:8; 86:11; 119:27, 33; 143:8; Prov. 4:11), is
usually directed towards those who are presumed to “walk” in righteous-
ness (cf. 92:1c), that is, it does not attempt to persuade those who are irre-
trievably lost on the wrong path to return. In 1 Enoch 91–105, then, the
contrasting ways serve as a means by which the authors clarify and re-in-
force the religious identities of the implied readers, while exhorting them to
remain faithful.

Notes
1a. And now I say to you, my sons. The address between Enoch and his off-
spring resumes the testamentary setting at the opening of the Epistle
(92:1c), where the descendants being spoken to belong to a “future gener-
ation” (as implied here in 94:2a). In addition to this text, Enoch addresses
his children (i.e. beyond merely his son, Methuselah) at the opening
(91:3–4) and conclusion (91:18–19) of the Exhortation. In the work, if one
excludes the insertion of the Apocalypse of Weeks, the conclusion of the
Exhortation and the beginning of the Epistle would have been linked by
the testamentary setting. The addressees are not simply Enoch’s physical

455 See Klaus Berger, “Hellenistische Gattungen”, in ANRW 2.25.2 (1984), pp. 1031–1432
(esp. pp. 1090–91). Niederwimmer, Didache, pp. 59–61 (and n.’s 6, 7, 14, 16); Wil-
helm Michaelis, “Hδ«”, pp. 43–46. It is not clear, however, whether Berger is correct
in deriving the “eternal enmity” (,lvi tbyX ) in humanity between the two spirits
1QS iv 16–17 from the Prodicus fable as told by Xenophon.
1 Enoch 94:1–5 251

progeny; on a more profound level, they are those whom the author con-
siders to be righteous (94:3a; cf. further 92:1c) and who belong to his com-
munity of intended readers.
1b. Love righteousness and walk in it. The metaphor of walking anitici-
pates the image of “the ways of righteousness” in verse 1c. Concerning the
idea of loving righteousness (here sedq), see the Note to 91:3d where the
synonymous term ret‘ (“uprightness”) is used.
1c. For the ways of righteousness are worthy to be accepted, but the
ways of iniquity will be destroyed quickly and vanish. As in 91:19a, the dia-
metric opposition between the “two ways” is expressed here in a single sen-
tence, and the reference to “ways of iniquity” corresponds to the same
phrase in 91:19b. Since the expressions in the conclusion to the Exhortation
are more elaborate, it seems more likely that they depend on this section
rather than the other way around.
The ultimate impotence and futility of the ways of iniquity is declared by
a sudden end (Deut. 7:4; 28:20; Ps. 64:7; Prov. 6:15; 24:22 [Grk.]; 29:1; Isa.
29:5–6; 30:13; 47:11; Jer. 18:22; 51:8; Wis. 18:12 – επ2 μι»«; Sir. 5:7; cf. 4
Ez. 11:33; 1 Thess. 5:3), though it is possible that the adverb “quickly” (fe-
tuna) reflects the author’s belief that divine judgement (a) is imminent and
(b) will overtake the wicked without warning (cf. also 94:6, 7; 95:6; 96:1, 6;
97:10; 98:16; and 99:9 – #πι μι»«). In the former case, the prediction of the
destruction of evil underscores the enduring force of righteousness, while
the latter point would imply that the time remaining for evil is short.
2a. And to notable men from a generation the ways of wrongdoing and
of death will be revealed. The term “generation” is not indeterminate, but
rather refers to a time in the distant future. In this way the author has the
patriarch predict the situation of the religious community with which he
identifies.456 The expression la-sab’ ’emuran, which denotes the community,
can mean either “notable” or “certain people”.457 This follows similar
“predictions” about a final generation found in the Book of Watchers (1:2)
and at the opening of the Epistle (see the Note to 92:1c). Similar to those

456 Black (The Book of Enoch, p. 295), who translates la-sab’ ’emuran as “illustrious
men”, thinks the author is referring to “Moses, Aaron, and the prophets”. The simi-
larities with 1:2 and 92:1c, however, suggest the text has the author’s contemporary
community in view.
457 Nickelsburg, 1 Enoch 1, p. 457 argues that there is a parallel between v. 2 and CD A ii
11–13 which refers to the awakening of a righteous community, called “those called
by name” (,> yXyrq ) to whom God “made known by his anointed one(s) his holy
spirit and seers of the truth”. The language at this point of CD, however, has a spe-
cificity that eludes the present passage.
252 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

who will be given “sevenfold instruction” in the Apocalypse of Weeks


(93:10), the writer regards his community as a repository of eschatological
revelation. Here, however, revealed knowledge is described in terms of re-
cognising “the ways of wrongdoing and of death”, which are synonymous
to “the ways of iniquity” and antithetical to “the ways of righteousness”
mentioned in verse 1c. As a further characterisation of ways of wrongdoing,
“death” resumes the view expressed at the end of verse 1c; since such ways
inevitably lead to death (see General Comment above), they are already, by
their very nature, an expression of death.
2b. And they will be distant from them and will not follow them. The
reception of revelation about wrongdoing is accompanied by the appropri-
ate response: separation (yerhaqu, “they will be distant”). The nature of the
distance in view is not simply moral, but rather implies a certain physical
removal of the writer’s community. It is possible that here the metaphor of
contrasting “ways” of behaviour is seen to have manifested itself in the
formation of a social group. In order not to participate in what the author
regards as the wickedness exposed by revelation, the “notable men” have
detached themselves enough to pursue “the ways of righteousness”.
The extent of such separation is not clear. In 104:6, the readers (called
“righteous ones”) are also told to keep away from the iniquities of
“sinners” while, at the same time, associating themselves with angelic hosts
of heaven (cf. Note there). Though the author has some idea about who be-
longs to his community, he does not apply any sectarian or technical termi-
nology that reflects a well-developed social organisation such as is found in
the Qumran Community Rule. Parallels for such separation and revelation
may be found with the Damascus Document, the fragmentary beginning of
which opens with the words: “the s]ons of light to keep away (rznhl ) from
the wa[ys of … ]until the completion of the appointed time of visitation”
(4Q266 1.1–2). Moreover, in the passage which follows (CD A i 10–12 par.
4Q266 2 ii 14–16), the writer recounts that God “raised up for them a
Teacher of Righteousness, in order to direct them in the way of his heart.
And he made known to the last generations (,ynvrxX tvrvdl ) what he did in
the last generation, in the congregation of traitors”. As in verse 2a, the con-
tent of the revelation given through the Teacher of Righteousness has some-
thing to do with “traitors” from which the community has separated and
against whom there will be complete destruction (cf. further CD A ii 2–7).
While these parallels suggest something about a common or similar reli-
gious climate behind these texts, they do not provide a warrant for linking
them with the same groups, as verse 2 does not adopt any of the more spe-
cific and significant expressions (“sons of light”, “Teacher of Righteous-
ness”) used in the Damascus Document. We may thus deduce that, while
1 Enoch 94:1–5 253

there are no grounds to discount the possibility that there was some social
or protest-orientated connection, there was no discernable link between the
author(s) and community behind the Epistle and the group that formed
under the leadership of the Teacher of Righteousness.
3. And now I say to you, O righteous ones, do not walk in the ways of
wickedness or in the ways of death, and do not come near to them lest you
be destroyed. The “righteous ones” is an equivalent for Enoch’s children ad-
dressed in verse 1a. The content of this verse resumes that of verses 1 and 2
by converting their declarative statements into a negative exhortation:

– do not walk in the ways of v. 2a – ways of wrongdoing (gef‘)


wickedness (’ekuy)
– or in the ways of death (mot) v. 2a – and of death (mot)
– and do not come near to them v. 2b – and they will be distant from
them and will not follow them
– lest you be destroyed v. 1c – the ways of iniquity will be
(’i-tethag walu) destroyed (yethag walu)
quickly and vanish

In this way, the situation of the addressees is narrativised into the patriarch’s
prediction of the eschatological righteous community. The exhortation
itself is reminiscent of Proverbs 4:14, while the threat of destruction may
express the writer’s concern that his readers not underestimate the impor-
tance of his instruction.
4. But seek after and choose for yourselves righteousness and an accept-
able life, and walk in the ways of peace so that you may live and flourish.
The negative formulation of verse 3 is here reformulated positively. The text
reflects a sapiential background; in Proverbs 3:13–18 the finding of wisdom
(v. 13), whose “paths are peace” (3:17), is said to result in “length of days”
(3:16) and “life” (3:18). The motif of seeking or choosing in order to live is
found in Deuteronomy 30:19 (cf. 4 Ez. 7:129) and Amos 5:4, 6. The latter
text, which exhorts readers to seek the Lord and live, refers to those who do
not “cast righteousness to the ground” (Amos 5:7).458 Language about
seeking “righteousness” is rare. A possible echo of such a motif occurs in
the Sermon on the Mount at Matthew 6:33, in which the traditional prom-
ise of life is reinterpreted as food and clothes humans require for existence:
“And seek first the kingdom of God and his righteousness, and all these

458 In order to find protection from divine anger, Zeph. 2:3 exhorts readers with parallel
phrases “seek the Lord” and “seek righteousness”.
254 The Epistle Of Enoch (92:1–5; 93:11–14; 94:1–105:2)

things will be added to you.” In addition, according to 1 Maccabees


2:29–38 the group of pious Jews who die at the hands of the Seleucids while
refusing to fight on the sabbath are described as “many seeking righteous-
ness” (v. 29 – πολλο! ζητοντε« δικαιοσ-νη).
Though it is possible that the promise that the righteous will live and
flourish refers specifically to the afterlife, this is by no means clear. The con-
clusion of the Epistle anticipates a time in which those who have received
Enochic revelation (104:12–13) will disseminate their knowledge to “the
children of the earth” (cf. 105:1), as if it is in this way that the rewards men-
tioned in Deuteronomy 30:15, 19–20 are being interpreted.
5a. And take hold of the thoughts of your heart and do not let my words
be lost from your heart. The first half of the statement as a whole is remi-
niscent of Proverbs 4:4 (MT): “Let your heart hold fast to my words; keep
my commandments, and live”, in which the promise of life links with the
end of the verse 4.459 The second half of the statement has its counterpart in
Proverbs 4:5–6a: “Get wisdom, get insight: do not turn away from the
words of my mouth. Forsake her not …”.
The expression “the thoughts of your heart” is difficult to understand
unless what has been imagined that the readers have received is the equiva-
lent of “my words”. The background in Proverbs 4, as well as the literary
context of chapters 91–105, makes clear that the words of the writer are
themselves regarded as “wisdom”. The verb “take hold” (ta’axzu; an equiv-
alent for Greek κρατω) may take “knowledge” or “wisdom” as its object;
so e.g. in Proverbs 14:18; Sirach 1:19; 4:13; 24:14; and 1 Baruch 4:1. The
writer thus assumes that his instructions will have been heard by his readers
to the extent that they occupy their thoughts. The exhortation to “take
hold” (ta’axzu) suggests that the writer wishes not only for his words to be
internalised but also that they become effective as tradition (as later, e.g., in
2 Thess 2:15; Lk. 8:15; Heb. 4:14). Analogous to the contrast between tak-
ing hold and losing is that between “remembering” and “removing” or “ex-
punging”, as in Tobit 4:19 (Cod. Sin. – “So now, my child, remember these
commandments, and do not let them be erased from your heart”).
As communicated in 104:11 (see Note), the writer shows a particular
concern that his audience adhere strictly to the received tradition that has
come to them in the name of Enoch, while he regards those without this in-
struction as ones who are deceitful and are occupied by “their own words”.

459 It is therefore unnecessary to argue, with Black (The Book of Enoch, p. 296) that con-
struing the sentence by having “the thoughts of your heart” function as the object of
the verb “to take hold” is “to force the syntax”.
1 Enoch 94:1–5 255

5b. For I understand that sinners will tempt men in order to make what
is wicked out of wisdom, so that no place will be found for it, and temp-
tation will not vanish at all. The writer comes close to conceiving of a kind
of wisdom that is perverted. In wisdom literature of the Hebrew Bible and
ancient Judaism, language that refers to the perversion, transformation or
subversion of wisdom or the equivalent is rare. A parallel idea may occur in
the Two Spirits Treatise at 1QS iv 19–20, according to which “truth (tmX )
will go forth forever in the world, for it has been defiled in the paths of
wickedness during the dominion of injustice until the appointed time for
judgement has been been decided”. The present age is sui generis characte-
rised as a time when wisdom is not transparent and when it is subject to
subversion or deception (cf. Isa. 5:20–21). Closely related to this idea is the
hiddenness of wisdom and, as stated in this text, its absence in the present
world order. The lack of a place for wisdom is also emphasized in the later
Similitudes at 1 Enoch 42:1–3.
Whereas Epistle 94:5 and Similitudes 42:1–3 stress the absence of a
place for wisdom, according to Sirach 24:1–33 wisdom’s search for a rest-
ing place in heaven and earth ends in the “holy tent” of Zion (vv. 8–11)
from where it becomes accessible to those who seek after it (vv. 13–33).
Whereas the Enochic circles lay claim to an esoteric kind of wisdom re-
vealed through dream-visions, instruction from angels, and teaching passed
on in the name of the patriarch, Ben Sira welded wisdom into the Jerusalem
cult so completely that other forms of instruction are rendered as “things
too difficult”, “too po