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DIRECT & INDIRECT NARRATION

Learn in Urdu

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SMSKKK
DIRECT AND INDIRECT NARRATION

‫یسک صخش یک ابت وک دورسوں کت اچنہپےن ےک دو رطےقی ںیہ۔‬

‫ ےنہک واےل ےک الکم وک یسک ردودبل ےک ریغب وہوہب درہاان۔ اےس رواتی یظفل ای‬. 1
‫ ےک ادنر ےھکل اجےت ںیہ۔ ًالثم‬Inverted Commas ‫ ےتہک ںیہ۔ ہی اافلظ‬Direct Narration
” He says, “I am very late.

‫ ےنہک واےل ےک الکم اک وہفمم ای بلطم اےنپ اافلظ ںیم ایبن رکان ۔ اےس رواتی ونعمی ای‬. 2
‫ ےتہک ںیہ۔ ًالثم‬Indirect Narration
He says that he is suffering from fever.

REPORTING SPEECH AND VERB


‫ ےس ابرہ اھکل وہا ہصح‬Inverted commas ‫ ےک رقفوں ںیم‬Direct Narration
‫ الہکات ےہ۔‬Reporting verb ‫ ہکبج اس ےصح اک ورب‬Reporting speech

REPORTED SPEECH AND VERB


‫ ےس ادنر واےل ہصح‬Inverted commas ‫ ےک رقفوں ںیم‬Direct Narration
‫ ےتہک ںیہ۔‬Reported verb ‫ ہکبج اس ےصح ےک ورب وک‬Reported speech

‫اثمل ےک وطر رپ‬

” He says to me, “I am your friend


Reporting verb ‫ وک‬says ‫ ہکبج‬Reporting speech ‫ وک‬He says to me ‫اس رقفے ںیم‬

Reported ‫ ” وک‬I am your friend “ ‫ ےک ادنر‬Inverted commas ‫ےتہک ںیہ۔‬


‫ہ‬
‫ اہک اجات ےہ۔‬Reported verb ‫ وک‬am ‫ کنج‬speech
PRONOUN
Pronoun ‫ ںیم دبتلی رکےن ےس ےلہپ‬Indirect Narration ‫ ےک رقفے‬Direct Narration

‫(امس ریمض) یک ںیمسق اور احںیتل انھکیس اور اید رکان رضوری وہات ےہ۔‬

Subjective Possessive Objective


Case Case Case

I My Me
1 s t Person
Pronoun We Our Us

2 n d Person You Your You


Pronoun

He His Him
She Her Her
3 r d Person
Pronoun They Their Them
It Its It

‫ ںیم دبتلی رکےن ےک ےئل نیت مسق یک‬Indirect Narration ‫ ےک رقفوں وک‬Direct Narration
‫دبتایلیں رکین ڑپیت ںیہ۔‬
A. Change in person or pronoun.
B. Change in tense or verb.
C. Change in certain words.

A. CHANGE IN PERSON OR P RONOUN

‫ ےک افلع‬Reporting speech ‫ وک‬First person ‫ ےک ادن ر‬Reported speech .i


‫ ) ںیم دبتلی ایک اجات ےہ۔ ًالثم‬Subject (
He says, “I am a teacher”.
He says that he is a teacher.
‫ ےک‬Reporting speech ‫ وک‬Second person ‫ ےک ادنر‬Reported speech . ii
‫ ) ںیم دبتلی ایک اجات ےہ۔ ًالثم‬Object ( ‫وعفمل‬
She says to me, “You are my brother ”.
She says to me that I am her brother.

‫ دبتلی ںیہن وہات۔ ًالثم‬Third person ‫ اک‬Reported speech . iii


He says to me, “She is very proud”.
He says to me that She is very proud.

‫ان دبتویلیں وک اید رےنھک ےک ےئلدرج ذلی ہیلک ذنہ نیشن رکان اچےئہ۔‬
S O N
1 2 3
‫اس ہیلک اک بلطم ہی ےہ ہک‬
First person changes into Subject S
Second person changes into Object O
Third person does not change (Nil ) N

B. CHANGE IN PERSON OR PEONOUN

‫ انبےت‬Indirect Narration ‫ لعف احل ای لعف لبقتسم ںیم ےہ وت‬Reporting verb ‫ارگ‬ .i
‫ ےک زامہن ںیم وک یئ دبتیلی واعق ںیہن وہیت۔ ًالثم‬Reporting speech
He says to me, “I am your friend”.
He says to me that he is my friend.

She will say to me, “I work hard”.


She will say to me that she work s hard.
‫ ےک امتم ااعفل ےچین لبیٹ‬Reported speech ‫ لعف امیض ںیم ےہ وت‬Reporting verb ‫ارگ‬ . ii
‫ںیم دےیئ ےئگ اوصل ےک اطمقب دبتلی وہےگن۔‬

Present Indefinite Past Indefinite

Present Continuous Past Continuous

Changes Into
Present Perfect Past Perfect
Present Perfect Past Perfect
Continuous Continuous
Past Indefinite Past Perfect
Past Perfect
Past Continuous
Continuous

‫اثمل ےک وطر رپ‬


He said, “I play hockey”.
1
He said that he played hockey.

He said to me, “I am writing a letter ”.


2
He told me that he was writing a letter.

They said, “We have solved the problem”.


3
They said that they had solved the problem.

She said, “It has been raining since morning ”.


4
She said that it had been raining since morning.

He said to me, “I sold my bike”.


5
He told me that he had sold his bike.
C. CHANGE IN CERTAIN WORDS
.
Direct Indirect
Narration Narration

This That

These Those

Here There

Hence Thence

Changes Into
Now Then

Thus So

Ago Before

Today That day

Tomorrow The next day

Yesterday The previous day

The next day The following day

Last night The previous night

This There

1. ASSERTIVE SENTENCES
‫ہی ایبہین ےلمج وہےت ںیہ۔ اےسی ولمجں ںیم یسک ابت ای اکم ےک وہےن ای ہن وہےن ےک ابرے ںیم اتبای اجات‬
‫ ںیم دبےتل وتق دنمرہج ذلی ابوتں اک ایخل‬Indirect ‫ وک‬Assertive sentences ‫ےہ۔‬
‫رںیھک۔‬
‫ اگلای رکںی۔‬that ‫ وک اٹہ رک‬commas ‫ ںیم دبتلی رکںی بج ہک‬told ‫ وک‬Said to
EXAMPL ES

He says, “I want to help you”.


1
He says that he wants to help me.
He will say to me, “You are telling a lie”.
2
He will tell me that I am telling a lie.
He said to me, “I want to buy a car”.
3
He told me that he wanted to buy a car.
You said to her, “My father is a doctor”.
4
You told her that your father was a doctor
He said to her, “Our teachers are on strike”.
5
He told her that their teachers were on strike.
I said to her, “I have composed a poem”.
6
I told her that I had composed a poem.
She said to me, “I can solve this problem”.
7
She told me that she could solve that problem.
They said to her, “Your son will come soon”.
8
They told her that her son would come soon
He said to his friend, “Yesterday was a holiday”.
9
He told his friend that the previous day had been a holiday.
I said to Ahmad, “Tomorrow will be a rainy day”.
10
I told Ahmad that the next day would be a rainy day.
He said to me. “I did my duty”.
11
He told me that he had done his duty.
Now it is my turn”, said the player to the captain. “
12
The player told the captain that it was his turn then.
He said to the teacher, “Sir. I was ill”.
13
He told the teacher respectfully that he had been ill.
They said, “They were going to the market ”.
14
They said that they had been going to the market.
He said to me. “I must go now”.
15
He told me that he had to go then.
The teacher said to me. “You must not go next week”.
16
The teacher told that I was not to go the following week
U NIVERSAL T RUTH

‫ ومعمل ےک اکم ای اسیسنئ وقانین اک ذرک وہات ےہ۔‬،‫ا ےسی رقفوں ںیم اعریگمل اچسیئ‬
‫ ےک رقفوں وک دبتلی رکےت وتق دنمرہج ذلی ابوتں اک ایخل راھک اجےئ۔‬Universal Truth
‫ اگلای اجات ےہ۔‬that ‫ متخ رک ےک‬Commas .i
‫اےسی رقفوں اک زامہن (ینعی ورب) دبتلی ںیہن وہات۔‬ . ii

EXAMPLES

He said, “The sun rises in the east”.


1
He said that the sun rises in the east.
He said, “The earth revolves round the sun”.
2
He said that the earth revolves round the sun.
The teacher said, “Columbus discovered America”
3
The teacher said that Columbus discovered America.

He said, “Two and two make four”.


4
He said that two and two make four.

She said, “Might is right”.


5
She said that might is right.
You said, “Honesty is the best policy”.
6
You said that honesty is the best policy.

2. INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES

‫وس اہیل رقف ے دو مسق ےک وہےت ںیہ۔‬

‫ وریغہ ےس رشوع وہےت ںیہ اور ان وساولں‬Who , What , When ‫ ینعی‬Wh ‫اےسی رقفے وج‬ .i
‫ے‬
‫دی اجےت ںیہ۔ ًالثم‬‫ےک وجاب وپرے ئ‬
Q: How are you?
A: I am quite right.
‫ وریغہ ےس رشوع‬is ‫ ای‬shall , will , can , did , do , was ‫اےسی رقفے وج ادمادی ورب ینعی‬ . ii
‫وہےت ںیہ ان وساولں اک وپرا وجاب دای اجات ےہ۔ ًالثم‬
Are you a student?
Yes, I am.

‫ ںیم دبتلی رکےت وتق دنمرہج ذلی دبتایلیں رکین ڑپیت‬Indirect speech ‫رطہقی۔ وساہیل رقفوں وک‬
‫ںیہ۔‬
‫ ںیم‬Asked, enquired wondered, wanted to know ‫ وک‬Said . i

‫دبتلی ایک اجات ےہ۔‬


‫ اامعتسل ںیہن وہات۔‬that ‫اےسی رقفوں ںیم‬ . ii

؎‫ واال ظفل ربرقار راتہ ےہ۔‬Wh ‫ واےل رقفوں ںیم‬Wh . iii

‫ادمادی ورب ےس رشوع وہےن واےل رقفوں ںیم ادمادی ورب وک اٹہ رک‬ . iv

‫ اک اامعتسل وہات ےہ۔‬If ‫ ای‬Whether


‫رقفے یک وساہیل اشنن متخ رکےک اسدہ انبای اجات ےہ۔‬ .v

EXAMPLES

” He said to me, “What is your name?


1
He asked me what my name was.
” She asked me, “Where do you live?
2
She asked me where I lived.
” He said to me, “How are you?
3
He asked me how I was.
” He said to her, “How do you do?
4
He asked her how she was.
” I asked to him, “Do you live in D.I Khan?
5
I asked him whether he lived in D.I Khan.
” The stranger said to me, “Can you show me the way?
6
The stranger asked if I could show him the way.
” He said to me, “Will you lend me your camera?
7
He asked me whether I would lend him my camera.
She said to me, “Did you buy a car”?
8
She asked me whether I had bought a car.
” The teacher said, “Why were you absent?
9
The teacher asked why I had been absent.
” He said, “Shall I ever forget her?
10
He wondered if he would ever forget her.
” She said, “Shall I open the window?
11
She wanted to know if she should open the window.

3. IMPERATIVE SENTENCES
‫ تحیصن ای یسک ابت ےس عنم رکان اپای اجےئ۔ اےسی رقفے تبثم ںیم‬،‫ دروخاتس‬،‫ہی وہ رقفے ںیہ نج ںیم مکح‬
‫ ےس رشوع وہےت ںیہ۔ وجتزی ای ااجزت ےک ونعمں ںیم ہی‬Do Not ‫ورب یک یلہپ افرم ےس اور یفن ںیم‬
‫ ےس رشوع وہےت ںیہ۔‬let ‫رقفے‬
‫ وریغہ‬forbid ‫ ای‬advise, request, order ‫ ےک اطمقب‬mood ‫ وک رقفے ےک‬Said to .i
‫ںیم دبتلی ایک اجےئ۔‬
‫ اامعتسل وہات ےہ۔‬not to ‫ ہکبج یفن ںیم‬to ‫تبثم ولمجں ںیم ورب ےس ےلہپ‬ . ii
‫ ںیم دبتلی رکےت‬Indirect Narration ‫ وجتزی ےک ونعمں ںیم اامعتسل وہا ےہ وت‬let ‫ارگ‬ . iii
‫ ااجزت ےک ونعمں ںیم اامعتسل وہا‬let ‫ اامعتسل ایک اجات ےہ۔ ارگ‬Suggest ‫ ای‬Purpose ‫وتق‬
‫ اور‬that ‫ وک متخ رکےن ےکےئل‬Commas ‫ اگلای رکںی۔ ان دو ونں وصروتں ںیم‬Request ‫ےہ وت‬
‫ اامعتسل ایک اجات ےہ۔‬Should ‫ ےک بعد‬Pronoun

EXAMPLES

He said to his servant. “Iron my coat”.


1
He ordered his servant to iron his coat.
He said to his son, “Give full attention to your study”.
2
He advised his son to give full attention to his study.
He said to his master. “Pardon me, Sir”.
3
He begged his master to pardon him.
He said to the student. “Do not come here”.
4
He forbade the student to come there.
He said, “Let us go for a walk”.
5
He suggested that they should go for a walk.
He said. “Let me write a letter”.
6
He requested that he should be allowed to write a letter.
The teacher said to Hamid. “Speak the truth”.
7
The teacher advised Hamid to speak the truth.
She said to them, “Good-bye, my friends”.
8
She bade good-bye to her friends.
He said to his friend, “Lend me your pen”.
9
He requested his friend to lend him his pen.
Nasima said to him, “Get out of the room”.
10
Nasima ordered him to get out of the room.
She said, “Do not make a noise”.
11
She forbade to make a noise.
He said to me, “Trust in God and do the right”.
12
He advised me to trust in God and do the right.
She said to us. “Good morning”
13
She greeted us.

4. EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES
Alas! , ‫ مغ ای ریحایگن اک ااہظر وہات ےہ۔ ان رقفوں ںیم ارثک‬،‫اےسی رقفوں ںیم وخیش‬ .i
‫ وریغہ اپای اجات ےہ۔‬What a ‫ ای‬Hurrah!
Exclaimed with joy, ‫ ےک اطمقب‬mood ‫ وک رقفے ےک‬Said to . ii
‫ ںیم دبل دای اجات‬Exclaimed with wonder ‫ ای‬Exclaimed with Sorrow
‫ےہ۔‬
‫ اامعتسل ایک اجات ےہ۔‬that ‫ متخ رکےک‬Commas . iii

EXAMPLES
He said, “Hurrah! we have won the final match”.
1
He exclaimed with joy that they had won the final match.
He said, “Alas! I have lost my pen”.
2
He exclaimed with sorrow that he had lost his pen.
She said, “What a beautiful watch it is!”
3
She exclaimed with wonder that it was a beautiful watch.
She said, “Alas! We have been undone”.
4
She exclaimed with sorrow that they had been undone.
The fox said to the crow, “How beautiful you are!”.
5
The fox flattered the crow that she was very beautiful.

5. OPTATIVE SENTENCES
‫ ای‬Would that, I wish ‫اےسی رقفوں ںیم داع ای وخاشہ اک ااہظر ایک اجات ےہ۔ اےسی رقفے‬ .i
‫ وریغہ ےس رشوع وہےت ںیہ۔‬May
‫ ںیم دبتلی‬Wish ‫ ای‬Pray ‫ ےک اطمقب‬mood ‫ وک رقفے ےک‬Said to ‫اس مسق ےک رقفوں ںیم‬ . ii
‫ایک اجات ےہ۔‬
‫ اگلای اجات ےہ۔‬that ‫ وک متخ رکےک‬Commas . iii
‫رقفے وک اسدہ احتل ںیم الای اجات ےہ۔‬ . iv

EXAMPLES

He said to his son, “May you live long”!


1
He prayed for his son that he might live long.
I said to her, “Mat you succeed in your life”.
2
I wished that she might succeed in her life.
He said, “May God pardon the sinners”.
3
He prayed that God might pardon the sinners.
He said to me, “Would that I could help you”.
4
He wished that he could have helped me.