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The Authoritative Magazine About High Fidelity

STEREO

EOUIPMENT
& RECORD
REVIEWS

OD

SPEAKER SPECIFICATIONS e 1

BUILD AN I -C TONE -CONTROL STAGE

NOW DISC MASTERS


ARE MADE TODAY

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PERFECTUNE
a tiny
.

digital computer
that flashes a light
when you're
tuned right

Inside Scott's new 382C AM/FM stereo receiver is a specially-developed digital computer circuit called "Perfectune,"
that takes the fiddling, guesswork, and wasted time out of tuning ... gives you perfect sound, instantly, every time.
How does it work? The Perfectune integrated circuit scans the other tuner circuits and decides exactly when you have
tuned for both lowest distortion and best reception. It then flicks on the Perfectune light .
Perfectune gives a far more exact reading than a meter, which may read
at its highest point when the signal is masked by interference. The Scott
382C still has a meter ... but it's a signal strength meter you use only to
position your antenna for optimum signal ... then you let Perfectune take
over for perfect sound!
Perfectune is only one of the advanced Scott features that make the
382C your best AM/FM stereo receiver buy. The photos below show some
of the other Scott exclusives incorporated in this superb unit.
VII

a.
5 10 10
SINE WAVE POWER OUTPUT
PER CHANNEL IN WOTTS

Full complement of 7 "Wire -Wrap" ... a per- New IC multiplex sec- Full Complementary Snap -in printed circuit
modular construction
Integrated Circuits .. . manent connection tion that gives better Output circuitry that
more than any compet- technique that elimi- stereo performance gives virtually distor- for reliability and ease
itive receiver. nates solder joints. and reliability. tion-free listening at of service.
all levels.

Specifications:
Power (± 1 dB) 110 Watts. IHF power specifications @ 0.8% distortion, both channels

DSCOTT®
driven: Dynamic power @ 4 Ohms, 45 Watts per channel; Continuous power @ 4 Ohms, 33
Watts/channel, @ 8 Ohms 25 Watts/channel. Selectivity, 40 dB; Frequency response, ± 1 dB,
15-30,000 Hz; IHF power bandwidth, 15-25,000 Hz; Cross modulation rejection, 80 dB; Usable
sensitivity, 1.9µV; Stereo separation, 30 dB; Capture ratio, 2.5 dB. Prices and specifications
subject to change without notice. Walnut -finish case optional. For detailed specifications, write:
Choose either the 382C AM/FM stereo receiver at 5299.95 or its FM stereo counterpart, the H. H. Scott, Inc., Ill Powdermill Road Maynard, Mass. 01754
342C at $269.95. 0 1969, H. H. Scott, Inc. Export: Scott International, Maynard, Mass. 01754

Check No. 100 on Readers Service Card

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How to flip over the sound
without flipping over the reel.
For y ears you've flipped over a little And the beat is steady. That's and Pause Control fox easy editing.
thing called a reel. You flipped because the because there's Dual capstan drive on all Then there are two big VU meters, each
tape would run out at inconvenient times three speeds. 'That way the Tijuana Brass sensitive enough to catch the difference
like 30 seconds into the Minute Waltz, won't sound like 76 T .mbones and between a wheeze and a whisper. Plus a
or three and a half movements of your vice versa. 4 -place digital tape counter for some
favorite symphony. Of course, if youcon't want it to run of that long-distance aping you might
Something had to be done about it. forever, use the automatic shutoff. get involved in.
Panasonic, the world's leading Will the Symposium match your Top it all off with a smoked-glass
manufacturer of tape recorders, did rig at home? Yes. It has 30-20,000 CPS dust cover that doesn cost extra-and
something. That something is the Panasonic response, and the signal-to-noise ratio everything's beautiful
Symposium. It's a Solid -State 4 -track is more than 52 db's p_.s a recording system So why not go dcvn to any dealer
stereo deck that's unflippable. that has an AC bias of 90kc. For sound - we permit to carry the Panasonic line.
Unflippable because of continuous on -sound or sound -w- -sound that's We think that once yc a hook up our
Automatic Reverse. You'll never flip over plenty of fidelity. Model RS -796, you can stop flipping
another reel again. And the turn around You'll be crazy about our control over its reel and really start flipping
is so quick you'll hardly miss a beat. panel features, too. L -ke headphone output over what you hear.

PANASONIC®
200 PARK AVENUE NEW YORK 10017
For your nearest Panasonic dealer, call ¡B00) 243.0355. In Conn.,853.3600.We pad for the call.
Tape Deck, Model RS -796
Check No. 1 on Readers Service Card

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November 1969 Vol. 53, No. 11
Successor to Est. 1911

AUDIO
1 .

Number 74 in a series of discussions


by Electro -Voice engineers

ARTHUR P. SALSBERG C. G. McPROUD JAY L. BUTLER


Editor Publisher Associate Publisher
SANFORD L. CAHN
EDWARD TATNALL CANBY RICHARD CLIFF Marketing Director
Associate Editor Design LARRY NIGHTINGALE
Promotion Director
Contributing Editors R. KENNETH BAXTER
HERMAN BURSTEIN JOSEPH GIOVANELLI Production Manager
JUDITH S. ZUCKER
LEONARD FELDMAN ALEXANDER ROSNER
Advertising Manager
A recent Electro -Voice project points up the BERTRAM STANLEIGH SHERWOOD L. WEINGARTEN MARY CLAFFEY
close kinship between transducers intended Subscription Manager
for widely varying purposes. In this instance BERT WHYTE
the task was to develop, for another division
of Gulton Industries, an improved trans- FEATURE ARTICLES
ducer for the measurement of surface
roughness. Behind the Scenes: A Professional Viewpoint 10 Bert Whyte
In many respects, the device is quite similar Layman's Guide to
to a phono cartridge. It includes a small cer- Loudspeaker Specifications, Part I 22 Victor Brociner
amic element and a diamond stylus that
traces the surface to provide an electrical How Disc Masters Are Made Today 26 R. Lee Hulko
output analogous to the surface variations Build an IC Tone-Control Stage 32 Dick Crawford
under test. Parameters for the gauge must Acoustical Matching of
relate exactly to the USA Standards for Sound Systems and Auditoriums 36 David A. Klepper
surface measurement.
Tape Transport Maintenance-Part 3 44 H. W. Hellyer
Using a 0.5 mil spherical tip diamond stylus, 52 Blaine B. Kuist
the transducer is typically driven across the Passive Filters for Bi-Amplification
surface to be measured at a rate of about ABZ's of Stereo FM-
1/$"/second. A meter provides a readout of Modern Switching-Circuit Decoder 58 Leonard Feldman
average amplitude variation in micro -inches.
Alternatively, the surface can be plotted EQUIPMENT PROFILES
with a graphic recorder. An output of 0.10
millivolt is equivalent to microinch deflec-
1 Jensen Single -Cabinet Stereo Speaker 62 "Stereo -1r
tion of the stylus. This output relationship Concord Stereo Tape Deck 66 Mark III
is maintained even though the stylus tip is Supreme 1
not exactly perpendicular to the surface Kenwood Multi -Channel Stereo Amplifier 70
under test. Scott "Quadrant" Speaker System 74 Q-100
In order to accommodate a broad range of
surface irregularities, equalized response RECORD/TAPE REVIEWS
from the probe is flat from 4 to 1200 Hz. Classical 80 Edward Tatnall Canby
and the performance is checked on specially Sherwood L. Weingarten
prepared phonograph records played at sub- Light Listening-Rock For All Ages 92
normal speeds. Because surface measure- Jazz-Moog Music in a Garden 96 Bertram Stanleigh
ment must not harm or deform the product Tape Reviews 98 Bert Whyte
under test, the probe must exhibit high
compliance. While a typical ceramic phono
cartridge may be rated at 5x10-8cm/dyne, AUDIO IN GENERAL
and a good magnetic might measure 20x10-° Audioclinic 4 Joseph Giovanelli
cm/dyne, the surface gauge ceramic system What's New in Audio 8
has a rated compliance of 50x10'cm/dyne.
This high compliance also reduces element Editor's Review 18
breakage, a serious problem with earlier Tape Guide 20 Herman Burstein
designs. Letters 90
Surface measurement systems of this type Classified 100
find wide application in thick -film electronic Advertising Index 102
circuit production, where varying surface
characteristics can affect performance. The
gauges are also used to determine quality of
metal parts finish, predict heat transfer
+t'+ AUDIO (title registered U.S. Pat. Off.) is published monthly by North Ameri-
can Publishing Co., I. J. Borowsky, President; Frank Nemeyer, C. G. McProud,
ability, and other applications where surface V ABC\`: and Roger Damio, Vice Presidents. Subscription rates-U.S. Possessions,
texture is critical. Canada, and Mexico, $5.00 for one year; $9.00 for two years; all other countries,
L.' $8.00 per year. Printed in U.S.A. at Philadelphia, Pa. All rights reserved. En-
tire contents copyrighted 1969 by North American Publishing Co. Second class
postage paid at Phila., Pa.
For reprints of other discussions in this series,
or technical data on any E-V product, write: IM,TITLTI O/ REGIONAL SALES OFFICES: Jay L. Butler and Sanford L. Cahn, 41 East
ELECTRO -VOICE, INC., Dept. 1193A HIGH FIDELITY 42nd St., New York, N.Y. 10017; Telephone (212) 687.8923.
602 Cecil St., Buchanan, Michigan 49107
YIMOTACTUIttl
IMC Louis Weber, 5201 N. Harlem Ave., Chicago, III. 60656; (312) 775-0755.
Jay Martin, 15010 Ventura Blvd., Sherman Oaks, Calif.; (213) 981-7852.
REPRESENTATIVES: United Kingdom: H. A. Mackenzie and Peter E. Hollo-
way, 4a Bloomsbury Square, London W.C.1. Tel. HOL -3779.

g&cetteger.
A SUBSIDIARY OF GULTON INDUSTRIES. INC.
Continental Europe: John Ashcraft, 12 Bear St., London W.C.2. England.
Tel. WHitehall 0525. For Benelux & Germany: W. J. M. Sanders, Mgr.,
Herengracht 365, Amsterdam, Holland. Tel 24.09.08.
Japan: Matsushita Inc., 709 Kitano Arms, Hirakawa-Cho, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo.

AUDIO Editorial and Publishing Offices, 134 N. 13th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 19107
Check No. 2 on Readers Service Card Postmaster: Send Form 3579 to the above address
2 AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969

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The Avant Garrards
a complete story in two volumes

rh oftvve» er.Egl
Ciiereezrt,,,rl<Y7a
F/nera /ai,i,...,.,r,< l,rrrir._.,

.<.
-.-

Volume I. Packed with drama, this 24 page full- Once you get involved with the Avant Garrard
color Comparator Guide describes the eight distinc- story, you won't want to put it down. Send for these
tive new component turntables in the Avant Garrard best sellers today. They're free!
line. Each new model is a chapter in itself. Featured r
is the outstanding Synchro-Lab Series including the
magnificent SL95B at $129.50, the world's most ad-
vanced automatic transcription turntable.
World's Finest
Volume II. Stirring adventure in 12 pages. This Dept. AS19, Westbury, N.Y. 11590
full-color Comparator Guide gives you daring new Please send Comparator Guides
insight into the world of modules. Garrard intro-
duces four exciting units, complete with fine car- Name
tridge, base and dust cover, ready to plug in to other Address
components and play. They range from the SLX-3 at
$99.50 to the X-11 "Demi" at $39.50. City State Zip

Check No. 3 on Readers Service Card


AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969 3

www.americanradiohistory.com
record, stylus, and cartridge -
are
linear. You have to expect some non -

COMING Audio clinic linearity, but the amount will be


rather small.
If you have a problem or question on
audio, write to Mr. Joseph Giovanelli For example, in the case of your

IN at AUDIO, 134 North Thirteenth Street,


Philadelphia, Pa. 19107.
cartridge rated as having 1.1 mV out-
put at 1 cm/sec. at 1 kHz, this car-
tridge will provide 7.7 mV output at
JOSEPH GIOVANELLI
DECEMBER 1 kHz when playing as disc recorded
at 7 cm/sec., or normal recording
Cartridges & Phono Input level.
Sensitivity
Inside the Moog Synthesizer TV Sound
-Much has been written Q. I have an amplifier with a sensi- Q. Is TV sound, as transmitted by
about the results of elec- tivity of 3.3 mV at the magnetic television stations, similar in frequency
tronic music recorded on LP phono input. Attached to the input I range to FM sound? If not, what is the
discs. Now, Robert Ehle have a cartridge which delivers an frequency range?-Joseph Weiglein,
writes about how electronic output of 1.1 mV per cm per second Milwaukee, Wis.
music is created through use at 1 kHz. I wish to buy a cartridge A. Television audio is capable of
of the Moog synthesizer at of higher output. However, manufac- producing a wide frequency range
North Texas State University. turers use different methods to denote from 50 Hz to 15 kHz. TV sound is
sensitivity. For example, some state FM sound, but employing less carrier
Layman's Guide to Loud- output figures based on a stylus ve- deviation.
speaker Specifications, Part locity of 1 cm per second; others, at However, much of the material
II-Victor Brociner continues 3.5 cm/sec., 5.5 cm/sec., or 7 cm/ produced for television is recorded on
his examination of technical sec. Therefore, it becomes difficult optical sound tracks. This places high -
specifications of speakers and to compare output values. They all frequency limitations on the resultant
speaker systems. appear to use 1 kHz as a reference. sound because optical sound systems
... and more. I have the following questions: are usually designed to cut highs
1. Is there a formula that can be used sharply above 6 kHz. Video tape re-
PLUS:
to convert output ratings to 1 cm/sec. corders, on the other hand, are ca-
Equipment Profiles (Marantz
or to some other standard? pable of good high -end response out
Model Twenty Stereo FM 2. Based on a measurement of 1 cm/
Tuner, Pioneer Model CS -66 to 15 kHz. This will be fine if you
sec. at 1 kHz, can you recommend listen to a live or recorded locally
speaker systems, and Dual
what the optimum output of a car- generated show. Network shows will
Model 1219 automatic turn-
tridge should be to drive my amplifier be restricted to 5 kHz unless you
table, among others).
to its maximum power output con- happen to be listening to the station
... and other regular depart- sistent with low noise and distortion from which the broadcast is originat-
ments
so that the preamplifier is not over- ing. The bandwidth of the telephone-
loaded?-Richard Garlatti, New line circuits is responsible for this
Brunswick, N.J. high-frequency loss from network
A. If you have a cartridge which feeds.
ABOUT THE COVER: delivers 1.1 mV at 1 cm/sec. stylus
The state-of-the-art of disc mas- velocity, you will have more than Microphone Switching
tering is exemplified by a record- ample output to drive your amplifier Q. I am going to build a mike
ing studio photograph taken at when using that cartridge. mixer -preamplifier. I want to switch
Sterling Sound's cutting room in If a disc is modulated at 7 cm/ mikes in and out without any clicking
New York City. A rack containing sec., that disc is cut at zero dB noises. Can you give me a circuit
the cutterhead drive system, lim- recording level. On loud passages you which will accomplish this?-Harold
iters, and a Dolby audio noise can expect at least this much level to Grovesteen, Hyde Park, N.Y.
reduction system are shown at be supplied by the disc. Very often A. Eliminating "clicks" when switch-
left -center. In the middle of the levels will reach 10 dB above this ing microphones in and out of "hot"
photo can be seen a Neumann nominal zero -level value. circuits can definitely present prob-
VMS -66 computer -controlled In order to compare specifications lems, but it can be done. I would say
lathe, while in the foreground of various cartridges you need to that the job is practically impossible
(right) is a Telefunken M -10a tape know the relationship between stylus if the microphones to be switched
machine and control console. The velocity and the output voltage pro- are of the high -impedance type. How-
preview delay loop can be ob- duced by the cartridge. This rela- ever, no matter what kind of mikes
served between the reels on the tionship is a direct proportion. If the are employed, the procedure is the
tape transport. At the extreme left stylus velocity doubles, the output same.
can be seen a Sony manual turn- voltage from the cartridge will also You must obtain a low -capacitance
table and an assortment of test double. This assumes, however, that key whose contacts are of the make -
instruments. the entire electromechanical system- before-break variety.

4 AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969

www.americanradiohistory.com
"Thanks to the Dolby System our new recordings of The
Vaughan Williams symphonies are free of tape noise;'
says Roger Hall, Manager, Red Seal Artists and
Repertoire RCA Records.
"The Vaughan Williams symphonies have greet dynamic
range and many pianissimo sections," says Mr. Hall,
"Thus when we assigned Andre Previn and the London
Symphony Orchestra to record all nine of these sym-
phonies, we used the Dolby System to preserve this
dynamic range and to ensure that the quiet sections of
the works would be free of the degradation and dis-
traction of tape hiss, print -through and cross -talk."
Music lovers everywhere appreciate the new realism of
noise -free Dolby recordings. Over 100 companies in 19
The Dolby A301 countries are recording with the dependable Dolby
System. On your next recording session why don't you
use the Dolby System? Call or write...

DD DOLBY LABORATORIES INC.


333 Avenue of the Americas, New York, N.Y. 10014 Telephone (212) 243-2525 Cable: Dolbylabs New York
So. CALIF. No. CALIF. MIDWEST CANADA
Audio Industries Corp. Audio -Video Systems Engineering Expert Electronics Inc. J -Mar Electronics, Ltd.
1419 N. LaBrea Ave. 1525 Tennessee Street 7201 S. Western Avenue 6 ßanigan Drive
Hollywood, Calif. 90028 San Francisco, Calif. 94107 Chicago, Ilinois 60636 Toronto 17, Ontario, Canada
Tel: 213-HO 5-4111 Tel: 415-647-2420 Tel: 312-HE 6-2700 Tel: 416-421-9080
AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969 5

www.americanradiohistory.com
0 Unbalanced Circuit

The new THO EN the finest


TO -150 Mark II is MIC SPOT
make before break

integrated transcription turntable ever made!


To Input

Aw, you say that about


THO EN
500

every turntable. Lo Nolse

© Balanced Circuit
DPOT
make before break

Unbalanced circuits are wired as


in Fig. 1A. Balanced circuits are
wired as in Fig. 1B. These two cir-
cuits assume that low -impedance
microphones of 50 ohms are to be
We can't blame anyone who's a bit skeptical about manufacturers' used. However, if the impedance of the
claims. But let's face it. Someone has to be best. You know the mikes is of some other low value, the
traditional quality of Thorens is undisputed. You know thatThorens 50 -ohm resistor shown must be
has been a turntable innovator for the past 82 years. So when we
say the new TD -150 Mark II is the best -
you can believe it. changed to a value equal to the im-
pedance of the microphone used.
DRAMATICALLY NEW FEATURES:
Precision Cueing Synchronizer - New Action Speed Glide Adjust-
ment - Changes speed (331/2 and
Suppose that the microphone is
being switched out of the circuit.
Front positioned and isolated from
the tonearm. Lowers the arm gent- 45 rpm) smoothly, rapidly without Just before the contacts of position
ly and precisely. Extends stylus jolting stylus. 1 are broken, contact 2 closes to the
life. Reduces record wear. Other features: 12 inch, 71/2 lb. wiper of the switch, placing the re-
Anti -skate Control - No skip. No precision balanced, non-magnetic
platter eliminates wow and flutter sistor in the circuit. Very little dif-
skate. No slide. Stations stylus
precisely on both walls of groove. . . . Unified suspension system ference in sound will result from this
suppresses rumble ... Double syn- change. The difference is not great
Adjustable Low Mass Plug-in Shell chronous motor for constant, pre-
- Adjusts to optimum playback
stylus angle of 15°.
cise speed. enough to cause a "click." As the
switch is moved further toward posi-
Complete with tonearm and walnut
Tonearm Balance & Stylus Track- base Only $125.00 tion 2, the microphone contacts-
ing Force Regulation -
Perfect
dynamic balance. One half gram
(Suggestion: the new Ortofon M15
magneto -dynamic cartridge is the
position 1-open, leaving the ampli-
adjustments to as low as 0.5 gram. perfect complement.) fier loaded with the resistor.
The cause of the clicks is the sud-
den loading or unloading of the input
circuit, and the circuits shown here
are designed to prevent this. We
have described how this works when
the mike is switched out of the circuit.
However, when the mike is switched
back into the circuit, the process is
reversed.
If the resistor were not present in
this circuit, switching the microphone
And here's what the critics say about out of the circuit would result in the
shock mounting of 8 lb. aluminum
... THORENS TD -125 3 -speed platter for rumble -free performance amplifier's becoming unterminated.
Transcription Turntable Low, low motor rotor speed of 250 This would bring about a sudden in-
rpm at 331 rpm platter speed further
"All told, theTD-125 shapes up as the decreases rumble Drive system crease in "hiss" level.
best three -speed manual (turntable)
we've yet tested." High Fidelity (Sept.
Isolated by shock mounting it inde- Even with the resistor switched
pendent of controls Dependable
'69)
synchronous motor teamed with a Wien into the circuit, trouble will still occur
"The Thorens TD -125 is unquestion- Bridge oscillator 3 speeds Self- if a break-before -make switch is used.
ably one of the elite ...It would be lubricating platter bearings precision
During the switching process, there
hard to imagine a unit that performs polished to ultra -fine tolerance In-
better." Stereo Review (Aug. '69) terchangeable tonearm mounting will be a time when neither the
Here are some of the novel design board for simple and inexpensive re-
features that inspired this brilliant placement Three year warranty microphone nor the resistor is con-
--
acclaim: TD -125 chassis $185.00; mounted nected to the amplifier. For that brief
Tonearm mounting incorporated in in walnut base $200.00
instant the amplifier will be unter-
ELPA For more details, see your Thorens dealer, or write to: minated, and this will lead to a mo-
ELPA MARKETING INDUSTRIES, INC. mentary increase in noise, probably
New Hyde Park, N.Y. 11040 heard as a click.

6 Check No. 6 on Readers Service Card AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969

www.americanradiohistory.com
A Royal Wedding
of Gutperformers

Ncblesse oblige. Royalty has its "esponsibi ides. And this


regal pair combines to produce :he ul-in_te in stereo
TX -901) AM -FM TJNER - All solid state. Excellent selec-
tivity and sens.tivity from three FET's and two RF amplifier
sound reproduction. Enouch to say th-e.r ae the finest stages in the front end plus two crystal filters and four
units in the Pioneer collection of cuality components. IC's in the IF section. nterchannel noise is completely
muted. A variable mLting switch acccrrmodates weak
SA -900 PRE/MAIN AMPLIFIER -
Its IHF music power signals while suopressirg noise at any level. Tuning is
is just pert o/ is magnifi-
ra ing of 200 watts (at 4 ohms) precise. A bright spot ndicator as well as twin meters
cence. The solid state preamplii_r is designed to give tune for maximum signa strength ...
min mum distortion
exceptionally low noise leve ... beier frequjency response optimum fidel ty and channel separation ... best signal
... decreased distortion . improved tord quali -y. Un-
. to ncise ratio. $239.95.
like other units at this prim, it ofrers stepoed tole con-
trcls for the finest precision acqustmee s. Tte pre and The designer -styled cabinets for both cnits ae faced
main amplifiers can be used indeperJertly. Maximum with brushed silver/go'd tone highlights. with end pieces
flexibility with inputs for 2 phorc tape monitor, micro- in luxurious Brazilian rosewood. Hear the majestic sound
phone; outputs for two sets of speakers. $2.--A.95. of rcyalty at your local Pioneer dealer.

PIONE-Ea
PIONEER ELECTRONICS U.3.A. CORPORA -10'4 140 Smith Street, Farmingdale, N.Y. 11735 (516) 694-7720
West Coast: 1335 W. 134th St., Gardera, Ca f £0249 (213) 323-2374 & 321-1076 Canada: S. H. Parker Co., Prov. C.ntaric

AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969 Check No. 7 on Readers Service Card 7

www.americanradiohistory.com
IMPROVED
PERFORMANCE! New Elac/Miracord Turntable
Benjamin Electronic Sound has in-
What's New troduced the Model 750 automatic
turntable, at $139.50. It is said to be
identical to the Miracord 50H
In Audio ($159.50) except that the Model 750
has a special four-pole induction

Pan Pot

Gately Electronics' new four -chan-


nel PP -4 unit accepts up to four inputs
and permits panning these sources
NORTRONICS anywhere in the stereo output signal.
Automatic level compensation is in-
ANNOUNCES corporated so that the signal level
appears constant regardless of stereo
image location. The unit also has a
THE 9000 SERIES stereo master gain control. Dimensions
are 51/4" H x 19" W x 71/2" D. Noise
motor instead of a Papst hysteresis
synchronous motor, and has different
is under -75 dBm; maximum output
TAPE HEADS is +30 dBm without clipping. Input
trim. Thus, it retains pushbutton con-
trols, a 12 -in. one-piece die-cast turn-
impedance is 10k ohms unbalanced table platter, and silicone -damped
FOR bridging, and output impedance is
600/150 ohms balanced or unbal-
cueing.
Check No. 107 on Reader Service Card

PROFESSIONAL anced.
Check No. 105 on Reader Service Card

STUDIO
and Audio Pot Pourri
The 1970, 552 -page Allied Radio
EQUIPMENT Auto Cassette Player
catalog (No. 290) is available free on
request.
Check No. 108 on Reader Service Card
UNEXCELLED PERFORMANCE IN
AMPEX, SCULLY AND OTHER Sony/Superscope enters the auto
PROFESSIONAL RECORDERS cassette machine market with its new
Model 20 stereo automobile cassette
Extremely smooth response from player. It features a push -in front -load- Michigan Magnetics has added a
20 Hz to 20 KHz. ing operation that permits one -hand shifting cassette head to its line that
Extra wide pole faces for minimum insertion of cassettes. The cassette is is said to provide bi-directional cas-
low frequency contour effects. automatically ejected when the end sette recording and playback. The new
Hi -Q, low loss core structures. of the tape has been reached, where- tape -head system operates in a similar
upon power to the unit is shut off. manner to the eight -track shifting
Extra deep deposited quartz gaps technique.
for sharp, clean edge definition. The auto cassette machine also fea- Check No. 109 on Reader Service Card
Full gap depth for maximum wear
tures fast -forward and rewind for
program search, and tone and volume Formation of a new hi-fi firm, Hege-
life. controls. Incorporating an 18 -watt
All metal hyperbolic face for re- (IHF) dynamic music power output, man Laboratories, Inc., specializing in
duced oxide loading and intimate the company states that the Model 20 top-quality hi-fi kits and factory -wired
tape contact. is the most powerful auto tape unit
units, color VTR, and electronic musi-
Gap Colinearity-Precise Gap available. cal instruments, was announced by A.
Alignment For Both Azimuth and Stewart Hegeman, Chief Technical
Phase on Multi-Track Heads, either Officer.
4 -Channel or 8 -Channel.
Norelco Philips is reported to have
MORE CONVENIENT THAN a small, 26 lb. video tape recorder that
FACTORY REPLACEMENT uses 1/2" chromium dioxide tape. It is
Available locally, from your said to be priced at $646.00. First
distributor. shown at a European photo show,
Replace heads in the field, mini- where it was not equipped to use the
mum down time. Plug-in simplicity. U.S. 525 -line TV system, reports are
Power requirements are 12 volts that a U.S. model will be introduced.
No need for a spare nest. auto battery, positive or negative
(
Wide choice of Record, Play, and ground). Signal-to-noise ratio is 45
.

Erase Heads, for 1/4 inch, 1/2 inch, dB; wow and flutter, 0.28% 1% ips; Morris L. Finneburgh, Sr., Board
and 1 inch tape, in a variety of outputs, two extension speakers (im- Chairman of the Ohio -based Finney
track styles. pedance for each channel is 3.2 ohms). Co. (manufacturer of FINCO an-
Full details in Nortronics Bulletin Dimensions are 27/8" H x 7-3/16" W x tennas), has been elected to the "Elec-
81/4 D. Price is under $119.50, com-
tronic Hall of Fame," sponsored by
7295A, available free on request. the National Electronics Association
plete with car mounting bracket and (NEA). He is the first living indus-
hardware, head -cleaning device, and a
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reminded of Bugatti racing car engines, or
the instrument panel of a Duesenberg
"J" model roadster. It was all very confi-
dence -inspiring!
SCULLY: The look of the machine was
important and had its advantages. In
later years, when transcription record-
ing came into being, some of the broad-
casting outfits would keep the lathe in
full view to impress their clients.
The "modern" version of the lathe came
out about 1938, I believe.
A Professional Viewpoint: An in- SCULLY: Yes, and except for conve-
terview with Larry Scully -* nience features dictated by advancing
technology and the advent of stereo,
the present lathe has the same basic
Larry, these days your Scully Recording the motor drive the turntable very configuration.
Instrument Co. is mainly engaged in the smoothly.
manufacture of tape recorders, whereas SCULLY: Well, it was very good for the What was the original method used for
for many years the principal production time. The motor was controlled by a the reduction of rumble in the lathe?
was of disc recording lathes. Am I correct? governor which made it quite smooth. SCULLY: In the initial units there was
That's right. My father started The entire lathe operated on a purely a motor and a gear -reduction system
ScULLY:
mechanical basis, of course. used to drive the turntable directly.
the business in 1918, after having
You needed a thrust bearing in order
worked at the Columbia Record Co. What did they do about lead screws in to carry the weight of the turntable,
from 1905 to 1918. He was in the those days?
experimental laboratory. In those early and that meant you had to have either
SCULLY: They cut their own lead
a ball thrust of a plain bearing. The
days the record companies had to screws, and in those days the pitch was
plain thrust bearing produced a lot of
manufacture all the equipment used to quite coarse, running perhaps 70 to 80
produce a disc. They made their own friction because of the mass of the
lines to the inch so they had very little
table, whereas the ball bearing tended
lathes, made their own soundboxes and trouble with overcutting. to produce rumble, or worse still, a
megaphones to pick up the sound in
the studio, did their own plating, made I presume the coarse pitch was practically pattern on the record.
mandatory, since there were no really I've never heard of that. What kind of
their own presses ... the whole works. quiet sections on a disc and everyone had pattern?
Even their own phonographs! to bellow into a megaphone in order to SCULLY: A pattern produced by the
drive the cutting stylus. vibrations. You could practically count
He worked mostly on the development
SCULLY: That's right. It took a lot of the number of ball bearings by the pat-
of the disc recording lathe, and from
acoustic energy to move the dia- tern. The ball bearings used to be set
that experience when he left Columbia
phragm and the relatively heavy mass in the ball races in felt in order to min-
in 1918 he started to make the lathe on
of the stylus against the resistance of imize this problem. Of course the re-
his own, hoping to interest some inde-
the wax master. quirements then were far less than they
pendents to get into the record busi-
ness. It took him about a year to build After your father set up his company, who are now. In 1938 we went to the belt
the first machine. bought the first lathe? drive, primarily to get rid of the thrust
SCULLY: Well, he didn't really start a bearing involved in a "straight-
Was this the machine that worked on company at that time. He bought the through" drive.
"gravity drive," and gave rise to the ex- necessary machine tools and built the
pression of "throwing the weights out of That was the multiple bearing system, if
the window"?
lathe at home. Then he went to New I recall. At that time, I believe you also
York and sold it to a group that became had a massive flywheel at the bottom of
SCULLY: Yes, it was a weight -driven the Cameo Record Co. My father was the lathe, driven by a belt, with the fly-
machine. The lathe was usually put a fairly good showman too. He would wheel and the turntable connected by a
up on a pedestal at least 5 or 6 ft. high, not bring the machine to New York to shaft with a flexible decoupling stage.
so that there would be enough of a demonstrate its performance.. Instead SCULLY: Yes, we have this filter drive
drop for the weights to drive the ma- he would have them come up to his assembly that cuts down the rumble
chine for the amount of time needed house, where he used the living room and also was designed to keep out
to cut the disc. If they wanted a longer with fancy backdrops and special light- high -frequency flutter.
time there was a hole in the floor to ing to set off the machine, which if I
give the weights more room, or they Larry, I have heard through the years that
may say was pretty impressive. in order to take best advantage of all the
raised the pedestal even higher. They
Sounds like he pre -dated some of our precision built into the lathe and to keep
had to use platforms to stand on in
modern merchandising methods! And I rumble at the absolute minimum, it is
order to operate the machine. preferable to mount the lathe on a con-
quite agree about the appearance of the
Iunderstand that although this all sounds lathe. The first time I saw one with all crete floor. Is this true?
relatively crude, this arrangement made the gleaming engine -turned finish, I was SCULLY: It would be nice to always

10 AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969

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have it that way, but it has been my Lathes last a long time, and people gen- producers who insist on all sorts of wild
erally don't order them by the dozen. I effects, and who are literally forcing many
experience that with the type of solid-
presume that between yourselves and the studios into multi -track situations. They
ly constructed floors they have in New
one other company in field the market is feel that an eight -track studio is already
York, for example, there isn't much of "old hat." Wouldn't it be cheaper and
pretty circumscribed.
a problem. technically feasible to sync together two
SCULLY: Yes, even when we had liter-
What if the floor is the standard wood 16 -track machines and afford these pro-
ally the world market to ourselves, it
type? ducers thirty-two tracks?
wasn't a tremendous business. The
SCULLY: Well, if it is wood, you can Japanese and the Italians, too, looked ScuLLY: It might be a distinct possi-
run into troubles. at the possibilities of the disc lathe bility since with that many tracks
business right after the war and con- available you could use some of the
With resonances, I presume?
cluded that it was too limited. Today tracks as control tracks.
SCULLY: Yes, although sometimes you
can be lucky enough to be at a null we build the lathes strictly as a cus- Yes, the control tracks would help. And
point of the vibrations. Depending on tom product. with all the tracks self sync, the effects pos-
the general construction of the build- sible would be almost limitless. Then, too,
This limited market was what prompted
ing and the type of wood floor, some your move into the tape recorder field. there shouldn't be much trouble in the
type of extra damping would be eventual mix -down to two -track stereo.
That was about 1961?
necessary to use the lathe in such a SCULLY: Once the two machines were
SCULLY: That's right. We decided we
location. had a good reservoir of machine tools, synced together, everything else
trained personnel, and experience would work quite normally.
Many record critics often speak of rumble
in a recording, but I have always con- which was certainly related in many If the two recorders could be synced
tended that a well -maintained lathe ways to the manufacture of tape re- together, I wonder if there would be a
mounted in an optimum way has rumble corders. problem because of small but nonetheless
so far below signal as to be inaudible, differing degrees of tape stretch on the
and what these critics are hearing is mold In 1961 I presume your first products had
two recorders? Mylar does stretch, al-
grain due to the electroplating process to be machines for the full -track and half-
though these days they have that special
and subsequent grinding of the stamper track mono and two -track stereo on quar-
"pre -stretched" Mylar tape.
in order to make it fit properly in the ter -inch tape, and three -track stereo on
half -inch tape? SCULLY: I don't think that would be
press.
a factor and the degree of displace-
SCULLY: I would say that is correct, SCULLY: No, our first tape machine
ment between the two tapes would be
although we must admit that, with product was a playback-only unit, the
minute. We make our big multi -track
the vertical component of the stereo model 270. That unit was designed to
recorders for two-inch tape and all
disc, rumble suppression has been be used with automated radio station
equipment, which at that time was the two-inch machines we have on
made more difficult and you have to
order at present are for 16 tracks. It
keep on top of all the factors involved. thought to be a "coming thing." We
produced this unit between 1961 and doesn't mean that if someone wants to
The lathes are still being made in spite of go to 24 tracks that his machine is
1963, and when the anticipated sales
your emphasis on tape recorders these
of the radio station equipment didn't
obsolete; but he would have to
days. That is done in a separate plant, as a get a new head assembly and the ad-
different division? materialize we went into production
of our first quarter -inch two -track re-
ditional electronics. So there is a cer-
SCULLY: It is not actually a separate tain degree of flexibility possible be-
division, what we do is combine the corder. Shortly thereafter, the three -
fore we may have to think about
lathe work with machine work neces- track machines were the big thing on
syncing two 16 -track units together!
sary for the tape recorder. the market, and then the four-track,
half-inch tape unit was the mainstay Most of the 4-track units are on half -inch
Singer Jerry Vale in control room, with of production for several years. tape, but I understand you have made
Scully 280 tape unit at right.
some 4 -track units using one -inch tape.
Then about three years ago, the eight-track
machines came into being, and then the SCULLY: Yes, these were for the most
16 -track and the 24 -track . . . and just part for the European market.
where will it all end?
I suppose they wanted wider track widths
SCULLY: Well, from our experiences to give them better signal-to-noise ratios.
in the field, it would seem that the That isn't much of a problem any more
16 -track unit seems to be presently with the advent of the Dolby System, I
favored and is thought by many to should imagine.
have the most versatility. SCULLY: That's right. The Dolby Sys-
The 16 -track unit uses one -inch tape?
tem has helped in this respect. Never-
theless, I don't feel track width should
SCULLY: Yes, and we have made some
be restricted if it can be avoided.
12 -track one -inch recorders as well.
Isthis because distortion is higher at the
Let me ask what may be a dumb question.
narrower track widths?
As you know, 24 tracks are being used,
and these days the studios are in a pecu- SCULLY: Only marginally so, but the
liar bind with these rock-and-roll record kind of quality our clients seem to

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12

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When you're BEHIND THE SCENES
(Continued from page 12)
used. Then there is also the problem
of bearing damage in shipping. The
number one in want is exemplified by their restricting
rotor of the motor has mass, of course,
and it's spring -loaded at the top end
their orders for two-inch recorders to
tape recorders 16 tracks.
to seat it in the ball bearings at the bot-
tom. If the shipping case is dropped
Larry, to digress a moment, you know that so the inertia unseats the rotor shaft
you don't the Studer Co. in Europe manufactures
expensive professional tape recorders, but
and then the spring bounces it back
against the ball bearings, tiny "fiats"
make the they also make a little "kid brother" re-
corder called the Revox which has made
are formed, and this means a noisy
motor.
quite an impression in this country. Do
number-two you think you might ever make a con-
sumer-type tape recorder?
Your capstan motor is a hysteresis syn-
chronous unit. Have you given any

tape. SCULLY: We could design such a ma-


chine, and I think we could come up
thought to what appears to be a coming
trend, the servo controlled motor?
SCULLY: Oh yes, we are digging into
with some new ideas, but the cost
would be prohibitive. I think for the that, and in fact have been investiga-
forseeable future we will stay out of ting this type of motor for over
a year. So far we haven't seen a very
that market.
great improvement in performance-
It costs a few pennies more. With your company's extensive back- I'm talking about capstan motors not
But Sony professional-qual- ground in machining, a "spin-off" from spooling motors-to warrant replace-
ity recording Tape makes a your lathe production, I assume you ma- ment. A good hysteresis motor will
world of difference in how chine and manufacture most of your own
get you .04 to .06 NAB wow and
much better your recorder parts for your tape recorders?
flutter unweighted. A good d.c.-con-
sounds-and keeps on sound- ScuLLY: Yes. Only when the require-
trol-type motor will give you about
ing. That's because Sony ments for quantity cannot be met with .04, and it will be a little less "spiky"
tape is permanently lubri- our facilities here do we farm out ma- than the hysteresis motor.
cated by an exclusive Luhri- chine work to appropriate firms.
Cushion process. Plus, its How many poles do you use in your hys-
Do you make your own tape heads? teresis motor?
extra -heavy Oxi-Coating No, use heads made by Nor-
SCULLY: SCULLY: We have six poles and
won't shed or sliver. Sony tronics and by IEM. We order them
tape is available in all sizes twelve poles in our combination two -
to a particular configuration and spe- speed motor.
of reels and cassettes. And cify inductances and other electronic
remember, Sony profes- requirements to conform to our elec- You hear these tales going around that
sional -quality recording tronics.
the more poles the better the motor. I
tape is made by the world's suppose after a point it's a question of
most respected manufactur- You do not make your own motors, do diminishing returns.
er of recording equilement. you? SCULLY: It is a matter of construction,
ScuLLY: No, we do not. And getting a mechanical problem. The outside -in
the right kind and quality of motors motor can tolerate more poles and still
is a continuing problem. not sacrifice too much of the iron by
having too many slots in it.
You mean motors with sufficient torque,
cool -running, etc.? The idea of the outside -in motor is that
SONY
-u.:ntro,m,
ScuLLY: Not that so much as motors it gives you more rotating mass and pre-
PA -1!°50
that are quiet. This is largely a matter sumably a smoother drive function?
of ball -bearings. SCULLY: Yes, that was my original
thinking back in 1963, but I have
Maybe you need some of those new bear- found that the more mass you get the
ings they say someday will be cast in
less damping you get. It makes the
outer space and which will be perfectly
motor difficult to damp so today, we
round.
lean more towards less flywheel action
SCULLY: Well, a lot of the bearings
on the capstan motors.
are pretty good, but we run into a
variety of lubrication problems. You This is unusual! The old way was to sup-
run into greases that are too stiff for ply mass through a big flywheel.
You never heard it so good. your application. By and large, I think ScuLLY: Well, it is good for high -
our company ( and I think most other frequency perturbations, but not for
tape recorder manufacturers would low-frequency upsets.
1'i6B SUPERSCOPE.INC. bear this out) has to contend with oc- There appear to be many new ideas in
SONY® SUPERSCOPEe casionally noisy ball bearings in the mo-
tors and in other areas where they are (Continued on page 16)
Sun Valley, California 91352
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14 AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969

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15
AMPLIFIER BEHIND THE SCENES SCULLY: Yes, about 1934 I built a
(Continued from motor for the lathe, but the cost today
SHOPPING? page 14)
tape -machine construction that run con-
trary to some of the old accepted prac-
precludes any such possibility, even
if we had the time and the inclination.
tices. For example, a friend of mine builds
believe you make all your record and
Try this checklist a high -quality recorder in which he uses
what would seem to be an amateur anach-
I

playback electronics here?


ronism: a tiny nylon head pad, which SCULLY: Yes, the control and ready
he claims gives much better high - availability makes this important.
frequency response.
Do you make the printed circuit modules
THE
SOUND? SCULLY: I think all of us would like to
as well?
DOES IT ALTER use a pad, but head wear gets in-
distortion SCULLY: No, that is subcontracted,
O low harmonic evenly volved. In the eight -track cartridges
accentuated and I should have expanded my pre-
all sounds they have the little spring -loaded pads vious statement in that about 20 per
(flat response) handle total that hold the tape tight against the cent of our electronics is by intent
power to and head. This is a big advantage in that
adequate made outside so that in the event of a
e (note percussion particular application in maintaining
dynamic rang 30 fire or something that might happen
strings, which require high -frequency response.
plucked here we would not be out of business
power) because of lack of electronics.
times more OF ITS OWN?
In other words, even though the tape
SOUNDS manufacturers have done a pretty good
DOES IT ADD hum Obviously you maintain a complete test
60 -cycle job in giving us smooth tape surfaces,
no audible facility for both electronic and mechanical
noises there are, inevitably, little undulations and
line
0 no power
NATURAL
WITH
MY other discontinuities on the surface which
the use of the pads helps overcome and
components. In its final run-through and
check does each machine have its bias
DOES IT SOUND adjusted for a particular kind of tape?
the gives the better high -end response. Too
SPEAIKERS ance, not bad the wear factor is such a problem.
ScuLLY: Yes, they are adjusted for
perform q noting
practical Perhaps the use of ferrite heads would Scotch low-noise 201. The user is, of
many amplifiers with a
oretical (
specificat1ons help in this respect. Have you used any course, free to adjust the bias to any
or un- of this type? other tape for particular characteristics.
outstanding are distorted
load SCULLY: We use ferrite heads for our
resistive One of the basic concepts of your design
some speakers)
stable with RELIABLY?
erase, but thus far not for record or is the interchangeability of heads and tape
playback heads. guides and electronics. Thus, a quarter-
WILL IT PERFORM construc-
high -quality inch two -track machine can be changed
O rugged, Well, I have heard the ferrite heads are
to a 4 -track half -inch recorder, and so
tion design friable, being easily chipped or broken.
but proven forth. I have always thought this would
0 advanced
warranty
protection
But the head -wear aspect is terrific. And
many of the crosstalk problems in tape be a great thing to have on a high -quality
O adequate duplicating, due to head grooving and amateur recorder, but I suppose that in
mass production this would be very diffi-
subsequent skewing, have been overcome
cult.
with these heads.
SCULLY: I'm afraid so. The head
If you can check off all these Getting back to the servo motor again, block, for example, must be machined
points, then you're looking at a another thing I was told was, that in addi- to fit into an equally machined place
CROWN DC300 Amplifier -- the tion to the low wow and flutter, this on the top plate. This calls for ex-
industry standard. Experience the motor has better torque than a hysteresis
treme care, and in this business this
notable difference at your audio type.
means it becomes expensive.
specialist today. For a brochure and SCULLY: It has more torque, but it is
High Fidelity DC300 Equipment not much of an advantage in capstan The electronics are all the same, except,
Report, write CROWN, Box 1000, drive. Ideally, if your spooling motors I presume, for some special switching
are set right, the capstan motor should which may be on those used with the 8 -
Elkhart, Indiana, 46514. [Watch
not be doing much more than meter- and 16 -track units. Interchangeability is
for the unveiling of CROWN's new
ing the tape as it goes through. much easier here?
Master Control -- a new -concept
SCULLY: Oh, yes. It is a simple matter
control center in the DC300 tra- there any advantage of the servo motor
Is of plugging and unplugging until you
dition of quality.] over the hysteresis in terms of drift, the set up your desired configuration.
long-term stability from one end of the
reel to the other? The electronics and the heads are all set
SCULLY: No, it would be subject to up for self -sync. By switching, the rec-
the same conditions as the hysteresis ord head becomes a playback head,
and will play back the program while new
unit because of the slippage problem
material is being recorded along with it.
at the end of the reel. This can go on for as long as you have
Would you ever consider building your tracks available. The "mix down" to two
own motor in order to get your ideal tracks can get very involved and pass
specifications? I think you did this once through many generations and is a prime
in the old disc -lathe days. (Continued on page 79)

Check No. 16 on Readers Service Card

16 AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969

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AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969 Check No. 17 on Readers Service Card 17


www.americanradiohistory.com
The world of video, too, is being shaken up a
bit by events. For example, RCA unveiled a labora-
tory model of a color TV tape player, called "Selec-
taVision," built around lasers and holography.
According to RCA spokesmen, the unit will be
designed to attach to any standard Color TV set,
will play full-color programs recorded on tapes
made of the same inexpensive plastic material
EDITOR' used in supermarkets to wrap and display meats
( which will cost only about 1/ 10th as much as

REVIEW conventional -type films), and is expected to be


ready for home use in the early 1970s. Target price
for the "SelectaVision" players is under $400, while
target price for a half-hour prerecorded cartridge
videotape is about $10. Interestingly, the tapes
are said to be dust -proof, scratch -proof, and can
be moved at any speed to achieve slow-motion
Glimpses of the 1970s
effects or even be stopped completely for viewing
a single frame.
Four-channel stereo, first reported by Edward
Tatnall Canby in the September 1969 issue of The CBS "Electronic Video Recording" system
Aunio Magazine ("4 on Tape," page 27) , is pro- introduced much earlier seems destined to run
ducing tremors within the industry. Four -channel smack into the new RCA system. Its price is sub-
equipment designs have gone beyond the proto- stantially higher ( $800 for the player, for example) .

type stage in some instances since Vanguard But EVR is moving fast. A Canadian company who
Records demonstrated its four -channel "Surround has marketing and distributing rights for CBS'
Stereo" system, which utilizes magnetic tape- EVR film process has acquired world-wide EVR
Both Crown International and Telex, for example, rights to the Hal Roach Film Library, for example,
have introduced four -channel tape machine which includes some 500 comedies ( Laurel &
models; H. H. Scott has a four -channel, 35 -watts Hardy, Harry Langdon, et al).
(rms) / channel integrated amplifier, the Model
499 "Quadrant." With the above video systems using cartridges,
and with the tremendous consumer acceptance of
Vanguard's demonstration was quickly followed cartridge ( and cassette) audio tapes, could car-
by a four-channel broadcast (utilizing two stereo tridges for conventional video tape recorders be
FM stations) at Tanglewood, Mass., with Acoustic far behind?
Research, Inc. being one of the sponsors. AR there-
upon set up a four -channel system in its Grand The Japan Broadcasting Corp. has begun some
Central Station exhibit room for all to hear. Re- experimental broadcasts of two sound channels
ports are that CBS is producing the demo tapes. for television, we learned. Westinghouse had de-
New York City, too, has had four -channel broad- veloped a "stereo -sound TV" ( experimentally )
casts with the cooperation of multiple broadcast some years ago, of course. But advocates of stereo
stations. Even more exciting, however, are proto- FM sound for TV are gaining strength.
type designs of equipment that will enable one FM
broadcast station to transmit four -channel stereo If the past Institute of Electrical and Electronic
through use of the SCA piggyback frequency. Engineers ( IEEE) Chicago Spring Conference
Adapters have already been designed to convert was any indication of things to come in home en-
conventional stereo ( two -channel) FM receivers tertainment electronics, expect to see more and
to four-channel receivers. The FCC is now mulling more digital tuning through pushbutton and
this one over. And to top it all, Time Magazine re- thumbwheel controls.
ports that an enterprising inventor has created a
four -channel system for LP discs! Further, we expect active equalizers to make
considerable headway in 1970, both for enhancing
Meanwhile, speaker manufacturers might have speaker performance and to modify sound output
an opportunity to double sales again should the to meet the need of a particular environment.
new concept be accepted. A. P. S.

18 AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969

www.americanradiohistory.com
Words are inherently limited in stimulating of every instrument. With no loss of power.
the emotions aroused by music. This is especially so That's what it takes for a cartridge to
in describing how high fidelity components perform. recreate the most subtle nuances that
With cartridges, for example, we speak of distinguish one musical instrument from
flat frequency response, high compliance, another. An oboe from an English
low mass, stereo separation. Words lace these horn. A trumpet from a cornet.
enlighten the technically minded. But they do We call this achievement "100% music power."
little or nothing for those who seek When you play your records with an XV -15, you won't be
only the sheer pleasure of listening. concerned with even that simple phrase.
We kept both aspects in mind when Instead, you'll just feel and enjoy the renewed experience
developing the XV-15 series of carfridges. of what high fidelity is really all about.
We made the technical measurements. And we listened. PICKERING
We listened especially for the ability of
these cartridges to reproduce the entire range

THE NEW PICKERING XV151750E.


PREMIER MODEL OF THE XV 15SERI ES.TRACKS AT 'h TOI GRAM. DYNAMIC COUPLING FACTOR OF 750 FOR
USE IN FINEST TONEARMS. $60.00.OTHER XV -15 CARTRIDGES FROM $29.95. PICKERING & CO.,PLAINVIEW, L.I., N.Y.

AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969 Check No. 19 on Readers Service Card 19


www.americanradiohistory.com
amplify and equalize the signal from wavelength; thus, the slower the tape
your magnetic preamp, so that the speed, the shorter is the recorded
Tape Guide resulting signal can be satisfactorily
fed into the tape machine's high-level
wavelength at a given frequncy, and
the greater is the loss at that fre-
input. quency. In most machines, bias cur-
HERMAN BURSTEIN
rent is applied to the tape via the
If you have a problem or question on record head. Using the cross -field
tape recording write to Mr. Herman principle, however, bias current is
Stereo Mixer
Burstein at AUDIO, 134 North Thir- applied via a separate head. Usually
teenth Street, Philadelphia, Pa.19107. Q. I have been searching for plans this head is placed opposite the rec-
Please enclose a stamped, self- for a high -quality solid-state micro- ord head, so that the bias head con-
addressed envelope. All letters are phone mixer (stereo). Could you make
answered.
tacts the base of the tape rather than
suggestions for such a mixer or guide the oxide (as do the record, play, and
me to a source of plans for such a erase heads) The cross -field principle
.

mixer?-John Richardson, Pauls Val- was developed by the Illinois Insti-


From time to time readers ask why ley, Okla. tute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois.
there are surprisingly large price dif- A. You may find parts or all of More information may be obtained
ferences among tape machines with what you are seeking in: (1) William from the January 1969 issue of Aunro.
similar performance specifications and G. Dilley, "A Condenser-Microphone
similar surface appearance. To the Mixer," AUDIO, October 1962; (2)
layman, and particularly to the nov- Red and Black Oxides
Peter A. Satrk, "Transistorized Stereo
ice, there is a substantial tendency Microphone Mixer," AUDIO, October Q. I have some questions pertain-
for two machines of the same dimen- 1963; (3) William A. Rheinfelder, ing to magnetic tape: (I) Why is
sions, one glittering with knobs and "High -Quality Phono Preamp with practically all pre-recorded tape red
costing $150, and the second, glitter- FET's," Ammo, November 1966. oxide? (2) Why is black -oxide tape
ing with about the same number of used so much in blank white box and
knobs but differently arrayed, and bargain -tape sales outlets? (3) Is black
costing $300, to look much alike. The Cross -Field Heads oxide any more severe on tape re-
general answer is that differences in corder parts than red oxide? Let us
price tend to be due to differences in Q. I am interested in finding a tape assume both are a good -quality prod-
how well a machine performs and recorder that is capable of recording uct. (4) Is there any major difference
in how long a machine continues to the whole audio spectrum from 20 in print -through, output, or frequency
perform well. to 20,000 Hz with good fidelity. I response when both red- and black-
notice that many preamps and power oxide tapes are quality tapes? (5) Is
amps are capable of this wide-range there any specific reason why black-
Play Records through a Recorder response. Thus I have come to the oxide tapes are often lower priced?-
Q. I intend to use my stereo record conclusion that the tape head is the Glen Blair, Idaho Falls, Idaho.
player with other stereo equipment. part of the tape recorder that limits
If I should purchase a * * * tape re- frequency response and uniformity of A. (1) I would guess because the
corder, what would be a good way response. Is this conclusion correct? oxide formulation in question best
to hook it up? Also, can I use this If so, what type of head is best for meets audio needs. (2) This may be
tape recorder as an amplifier? If I wide -range frequency response? I because the tape was originally made
cannot, can I purchase an amplifier have heard about cross-field heads for other than top-quality audio pur-
to be used with the turntable and and have noticed that they are held poses, or because the formulation is a
tape recorder? Please advise as to the to be capable of wider response, but cheaper one. (3) I don't know. The
speaker system.-G. F. Ingram, ad- do they also exhibit uniformity of important thing is the amount of lubri-
dress withheld. response? Also, do they affect fidelity cant in the tape and the smoothness
in any other way? Can I obtain infor- of the oxide formulation so that there
A. The tape machine to which you mation about cross -field heads?- is minimum friction between head and
refer has a power amplifier, so that Jim Rasmussen, Cicero, Ill. tape. (4) There may be. So-called
you can hook up an external speaker
A. The limitation on frequency re- high -output tapes, which achieve this
to it, if you wish. If your record
sponse, particularly treble response, higher output partly through a dif-
player has a ceramic cartridge, rather
is basically tape speed. The art of
ferent oxide formulation, tend to have
than a magnetic one, you can prob- higher print -through. Different oxides
ably find some way of operating your making tape heads has reached the
point where at speeds of 3.75 ips also have different frequency -response
record player through the tape ma-
and higher the heads present very characteristics. To the extent that dif-
chine. But if the record player has
little problem. An important factor ferences in color correspond to differ-
a magnetic pickup, I doubt that you
in treble loss is bias current applied ences in oxide formulation, differences
can feed the pickup signal directly
to the tape (bias is employed to mini- in color correspond to differences in
into the tape machine. However, some
relatively inexpensive phono preamps mize distortion and maximize the output, frequency response, and print -
are available from the audio stores amount of signal recorded on the through. (5) This question really re-
and catalog houses; these can pre - tape). Bias loss varies inversely with lates to question 2.

20 AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969


www.americanradiohistory.com
only
ASTROCOM/ MARL UX
gives you positive
proof of performance
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It's easy to print specifications ... It's something else again to back up performance claims with the hard
cold facts of laboratory tests. Every Astrocom/Marlux Model 407 is furnished with its own gràphic read-out
of its frequency response tested on level recorders calibrated to National Bureau of Standards Accuracy.
The Model 407 is built to inspire confidence ... serious recordists everywhere appreciate the ease of tape
handling with the soft touch solenoid operated controls, the unswerving accuracy of the hysteresis syn-
chronous capstan motor and the smooth tape spooling afforded by the supply and take-up reel motors.
The addition of a precision impedance roller to this tape drive system ensures consistently low values
of wow and flutter. Four heads allow reverse play plus "off -tape" monitoring. The premium -quality heads
and the all -silicon transistor electronics give signal-to-noise ratios of professional specification.
The Astrocom/Marlux Model 407 has many other features designed to please the discriminating recordist.

Our dealers can demonstrate to you why the Model 407 is outselling much more
expensive recorders and is today's most outstanding tape recorder value.

ASTROCOMIMARLUX
Oneonta, New York 13820

AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969 Check No. 21 on Readers Service Card 21


www.americanradiohistory.com
Layman's Guide to
LOUD SPEAKER SPECIFIGAT10\ti
Part One
VICTOR BROCINER*
INTERPRETATION OF SPEAKER SPE- only performance specifications such the cone moves forward, it compresses
CIFICATIONS probably presents as frequency response and power - the air in front of it, which flows
more of a problem to the layman handling capability, but 'also descrip- around the edge of the speaker and
than understanding the specifications tive terms such as air suspension, tends to annul the partial vacuum
of any other component of a sound loading, flux density,. and the like. The created at the rear of the cone. This
reproducing system. This is partly be- definitions do more than explain what effect also occurs, of course, with
cause of the complicated nature (de- the speaker manufacturer is talking reverse motion of the cone. It is ap-
spite a speaker's simple appearance) about; they include a brief treatment preciable only at low frequencies. A
of its functioning. Tuners, amplifiers, of the effect each item has on speaker flat baffle must be quite large to be
and tape units have both inputs and performance; in fact, they even help effective at low frequencies. At 30
outputs that are electrical. Phono- to explain how a speaker works. Hz it would have to be about 19 feet
graph pickups convert a mechanical in diameter! Since this is not very
input to an electrical output.. But Definitions and Explanations practical, especially for bookshelf
speakers accomplish a double trans- Let's begin with a definition of the speakers, flat baffles are no longer
formation: electrical to mechanical to subject of our discussion. A speaker used. One exception is a speaker
acoustics. Also, the acoustic output system is an assembly consisting of mounted in a wall, with its rear
does not appear at a convenient pair one or more speaker units in an ap- radiating into an adjacent room. How-
of terminals where it can be mea- propriate enclosure. The enclosure it- ever, the term is still sometimes ap-
sured, but is diffused, usually non - self may constitute a horn, loading the plied to any device used to separate
uniformly, through space. The sound woofer. The remaining terms are listed the front and back waves, such as a
field produced is markedly altered by in alphabetical order. This means that closed box. See "Infinite baffle."
the listening room itself, so measure- a given definition may use words not The reader may wonder why can-
ment is not easy. Mainly because of defined until later.. cellation takes place only at low fre-
this, no complete, generally accepted Acoustic Lens-A device that is quencies. A really good explanation
standards exist. There is a natural used to widen the dispersion of the is not simple and (like the large
tendency for manufacturers to pre- higher frequencies which otherwise baffle) would not fit into this series
sent data in a manner that is most tend to form a narrow beam of sound. of definitions. But a rather good anal-
favorable to their product based on Acoustic lenses can take the form of ogy is the motion of a paddle in still
measurements made, at least partly, parallel, bent plates, closely -spaced water. For a slow back -and-forth mo-
to their own standards. arrays of bars, rods, or other solid ob- tion, the water flows around the
Speaker systems present great va- jects, or multiple holes or slots in paddle. A fast motion produces waves
riety in concept and design. Their plates. that spread out from the center of
description is necessarily made in Acoustic Suspension (also called disturbance.
somewhat technical terms, many of
"air suspension")-The speaker cone Basket-See "Frame."
which may be unfamiliar to the lay-
has a highly compliant suspension; it Bass Reflex-When a speaker is
man both as to definition and
moves very freely, so its motion is de- mounted in a closed box with an
significance.
termined more by the spring -like ac- auxiliary opening, or port, whose size
The purpose of this article is to tion of the air in the box behind it is suitably related to the volume of the
define the technical terms used, in an
than by the mechanical action of the box, the rear wave emerges in phase
understandable manner; to provide
suspension itself. An air spring is with the front wave and reinforces it
some information about what they
much more linear than mechanical over an appreciable part of the low -
mean in terms of speaker performance;
deformation of the suspension, reduc- frequency range. The mass of the air
and to acquaint the reader with
ing distortion in the bass range, where in and near the port and the stiffness
speaker specifications so that he will the cone goes through large excursions. (or.compliance, or springiness) of the
be able to evaluate them and to ask
pertinent questions when more com-
Annulus-See "Surround." air in the box form a resonant system
plete information is required. Baffle-In free air, there is cancel- which produces a phase reversal. The
The terms referred to include not lation between the sound wave pro- action can be explained by means of a
duced by the front of the speaker cone mechanical analogy. Consider a heavy
Vice President Planning, H. H. Scott Inc.,
Maynard, Mass. and that produced by the rear. When pendulum, whose weight is the analog

22 AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969


www.americanradiohistory.com
of the mass of air in the port. Attach the components of a transient. The responses than would a "live" material.
a rubber band to the pendulum. The coaxial construction minimizes the dif- Cones have also been made of foamed
rubber band's compliance corresponds ferences in path lengths. Not every- polystyrene and polyurethane be-
to that of the air in the box. Hold the body agrees that this is important, but cause of their high stiffness -to-mass
other end of the rubber band in your for those who do there are coaxial ratio. In general, their internal damp-
hand and move it forward and back speakers. ing has turned out to be less than an-
very slowly. The pendulum will swing Compliance-The ease with which ticipated. However, foam cones are
in step with the motion of your hand. a material "gives" when a force is ap- being successfully used in some de-
Now gradually increase the speed of plied. In a speaker, compliance is the signs, sometimes coated with alumi-
motion., At one critical speed (fre- distance of cone movement divided num foil. Polymerized plastic cloth is
quency) the pendulum will swing for- by the strength of the applied force. also used.
ward when your hand moves back- A speaker suspension must have com- Cone Bead-a thickened section,
ward, and vice-versa. This means that pliance to enable the cone to move, usually circumferential, used to stiffen
its phase has been reversed, as is the and the compliance must remain as a cone.
phase of the back wave in the bass nearly constant as possible over the Cone Break-Up-At law frequen-
reflex cabinet. For this reason it is also large excursions that take place in the cies, a cone moves as a unit, like a
referred to as a "phase inverter" sys- bass region. Another way to put it is piston. As the frequency increases,
tem. Other terms used are "ported that the motion is linear, that is, pro- flexibility and mass, of the cone change
cabinet." See "ducted port." portional to the applied force. This the nature of its motion. The apex
Coaxial Speaker-A speaker with enables the speaker to reproduce low follows the motion of the voice coil,
a tweeter mounted on the axis of a frequencies without distortion. Peo- but the remainder of the cone does
woofer and inside its cone. A horn ple often say "high -compliance cone" not. At some frequencies, parts of the
driver unit may be placed within or when they are actually referring to the cone may actually move backward
behind the magnetic structure of the cone suspension (the surround and when the coil moves forward. The
woofer, with the horn throat passing spider). irregular manner in which different
through the center pole of the magnet "High-compliance" speakers are parts of the cone move is called
assembly. linear over a large excursion range. It "break-up."
is generally thought that this results in Cone break-up causes irregularities
A woofer, mid-range speaker, and
tweeter may be mounted coaxially, a low resonant frequency. This is not in the frequency-response distribution
forming a three-way coaxial speaker. necessarily so if the cone and voice pattern of a speaker. Break-up can
Sometimes the mid -range is covered coil are very light. In this case effici- be designed into a speaker to provide
by an auxiliary cone, attached to the ency is good in the middle register extended high -frequency response and
woofer voice coil and having an un- but bass is not well reproduced. For improved dispersion. A rigid piston
supported or free edge. Opinions dif- good bass reproduction the moving becomes more and more directional as
fer whether this should be called a system must be heavy and not too the frequency increases, and its re-
three-way speaker. The transition from strongly damped, either mechanically sponse drop off as well. If the outer
bass to mid -range is effected mechan- or electrically. zones of a cone can be made to move
icallf and the change to high fre- Cone-The reciprocating diaphragm less than the inner ones at high fre-
quencies electrically, unlike a "pure" or sound radiator of a direct -radiator quencies, the cone acts like a smaller,
three-way system where three distinct speaker, usually conical in shape. lighter cone with more high -frequency
electro -mechanical assemblies are Straight -sided cones are most often response and wider distribution. Cone
used. But it operates in three modes. used in woofers because they offer design and fabrication are the most
maximum rigidity. Curved cones break critical of any of the aspects of speaker
Sometimes the units of a coaxial sys- into concentric modes of vibration at design and manufacturing, and more
tem are not really coaxial but slightly higher frequencies, so that the outer of an art than a science. The term
displaced from each other laterally. sections become "decoupled" and tend "cone break-up" is generally used to
This can improve the smoothness of to remain stationary as the frequency refer to the undersirable modes of
the frequency-response curve in the is increased. The effective cone size is operation.
region of the crossover frequency be- decreased at high frequencies which Cone Corrugation-A circumferen-
tween speakers. reduces the moving mass and holds up tial U-shaped bend in a cone that acts
Coaxial speakers are made because the response which would otherwise against unsymmetrical deformation of
they are more convenient to handle fall off in the treble range. The smaller the cone. Since it is compliant in a
by the user who installs them in a effective cone size also produces a radial direction it is used to divide the
cabinet himself; they save space, be- wider dispersion and prevents the cone's motion into circular zones at
cause the relative positions of the "beaming" effect of a rigid piston. the higher frequencies. A number of
speakers are fixed by the designer to Cones are usually made of felted corrugations can be designed progres-
provide smoothest response, and for paper, which provides a desirable sively to decouple the outer sections
another reason as well: in a two- or combination of strength, light weight, of a cone as the frequency increases,
three-way speaker system, the path and good mechanical damping. The producing better treble response and
lengths from the individual speakers material is "dead"; it does not ring improved angular distribution. Multi-
to the listener are somewhat different, like a bell when struck, and conse- ple corrugations at the outer edge of a
resulting in different arrival times for quently produces far fewer spurious cone are often used as a compliant

AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969 23

www.americanradiohistory.com
edge suspension that supports the cone making up for the reduced velocity, so Diffraction Horn-See "Horn."
while permitting axial movement. See that the frequency response is uni- Direct Radiator-A speaker whose
"Surround." form. cone or diaphragm radiates sound
Cone Stiffness-Stiffness is the op- At resonance, there is likely to be a directly into the air. The word
posite of compliance. Cones made of peak in response. The height of the "directly" includes cases where the air
stiff materials are strong but tend to peak is greater the higher the Q, in front of the speaker may be par-
break up into undesirable modes of which can be controlled by adding a tially confined by a partition with
vibration. Often incorrectly used to resistive element to the motion. This openings, forming a front air chamber,
refer to the stiffness of the suspension. reduces the peak; its effect is called or by obstacles such as an acoustic
(The surround and spider.) Stiff cones damping. lens. A direct -radiator speaker facing
deform only slightly when pressure is If the amount of damping is too into an expanding passage coupling it
applied. much, the motion at resonance is re- to the air becomes a horn speaker (see
Crossover Network- (Dividing Net- stricted too greatly. With too little, it definition) A direct -radiator speaker
.

work)-In multi -speaker systems the would still be excessive. Critical damp- system is simply one or more speakers
incoming signal to each speaker must ing results in a condition for which the mounted in an enclosure. The speaker
be restricted to the frequency range moving element does not overshoot its itself is called a direct radiator if it is
for which that speaker is used. This is rest position after being deflected. Re- designed for use in a direct -radiator
done by means of an electric filter. In sponse is down 6 dB at resonance. system.
inexpensive systems this may be a Less -than -critical damping results in
Direct-radiator speaker systems are
single element-a capacitor-in series increased response at resonance; a
relatively simple, can be made quite
with the tweeter. More elaborate sys- slight amount (one-half of critical, to
compact and have low efficiency. The
tems use both inductors and capaci- be exact) produces flat response. In-
latter is not necessarily bad.
tors. These are called LC filters. In creased damping beyond critical pro-
these, the signal fed to the woofer is duces a fall -off in bass response. So, Distributed Port-In a bass -reflex
cut off above a certain frequency in while damping is desirable and in fact cabinet, a port consisting of a series of
addition to cutting off the signal to the necessary, there can be too much of a small holes. The air friction in the
tweeter below its working range. good thing. holes increases the acoustic resistance
The Crossover Frequency is the Damping can be mechanical, acous- of the port which may be desirable in
transition point from one speaker to tical, or electrical. An example of some cases.
the other. Two-way systems have one mechanical damping is friction. Acous- Dividing Network-See "Crossover
crossover frequency, three-way sys- tical damping utilizes resistance to air Network."
tems have two, and so on. Dividing flow, as by covering the back of the
Doublet (Dipole)-A speaker with-
networks do not cut off abruptly but speaker by a perforated material. out a baffle radiates sound into the air
have slopes to their frequency charac- Electrical damping is caused by the
from both sides of its diaphragm. This
teristics. Accordingly, they may have "back e.m.f." (a voltage opposing the is called an acoustic doublet. Its fre-
6 dB -per -octave, 12 dB-per -octave or signal voltage when the voice coil
quency response and power capability
even higher slopes. The sharper slopes moves through the magnetic field in
fall off rapidly as the frequency de-
require more L and C elements. For the gap) This reduces the flow of
.
creases. It can provide reasonable bass
the reasons for choosing particular fre- current and the resulting motion. Elec-
response if made large enough, as in
quencies and slopes, see the discus- trical damping is improved by using
some electrostatic speakers. At low fre-
sion under 2 -way and 3 -way systems. high flux density in the gap. It is
quencies, its distribution pattern con-
Damping-The cone/voice-coil as- operative only when the speaker is centrates sound along the speaker's
sembly has inertia, and is held in place connected to an operating amplifier.
axis, with a minimum in the plane of
by a springy suspension. Because of Amplifier damping factors greater than
the cone edge. The distribution is
inertia a cone tends to keep moving 5 to 10 have no significant effect.
made more uniform by reflections from
after the applied force has been re- Diameter-The specified diameter the room walls.
moved. The springy mounting results of a speaker is the outside diameter of
in a tendency to oscillate. At the (so- the speaker frame; the cone diameter Doubling-The creation of large
called) resonant frequency of a cone, is less-considerably so if a wide sur- amounts of second -harmonic distortion
at the lower end of the reproduced round is used to provide high compli- by non-linearity; an effect that occurs
frequency range, the effect is quite ance. We will not discuss the rare in the bass range. This component, of
large. See "Hangover." The duration cases where frames are made oversize double the fundamental frequency,
of the oscillation is determined by the to increase the nominal diameter. can actually be much greater than the
"Q" of the speaker, as in an electrical Diaphragm-The moving, sound - fundamental itself, producing a false
tuned circuit. radiating element of a loudspeaker. illusion of bass response. Driving a
Appreciably above the resonant fre- See "Cone." This terms also applies to speaker hard at low frequencies causes
quency, the inertia determines the elements such as the dome -shaped mostly third -harmonic distortion, or
behavior of the speaker: the velocity radiators of some tweeters and mid- tripling. Its effect is similar to dou-
of the cone decreases as the frequency range units, the variously-shaped mov- bling. These types of distortion can be
increases. But the ability of the cone ing elements of horn-loaded speakers, avoided by designing a speaker for
to transform the energy of its motion and the driven elements of electro- linearity. See reference.
into sound increases with frequency, static speakers. (continued on page 89)

24 AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969

www.americanradiohistory.com
Pioneer has a magnificent obsession ...with quality
Case in point. Pioneer speaker systems. Our engineers of the speakers. This means hand selecting the finesi.
combine the latest knowledge of audio state of the art walnut, seasoning it properly to remove humiidity, trim-
with the highest quality materials and components to pro- ming it precisely by computer control, assembling it under
duce the ultimate in loudspeaker performance. Pioneer's climate controlled conditions and facilities, laminating
exhaustive program of quality control is constantly main- and molding the latticework grille. The staining process
tained since we produce every single component from alone requires 10 steps and utilizes an exclusive oil created
cone paper and crossover networks to the latticework by Pioneer. Quality comes with painstaking experience..
grilles on our own production lines. Each step along the And Pioneer has over 30 years of it. The end result::
way is typical of Pioneer's dedication to quality crafts- speaker systems acoustically designed and constructed to
manship. provide the pinnacle of sound reproduction and the
The same follows through in cabinet making. Our skilled gracious elegance of contemporary design. That's why
designers and handcrafters make the enclosures as acous- they're called the Outperformers.
tically perfect as possible, to match the advanced design Hear them today at your Pioneer dealer.

CS-63DX - 4 -way 6 -Speaker System with 15" woofer 283/8" x 18'/e" x '
13356". $259.00; CS-99 - 5 -way 6 -Speaker System with 15" woofer
16" x 25" x 113/4" $215.00; CS -88 - 3 -way 5 -Speaker System 24356" x
-
.

143f6" x 13". $175.00; CS -66 3 -way Bookshelf System 22" x 12356" x


11%íñ'. $109.00; CS -44- 2 -way Bookshelf System 19" x 11" x 9". $67.50.

CID PIONEER®
PIONEER ELECTRONICS U.S.A. CORPORATION, 140 Smith Street, Farmingdale, N. Y. 11735 (516) 694-7720
West Coast: 1335 W. 134th St., Gardena, Calif. 90249 (213) 323-2374 and 321-1076. In Canada: S. H. Parker Co., Province of Ontario

AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969 Check No. 25 on Readers Service Card 25

www.americanradiohistory.com
Part of a cutting room at Sterling Sound.

How Disc -Masters Are


Made Today
R. LEE HULKO*

RECORD MASTERING is both The Cutting Lathe of the "V" shape of the groove,
science and art. The pro- width control is accomplished by
State-of-the-art technology pro- deepening the groove, an action
duction of quality record
vides the mastering studio with called depth control. During quiet
masters is dependent upon nu- high -quality tape -to -disc transfer
merous factors, and is a precise or lateral passages the depth is de-
equipment with a high degree of creased to conserve space, and as
co-ordination of man and machine. automation and reliability. The
Mastering is the step between vertical modulation increases, the
lathe, in its simplest form, is a basic groove depth is increased. As
recording and manufacturing. The machine which revolves the blank
master lacquer disc is electroplated depth is increased, basic pitch must
disc and slowly moves the cutter - also be increased proportionately
after it is cut, and the metal part head and stylus across the disc sur-
which is then separated from the to make room for the wider groove.
face. The rate at which the stylus This pitch -and -depth control must
lacquer contains ridges instead of moves across the disc is referred to
grooves. This metal plate is used as take place just before actual modu-
as the pitch and it is measured in lation so an advance head is needed
a die on the press which stamps lines per inch. When grooves are
out the vinyl plastic records. on the tape machine to feed pre-
unmodulated they can be very view information to the lathe.
Without even considering the close together, cut at fine pitch,
sound aspect, we are dealing with The Neumann VMS 66, a mod-
but as modulation increases, the ern, sophisticated lathe, uses a
a precision mechanical operation. pitch must be increased to leave
The size of a record groove is often computer to control pitch and
room for the "wiggles" of the depth in a way that wastes no
two one -thousandths of an inch groove. This is called variable -pitch
across, less than the thickness of a space. The computer contains six-
cutting and the rate varies on a teen memory cells which store
human hair, and its length on one normal LP from about 400 lines
LP can be almost a mile. With its modulation and preview informa-
per inch to perhaps 150 lines per tion separately. The memories are
wiggles up and down it must never inch. Fixed -pitch lathes are still
get smaller than two mils, and from alternately charged and discharged
used but their pitch must be set every quarter revolution of the
side to side it must never cross into coarse enough to allow for the
the groove beside it. The master turntable and the control signals
highest modulation, which wastes are stored for half a revolution. By
lacquer, or acetate as it is often considerable space on quiet pas-
called, must be perfect. The spac- utilizing the right and left signals
sages.
ing and dimensions must adhere to separately, space is provided only
rigid specifications to ensure that In stereo cutting, the stylus is for the groove wall that needs it.
the record will play on all types of modulated in a vertical plane as When cutting at fine pitch, addi-
equipment, and the master should well as laterally so that some form tional control is required to pre-
not present any problems in subse- of groove -width control is required vent "wall echo." It is particularly
quent operations of plating and in order to maintain a minimum noticeable at the beginning and end
pressing. groove size, usually 2 mils. Because of unmodulated passages in the
President, Sterling Sound, Inc., New York, N.Y.

AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969


26

www.americanradiohistory.com
Voltage supply in your city can vary as much head for optimum reproduced frequency re- all of the features of the Mark II plus pressure -
as 10%. And even a 2% variation causes a sig- sponse. No compromise combination heads. sintered ferrite heads for extended frequency
nificant tape speed change in tape decks with The three heads and four preamplifiers also response and virtually no head wear. It sells
induction motors and a difference in repro- make possible tape monitoring while recording. for under $260.
duced sound that is intolerable. The tape transport mechanism assures a The hysteresis drive Mark IV, the top -of-the -
The Concord Mark II stereo tape deck com- fast startup-you don't miss a note. Supply line Concord deck offers all of the performance
pletely ignores fluctuations in line voltage. It and takeup tape tension arms eliminate startup and conveniences of the Mark II and III includ-
is driven by a hysteresis synchronous motor burble. A special flutter filter eliminates flutter ing wide gap record, narrow gap playback
which locks onto the 60 cycle power line fre- due to tape scrape or cogging action. A cue heads, tape source monitoring, sound -on-sound,
quency and maintains constant speed (within control provides instantaneous stop and start echo recording. Plus, a dual capstan tape trans-
0.5%) regardless of voltage variation from 75 operation. Other important conveniences: the port mechanism with electronic automatic re-
to 130 volts. So if you're about to buy a tape flip -up head cover permits you to see the head verse, no metal foil or signal required on the
deck that doesn't have a hysteresis synchro- gap position markings for professional editing; tape. Superior recording performance plus the
nous drive motor, you're liable to negate any 3 speeds; automatic sound -on-sound with ad- convenience of automatic reverse and continu-
other fine feature it might have. justable level controls; variable echo control ous play. A superb instrument with the finest
Don't get the idea the hysteresis motor is all for reverb recording; calibrated VU meters performance money can buy, and it's under
the Concord Mark II has to offer. It also has with individual record indicator lights; stereo $330. Audition the new Concord Mark series,
just about every other professional feature. headphone jack; electronically controlled dy- the tape decks with the hysteresis synchro-
Three high-quality heads: ferrite erase head; namic muting for automatic suppression of nous drive motor. For "all the facts" brochure,
wide gap Hi -Mu laminated recording head for tape hiss without affecting high frequency re- write: Concord Electronics Corp., 1935 Arma -
optimum recorded signal and signal-to-noise sponse. All this, for under $230. cost Ave., Los Angeles, Calif.90025.(Subsidiary,
ratio, narrow gap Hi -Mu laminated playback The hysteresis drive Concord Mark III has Ehrenreich Photo-Optical Industries, Inc.) ß 32
For copy of Concord Mark III Instructico book, mail 25C in cc _m

NEITHER AIR CONDITIONERS, TV SETS, WASHERS NOR ANY OTHER


ELECTRICAL APPLIANCE CAN KEEP THE HYSTERESIS -DRIVE
CONCORD MARK II FROM ITS PRECISELY APPOINTED SPEED.
AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969 Check No. 27 on Readers Service Card 27
www.americanradiohistory.com
record and sounds like tape print - In the channel between the tape phase signal produces a vertical
through. Wall echo usually gets machine and the cutter amplifiers sweep. Left and right form the
worse during plating and pressing are various equalizers, limiters, arms of an X. The display shows
so steps must be taken during compressors, and control devices. lateral/vertical ratio, channel bal-
mastering to prevent it. This is It is important to remember that ance, and level. It is also very
accomplished by a manual or auto- any signal processing in the cutting useful when cutting mono with a
matic device which further in- channel must also be done in the stereo system, as small variations
creases the pitch at the beginning preview channel in order to main- from the lateral mode are easily
and end of these quiet passages. tain accurate pitch-and -depth con- seen. With an equalizer to produce
The lathe is equipped with tim- trol. the RIAA cutting curve, the dis-
ing and switching devices which Monitoring facilites are impor- play will show actual stylus motion.
control lead-in, spiraling, and lead - tant. In addition to a good listening Since most of the mechanical
out. These functions can also be system and standard VU meters, a operations are performed by the
programmed by the use of a photo- peak indicator is extremely useful. machine itself, the cutting engineer
electric sensing device on the tape A light -beam peak -indicating meter is free to concentrate on fine detail
machine which will trigger spiral- shows cutter action more accurately and esthetics. In an ideal situation
ing and lead -out functions of the since it reacts to peaks that escape the mastering studio must make a
lathe when it senses a leader in the the VU meter. Also, the peak meter one-to-one transfer from tape to
tape. has a scale calibrated from +5 to disc. Sometimes adjustments are
All professional lathes utilize a - 50 compared to + 3 to 20 on - required and are made at the re-
vacuum to remove the "chip," the the VU meter. quest of the producer or at the
thread cut out of the groove, and For monitoring phase, two de- discretion of the mastering engi-
to hold the blank flat and firm on vices are useful. The first is a com- neer. In custom mastering it is im-
the turntable. A suitable device for patibility meter, which has a scale portant for the producer and the
the purpose is a suction unit of the with zero center. A "0" indication engineer to work together and to
type used to operate a player shows no phase relationship be- understand each other.
piano. It is small and almost silent. tween right and left (total separa- When cutting records, one is al-
A Variac in the motor circuit is tion) Full scale on the + side
. ways faced with the problem of
used to adjust the air flow. indicates a completely in -phase sig- level vs. playing time. The louder
The tape machine must be nal (mono, lateral, center channel) . the record, the greater the groove
equipped with an extra playback -
Full scale on the side indicates an excursions, the coarser the pitch
head and a means of varying the anti -phase signal-vertical compo- must be, so the less time can be
distance between the heads in nent. Desired readings are in the + recorded on the disc. The most
order to keep the preview time the direction, indicating a greater de- common request is for "more level
same regardless of the tape or disc gree of lateral stylus motion than and more bass." The mastering en-
speed. The best machine for this vertical. The other device is an X/Y gineer must please his client with
purpose is the Telefunken M -10a oscilloscope with a matrix network more level and bass but at the
which has a special head assembly at its inputs or the CRT rotated same time make a record that
which allows the preview distance 45° so that a mono signal produces doesn't skip or distort, and which
to be varied from 6.4 to 16.5 inches. a horizontal sweep and an anti - conforms to space limitations on
State-of-the-art cutterheads use the disc. The engineer must use his
large amounts of regenerative feed- Fig. 1. Oscilloscope display with corre- skills to manipulate and optimize
sponding groove shown below them. several interdependent variables,
back to achieve a frequency -
response characteristic that is such as pitch, depth, level, and
virtually flat and with very low bass -and -treble equalization, and
distortion. Separation can be better have modulation end at the pre-
than 35 dB throughout the audio LATERAL VERTICAL
ferred 5.5 -in. inside diameter. RIAA
range. To help in dissipating the specifications allow modulated
heat produced by currents in ex- grooves to a diameter of 4.75 in.
cess of 1.5 amps in each of the and it is often necessary to use the
cutterhead drive coils, a small entire allowed space, but due to
amount of helium is fed into the tracing problems in playback high
cutterhead at all times. The helium frequencies fall off seriously and
provides a better path than air for distortion increases significantly
the heat to travel from the coils to past the 5.5-in. mark.
the magnet structure where it is The common level standard or
dissipated. The Neumann system LEFT RIGHT "0" reference level is 7 cm/sec lat-
provides a special protection circuit eral at 1000 Hz. Usual peaks for
which monitors the temperature of LP's are 2 or 3 -dB above this ref-
the drive coils and disconnects the erence level, and for 45's the aver-
cutterhead when a dangerous tem- age level is +4- or +6 -dB peaks.
perature is reached. Many records have peaks higher

28 AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969


www.americanradiohistory.com
than this and many have much be changing equalization, limiting, The stylus should never be
lower average levels. The final level levels, and even phase between allowed to cut into the aluminum
selected is a consideration of bands on an LP. Careful notes base of the acetate. Since the syn-
length, treble, bass, vertical con- should be made for each master for thetic sapphire stylus is made from
tent, and established levels on a future reference. If problem areas an aluminum oxide crystal, the
particular label. A limiter is often are encountered it is often helpful stylus has an affinity for aluminum
used to control flash peaks that to make test cuts for examination and it is practically impossible to
might make the record mis -track. and playback. Completed masters remove the metal from the stylus.
Greatest tracking problems are should not be played and it is a If the stylus should hit the alumi-
caused by heavy bass, particularly good idea to cut part of the first num it is safer and faster to discard
side -channel bass. Corrective meas- band in the test area for playback the stylus than to attempt its sal-
ures are equalizing, vertical limit- checking. vage. The stylus should not be
ing, or the use of a vertical roll -off The microscope is an invaluable touched with the fingers and should
network. This last method has the tool in the cutting room. The most be handled by its heater wires or
effect of moving bass frequencies useful is about 200 x and has a with non magnetic tweezers. The
to the center. The shift is usually light -projecting lens which sur- stylus should be replaced for a vari-
not noticeable since low frequen- rounds the viewing lens. With the ety of faults: when the cut is no
cies are non -directional in most microscope absolutely perpendicu- longer shiny and smooth, when the
listening situations. High-level 45's lar to the disc surface and a strong tip radius exceeds 0.25 mils (bottom
should be cut with such a device lighting unit it is possible to look line 0.5 mils), when it becomes
to assist in tracking on inexpensive right down into the groove. The chipped, when the noise level is too
players, and the cutting room should land-the area between the grooves great or when high -frequency re-
be equipped with one of these -appears black, and each groove sponse falls off. The cutting edges
machines for performing tracking appears as three bright lines, indi- will start showing signs of wear
tests. cating the groove bottom and the after 10 hours of cutting and the tip
At the other end of the spectrum, groove/land intersections. Modula- radius will be too large after about
some problems are created by ex- tion on the groove walls appears 20 hours.
cessive treble. Because of the RIAA white and black. A reticle in the The stylus is heated to reduce
pre -emphasis curve used in disc microscope, calibrated in mils noise level, to improve high -
recording, there is always a danger ( thousands of an inch) allows the frequency response, and to prolong
of amplifier overload and high cut- groove to be measured. Minimum stylus life. The styli are supplied
terhead currents which can cause groove width should be about 2 with several turns of nichrome wire
cutterhead damage. Very high fre- mils so that playback stylus is al- wound around the shank and held
quencies at high level often pro- ways riding on the walls of the by ceramic cement. Silver plating
duce groove modulations too small groove. Examination of the groove on the leads prevents them from
to be traced by the playback stylus will show the condition of the cut- heating and avoids the danger of
and end up only as a source of ting stylus, and the effectiveness of burning the chip if it should be-
noise in the pressing. High - stylus heating and chip removal. come fouled. The degree of heat
frequency problems are corrected Problems such as overcutting, ex- is adjusted with a rheostat and
by equalizing or treble limiting, or cessive treble or bass, or excessive heater current is indicated on a
by half-speed cutting. When using modulation will seen easily. The meter. Heat is adjusted to the value
this last technique the tape and groove should be bright and shiny that will produce the lowest hiss
disc run at half speed, thus cutting and should have no rough or torn level in an unmodulated groove. It
all frequencies in half. No response parts. is best to check the noise level at
is required above 10 kHz but the The blank disc used for cutting outside and inside diameters and
system must operate at very low is made from a flat aluminum plate use an average setting. Since more
frequencies and corrective equali- with a thin coating of cellulose heat is required at smaller diam-
zation must be employed to restore nitrate applied to its surface. The eters due to slower groove speed,
the proper tape and disc curves. blank should be inspected visually it is sometimes helpful, in critical
The best solution to most of before it is used to make sure that work, to increase heat slightly to-
these problems is to reduce the there are no bumps, bubbles, or wards the center of the record.
overall level. Often 1 dB can make other flaws. The evenness of the sur- With the microscope described pre-
a significant difference. Corrective face can be checked by watching viously it is possible to adjust the
techniques, when properly em- the reflection of a straight edge in heat visually. While watching an
ployed, usually do not result in any the acetate. The blank size for unmodulated groove it can be seen
aural degradation and in fact will 12 -in. records is 14 -in., and for 7 -in. that too little heat produces a
probably enhance the sound. records a blank with a diameter of groove wall with a gray appear-
When tapes of unknown quality 10, 12, or 14 in. is used, depending ance, while too much heat will pro-
come in for mastering it is a good on the requirements of the plating duce score lines along the wall.
idea at least to spot check them for plant. The extra space is necessary The heat setting should be checked
azimuth, level, equalization, and for cutting test grooves and for with each new stylus or new batch
timing. It is not at all uncommon to handling. (continued on page 799

AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969 29

www.americanradiohistory.com
www.americanradiohistory.com
To own Marantz is to own the best. In this case, $2023.00 of it.
But in this unique system you'd have the finest FM stereo tuner,
preamplifier, power amplifier, and speakers in the world. With
the most natural, true-to-life sound.

The Model 20 Solid -State FM Stereo Tuner lets you experience


the sight of sound-the incoming FM signal is displayed on a
built-in oscilloscope. It's the only tuner in the world with this
feature, which shows you how your signal improves with the best
position of your antenna, shows you whether the FM station is

If you can afford broadcasting in true stereo, and lets you see if the signal is out
of phase. It also visually monitors stereo separation and lets you
check your other equipment, too. Of course, it has all cf the other
superior Marantz features and specifications also -that's why
system, this is it. it's the world's most precise tuner. $495.00.

With the Model 7T Solid -State Stereo Preamplifier you can run
the whole show with an extensive array of controls. Tuffs unique
preamp has an input stage so well designed that it can't be over-
MdrdfltZ. loaded. Consider, too, distortion so low it can't be measured on
conventional test equipment. And-there are many other reasons
why the Model 7T costs $395.00.

The Marantz Model 16 Stereo Power Amplifier muscles up 160


watts' continuous -power RMS.That's 80 watts' continuous power,
at any frequency, from each channel.11f Marantz used the unsci-
entific conventional IHF method, the Marantz Model 16 80-80
RMS power amplifier could be rated as high as 320 watts per
channelilntegrated circuitry ensures absolute reliabili_yand sta-
bility, and Marantz' patent-pending Variable -Overlap Drive elimi-
nates any possibility of transistor or speaker blow-out. No wonder
it costs $395.00.

Now, to complete the ultimate stereo system. Martial your awe-


some audio forces through a pair of Marantz Imperial II Speaker
Systems that have no artificial coloring added. Just clean, natu-
ral, full -frequency sound. Each speaker features Maradntz-exclu-
sive Quadlinear woofers for bass without boom. Two dome -type
midrange speakers and two tweeters provide natural unpeaked
i midrange and exceptionally silky undistorted highs. Everything
elegantly enclosed in decorator cabinetry. The pair: $738.00.

If our Marantz Ultimate System is too much for your budget, don't
despair. You can get unmatched Marantz-quality component
-
systems in all price ranges as low as $199 for a complete
stereo receiver. Whichever components may serve your individ-
ual purposes best, an instrument bearing the Marantz name rep-
resents the ultimate in its price range. To prove that this is more
than just an advertising claim, Marantz backs all its products
with the same three-year warranty on parts and labor five-year -
warranty on speaker components.

Sound out all the facts for yourself at your franchised Marantz
dealer's. He'll be happy to demonstrate. Then let your ears make
up your mind.

Check No. 31 on Readers Service Card ©Marantz Co., Inc., a subsidiary of Superscope Inc., 1969.
P.O. Box 99C Sun Valley, Calif. 91352. Send for free catalog.

www.americanradiohistory.com
Build an
INTEGRATED -CIRCUIT
TONE -CONTROL STAGE
DICK CRAWFORD INTEGRATED CIRCUITS are fast be- How do recent linear integrated
coming an electronic way of life. circuits measure up to these criteria?
But there are certain require- Very well indeed, for low-level and
ments that integrated circuits should preamplifier applications. The author
fill before they can be adopted in the has had the opportunity to use quite
best of hi-fi equipment: a few linear integrated circuits, and
1. Low distortion.
the experience has prompted the de-
2. Low noise. sign of this tone-control circuit
3. Adequate output level. The Baxendall or feedback type of
4. Output short-circuit protection. tone control circuit was chosen. Since
5. Input overdrive protection. it is a feedback type of circuit it
Long and sometimes sad experi- achieves the tone-control action by
ence in the misuse of audio equip- varying the amount of negative feed-
ment leads me to the last two back at different frequencies. This
requirements. generally results in lower distortion

Fig.1-Schematic of IC tone -control circuit. For stereo use, two Fig. 2-Schematic of the tone control rearranged to work with
identical units are required. The numbers in circles indicate pin a single positive supply voltage. This requires two additional
numbers. Both 100-k pots are linear. resistors and one extra capacitor, but eliminates need for the
negative supply.

4- BASS
BASS 100 K
100 K

.047 .047
µF µF 0

50µF/6V
+ 15V
o--3
O + 10µF/25V
IN 10µF/25V
-
.001
µF
µA741C
IN 10µF/25V OUT
µA741C I(-ED
+ OUT
100 K
100 K -15V TREBLE
TREBLE v â
10 K

20 to 36 V
ó - 50µF/25V
T -

32 AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969


www.americanradiohistory.com
Some people say
Ampex recorders are heavy.
They're right.
We build them that way. We have to be- flywheel/fan to make it heavier and more A case in point: the new Ampex 755A
cause of our deep -gap heads. Our heads perfectly balanced. Stereo Deck. Handle it and hear it. We
deliver a higher frequency response much, think it's the best buy on the market. You
Then, we install a dual capstan drive sys-
much longer than the others.* So we have get Sound -on -Sound, Sound -with-Sound,
tem to insure perfectly smooth head -to-
to make machines that work accurately for Echo Effect, Monitor, Pause Control, 3
tape contact. It means we use two hard
just as long as our heads. Machines that steel capstans-one in front of the heads Deep -Gap Heads, Rigid Block Head Sus-
move the tape across the heads at an exact pension, Dual Capstan Drive, and honest
and the other behind-rather than just
azimuth angle for years. And keep the performance specs. Suggested list price
one. Some people call this a "gimmick."
tape moving at an exact speed. And, to But it's not. Because, our dual capstan
$249.95 (base included).
do all that, we have to build our machines drive eliminates the need for pressure Write Ampex Corporation, Consumer
heavier. pads. Pressure pads not only wear out Equipment Division, Dept. SQ9, 2201
To keep the tape moving at an exact your heads, but they wear on tapes too! Lunt Ave., Elk Grove Village, Ill. 60007,
angle across the heads, we have to keep for full-color spec sheet on the 755A and
Then we match the dual capstan drive
the heads absolutely rigid. If they move a brochure on the entire Ampex line.
system with die-cast dynamically -balanced
even a fraction, the angle is destroyed and
you lose maximum frequency response.
To keep this exact angle, we have to die-
cast our base plate and head bridge. We
flywheels. It all works to reduce wow and
flutter even more-and it works much
longer.
AMPEX.
can't make them out of cut metal or plas- All in all, we die-cast over 1/S of each
tic. Die-casting gives us a rigid framework Ampex unit's weight to make sure criti-
to mount the deep -gap heads on-so *While warranted for three years, Ampex heads have
cal parts stay precisely aligned. Sure, it been known to last well over twelve years, based on
they'll stay rigid for years. adds weight. But with heads so good, you an average of two hours use per night, every night.
To keep the tape moving at an exact need whole machines just as good. That's See "A Message from the Heads of Ampex," in
speed longer we begin with the hystere- one reason Ampex is the heavyweight in March, 1969 audio magazines.
sis synchronous motor. We die-cast the the industry.

www.americanradiohistory.com
0.1 100
20
90
15
-224.enPE3Eigi.
60 TOTAL NOISE
10. 20 Hz to 20 kHz,10YV
70

1/2 60

50
-5
40
10y4
30
15
Full CCW 20
0.1 10 100 1K 10K 20K
20 100 1K 10 K I

FREQUENCY (Hz) OUTPUT (VOLTS) FREQUENCY (Hz)

Fig. 3-Frequency-response curves for the Fig. 4-Measured harmonic distortion of Fig. 5-Noise output. Total noise of the
tone -control circuit of Fig. 1. the IC tone control. circuit from 20 Hz to 20 kHz is 10 µV.

than the more conventional tone con- Figure 5 shows the noise character- which the author is fond, but I,pre-
trol, where control is achieved by istics of the tone control. This in- sume that others could be used. The
varying the loss at different fre- cludes the impedance effects of the National LM 307, Motorola 1539G,
quencies. Secondly, it uses linear tone -control network, the noise char- RCA CA-3029, and Signetics N-5709
potentiometers, which implies better acterisics of the integrated circuit are suggestions. Not all of these have
tracking between the two channels of itself, and a 600 -ohm source imped- internal frequency compensation, so
a stereo amplifier insofar as the tone ance. As can be seen the noise is you had best refer to the data sheets
controls are concerned. Conventional relatively constant at 100 nanovolts of those devices for recommended
tone controls use audio or logarithmic per square root Hertz up to about 1 unity -gain compensation networks be-
potentiometers, which, due to the way kHz, where it begins dropping. This fore plugging them in. The Fairchild
they are made, typically do not track is probably due to the current noise distributors (try your phone book) are
as well as linear potentiometers. of the IC and the impedance variation my source for the µA741C's.. Amelco
A disadvantage of the Baxendall of the tone control with frequency. and Texas Instruments are also re-
circuit is its relatively low input im- At any rate, the noise including hum putedly making the µA741C. The cir-
pedance. Another disadvantage is its is very low, being only 10 microvolts cuit diagram of the µA741C or as
nominally low gain, namely one. A from 20 Hz to 20 kHz. If the signal close to it as a user is apt to get, is
third disadvantage of the typical cir- is 1 volt rms, then the signal-to-noise shown in Fig. 6. A veritable forest of
cuit is that it requires a center tapped ratio is 100 dB. transistors, all on a silicon chip less
potentiometer, but this drawback has This unit could be built in a box as than 1/16 in. square.
been eliminated in this design (see an adjunct to a present amplifier, but A perfect amplifier has been de-
Fig. 1). it is really intended as part of the scribed as a straight wire with gain.
The performance is very good. From control circuitry of a stereo amplifier his tone -control circuit has no mid -
Fig. 3 we note that nearly 20 dB of or preamplifier. frequency gain, little noise, and al-
control are available at 20 Hz and 20 The particular integrated circuit most no distortion. Perhaps it could
kHz. Control is proportional to rota- chosen is the Fairchild µA741C, of be called a flexible wire. /E
tion. The response is within plus or
minus one dB from 20 Hz to 20 kHz Fig. 6-Schematic of the Different models may require compensation circuit
IC itself.

e
when the controls are set in midposi- elements external to the IC.
tion.
Distortion is exceptionally low, 11
0
never rising to more than .025 per V`
cent for any output level up to 5 volts Q12 13

rms at 1 kHz (Fig. 3) Actually the .


R7
circuit will put out more than that; I
just didn't test it any higher.
The circuit as shown in Fig. 1
operates from positive and negative R5
39
30 pf
e 4.5 k

Q1g

RB

7.5 k
Q15

supply voltages, as is typical with k


Q16
OUTPUT

operational amplifiers (op amps) In .

e
Q17
this mode its output will have less Q Q10 Q22
than one volt d.c. offset. Figure 2 OFFSET
shows an alternative arrangement for NULL
o
Q11

connections involving a single 20 -to R4 R12 R 6


36 -volt supply. In this latter con- 5k 50 k 50 o

figuration the circuit must be a.c. V-

coupled, as shown.

34 AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969

www.americanradiohistory.com
iersatility that's surpassed only by performance
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P oneer SX-1500TD AM/FM multiplex stereo receiver which provides simultaneous recording with broadcast
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Its advanced design circuitry, incorporating an FET front speaker selection for announcements over speakers in
end and IC's IF strip, offers an array of features for the several locations. You can connect up to three different
ultimate in stereo performance. Music power is at a speaker systems.. Complementing its magnificent sourd
zenith of 180 watts, rated in compliance with the stand- reproduction is the subdued elegance of the hard
ards of the Institute of High Fidelity. Extremely versatile, rubbed, oiled walnut cabinet faced with brushed silver
it provides six sets of inputs. The pre and main amplifiers and jet. Hear the true sound of quality at your Pioneer
may be used independently. An exclusive highlight is dealer. Only $399.95, including microphone.

PIONEER
PIONEER ELECTRONICS U.S.A. CORPORATION, 140 Smith Street, Farmingdale, N. Y. 11735 (516) 694-7720
West Coast: 1335 W. 134th Street, Gardena, Calif. 90249 - (213) 323-2374 & 321-1076 In Canada: S. H. Parker Co., Prov. of Ontario

AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969 Check No. 35 on Readers Service Card


35

www.americanradiohistory.com
ACOUSTICAL MATCHING of
SOUND SYSTEMS & AUDITORIUMS
DAVID L. KLEPPER*

THE SOUND -REINFORCEMENT sys- (3) A typical concert hall of per- Acoustics -Sound System "Match"
tem is one of a number of haps 1500-3000 seats. Sound reinforce-
electroacoustic systems that is ment is not provided for orchestral One of the first things to consider
required in the design of a performing music; perhaps not even for a soloist. in the acoustical match between the
arts hall. Any electronic reinforcement It is provided for a narrator speaking sound system and the auditorium is
system is intimately involved in the with the orchestra and for announce- the type of system that should be
overall acoustical design of the hall. ments. Occasionally it is provided for used. There are two basic kinds of
However, all systems of any type must amplification of very weak instruments sound -reinforcement systems. One is
be matched to the hall acoustically as when requested by the music director. a distributed -loudspeaker system.
well as matched to the program. Plan- Harpsichord amplification is an exam- There are many kinds of these, includ-
ning any sound system requires con- ple, although harpsichords are avail- ing some with a loudspeaker for each
sideration of what it is supposed to do able that can carry the 1500 to 3000 seat built into the seat back. The most
both acoustically and in terms of com- seat hall. In any case, the sound rein- typical installation is a ceiling -mounted
munication. forcement system should be planned distributed -loudspeaker system.
Need and Purpose. There is no stock around these specific uses. The second basic kind of system is
solution for every auditorium. Not all (4) A multi-purpose performing - the central system which places the
spaces require reinforcement systems. arts center, a theater -concert hall - loudspeaker in reasonable proximity to
We were recently asked why we did auditorium. This is the most typical the stage or the front of the hall in an
not include a sound reinforcement sys- college, university and municipal attempt to provide directional realism
tem in our estimates for a certain 300 - performing-arts facility. Speeches and for the amplified sound.
seat theater. The reason was there was narration with an orchestra will re-
apparently no particular need for a quire amplification in this hall. It has
sound reinforcement system for that become conventional to provide sound
theater. Such theaters as the Tyrone reinforcement for musical comedy be-
Guthrie in Minneapolis and the new cause musical comedy pit orchestra
Alley Theater in Houston, Texas, with sound is scored to be loud and brassy
approximately 800 seats, do not have and listeners expect singers to be am-
any need for a sound reinforcement plified so as to be heard against the
system; they are used by resident the- sound of the loud pit orchestra. Most
ater companies and the acoustics are opera composers are quite careful to
so designed that electronic reinforce- score orchestral music so as not to Fig.1-Hall with both a distributed loud-
ment is unnecessary. Let us consider a compete with singers on the stage, so speaker system and a central system.
number of different performing -arts opera usually does not require elec-
facilities to determine whether sound tronic amplification. Figure 1 shows a hall with both
systems are required and for what pos- (5) A typical summer festival con- types of systems. Reasons for the
sible uses. cert hall. In most cases, all the ampli- superiority of the central loudspeaker
(1) A small outdoor -music facility, fication is provided inside that would systems over the distributed -loud-
perhaps seating 1000 people with a be provided in a conventional concert speaker system are fairly well illus-
well-designed acoustical bandshell. We hall (not for the orchestra itself). trated in this example. Remembering
might say no electronic amplification Amplification would usually be pro- that sound travels at about 1130 feet
is required for this particular facility vided for all activities including orches- per second, the listener over at "Z"
if used just for orchestra and band tral sound for the outdoors. All these would hear sound in the nearby dis-
music. considerations have to go into the tributed loudspeaker well in advance
(2) A large outdoor music facility, program for the sound reinforcement of sound from the stage. This would
perhaps located in a park in the mid- system. have two bad effects (1) he'd localize
(6) A gymnasium/auditorium/coli- sound as coming from the loudspeaker
dle of a city with attendant traffic and
seum that is also used for performing rather than from the stage, and (2),
aircraft noises. Sound reinforcement
arts. Generally, amplification is pro- the live sound from the stage would
would be required for practically all
vided for all activities. he delayed sound with respect to the
activities in this facility.
° Senior Consultant, Bolt Beranek and
Newman, New York, N.Y.

36
AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969

www.americanradiohistory.com
THE HEART OF YOUR DYNACO
RECEIVER SYSTEM

SCA-80 amplifier

1% ---+ 40 watts rms per channel


lipspgmtr
MA"

20 50 500 1000 2000 5000 10000 20000


¡eel

The SCA-80 delivers 40 watts Front panel low -impedance Center channel speaker can be
per channel rms continuous headphone jack is always live. driven without an auxiliary am-
power from 20-20,000 Hz at 8 Rocker switch permits you to plifier with mode switch in
ohms. Plenty of power for driv- choose between main and re- BLEND, which also reduces un-
ing 4 ohm speakers too. mote speakers too, or turn realistic stereo separation
speakers off. when using headphones.

The Dynaco FM -3 tuner ($99.95) is completely com-


patible with the SCA-80. The SCA-80/FM-3 system
Open, uncluttered layout facilitates kit con- delivers up to three times more continuous power
struction. Four etched circuit boards are fac- across the audio band than other one-piece receivers
tory assembled and tested. in the same price range.

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19121

AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969 Check No. 37 on Readers Service Card

www.americanradiohistory.com
is to provide a satisfactory balance be-
nearby loudspeaker sound and would
actually be heard as an echo unless tween the singers and the orchestra
some kind of tape loop or acoustical and it is always the singer that re-
delay device was used to delay the quires amplification.
sound to the nearby loudspeaker. The architectural integration of
In designing sound reinforcement these elements is, of course, of supreme
systems, it is preferable, whenever importance. Visual masking can help
possible, to use a central loudspeaker eliminate an audience's awareness of
system located over the proscenium. amplification per se. If permanent
The design goal is that the live and footlights are installed in a theater
amplified sound should arrive at the then perhaps the microphones can be
listener's ear at approximately the same mounted in the footlight troughs.
time so that they reinforce each other, Whether or not the footlights are used
much as sound reflected off sound - for a particular show, if amplification
reflecting panels or a hard, reflecting Fig. 2-Typical central loudspeaker system or reinforcement is provided, the foot-
ceiling reinforces direct sound from with directional footlight microphones. light troughs are raised and the micro-
the actor's or singer's voice. Distributed phones are hidden from the audience.
loudspeakers should be used locally in The directional characteristics of the Loudspeaker integration is both an
performing -arts halls to solve deep microphones and the loudspeaker sys- architectural and room -acoustics de-
underbalcony problems or an unfavor- tems have to ensure that there is little sign problem. Often a sound trans-
able throw ratio (nearest-to -farthest danger of feedback. At the same time parent loudspeaker grille is indicated
seat) problems. Usually, deep under - the loudspeakers and microphones at just where the most important
balconies should be avoided for im- must be chosen for smooth frequency sound-reflecting element of the ceiling
portant room -acoustical reasons aside response, both to avoid feedback and or sound -reflecting panel should be
from the sound system. However,. for naturalness of reinforcement. This located. This creates an acoustical de-
when line -of-sight on the central loud- basic system generally in use today sign problem regarding which should
speaker is lost, the central loudspeaker has one bad effect in that the be compromised-the loudspeaker sys-
systems must be supplemented with microphone is quite a distance from tem, perhaps by being displaced to a
local time -delay loudspeakers. An un- the speaker, actor, or singer. This less favorable location-or the room
favorable throw-ratio would occur if means it will pick up some reverberant acoustics of the hall.
the distance to the farthest listener is sound which reduces clarity as com- Figure 3 shows the new Fisher The-
ten times the distance to the nearest pared with a microphone close to the ater in Detroit with emphasis on the
listener. It is a difficult engineering persons speaking or singing. One pos- loudspeaker system. It was especially
job to design a central loudspeaker sible solution is the use of wireless lit up for the photograph.. When the
cluster that will provide both adequate microphones. These raise other prob- lights are off it just appears as a part
levels at the farthest seat without un- lems including interference and the of the proscenium, and nobody is par-
duly high levels at the nearest seat. coordination between microphoning ticularly aware of the loudspeaker
One possible solution is the use of dis- and costuming. system. I have had people ask me,
tributed loudspeaker over the farthest The directional characteristics of "Where's the amplification system?"
seating area, again delayed so that the microphone are arranged to dis- In addition to this central loud-
amplified and live sound coincide. We criminate against orchestral sound be- speaker cluster which is the main
are becoming cleverer at designing cause in musical comedy reinforce- sound reinforcement -system for the
central loudspeaker systems so that ment the orchestra is always more
their directional characteristics can be than loud enough. The singers' voices
coordinated with the room design to should be brought over the orches-
provide fairly even coverage even tra. Sometimes producers or conduc-
under throw -ratio conditions that sev- tors may demand microphoning the
eral years ago would have been con- orchestra.
sidered unfavorable for a central If the hall has an electronic rever-
loudspeaker system. The central loud- beration system and if we want to add
speaker system is the general solution reverberation to an orchestra during
to reinforcement for performing particular times, microphones are used
activities. for the pit orchestra. This requires a
Figure 2 illustrates the typical cen- lot of rehearsal and a considerable Fig. 3-Loudspeaker system appears as part
skill on the part of the sound system of the proscenium when lights are off.
tral loudspeaker system combined with
directional footlight microphones that operator. However, when requested by
are intended to pick up action on the people to provide amplification for the theater, there are supplementary stereo
stage. The directional characteristics pit orchestra, it is preferable to put loudspeakers for special effects and
of the microphones have to be chosen microphones in the pit-maybe con- for broad source amplification located
carefully so that there is no undue nect them, perhaps demonstrate them, behind perforated metal on the walls
variation in level as the actors pro- but not use them during the show be- of either side of the proscenium. The
ceed from one microphone to another. cause the main purpose of the system close-up of the low -frequency horn

38
AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969

www.americanradiohistory.com
The world's fastest
bookshelf speaker.
That's not a joke. The new Rectilinear planation would require a very in- cies. Which means that the low and
X is at least four times faster off the line volved discussion of loudspeaker phase high frequency components of a signal
than its closest competition. And you're response as distinct from amplitude re- that enter a speaker at the same instant
not reading a drag -racing magazine. sponse, but the basic idea is quite don't arrive at your ear at the same
But let's begin at the beginning. simple. instant. There's a smearing effect. This
A few months ago, we announced Sound waves travel through air at accounts, in part, for the gutsy, canned
the Rectilinear X (that's a ten, not an the rate of approximately 1135 feet per sound of some popular speakers, which
ex) as the world's first high-fidelity second (at room temperature). There- many people like although its bears no
loudspeaker. We explained that it was fore, if you're sitting let us say 1/3 feet
1 1 resemblance to live music.
the first speaker system to pass a signal from a speaker, you'd expect a signal Now, time delay distortion is least
more or less unaltered, in the same to reach your ear one one -hundredth audible at low frequencies' and be-
sense as a minimally acceptable ampli- of a second (10 milliseconds) after the comes more and more obvious going
fier. (We didn't say, as a few people amplifier feeds it to the speaker termi- up into the midrange. Woofers, with
seemed to interpret us, that our new nals. their massive moving parts and com-
$199 bookshelf speaker made all cost- Not so. It will reach your ear more plex networks, are the worst offenders,
lier systems obsolete. There will prob- slowly. so it becomes important to keep them
ably always be a need for larger, more It seems that speakers don't speak the out of the midrange. The only speaker
expensive speakers for reasons of instant they receive a command from system that goes all the, way in this re-
power, efficiency, versatility, special the amplifier. Between the entry of the spect is the Rectilinear X.
acoustical problems, etc. But not ac- electrical signal and the exit of sound, Although the specially designed 10 -
curacy.) there's a time delay. Not just a slow- inch woofer has remarkably little time
What we want to point out in this ad down of the rate at which pressure am- delay to begin with, it's crossed over at
is the specific reason for the superior plitude builds up (i. e., transient re- 100 Hz to a 5 -inch midrange driver with
accuracy of the Rectilinear X as a lis- sponse), but an actual moment of si- phenomenally low time delay distor-
tening device. lence. Dead silence. tion. Thus the entire midfrequency band
Not the frequency response, al- What's more, the length of this mo- has the benefit of minimum time delay.
though it happens to be beautifully flat ment is frequency dependent. Gener- And you can hear it.
and smooth. Nor the absence of har- ally speaking, lower frequencies are At 500 Hz, for example, the Recti-
monic distortion, although the 10 -inch delayed longer than higher frequen- linear X has a time delay of less than
woofer with its one -inch linear travel 0.2 millisecond. By comparison, the top -
won't distort a 50 Hz signal at 10 watts of -the -line model of the most famous
any more than a medium-priced stereo name in bookshelf speakers has a delay
receiver. Nor even the transient re- of approximately 0.8 millisecond at the
sponse, although the exceptionally same frequency, mainly because most
low -mass tweeter follows steep wave of the output is still coming from the
fronts with great alacrity. woofer. The Rectilinear Xis literally
No. The truth is that all of today's faster off the start line.
top speakers have reasonably smooth Since no other speaker system cuts
frequency response, low harmonic dis- off the woofer at 100 Hz, and no mov-
tortion and good transient response. ing -coil speaker is faster in the lower
And it would be utterly impossible to midrange than our 5 -inch driver, the
predict their individual sound quality Rectilinear X is the world's speed king
or their relative ranking from these At which point we can't resist bor-
data alone. rowing a phrase from the underground.
However, as we have discovered, "Speed kills." Our competition.
there is a measurable quantity that cor- (For further information, see your au-
responds very closely to audible differ- dio dealer or write directly to Recti-
ences in speaker performance. Time linear Research Corporation, 30 Main
delay distortion. Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 11201.)
In our introductory advertising, we

Rectilinear X
referred to this much -neglected crite-
rion by the more specialized mathe-
matical term of envelope delay distor-
tion, a concept with many ramifications
in network theory. A sophisticated ex-

AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969 Check No. 39 on Readers Service Card 39

www.americanradiohistory.com
T'SONY

AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969


40

www.americanradiohistory.com
excellent. Solid-state i.f,filters
are used. With their help
alternate channel selec-
tivity reaches a full 70 dB.
What's more, they never
require realignment.
While we streamlined
the 6040, we did pro-
vide a number of im-
Sony has placed its name on an filling volume, without distortion. portant operating conveniences:
under $200 FM stereo/FM-AM re- The tuner employs a completely switches for easy selection be-
-
ceiver the Sony STR-6040. We passive
front end. There is no tween the most common pro-
broke the $200 price barrier with-
amplification of the incoming sig- gram sources, radio or records
out putting the slightest dent in
nal frequency. This eliminates and for instant comparison be-
quality. We did it by eliminating
two common problems: internally tween original and recorded pro-
the unessentials, designing an gram material; automatic stereo/
amplifier with less than a super generated background hiss and mono circuitry; a headphone
jack
power rating and bydrawing upon overloading of weak stations by and an auxiliary input on the front
advanced radar and microwave strong ones (spurious -response panel; and precise tuning
meter.
technology in the tuner design. rejection is 100 dB down). The Sony name, Sony quality
The amplifier delivers 30 watts The Sony 6040 comes through and an un -Sony -like under
-$200
RMS continuous power into 8 with flying colors in all areas es- price tag. That's the
Sony 6040,
ohms, both channels operating- sential to superior receiver per- and that's beautiful music.
more than enough to drive even formance. Sensitivity, stereo sepa- Sony Corporation of America,
relatively inefficient "bookshelf" - ration, capture ratio and noise 47-47 Van Dam St., Long Island
size speaker systems to room - suppression characteristics are City, N.Y.11101.
SONY®

Check No. 41 on Readers Service Card

AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969 41

www.americanradiohistory.com
and the high -frequency horns behind DIRECTIONAL LOUDSPEAKER
ULTRA -DIRECTIONAL MICROPHONE
this sound transparent grille can give ONE PER CORNER ONE PER SIDE
OVERLAP ZONE OCCURS IN AISLES)
. ALL COVER ENTIRE STAGE I

you some idea of the design work in-


volved in integrating a satisfactory
central loudspeaker system with the
0
proper directional characteristics into
4-Micro-
°
Fig. o °°I
a particular architectural environment.
phones and 0

0
OpAISLE
Historically, sound systems have loudspeakers in a AISOE°° 0 0 0
been considered necessary to make 0 0 0 0 0
theatre -in -the - 0 0 0°Ó o ó ó 0°
o 0 0
sound louder for an audience. How- round. 0 0
o o
o
ever, often the emphasis should be on o
0 v 0
o
° 00
greater clarity than with live sound oo°o°° ó°°o 0

alone. To speak and be understood o


clearly is difficult in a large hall with
the two -second reverberation time that
would be ideal for orchestral or roman- basic problem in such systems is not to the contrator every several months; the
tic music. We want the sound system increase the loudness of an actor. Even gain is set and it is simply turned on
to increase the ratio of early to rever- in a 1000 -seat arena stage, an actor can for each show. Thrust stages can use
berant sound energy to override the be heard adequately. One recognizes variations on this arena -stage system,
reverberant sound and ensure high that he is saying something throughout but as the 360-deg. angle of the arena
speech clarity. Such systems are com- the theater; the problem comes in stage is narrowed to 180 deg. or less,
monly required for reverberant understanding what he is saying. The the necessity for sound reinforcement
churches, where it is not necessary to human speaking mechanism involves a becomes less because less of the audi-
increase the loudness but where clarity mouth in the front of the face only and ence is behind the actor's back for a
must be increased. in an arena -stage theater it is obvious smaller proportion of the time.
The opposite types of systems are the that half the people are going to be Although the arena -stage system
electronic reverberation systems. In a behind the actor. does not require an operator, most
hall designed with a relatively low Larger spaces provide some unique sound systems do. Most of them re-
cubic volume, organ music, choral problems. The reduction in high - quire intelligent operation and it is im-
music, and perhaps orchestra/romantic frequency energy when an actor has portant that operator hears the sound
music should be heard with a lot of his back to the listener is about 10 dB he controls. This usually means some
reverberation, and the sound system (at about 3000 to 4000 Hz) and intelli- kind of booth at the rear of the hall that
should provide sound from many dif- gibility will be marginal. Remember is acoustically open to the hall itself.
ferent directions with many different that consonants, s's, f's, t's, and m's are The operator can look and hear
time delays causing the hall to sound mostly high -frequency energy. So im- through a sound transparent mesh; he
more reverberant. Again, loudness is plication is provided with directional cannot hear through glass. Sometimes
the secondary consideration. loudspeakers on the four sides, each windows are required so that the
In systems that include electronic re- system covering the seating area on sound -system operator can close him-
verberation, the problem is just how that side, with the overlap zones self acoustically from the hall to cue
reverberation is going to be provided. (where intelligibility and quality are material. But most of the time the rein-
The best approach is usually to provide minimum) occurring on the aisles, and forcement operator should hear the
a reverberation room which generally using ultra -directional microphones be- sound just as the audience does.
requires about 20,000 cubic feet and low the grid corners, one in each corner In systems providing electronic re-
should be well isolated from the hall and each one covering the stage, so verberation, the operator must be
itself and from extraneous noise that no matter which way the actor brought from the rear of the hall,
sources. The basic elements of a rever- turns he is facing a microphone. One which is not a typical hall location, out
beration system include: the pickup system of this type has been in use for into the house itself, so that he can
microphones which can be those for seven years in one theater where there be surrounded with reverberant sound
the usual reinforcement system; ampli- is no particular awareness on the part just as the typical member of the audi-
fication and playback loudspeakers in of the audience that reinforcement is ence is. Such a control location usually
the reverberation room; one or more being used. That system limits the involves some kind of architectural de-
pickup microphones in the reverbera- amplification to the high -frequency sign problem which can be solved by
tion room; some kind of a delay device range, which suffers when the listener building a platform or a pit. Monitor
-possibly a tape loop-to ensure that is behind the actor's back and the over- loudspeakers are not the solution be-
the reverberant sound doesn't get to all loudness is not changed. Instead, cause they give the operator a picture
the audience before the direct or rein- when the actor turns away from a of what the sound reinforcement sys-
forcement sound; amplification; and listener the high frequencies drop tem is doing alone and not a mixture of
then playback loudspeakers in the hall. about 3 or 4 dB, not 10 dB; and there sound reinforcement and the live
We have discussed reinforcement in remains enough high -frequency energy sound of the hall.
proscenium halls. Thrust -stage and to provide intelligibility, but not so Controls for the operator are de-
arena -theater reinforcement systems much that the system is obvious in use. signed to be as human engineered as
are becoming more prevalent. The This particular system is adjusted by (Continued on page 79)

42 AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969

www.americanradiohistory.com
An Gutperformer
for the Tape Deck Set!
Tape recorcting has rejachec a new level of a»- a one hand operation significantly redicirg
cellence wi:h the new Pioneer T-600. These moulting and threading time aid the possibility
remarkable innovations tell the story. The ir- of torn or damaged -axes. Other feat_ res include:
genicus auto -reverse unit offers the fastest autc- solid state circuitry 4 heads 4-tra:k stereo &
rratic and pushbutton reverse playaack and monaural Record/Flayoack; 2 VU rreters; hyste-
recording - less than a second Nc mo-e turning
tape over... no mare annoying recording inter-
resis synchronc.is motor; center cacstan drive;
heacphone jack; autcmatic tape Jra<ing- push-
rap:ions. Tite dramatical y d fferent sw nç-in, button 4-cigit counter; vertical ar horizontal cper-
swing -cut pinch roller assures cptirrum tape atior. Naturally, the ciLa!ity is inccmparab e. Ifs
pressure at all times -just rich- fo- flawless
reproductior. Reel oading has been re egatec to
a Pioneer Outperforme-. Ask ycu- Pioneer cealer
for a demonstrat on. 0 -ii, $299.95 ir.cL dust :over.

CO PIONEER®
:IONEER ELECTRONICS J.S.A. CGRPORßTION, 140 3mi:h Street, Farmingdale, N.y. ' 1735 (E16) 694-7720
nest Coast: 1.335 V. 13zth St., Garden:, Gal f. 90243 (213) 323-2374 & 321-1076 Canada: S h marker Co Proe. Ontar o

AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969 Check No. 43 on Readers Service Card 43


www.americanradiohistory.com
Idlers, jockey pulleys, puck wheels,
or intermediate wheels, called vari-

Tape Transport ously (though not strictly correctly)


by all these names, are used to couple
the drive from the motor to the fly-
wheel and to the reel carriers. Many

Maintenance Part III: Drive Systems


different systems are employed, each
with its own peculiarity.
Most idlers are rubber -tired, and
the type of rubber used has to be
H. W. HELLYER chosen carefully. As well as having
good elastic properties, it must have a
good coefficient of friction, the mini-
DïSICN PHILOSOPHY dictates Round-section belts will more often mum of self -heating, and high abra-
which sort of tape drive shall be used with a large -diameter motor sion resistance-properties which do
be used-direct motor, belt, pulley. It is more difficult to maintain not always go hand -in -hand. Because
or idler. Each has certain advantages constant diameter of a round belt, and maximum tension must be achieved to
and some drawbacks. For speed ex- under tension the belt `flattens' at con- reduce slip, pressure on the idler will
actitude, and precise control, directly tact points, so angle -section belts are be high. This tends to stress bearings,
driven capstan and reel carriers will used with smaller -diameter motor and makes the initial contact of idler
be chosen; the obvious drawback is its pulleys having shaped flanges in which and drive (or driven) surface vulner-
high cost. the belt rides snugly. The other alter- able to irregular forces. For optimum
The choice between belts and idlers native is a flat belt on a wide running transmission of drive power, systems
is not so simple. Quite often we find surface, and fabricised flat belts which are designed to be self-adjusting, the
the maker has compromised, using accept variations of tension for func- idler being held in contact with the
both types of drive in the same ma- tion change (play/fast wind/reverse) driving surface by spring pressure.
chine, performing different functions. are favored by some designers. Where
Idler wheels lend themselves to de-
Belts, or bands, may be rubber, flat belts are used, the general ten-
signs which need reversal of driving
composition or fabricised rubber, and dency is to employ a slipping -belt
direction, such as for the rewind oper-
can be round, triangular, or rectangu- drive for take-up rather than a slip-
ation, and to speed changes which can
lar in cross-section. The most impor- ping -clutch or gravity take-up, and
be effected by a stepped driving
tant criterion is evenness of cross-sec- vertically mounted machines may
pulley. They are useful when the
tion, with elasticity following a close therefore have tensioned flat belts.
spacing between drive wheel and
second.
driven surface has to be varied, or is
large.

Because the friction wheel is spring -


FLYWHEEL loaded to make contact, some retarda-
tion is inevitable, and this has to be
IDLER allowed for in design. The wedge
angle for optimum conditions has been
determined empirically to lie between
35 and 40 deg. for optimum drive
WEDGE
ANGLE
with least slip. Figure 1 (A) shows
PIVOT
(A) a simple spring -loaded drive wheel,
and in Figure 1 (B) we can see the
design principles for an intermediate
IDLER wheel. The wedge angle of 35 deg. is
180°-2a determined by experience, and wheel
R2
diameters should have specific rela-
tionships.
MOTOR
.PULLEY The diameter of an idler wheel
should, in theory, make no difference
a=WEDGE ANGLE to the speed of the driven surface.
(B) This is dependent on the ratio of the
motor to flywheel diameters, in the
Fig. 1-(A) Wedge angle is important for case of direct drive. Interposing an
correct transmission of torque. (B) Dis- Fig. 2-Speed of a flywheel is not in in-
idler reverses the direction of rotation,
tances and wedge angles can be calcu- verse ratio to the diameters of motor pul-
lated when diameters of motor pulley and ley and flywheel, but has to take into but should have no effect on the
flywheel are known. account the thickness of the belt. speed. In practice, small changes in

44 AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969


www.americanradiohistory.com
The world's first faultless
headphones.

Audiophiles have always been aware that, down to 19 cycles, which is


at least theoretically, headphones are the ideal just about the low-end cut-
way to listen to reproduced music, particularly off of the human ear.
stereo. As a matter of fact, the
We said theoretically. Because, in actual overall frequency response of
use, headphones have thus far been hampered the HP -100 is essentially uni-
by a number of practical disadvantages. form from 19 to 22,000 Hz, an
Fisher engineers have never believed that these unprecedented achievement
disadvantages are insurmountable. But it took them due in part tothesophisticated
until now to solve all the problems to their satisfaction. driver design, which borrows
The result is a pair of headphones called the from advanced microphone technology. It is, in effect,
Fisher HP -100 which can truly be considered the first a reversed dynamic microphone with the coil driving
commercially available model with all plusses and no the lightweight diaphragm, instead of vice versa.
minuses. Listening to them, or rather with them, is a Which brings us to another unique advantage of
new and different experience. The theoretical poten- the HP -100.
tial of headphones has finally been realized. Smooth treble response.
The comfort factor. Nearly all headphones exhibit a certain rough-
One of the main objections to conventional head- ness in their high -frequency response curve, Not the
phones is that they are uncomfortable. After wearing HP -100. The light microphone -type diaphragm pro-
them for half an hour, the listener wants to go back to vides completely smooth treble and superb transient
loudspeakers. response, so that the sound has the airy immediacy
Excessive weight and unpleasant clamping of the known only to owners of exceptionally fine tweeters.
head are only the lesser reason, although most head- Needless to say, distortion is nonexistent at nor-
phones are certainly much too heavy and confining. mal listening levels. The impedance of the HP -100 is
More important is the uncanny isolation of the listener compatible with all types of amplifiers and receivers.
from the audible world around him, as though his head Power input for average listening levels is 2 milliwatts.
were encapsulated. This, of course, is due to the more The phones are supplied with a fully adjustable
or less airtight "cup" that fits over the entire ear, to vinyl -covered headband,velvet-soft, non-stick foam
provide close coupling of the acoustic cavity of the pads that are removable (and therefore washable!),
phone to the eardrum. Otherwise, with conventional and 8 feet of cable.
headphones, there would be a serious loss of bass. After reading all this, you will be prepared for an
The Fisher HP -100 solves this problem in a highly important listening experience when you first try the
imaginative way. The phones are not only extremely Fisher HP -100.
light but are also allowed to rest lightly against the ear But you are not yet prepared for the price. Only
on large, flat foam -rubber cushions, leaving the perim- $34.95. Which may be, for the makers of the world's
eter of the ear unconfined.The diaphragm of the driver first faultless headphones, the greatest achievement
is completely covered by the foam rubber and acousti- of all.
cally "sees" the thousands of tiny air bubbles in it, in-
stead of a single cavity. This, combined with special
acoustic delay slots in the back of the driver, main-
The Fisher HP-100
miniummommmsammmmmimi
tains proper bass loading without the conventional Mail this coupon for your free copy of The Fisher
airtight seal and its attendant discomforts. 1 Handbook, 1970 edition. This 72 -page full -color 1
As a result, wearing the HP -100 is as pleasant reference guide to hi-fi and stereo also includes
1 detailed information on all Fisher components. 1
physically as listening to loudspeakers. In fact, to Fisher Radio Corporation 1
some people the sound does not appear to origin- 1 11-35 45th Road
ate in the phones but seems to come from a certain 1 Long Island City, N.Y. 11101 1
distance,asin loudspeaker listening, but with a much 1
more pronounced stereo effect. 1 Name
No more boominess. 1
Eliminating the single air cavity of conventional 1 Address
headphones also gets rid of another common fault: 1 City State Zip
boomy bass. The low -frequency response of the Fisher 0311695
HP -100 is amazingly smooth and is essentially flat IM MI MI MS MI

Check No. 45 on Readers Service Card


AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969 45
www.americanradiohistory.com
Fig. 3-(A) A simpler method of loading a diameter upset the tensioning, the
new belt where surfaces are accessible. wedge angle, and the calculated n, D,+d
The hook is used to maintain tension. (B) amount of slippage and can cause a n, D,+d
Where other parts of the mechanism over-
lay the pulleys, a better method is to put
slowing down or irregularity.
the belt over the smaller diameter, secure thus D,= n.(D,+d)
at the rotational entry point, and use the Belt Faults n,
hook to feed the belt over the larger diam-
eter while turning gently. Many of the factors governing reg- 300x96.5_1
ular running with idler-wheel drive
also apply to belt -drive systems. Small 2900
variations in belt thickness can have
0- a large effect on tape speed. The = 9mm.
BELT thickness of flat belts is more easily
HOOK
controlled than the diameter of round
ones. Importance of exact belt diam- diameter in the above equation, giving
MOTOR So the effective drive at the motor has
eter or thickness is illustrated with
PULLEY
reference to Fig. 2. a diameter of 10mm.
If the motor pulley were geared to Suppose there is a variation of 10
the driven pulley, the speed reduction per cent in belt thickness over its
at the capstan would be in inverse length. The resulting speed variation
proportion to the diameters, i.e. n,/n, will be 0.1 x 100/10 or 1 per cent.
HOOK
=D, D,. Taking a practical example, The running frequency of the belt is
a belt -driven flywheel 95.5 mm in only a few cycles and speed variations
diameter is required to rotate at 300 of such a low frequency can hardly be
TAPE HERE r.p.m. The available motor rotates at equalized by the centrifugal mass, so
2900 r.p.m. If a thickness of belt is wow will be heard from pitch varia-
1 mm this must be added to each tions.

B F
A

(A) Combination belt -and -pulley drive is C


used on many machines, as in this exam-
ple-Sony TC -250.

(B) Smalldrive belts such as this one in the


Uher 4000-L can be handled with a pair of
tweezers, but extreme care is needed, and
sharp edges of tools should be protected
with adhesive tape.

(t) Flat wide belts may suffer from impreg- D


nation; small particles of metal from
pulleys become embedded, imparting a
surface polish. This example is a Sony CV -
2000 video tape recorder.

a West German G
(D) This assembly from
pocket portable number of plastic
uses a
pulleys with thin rubber tires. Check for
binding bearings and out -of-line spindles.

(E) Japanese Standard portable has edge- E

drive from motor to flywheel and rim -


drive from flywheel to take-up.

(F) Examples of the wide, thin take-up


idler on a loose bracket which is liable to
misalignment, and the smaller soft -tired
auxiliary wheel at right. Philips 3548.
(G) Ramped idler for speed change.

46 AUUIU NUVtMöCK 170


www.americanradiohistory.com
Benjamin
proudly announces
the world's second best
automatic turntable.

Small wonder that the Miracord 50H is the world's fective anti -skate; the 6 pound cast aluminum turn-
most coveted automatic turntable. The top, top table; and a dynamically -balanced arm that tracks
authorities have awarded it top rating. And who to 1/2 gram.
doesn't want the very best? Enjoy the world's second best automatic
The Miracord 750 is virtually identical to turntable and save $20 over the cost of the world's
the 50H except that it employs a dynamically- best. The Miracord 750 is only $139.50 at your
balanced, 4 -pole induction motor instead of a high-fidelity dealer.
Papst hysteresis synchronous motor. It also costs Benjamin Electronic Sound Corp.,
$20 less -$139.50. Farmingdale, N.Y. 11735. A division of Instrument
Systems Corp. Available in Canada.
The new 750 still offers all of these wonderful
Miracord features: the exclusive Miracord push-
buttons; the slotted lead screw for precise stylus
overhang adjustment; piston -damped cueing; ef-
ELAC/MIRACORD 750
another quality product from BENJAMIN.

Check No. 47 on Readers Service Card


AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969 47
www.americanradiohistory.com
If a flat belt is used, closer limits This is oil or grease. Over -enthusiastic away from the entry point of the fly-
can be gained, and by hardening, then lubrication has caused more erratic wheel, just enough to maintain ten-
grinding the flat surfaces, deviations tape drive than any other single fault. sion while the wheel is rotated.
of less than 0.5 per cent can be Oil tends to spin off rotating bearings Although the use of pliers on rub-
achieved. From the foregoing it also in a fine film; grease can have a capil- ber or composition belts is to be
appears that the larger the diameter lary action when heated, creeping up deprecated, it is occasionally neces-
of the motor pulley the less the effect to idler surfaces. Always oil sparingly, sary to employ a pair of tweezers to
of these deviations will be, but this and wipe any surplus from spindles lift an otherwise inaccessible belt. Use
has practical limits. This would re- before fitting belts or idler wheels. the type with a flat blade and trust
quire a slow -running motor, or a cen- Diluted alcohol is the best cleaning the clamping action to do the work.
trifugal mass (flywheel) of large agent, but even this has to be used If this is not sufficient, you'll simply
diameter, or the addition of an inter- with care on some composition mater- have to resort to the hook.. But always
mediate drive wheel. We are back ials, which can soften by its solvent avoid anything sharp. Protect the
where we began. action. blade tips with a collar of rubber
Speed changing with belt drive can Refitting drive belts can face us sleeving, or even a layer of cellophane
present special problems. The usual with some problems. One or two tricks tape.
method is to feed the belt from one of the trade can make the job easier.
After using any sort of adhesive
diameter to another on a common The first thing to remember is se-
quence.
tape on or near a belt, clean both the
motor pulley. A fork drive may be
Unless you know the machine so belt and any surface it contacts with
used, or a tongue on the pulley. alcohol. Before switching on, rotate
One advantage of belt drive on sim- well that dismantling deck parts be-
the assembly by hand, ensuring that
pler machines is the ability to filter comes habitual, keep a note of the
the movement of the motor pulley
out minor variations inherent in the order in which parts are removed.
produces the correct result. After a
system. Motor hum vibrations at 60 Lay the parts in a logical sequence,
tedious job of assembly, nothing is
Hz can be reduced considerably by ready for re-assembly..
more annoying than a spilled belt.
using a belt of sufficient elasticity to Make drawings where necessary,
form an absorption circuit. This is very and always include some sort of Where flat belts run over tensioning
useful when a motor with an outer datum: 'deck front', `head -plate', pulleys, it is essential that these shall
rotating cage (small diameter pulley) `motor mounting', and so on. If it have their spindles at right angles to
is employed in conjuction with a fly- helps, number the operations on your the belt run. Fitting tensioned belts
wheel. The small diameter is dictated guide drawing. For some of us, one is often easier when the tension is
by the high rotational speed. Fly- map is worth a wealth of words. partly applied, so it helps to remove
wheel rotation should be as high as When fitting a belt over two drive the strong spring and fit an auxiliary
is practicable, and the short-term surfaces, with the belt under tension, spring to give temporary weak pres-
speed variations can be formidable some difficulty may be encountered in sure where needed-or, in extremis, to
unless belt elasticity is carefully chosen getting the belt to sit snugly on the wedge the pulley bracket in place.
to filter them out. It follows that larger diameter surface. Best method Belts that rely on forks or tongues
any hardening of the belt or loss of of attacking this problem is to loop to reposition them for speed changing
elasticity due to temperature and the belt over the small surface, hold should not be shifted unless they are
humidity changes will also affect drive in place by stretching slightly, then turning. The prime cause of belt spill
regularity. feed it around the larger diameter with some machines is speed changing
Neglect is the prime culprit-as has slowly, turning in the direction it when at rest.
already been emphasized in this series wants to go. Conversely, idler wheels that are
of articles.. Belts that are left in one It is wise, when rotating flywheels ramped to step on different pulley
position tend to harden and form to or motors, to move these in their
diameters for speed changing should
a shape, with flattened portions at the `natural' direction of rotation. only be moved axially when in the
contact sections. The cure is a regular Where a narrow flange is used, and neutral position. There are exceptions,
use of the machine, but if the condi- the new belt is reluctant to stay in but these are usually soft -tired idlers
tion has already set in, some remedy place, even with the tension and rota- with lightly -sprung guide brackets. In
may be possible by heating and run- tion method of fitting, one or two these cases, attention to the spring
ning the belt. pieces of adhesive tape pressed lightly
pressure is needed: some slippage may
Best method of rejuvenating a over the belt at the entry point will
be required, over -drive can be as bad
formed rubber belt is to let it stand give a starter. After this, the wheel
as under -tensioning.
for a while in hot water, dry it, pow- can be rotated and an outward tension
der with French chalk or talcum, maintained as it is fed into place. One Prime cause of poor pulley drive is
useful aid for this job is that family a binding bearing caused by an influx
clean off surplus talcum to prevent it
mixing with lubricants, and "run the heirloom, the button-hook. of dirt or a hardening of lubrication.
belt in" for a reasonable period. If you can't find a button -hook, Dismantle, taking care to note washer
Mention of lubricants brings us to which is hardly likely today, fashion sequence, and clean thoroughly.
the prime enemy of belts-and indeed a stiff piece of wire into a nearly- Again, resort to the thumbnail sketch
of any rubber or composition drive closed loop and hook it over the belt.
surfaces, including idler-wheel tires. Use this, as in Fig. 3, to hold the belt (Continued on page 91)

48 AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969

www.americanradiohistory.com
! WI II
SAVE
UWE

HOW TO CORRECT ,., WM,


1 i14
AA WIRT
..,,
itl111mtPn101. Mtn 'eV Met

TURNTABLE `BOUNCE" 25%


DONALD R. HICKE
This is our
PLAGUED BY TURNTABLE BOUNCE? ing hardware you plan to use, on a GROUP SUBSCRIPTION PLAN
Does your cartridge skip a groove, set of scales-baby scales work fine Now you, your friends and co-work-
or repeat one, every time someone -and weigh them. Then divide the ers can save $2.00 on each subscrip-
walks past your record changer? result by four and head for your tion to AUDIO. If you send 6 or more
Here's an easy way to return the local hardware store. Check the subscriptions for the U.S., Possessions
spring to your step, by adding four springs you intend to purchase by and Canada, they will cost each sub-
of them to your changer. actually measuring how far each one scriber $3.00 each, 40% less than
The main reason a turntable stretches when loaded. You should the regular one year subscription
bounces when someone walks near be able to borrow some accurate price. Present subscriptions may be
the cabinet is that the built-in sus- weights and a ruler at the store. renewed or extended as part of a
pension is too stiff. It was designed group. Remittance to accompany
For example, if your changer and orders.
to prevent motor or loudspeaker accompanying hardware weighed 16
vibrations, which are relatively high pounds, load the spring with four AUDIO is still the only publication
in frequency, from reaching the car- pounds and check that it stretches devoted entirely to
tridge. However, it offers little or about 1/3 its length. This will ensure Audio
no protection against low -frequency a very low resonant frequency for Broadcasting equipment
seismic disturbances, such as those the system. Acoustics
caused by footsteps. Now take your springs home and Home music systems
We tried all the usual remedies to fasten them to a plywood platform Recording
stop the bouncing of our changer, on which the changer will rest, as PA systems
including foam -rubber and horsehair shown in the photo. Level the turn- Record Reviews
pads, but none of them worked. The table by adjusting the position of (Please print)
solution was to suspend the changer the changer on the platform.
inside the cabinet with four soft Name
This technique will work for any
Address
springs, as shown in the photograph. record changer which is mounted
The ones we used measure 5 inches inside a cabinet, whether the cabi- D New D Renewal
long and 7/ 6 -inch diameter un- net opens on top or in front. For
loaded, and stretch about 2 inches changers sitting out in the open, use Name
under load. your imagination to find a suitable Address
To select your springs, put your frame to support the springs. In
record changer, along with three or either rase, the results are well worth D New D Renewal
four records and whatever mount- the effort. Æ Name
Address

D New D Renewal

Name
Address

New Renewal

Name
Address

New Renewal

Name
Address

New Renewal
U. S., Possessions, and Canada only

AUDIO MAGAZINE
134 N. Thirteenth St.
Philadelphia, Pa. 19107

AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969


49
www.americanradiohistory.com
Electronic Suspension makes LWE the most
technically advanced speaker in history
of sound reproduction.

What is Electronic Suspension? LWE Electronic Suspension speakers can How does Electronic Suspension work?
LWE researchers have taken the be used with any good amplifier (min. LWE speakers utilize an electronic net-
principle of inverse (negative) feedback- 20 dB of feedback). work to generate their own error voltages
used so effectively in amplifiers-and when the speaker does not follow the
adapted it to use in LWE speakers. amplifier out -put. Inverse feedback is
This revolutionary breakthrough in utilized to control the speaker cone elec-
technology has been recognized by is- tronically at all times, rather than allow-
suance of U.S. Patent No. 3,449,518, ing a resonant mechanical or acoustic
dated June 10, 1969. mass -spring system to discolor response
at low frequencies. Such "discoloration"
occurs in most conventional designs such
as folded horn, acoustic suspension, tuned
port, drone cone, and bass reflex speakers.

The a')ove circuit illustration shows how


feedback voltage is derived when the
LWE is connected to amplifier. A voltage
is developed and fed back to the same
point in the amplifier that the negative
voltage feedback enters.

How does Electronic Suspension improve speaker reproduction?

Provides the best transient response ever Delivers infinitely better musical instrument
achieved in a Hi-Fi speaker. definition and clarity.
Eliminates speaker resonance and its bad effects Reduces distortion almost completely . . .

(resonant peaks, boomy bass and muffled especially at high volume levels.
percussion). Increases speaker efficiency 5-10% over
Extends low frequency response, ranging from passive means of speaker equalization
20-20,000 Hz* in the LWE II to 29-15,000 Allows freedom in speaker placement due to
Hz* in the LWE VI. compact size (fits on floor or shelf-horizontal
Makes possible Room Gain Control to compen- or vertical positioning).
sate for room acoustics and size. Adapts to any good quality amplifier or receiver,
solid state or vacuum tube. (min. 20dB)

*Flat response range.

50 AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969

www.americanradiohistory.com
There are
only two food things
about an LWE
"Instant Kit" . .

sound and price.


You might call it our starving artists model. For
people who appreciate the art of music, but feel they
can't afford the full price of a wood -finished LWE
speaker. Here's how it works. Instead of buying
LWE in a hand-crafted, oil walnut cabinet with grille,
you buy LWE in an
unfinished, 3/4 -in. plywood
and novaply housing
without grille. You
get the same unsurpassed
sound reproduction of LWE
with Electronic Suspension.
But you get it at a savings
up to 30%. Sound good?
You bet! And with a little
creative painting or
staining or veneering on
your part,you could
turn our ugly duckling into
your own thing. Ask
your dealer about
LWE's money-
saving "INSTANT
KITS." It's simply '"
a great buy.
Kit sizes:
LWE land III, 17"x25"x12"
LWE II, 231/2"x331"x16"
LWE VI, 10" x 20" x 81/2".

LW E
The Sound of Excellence
ACOUSTRON CORPORATION / 2418 Bartlett Street Houston, Texas 77006 / Phone: (713) 524-7407

AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969 Check No. 51 on Readers Service Card


51
www.americanradiohistory.com
PASSIti'E CROSSOVER
NETWORKS FOR
BT-Al2PLIFIER SYSTEMS
Attributes of passive speaker crossover networks vs. electronic crossovers

BLAINE B. KUIST

FLECTRONIC CROSSOVERS are get- Fortunately, I talked to a profes- Again with simplicity in mind, I
ting the spot-light in a re- sional audio engineer about my in- focused on parallel high- and low-
surgence of interest in bi- and terests. His reaction was, "Why not pass L -C filters involving the famil-
tri -amplification (high, interme- use high- and low-pass filters?" iar networks of conventional speaker
diate, and low frequencies split The key idea was to feed the fil- crossovers except being designed for
ahead of the power amplifiers) . ters from the pre -amplifier, match- 600 ohms instead of the usual 4-, 8-,
A lot of hi-fi buffs might be inter- ing the 600 -ohm output impedance or 16-ohm speaker voice-voil cir-
ested in an alternative that is simp- of the pre -amplifier with a 600 -ohm cuits.
ler to build (2 hours), not too costly input impedance of the filter. The
600 -ohm output impedance of the
The filter networks selected and
($50 for two channels with one built are described as follows:
crossover point), high in reliability filter was also matched and termi-
Parallel, m -derived
with few components and top per- nated by a 600-ohm resistor (in m = 0.6 for constant impedance over
formance. parallel with the 100-k ohm input 85 per cent of transmission band
The alternative is the old work- impedance of the power amplifier). Impedance in and out: 600 Ohms
horse-passive L -C filter networks. Thus the filter was matched at the Crossover frequency: 500 Hz
An article about Electronic Cross- input and output with 600-ohm con- Attenuation at crossover: 3 dB
oversl, intrigued me with the poten- stant impedances. Slope of attenuation: 12 dB/octave
tial of improved sound with bi -am-
plification. My hi-fi fever set in last Settling on Filters The component values are de-
spring after looking for a starter This sounded simple enough- rived from these formulas:
outfit with my teenage son. Casual until I tried to find the filters. A R.
L1 = (1 + m) Henry
looking and listening led to growing
interest.
search of electronic catalogs, stores,
and magazines indicated filters were
2 ffc

I wondered why a treble speaker readily available with 18 dB/octave L2 = R°


27rf c
Henry
like the Altec-Lansing 802-D driver cutoff slope of the constant-k type
and 511-B horn couldn't be teamed but would have to be special -ordered 1 Farad
with a good 15 -in. speaker, thus for the 12-dB slope which was de-
C2
1 -m 27rfeRo
covering the whole audio range with sired. Perhaps these are available C3 - fcRo Farad
just one crossover. By now I had from some professional audio equip-
eagerly waded through some of the ment suppliers but my hurried Where R. = filter characteristic
good handbooks for hi-fi hobbyists, searches failed to turn them up. impedance
such as "Speaker Enclosures," by So it was back to the "do-it-your- f = crossover frequency
A. Badmaieff & Don Davis,2 and self" method which didn't disap-
"Hi-Fi Projects for Hobbyists, by point me, really. AUDIO'S articles on In rounding up material to build
Leonard Feldman .3 "Professional Audio Controls"4 had the filters, we found the capacitors
From current literature from had a ref rence to Howard Tre- were readily available but the in-
manufacturers like Sony, Bozak, maine's comprehensive handbook on ductances were another matter.
C/M Labs, and Pioneer, a tailored Passive Audio Network Design.5 With values of 191 and 305 mH
design (for a selected crossover fre- This had the practicalities of filter needed, air-core coils were out of the
quency and cutoff slope) of an elec- design and construction spelled out. question because of large size and
tronic crossover appeared to be a hence large resistance. Little usable
tough project for a beginner to 3 Alexis Badmaieff and Don Davis, Speaker information seems to be available
Enclosures," Sams, lat Ed., 3rd ptg., 1967.
tackle. 4 Leonard Feldman, "Hi-Fi Projects for for constructing iron -core inductors
Hobbyists," Sams, 1st Ed., 3rd ptg., Nov. 1966. so it was back to the catalogs. Coils
5 A. C. Davis & Don Davis, "Professional
1 C. G. McProud, "How to Build a 3 -Channel Audio Controls," AUDIO, Feb., Mar., May, 1967. with desired characteristics were
Electronic Crossover, AUDIO, February 1968, p. 6 Howard M. Tremaine, "Passive Audio Net-
19. work Design, Sams, 1st ptg., Feb. 1969. rarely listed and hard to find.

AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969


52
www.americanradiohistory.com
Unfair to competition!
Introducing Sony/Superscope's new Auzo-Reverse Model 780.
Here is the most sophisticated tape deck ever built, with
every capability, every performance as:ect, the most serious
music -lover and hobbyist could possibly want. No other tape
recorder on the market even comes close to the 780.

ESP Auto -Reverse with Tape/Source 6 -Head Function with Sony Exclusive
Monitoring in Both Directions. The Roto -Bilateral Head Assembly. This
unique Sony/Superscope 780 records, unique three -head assembly is actu-
plays back, and permits tape/source ally equivalent to 6 separate heads and
monitoring in both directions. Reverse provides complete recording features
mode switch selects one-time or con- of tape/source monitoring, sound -on -
tinuous reverse. Unique design per- sound, and echo in both directions of
mits recording and tape/source tape travel.
monitoring in both directions.

Closed -Loop, Three -Head Tape -Drive


System. Two interlocked capstans pro-
vide perfect tape tension and tape -to -
head contact in both directions. The
three -speed Servo -Controlled drive
motor maintains precise tape speed
regardless of variations in AC power.

Tape -Equalization
Selector Switch.
Get the most out
of your tapes by Electronic Sensory Search, Another
selecting proper
record -equalization
Sony exclusive -
put on your favorite
prerecorded tape and press the ESS
curve and bias volt- button. The Model TC -780 switches to
age matched exactly fast -forward, precisely locates the
to either standard or beginning of the recorded material,
low-noise tapes. stops, and shifts to playback mode. All
automatically. No long leader -tape
delay.

Separate Headphone Controls. Full


monitoring flexibility is assured with a
three -position volume control and sep-
arate mode selector switch for left
channel only, right channel only, or
stereo.

Mic/Line Mixing. Four separate profes-


i
sional -type slide controls regulate the
Built -In Logic Circuit Regulates Relay - recording levels for both microphone
Operated Solenoid Controls. Tap the and line inputs.
feather -touch solenoid pushbuttons for
play, fast -forward, and rewind, in any
order, without going into stop mode. Sony/ Superscope Model 780. $695, with walnut
Sony/Superscope's logic circuit "com- base and vinyl dust cover. If you prefer a custom -
puter" ends breakage or spillage of console installation, the transport and electronics
tape under any conditions. Plug in the sections of this unit can be separated and individ-
optional Model RM -11 full -function ually mounted. For your free copy of our latest
remote -control for push-button opera- color catalog, please write Mr.Phillips,Sony/Super-
tion without leaving your easy chair. scope,8142 Vineland Ave., Sun Valley, Calif. 91352.
SONY, SUPER. COPE +. w.-., ti
®1969, SUPERSCOPE, INC.
You never heard it so good.
AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969 Check No. 53 or Readers Service Card
53
www.americanradiohistory.com
These high "Q" toroids with induct- there was no audible difference in
ances of 200 and 300 mH ± 1 per performance.
cent, the numbers closest to those
Filters Assembled
desired without a special order. This
compromise on inductance from the With the coils in hand, the re-
desired 191 and 305 mH was not maining parts were reaily available
significant. and the assembly went fast. All the
A description of the coils used
parts were mounted on a plastic
follows: board fastened to the cover of a 4"
x 5" x 3" steel box. Steel was used

mH d.c. mA Resistance

Fig.1-The passive networks are assembled


HVC-4 Variductors 30-300 30 8.6 ohms
Filter A HVC-5 Variductors
in metal boxes, and connected ahead of 70-700 20 22
the power amplifiers-one for the highs, MQA-8 Hi-Q Toroids 200 50 16
and one for the lows. Filter B MQA-9 Hi -Q Toroids 300 40 25

However, the United Transformer Typical "Q" curves for the metal - for shielding although this was
Company catalogs listed coils that core coils rise to a peak then fall off found later to be unessential.
covered the audio -frequency range after the saturation point of metal
with Q's of the order of 10 to 30 at cores is reached. The peak Q (about The assembled filters are shown
the 500 -Hz crossover point. 160) for the MQA coils occurs at in the Fig. 1 with the back of the
For the first pair of coils, the about 5 kHz. At the crossover of cover and the board exposed to
HVC Variductors were tried be- 500 Hz the Q is about 40. At 20 kHz, show wiring and components for one
cause they were adjustable and Q is about 25 and at 20 Hz it is in low- and high-pass filter combina-
available at a nearby electronic the range of only 1 to 2. tion.
store. The coils were finally set rea- The HVC coils being adjustable, Response vs. frequency curves
sonably close to the desired values the peak Q falls somewhere in the were run with an audio generator
but they were sensitive to set, al- lower half of the audio range de- and a VTVM with the results shown
though once set, they held their set- pending on the setting. At 500 Hz in Fig. 3. The 520 -Hz crossover point
tings and worked well. the Q is in the range from 5-15. was close enough to the 500 -Hz goal.
For the second pair of coils, the Although the MQA coil had in The crossover point was down
MQA fixed inductances were chosen. general the higher Q characteristics, 3.5 dB from the bass plateau and

Fig. 2-Schematic of the passive filter networks used with the bi- Fig. 3-Frequency-response curves for the author's passive
amplification system described by the author. Two networks are networks.
required for stereo.

L, 305 mH
.,..,,., -5 CROSSOVER ....FILTERS WITH
MQA COILS
520 Hz
FROM PREAMP INPUT Z a ó -FILTERS WITH
OUTPUT Z = 60052 600s2 0.53 -10
HVC COILS

-15

-20
C2, 0.33

Lz
191 m

20 100 1K 10K

FREQUENCY in Hz

54 AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969

www.americanradiohistory.com
Indoors
and out, uffleifflosfuempulam

Bozak quality
is always
the same.
Whether it be at the great summer music
festivals or in your living room, Bozak speakers
are your assurance of the ultimate in tonal
quality and the faithful re-creation of all
types of music.
From the new Tempo Ito the incomparable
Concert Grand,- all are designed in
accordance with the basic laws of physics
without resorting to gimmickry or magical
"breakthroughs" in the science of acoustics.
Each uses the same Bozak designs, differing only
in the number of speakers employed. Each is
truly a fine musical instrument for the home.
Write today for a free catalog on the entire
Bozak line ... exquisite furniture styles, speaker
components, speaker systems ... the
prerequisites for your own
private music festival.

P.O. Box 1166 Darien, Connecticut 06820

Overseas Export: Elpa Marketing Industries, Inc.


New Hyde Park, New York 11040 U.S.A.

AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969 Check No. 55 on Readers Service Card


55
www.americanradiohistory.com
TABLE I

COMPARISON OF CROSSOVER ALTERNATIVES


PASSIVE ELECTRONIC CONVENTIONAL
Ahead of Amplifiers Ahead of Amplifiers After Amplifiers

speaker:
Bass Permitsperformance to full same as passive Reduces woofer response by resistance and
damping and transient damping ability of amps. reactive impedance between ampl. and
response speakers.

Amplifier IM distortion minimized by same as passive IM distortion due to hi and low going
performance high and low freqencies go- thrrough same amplifier. Dynamic range
ing through separate ampli- limited because power peaks for hi and
fiers. Greater dynamic range low are additive.
due to separate amplifiers.

Speaker Minimized same as passive Distortion added. Crossover frequency


distortion None due to crossover fre- and phasing of hi and lows shift with ac-
quency shifting. tuai impedance of speaker causing un-
wanted frequencies going into wrong
spakers and dulling of stereo image.

Crossover network <0.1°/o THD <0.1°/o THD Can be <0.1°/o THD with top quality
distortion Coml. units 0.1 to 0.5°/o components.

Reliability Good-few components. Has several fold more com- Good-few components.
ponents with more chance for
problems.

Costs Crossover: parts $50 for 2 Crossover: parts $50 for 2, Crossover: lowest cost
Ampl: Requires amplifier for ready -built $100-$200 for 2. Ampl: only 1 stereo required.

each speaker. Ampl: Requires amplifier for


each speaker.

Time to build by 2 hrs. for 2 20-40 hours. for 2 2 hrs. if coils ready built; add time if coils
amateur to be wound.

Insertion loss (-) - 3.5 dB 0 to +3 dB typical Depends on quality (hi Q) of particular


or gain (+) Some types, -6 dB coils used. -0.1 to -2
dB typical.

4.0 from the treble, vs. the goal of fed into the Altec-Lansing treble overs vs. conventional crossovers
3.0. Theoretically, the total sound horns mentioned earlier and Klip- after the amplifiers.
pressure level should then suffer a schhorn bass corner horns. The This article presents another
bit of a drop in the crossover region. defenders of the conventional cross- alternative, the passive filter net-
Practically, this slight dip could not over have pointed out that the elec- works ahead of the amplifiers. Com-
be measured in the total output from tronic crossover (or filter) ahead of paring filters with electronic
the speakers (audio generator input the amplifiers adds little or nothing crossovers, it appears that there is a
and microphone pickup) and cer- to the damping of the bass speaker lot to be said for the filters, especi-
tainly could not be detected by ear. which is horn loaded like the ally for the audiophile who wants to
The insertion loss was 3.6 to 3.2 dB Klipsch. Theoretically, this might build the device himself with mini-
(20 Hz and 20 kHz respectively) . be right. I have not had the oppor- mum time and cost. Advantages and
As the text books state, distortion tunity yet to check this by A -B tests disadvantages of the three alterna-
for the passive filter network should of conventional crossovers vs. filters tives are listed in Table I.
be practically nil. This was checked with the horn -loaded speakers. The debates continue on whether
through the courtesy of a manufac- Probably the differences are less the sound is significantly better
.

turer's amplifier clinic and proved prominent than with direct -radiat- (and worth the cost) with the cross-
to be so. The filters were used be- ing speakers. All I can say at this over ahead of the amplifiers. To any-
tween a Dynakit PAT-4 preampli- point is that the sound from the one who has listened to an A -B test
fier and two Dynakit 120 amplifiers. horns with the filters ahead of the with direct radiating speakers, there
The THD was measured at 2 volts amplifiers is superb. is no doubt about the result being
output, which would fully load the If you have been following the in- audibly better with crossovers ahead
amplifiers when feeding 16-ohm teresting articles and letters to the of the amplifiers. And for the audio
speakers. No difference could be editor in Aunio Magazine for the buff who is determined to get the
read in the THD with and without last year and a half on this subject, best in sound, an easy, economical,
the filters in the output. you are pretty well posted on the and reliable way to it is with the
In my setup, the amplifiers were pros and cons of electronic cross- passive filters.

56 AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969

www.americanradiohistory.com
Acoustic Research
announces its receiver.

$420 suggested retail price


walnut wood cover $20
The design of the AR receiver employs every technical means available to provide FM reception and
recorded mtfsic reproduction which we cannot improve in a way that listeners would hear. Receivers with
less capability are plentiful; those beyond it would sound the same but cost more
The preamplifier/power amplifier portion of our receiver circuit was completed first, and offered separately
two years ago as the AR amplifier. High Fidelity magazine said that the AR amplifier was "an unqualified
success, a truly excellent and unimpeachable amplifier, the more outstanding for its comparatively low
price ... The IM characteristics must be counted as the best we've ever seen." Stereo Review referred to
its power as "staggering" and thought its price was "its most remarkable feature."
The rest of the AR receiver-an FM tuner circuit- has now been completed, and combined with a slightly
improved version of our amplifier. A complete circuit description and complete performance curves are
available free upon request.

Acoustic Research Inc.


Ä P 24 Thorndike Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02141

Acoustic Research International


Radiumweg 7, Amersfoort, Holland

AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969 Check No. 57 on Readers Service Card


57
www.americanradiohistory.com
is to be found in the MPX decoder large -amplitude pulses which are used
section of the Sony STR-6120 Re- to trigger the mono -stereo mode
ABZs of ceiver and, with the kind permission switch shown at the lower left of the

Stereo of that company, we shall use ele-


ments of that design to describe the
"decoding" process in terms of an ac-
block diagram of Fig.. 1, and about
which we shall have more to say
later. The collector circuit of the next
stage (38 -kHz amplifier) is tuned

FM tual, currently marketed, design. Since


this particular receiver is in a fairly
high-priced category, its designers in-
corporated just about every feature
to 38 kHz by means of a resonant tank
circuit. The resulting sinusoidal 38 -
kHz signal is transformer coupled to
that can be found in modern stereo a bridge -type demodulator circuit,
LEONARD FELDMAN which differs from the simple, two-
FM circuitry, and it will therefore
serve well for these illustrative diode demodulator previously ana-
purposes. lyzed, as shown in Fig. 3.
A block diagram of the circuit is Referring back to the composite
A Modern Switching -Circuit shown in Fig. 1. The input signal, amplifier of Fig. 1, the signal derived
Decoder taken from the output of the ratio de- from the emitter of that stage contains
HAVING previously considered the tector and without any de -emphasis all the frequencies of the composite
way in which a so-called "Time Divi- applied, is first amplified by a com- signal-i.e. main -channel frequencies
sion" or "switching" stereo -multiplex posite amplifier stage. Outputs are from 50 Hz to 15,000 Hz, the 19 -kHz
decoder works, it would be well to taken from both the collector and the pilot signal, stereo sideband signals
examine in detail a latter-day circuit emitter of this transistor amplifier. The in the range from 23 to 53 kHz and,
embodying these principles. Starting collector is followed by a tuned cir- if SCA (Background Music Subscriber
with the basic concepts described last cuit, adjusted to resonate at 19 kHz Service) is transmitted, the frequency -
month, many manufacturers have em- (the pilot -signal frequency) which, modulated 67 -kHz subcarrier as well.
bellished their circuits to such an ex- together with a transformer tuned to The entire composite signal is first
tent it is often difficult to "pick out" the same frequency, eliminates every- passed through a 19 -kHz band-elimi-
the elements of the decoding process. thing in the composite signal but the nation filter, to remove that compo-
Usually, the refinements are present desired 19 kHz and couples this signal nent, and then through a 67-kHz filter
for two very good reasons-first, to to a 19 -kHz amplifier. The 19 -kHz to eliminate frequencies associated
improve performance specifications, signal developed at the collector of with any possible SCA transmission.
such as separation at all frequencies, this stage is transformer coupled to a The resultant composite signal is ap-
adequate residual 38- and 19 -kHz re- full -wave rectifier consisting of a pair plied to the center tap of the secon-
jection following demodulation and of diodes. This portion of the circuit dary winding of the demodulator
transformer shown in Fig. 3. By em-
Fig. 1-Block diagram of the Sony STR-6120 stereo FM decoder circuit. ploying four diodes in a balanced -
bridge arrangement, the system
cancels most of the residual 38 -kHz
products which would otherwise be
COMPOSITE
19.kHz 19 -kHz DOUBLER 38 -kHz
present in the simpler two -diode ar-
TUNED
AMPLI CIRCUIT AMPLIFIER TO 38411z AMPLIFIER
rangement. Alternate conduction of
SEPARATION
ADJ. upper and lower diodes (as alternate
HIGH
BLEND polarities of 38 kHz are applied to
each end of the secondary winding)
19-kHz SCA (67 -kHz)
FILTER FILTER results in the detection, or sampling,
BALANCED-
BRIDGE
DEMODULATOR
DE -EMPHASIS
NETWORKS
PRE-
AMPLIFIERS of the L and R signals at their respec-
R tive output lines. Note that in the
block diagram of Fig. 1 we have
labelled these outputs as L and .^'R,
the wiggly symbol being a mathe-
MODE
SWITCH AMPLIFIERS
LOWPASS
FILTERS
EMITTER
FOLLOWERS
matical term meaning "approximately"
-that is, approximately L only and
STEREO b b
approximately R only.
INDICATOR
L OUTPUTS R For many reasons, beginning way
POWER SUPPLY back in the i.f. system or at the
output of the main channel ratio -
so on, and secondly, to incorporate isshown schematically in Fig. 2. Since detector, the "mix" between main-
such convenience features as auto- the pulses produced by the pair of channel program content and
matic switching of mode (from mono- rectifiers are not filtered, two such sub -channel sidebands may have be-
phonic to stereo FM) , stereo indicator pulses are produced for each cycle of come unbalanced in both amplitude
lights, and the like. 19 kHz, as shown in the figure. and phase. Unless this "mix" is in
A straightforward and clean design It is these non -sinusoidal, but fairly precisely the correct proportions, there

58 Check No. 59 on Readers Service Card -*


www.americanradiohistory.com
Fig. 2-Full-wave rectifier followed by tuned amplifier "doubles" Fig. 3-Balanced-bridge demodulator circuit used to recover L
the 19 -kHz pilot signal to 38 kHz. and R signals.

19 kHz

510

DOUBLER

BIAS

38.kHz
AMPLIFIER
FROM
19 -kHz
AMPLIFIER

38 kHz

COMPOSITE SIGNAL

RECTIFIED PULSES

will be some R in the L line and some with poor high -frequency separation practice, however, there are not only
L in the R line. How Sony compen- than to have to listen to noisy stereo amplitude differences to be compen-
sates for this "impure" separation will with optimum separation. As with sated for, but phase differences at
be shown shortly. most such niceties, the switch in a different audio frequencies as well.
You will recall that up to this point, consumer-actuated control, so the Only careful initial design can take
no de -emphasis has been applied to listener still has the option. care of these phase -response differ-
the signal, since to have done so pre- The next stage, though labelled pre-
viously would have resulted in nearly amplifiers, really serves a more impor- Fig. 4-Symmetrical negative -feedback
total attenuation or elimination of the tant function than just straight circuit optimizes separation.
vital super -audible frequencies which amplification. A schematic of this
are a part of the composite signal portion of the circuit is shown in Fig.
prior to stereo demodulation. That 4. The resistor -potentiometer combina-
process is accomplished now, after tion connecting the emitters of the L
demodulation, and because two dis- and R channels provides a form of
tinct signals now exist, a de-emphasis negative feedback between the chan-
network is required for each. The net- nels. You will recall that up to this
works themselves consist of nothing point, there may be some residual L
more than the usual R -C network to in the R channel and some R in the
"roll off" the high frequencies in a L channel. For purposes of illustra-
prescribed manner (75 -microsecond tion, let us assume that the L channel
time constant, just as in monophonic contains 0.9 L and 0.1 unwanted R,
FM). and that the converse is true of the
At this point in the circuit, Sony R channel. Now, if the amount of
introduces a HIGH BLEND switch negative feedback is such that -0.1
which, by means of a small capacitor (0.9R + 0.1L) is introduced into the
connected between the L and R cir- (0.9L + O.1R) channel (10 per cent
cuits, permits the mixing together of feedback), the resultant signal coming
the higher audio frequencies. Since out of the "L" line will be (0.9L -
this, in effect, ruins separation at these 0.01L + 0.1R - .09R), or, (0.89L +
high frequencies, you might wonder 0.01R). Although we have reduced
why such a "partial stereo defeat the amplitude of the desired L signal
switch" would be introduced. It can from 0.9 to 0.89, we have simultane-
be shown that the high -frequency ously reduced the undesired R content
noise associated with stereo FM, in from 0.1 (10 per cent) to .01 (1 per
the presence of a weak signal, appears cent. In "dB" terms, this represents
in opposite phase in the L and R an improvement from 20 dB of separa-
channels. Thus, the switch is only tion to 40 dB. It should be obvious
intended to be used for such poor- that while all this improvement is tak-
reception situations. When the switch ing place in the "L" channel, the same
is shorted, some of the high -frequency feedback correction is symmetrically
noise of one channel cancels that in taking place in the "R" channel. In
the opposite channel, albeit at the ex- theory, at least, proper adjustment of ences between channels and between
pense of high -frequency stereo sepa- potentiometer in Fig. 4 should result main- and sub -channel components,
ration. The philosophy here is that it in complete elimination of unwanted so that a separation figure of 40 dB
is better to enjoy noise-free stereo L in R and unwanted R in L. In (Continued on page 91)

AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969


61
www.americanradiohistory.com
opened the back of the enclosure. On
the inside of the back, we found a
transformer hooked up to the input
This Month:
terminals and to the speaker elements
Jensen Model S-100 Stereo Speaker
System
below. A detail photo of this "matrix-
Concord Model "Mark III" Stereo Tape ing" transformer is shown in Fig. 4.
Equipment Deck
Kenwood "Supreme I" Multi -Channel
Inside the enclosure, about half way
down the "depth" dimension of the

Profiles Stereo Amplifier


H. H. Scott Model Q-100 Speaker Sys-
enclosure, we saw a single, 8 -inch
loudspeaker with its hind end facing
tem us, as can be seen in the photo of Fig.
2. We removed this baffle, turned it
over, and saw what is depicted in Fig.
3, photographically, as well as the line
diagram of Fig. 5, which we shall now
Jensen Model S-100 "Stereo 1R" speaker systems is the modestly priced use to explain how single -box stereo is
Stereo Speaker System (when one considers that only one not only possible, but in some ways
unit is required) Model S-100. Smartly actually gives a more total "surround"
styled and constructed in the "book- illusion than the more conventional
shelf" -enclosure tradition, the system two -speaker arrays.
looks quite conventional from the out-
side, as shown in Fig. 1. Acoustic Matrixing
The first clue to its uniqueness is,
perhaps, the wrap -around grill-cloth As mentioned, the larger 8 -in.
treatment, which covers about half the speaker element affixed to the main
side surfaces as well as the front radi- baffle is a front radiator. A "median
ating surface of the enclosure. This plane baffle," mounted perpendicular
Fig. 1
suggests loudspeakers oriented to pro- to the 8 -in. unit and directly across its
MANUFACTURER'S SPECIFICATIONS: duce "side firing." Our first skeptical diameter, houses two 5 -in. wide -range
Input Impedance/channel: 8 ohms. Power conclusion was that Jensen had merely speakers facing in opposite directions.
Rating/channel: 35 watts program mate- Electrical connection to these two
reverted to the old technique of "mixed
rial. Frequency Range: 30-20,000 Hz. Fin- speakers is made in series, but the two
lows" directed forward, with middles
ish: Walnut Veneer. Dimensions: 13" H x speakers themselves are connected out -
213/4" W x 11 9/16" D. Weight: 261/2 lbs.
and highs of Left and Right radiated
sidewards by means of two lesser of -phase. Furthermore, thanks to the
Price: $124.95.
speaker elements mounted on the left transformer matrix network, the signal
A scientifically legitimate "one - and right inside walls of the enclosure. fed to this array is actually a difference
speaker system" stereo reproducer has This "compromise" solution has been signal, or (L-R), whereas the signal
been sought for many years. Small- used by console manufacturers for fed to the forward radiating 8 -in.
apartment dwellers, and other decor- years and about all that can be said for element is a sum signal, or (L+R).
conscious high fidelity enthusiasts had it is that you sense some stereo effect There are, therefore, three acoustic
long hoped for it, while self-sacrificing if you put your nose about six inches output signals present, as follows:
wives of audio buffs fairly begged for from the surface of the console face. (L+R) from the 8 -in. unit radiating
it. Happily, the system introduced by in a forward direction.
The Jensen Manufacturing Div. of Jensen is much more sophisticated (L-R) from the "median plane ar-
the Muter Company, amidst a flurry than that-and, more importantly, IT ray" aimed to the left.
of publicity, introduced its answer to WORKS! Although we read a full de- - (L- R) from the "median plane
this quest recently. Dubbed "Stereo scription of the theory behind this array" aimed to the right.
In", the first of what will probably be acoustic "break -through," we had to If you are at all familiar with stereo
a series of "one-enclosure" stereo examine it for ourselves, and so we FM transmission, you will realize that

Fig. 3-The inner structure reveals posi-


Fig.4-Shown here is the matrixing trans-
Fig. 2-With the back of the new Jensen
former located on the inside of the en-
S-100 "Stereo 1'
removed, only about tioning of two side -firing 5 -in. wide -range
closure's back.
1/2 the total cubic volume acts as an speakers, as well as the 8 -in. (L+R)
acoustic enclosure for the 8 -in. speaker speaker.
element.

Check No. 63 on Readers Service Card -*


62
AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969

www.americanradiohistory.com
A-15000 Exclusive triple -motored drive system 4 precision heeds for instant off -the -tape monitoriirg Mike -line mixing 4 independent
amplifiers Automatic tape lifter All -pushbutton controls, automatic shutoff Steren echo for special sound effects Choice of cabinet or portable styling

Play it by ear.
You'll like what you hear.
And you can go right on hearing it, too. Because cur A-15000
tape deck comes complete with carefree automatic reverse. in other
words, this machine doesn't care whether it's coming or going.
It's a standard four -track model wth all the quality
TEAC is famous for. And plenty of unique features,
like the popular ADD recording for simultaneous
playback and recording on separate tracks.
Yes, you'll like what you
hear on this one. Including
the price. (That part
sounds almost as good
as your favorite tapes.)

TEAC
TEAC Corporation of America 2000 Colorado Avenue Santa Monica, California 9040.1
Fig. 1-The Mark Ill head cover is hinged to provide access to
pad/flutter
the heads for cleaning and editing. Note the cleaning
filter at the left of the assembly.

Basically the circuitry is fairly con- pedance whenever there is any signal
Concord Model "Mark Ill" present, and thus effectively discon-
Three -Head, Four-Track ventional. The microphone input jack
in each channel feeds the base of the nect a 1-µF capacitor from shunting
Stereo Tape Deck the output. In the absence of sig-
first transistor in the record circuit,
with the auxiliary inputs feeding the nal, the diodes are biased positively
MANUFACTURER'S SPECIFICATIONS:
same points through the open -circuit- and the capacitor shunts the output
Speeds: 71/2, 33/4, 17/8 ips; Motor: Hyster-
ing microphone inr ut jack and a re- circuits, reducing the tape hiss appreci-
esis synchronous; Speed accuracy: 99.7%
with line -voltage variation from 100 to sistor to make up for the additional ably. This circuit employs eight diodes
128 V; Frequency Response: 71/2 ips, 20- sensitivity of the rnic inputs. A slight and two transistors, but is relatively
23,000 Hz; 33/4 ips, 20-14,000 Hz; Wow amount of bass boost is provided by simple, and effective enough to reduce
and flutter: 71/2 ips, under .09%; 33/4 ips, hiss by about 4 dB, which is sufficient
under 0.12%; Signal -to -Noise Ratio: 52
feedback around the first pair of tran-
sistors, while the high -frequency boost to be an improvement to the ear.
dB; Bias frequency: 200 kHz; Reel Capac-
ity: 7 in.; Dimensions: 181/2" wide, 13" is provided by bypassing the output The physical appearance of the re-
high, 65/8" (over knobs and head cover). emitter with a resonant circuit which corder is fairly conventional in that
Weight: 253/4 lbs. Price: Under $260.00. is switched to provide compensation there are two reel hubs, the head as-
for the three speeds. sembly, the capstan and idler, and the
Replete with practically everything
In the playback circuit, which oper- control knob, which is of the bar type.
the recordist could want in a tape ma-
ates even during recording to provide It has five operating positions: to the
chine, (except power amplifiers and
for tape monitoring, the playback left of the STOP position is the REWIND
speakers) the new Concord Mark III
head feeds the integrated circuit function, and to the right are the
offers three speeds, low wow/flutter,
directly, with playback equalization PLAY/RECORD position, the cuE func-
sound -on -sound facility, echo facility,
being provided by feedback to one tion, and FAST FORWARD. The record
tape or source monitoring, and buttons are actually two levers at the
dynamic muting. This is the first ma- base of a differential amplifier in the
IC. The turnover point is switched for lower left corner of the panel, with the
chine we have examined which incor-
the three speeds. The IC is followed digital counter directly above them.
porates an integrated circuit in the
by one transistor which feeds the line One desirable device is the guide
electronic lineup, which serves mainly
outputs, and the headphone monitor- roller and tape -tension arm at the left
to reduce the total number of transis-
ing circuit requires another transistor of the head cover. The roller tends to
tors as separate elements. Even so,
which drives a transformer to furnish smooth out the tape tension as the
there are 13 discrete transistors, the
the low impedance for the usual stereo tape is drawn from the supply reel,
two integrated circuits,. and 15 diodes
headphones, while the record -level and is aided by the tape -tension arm.
in the circuit, not to mention the four
meter is driven from the emitter of the A similar tension arm is located at the
additional diodes in each of the inte-
transistor directly through a calibrat- right of the capstan, so that the effect
grated circuits, as well as five tran-
ing resistor and a diode. The meter in- of warped reels is minimized, and _
sistors.
Each of the record circuits requires dicates record level when the monitor even sticky tape does not affect the
four transistors, while each playback switch is in the SOURCE position, tape motion.
although it also indicates the output At the right of the panel is the
circuit employs two plus the integrated
circuit. The metering circuits require from the playback head either during amplifier control section, which is
playback or while recording if the mounted directly on the panel. At the
one diode for each channel, and four
are used in the power supply. The re- monitor switch is in the TAPE position. top are three switches: one turns on
mainder of the diodes are in the The "dynamic range expander" cir- or off the dynamic muting circuit, and
dynamic-range -expansion circuit, as cuit takes its input from the line-output the other two select tape or source
are two additional transistors; the final jacks, amplifies it, and applies it to a monitoring on the two channels indi-
transistor is used as a voltage regulator. pair of diodes which offer a high im- vidually. Below these switches is the

66 AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969


If you can find an
AM/FM stereo receiver
with these specifications
and features for 99995

D'Arsonval movement
tuning meter shows when
you have tuned to strongest
and clearest signal on
AM and FM.
Illuminated call outs Stereo in two rooms,
indicate function that is separately or at once.
operating. Simple front panel switch-
ing eliminates the complex-
Tape Monitor Switch for ity and expense of ex-
The Nocturne 330 instant comparison of
recorded material and
ternal switching devices.
Power Output: 90 watts, ± 1 db. original program. Separate power ON/OFF
70 watts, IHF, @ 4 ohms. switch permits you to turn
Frequency Response: ± 11/2 db 7-50KHZ @ 1 watt. Headphone receptacle receiver on and off without
Hua and Noise: 90 db. permits personal listening. upsetting other controls.
Square Wave Rise Time: 3.5 microseconds.
Stability: Absolutely stable with all Extended frequency Contour for low -volume
response beyond the normal listening. Contour can be
types of speakers hearing range gives extra
Usable FM Sensitivity: Better than 2.7 Microvolts, IHF. switched in or out, at your
realism to the sounds you discretion.
Total Harmonic IDistcrtion: 0.5% can hear. Nocturne sound is
Spurious Response Rejection: 75 db. cleaner, more transparent, harman kardon
Image Rejection: Better than 45 db more sharply defined.
A wbsid!ary el Jervis Corporation

buy it!
AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969 Check No. 67 on Readers Service Card 67

www.americanradiohistory.com
left -channel record -level control, and as the record/playback responses for
under it is the dual VU meter, with all three speeds. Bias frequency meas-
illuminated indicators to show when ured 190 kHz, which is certainly high
the machine is recording. Next is the enough to avoid the fifth harmonic of
AUX IN
right-channel record-level control,, and the highest frequency likely to be re-
below it is the power switch-a push- corded. This has long been the stan-
push button-and the headphone jack. dard criterion, although we have meas-
(( }] LINE OUT ured a number of machines in the past
At the lower right of the recorder
panel are the two microphone jacks. A year which have been over 100 kHz,
knob at the top of the panel operates so there seems to be a trend in the
the speed -change function-mechani- direction of higher and higher bias
cally for the tape transport, and elec- frequencies.
trically to change equalization. Wow and flutter measured .075% at
The head cover is hinged to provide 71/2 ips, 0.18 at 3%, and 0.24 at 17/g,

MIN MAX MIN easy access to the heads for cleaning all of which are excellent. THD meas-
S -O -S ECHO and editing, as is shown in Fig. 1. The ured 1.5% at "0" recording level, while
MIXING
LEVEL tape path is first past a tape cleaner- the 3% point was found to be at a +6
a cylinder of felt over which the tape level. S/N measured 46.5 dB below
passes, and which also serves as a flut- the 3% distortion level, but this in-
ter filter. It is encased in a metal hous- creased to 50.5 with the dynamic range
ing which exposes only a portion of expansion circuit activated. A micro-
the cylinder, allowing it to be turned phone input of 0.8 mV was sufficient
to a fresh position when it gets soiled. for a "0" recording level, and an auxil-
Fig. 2-Input and output connections are
made in the recessed panel on the right Next the tape passes an automatic iary input of 0.168 V provided the
side of the case, and additional switches shutoff lever, then the three heads, same level. The measured output level
and controls for sound -on -sound and and out to the capstan. During play or was 0.68 V for the "0" recorded level
echo are on the same panel. record, hinged covers are raised in signal. Microphone input impedance is
front of the heads to provide shielding relatively high, measuring better than
and to carry the pressure pads. A pilot 10,000 ohms, while the auxiliary input
Fig. 3-Frequency-response curves: The light at the top of the head cover indi- is 100 k ohms. Channel separation was
two upper curves are response from stand- cates when power is on. a good 35 dB at 1 kHz, which was also
ard tapes, while the three lover curves show measured from track to track between
At the right side of the case is a
record/playback responses at all three adjacent recordings-also good.
speeds.
cutout exposing a panel, Fig. 2, which
+5 STANDARD PLAYBACK. TEST TAPES
accommodates the auxiliary input
Tips
jacks, the line output jacks, and the Operation
05dBl
-5 SOUND -ON-SOUND and ECHO switches,
gips The Mark III is easy to operate,
x -10 3
as well as the level controls for these
easy to thread, and easy to listen to.
RECORD/PLAYBACK RESPONSE functions. The power cord also enters
zW
+5
The dynamic muting circuit helps the
/
C.)

j 7 ips at this panel.


tSd6 g"
tape-hiss problem appreciably. It is
CY -5
10
\15
334 ips

11
Performance
surprising what only 4 dB can do, par-
ticularly when the hiss is already fairly
ips
Figure 3 shows the frequency - low. The echo function works as would
20 100 1K 10K 20K
response of the Mark III on a standard be expected, although this type of ac-
RESPONSE (dB) test tape for 71/2 and 3% ips, as well tion always gives a slight repetitive

4-Appearance of the mechanism with the panel removed. Fig. 5-View of rear of the recorder showing motor and printed
Fig.
circuit boards. The speed -change switch is shown at the top.
Note the accessibility for servicing from this side.

68 AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969

www.americanradiohistory.com
BOSE
on the reproduction of
BASS
If you have heard the BOSE 901 Direct/ReflectingTM speaker for music reproduction. Contrary to convention, the
system, or if you have read the unprecedented series
fundamental resonance of the 901 is designed upward
of rave reviews, you already know that the 901 is the
lcngest step forward in speaker design in perhaps two to about 200 Hz. The reasons for this departure are:
decades. Since the superiority of the 901 (covered by 1) Below 200 Hz, phase irregularities are much more
patent rights issued and pending) derives from an audible than above 200 Hz.
imerrelated group of advances, each depending on the 2) Any speaker exhibits strong phase irregularities
o:hers for its full potential, we hope you will be in the region of and above its fundamental resonance.
interested in a fuller explanation than is possible in 3) Below fundamental resonance, these irregularities
a si-igle issue. This discussion is one of a series on the are absent. Both amplitude and phase
technical basis of the performance of the BOSE 901. characteristics are very smooth functions of
In other issues of this frequency and are electronically equalizable.
series we have explained how a Thus the 901, by having its fundámental
multiplicity of same -size, full -range,
resonance designed at 200 Hz, allows us to make
acoustically coupled speakers
use of this region of smooth response to
"eliminates) the sound coloration
reproduce bass instruments with
caused by resonances
of speaker systems using only unprecedented accuracy of timbre.
D) Active Equalization. Since
a small number of speakers
phase and amplitude are very
and by irregularities in the
smooth below fundamental
radiated energy spectrum of
resonance, it is possible
systems. employing crossover
through active equalization to
networks.' * But how does
the Jse of 4 inch, full -range
control the amplifier signal
to maintain flat radiated
speakers allow such spectacular
power down to lower frequencies
bass performance? It has
than even the largest con-
always been assumed that large
Walnut grille
ventional speakers can produce.
woofers in large enclosures are required
modification Ask your franchised BOSE dealer
to deliver full bass response. The extra. Can be for an A -B comparison test with
answer to this question lies in the tact that bass added to any
901. the best conventional speaker
performance is purely a matter of how much
systems, regardless of their
ai you can move and how well you can control
size or price. Listen especially
i-s movement. In the 901, this depends
for the deep accurate bass of the 901
on four interrelated features.
in contrast to the artificial bass
A) The 'Array Effect', by which a group of proximate
(excessive response between 80 Hz and
sma speakers, moving in phase, acts like one large
200 Hz) which is often mistaken in
I

speaker with the area of the group. conventional speakers for good low frequency
B) The Special Design of the Drivers Used in the 901.
response, but whose thumping and droning
These are special long -excursion, high compliance
cause listener fatigue.
speakers with large magnets, which can move
large amounts of air.
C) Use of the Well -Controlled Frequency Region Below *From 'ON THE DESIGN, MEASUREMENT AND
EVALUATION OF LOUDSPEAKERS', Dr. A. G. Bose, a paper
Fundamental Resonance. In conventional speaker presented at the 1968 convention of the Audio Engineering
design the fundamental resonance is pushed as low as Society. Copies of the complete paper are available
possible and the region below this is discarded from the Bose Corp. for fifty cents.

THE
O
You can hear the difference now.

East Natick Industrial Park, Natick, Massachusetts 01760


CORP.

BOSE 901 DIRECT/REFLECTINGTM Speaker System - $476 the Stereo Pair, including Active Equalizer. Slightly higher in areas south and west. Pedestal base extra.

AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969 Check No. 69 on Readers Service Card 69

www.americanradiohistory.com
leaving the amplifier controls accessi-
sound which is easily recognizable as
the result of any tape re-entry system.. marked head -gap positions -
For editing purposes, the accurately

on top of the head assembly-are a


arrows ble to the user. This cover helps keep
dust off the tape and out of the mech-
It is most satisfactory at 71/2 ips, and
great help in locating the exact gap anism, both while playing and when
unless a special effect is desired, it
locations. The pressure -sintered ferrite not in use.
should not be employed at the two
heads are claimed to be non-magne- For an additional $70.00, the user
lower speeds. The sound -on -sound
function operates equally well on all tizeable-a problem that exists with can obtain all the facilities of the
usual laminated iron heads. In any Mark III plus automatic reverse play
three speeds with adequate control of
case, we could notice no increase in in the Mark IV. To users, who like
level and a simple selection of R to L
hiss over the many hours we used the extra -long play time, the extra cost
or L to R by means of a single slide
machine in testing and listening. would be well worth while. Either unit
switch.
The machine starts quickly, and the A handsome dust cover of transpar- would make a fine addition to a hi-fi
ent plastic of a slightly smoky hue system which lacks a tape deck.
tape -tension arms effectively eliminate
any "burble" as the tape starts to roll. covers the mechanism when desired, Cheek No. xx on Reader Service Card

Kenwood "Supreme 1"


Multi -Channel Integrated
Stereo Amplifier

Fig. 2-Internal construction makes ef-


ficient use of available space, while verti-
cally mounted p.c. boards provide easy
servicing.

MANUFACTURER'S SPECIFICATIONS: High Filter: 12 dB/octave with 6 -kHz and range" pair of amplifiers can be used
MAIN AMPLIFIER SECTION-Power Out-
9 -kHz cut-off points. Cross-over Filters: as wide -range amplifiers simply by
Low Crossover: 12 dB/octave at 400 or 800 setting the "low" crossover switch to
put (rms)/ channel: Low-Range Amplifier,
Hz. High Crossover; 12 dB/octave at 2500 "flat." This first pair of amplifiers
33 watts; Mid -Range Amplifier, 23 watts;
or 5000 Hz. boasts 33 watts per channel RMS and,
High -Range Amplifier, 15 watts. Music
Power: Low -Range Amplifier, 80 watts; GENERAL-Dimensions: 163/4" x 66/32" x with its capability to act as a wide-
Mid -Range Amplifier, 50 watts; High - 12". Weight 36.3 Lbs. Price: $695.00. range (flat -response) amplifier, could
Range Amplifier, 35 watts. All referenced actually be used as a conventional
to 0.5% THD. Frequency Response: Low - Proponents of electronic cross -over
stereo amplifier all by itself. Taking
Range Amplifier, 10-100,000 Hz, 1 ±1 dB; amplifiers should have a field -day with
it one step further, the second cross-
Mid -Range Amplifier, 100-100,000 Hz, ±1 the new Kenwood SUPREME 1. While over switch, besides providing mid -
dB; High -Range Amplifier, 1000-100,000 the idea of dividing the various fre-
Hz, ±1 dB. Signal -to -Noise Ratio: 90 dB.
high crossover frequencies of 2500
quency ranges electronically instead
IM Distortion: 0.2% at 3 dB below rated and 5000 Hz also has a FLAT po-
of by means of L -C passive filters po-
output. sition, so that owners of two-way
sitioned after amplification is not new,
speaker systems (as opposed to three-
CONTROL AMPLIFIER SECTION-Input this new unit from Kenwood incorpo-
Sensitivity: Phono 1, 2 mV; Phono 2 (low-
way) can also use these amplifiers to
rates so many flexible features that it
level setting), 0.1 mV; Tuner, 200 mV; advantage.
may, perhaps, encourage heretofore
AUX; 200 mV; Tape Head, 2 mV; MIC, 2 trepidatious audiophiles to try this ap- A front view of the SUPREME 1 does
mV; Tape Play, 200 mV. Bass Control: not in any way disclose its unique
proach to feeding woofers, mid -ranges,
±12 dB at 100 Hz. Treble Control: ±12 multi -amplifier construction. The at-
dB at 10,000 Hz (with selectable cross -over
and tweeters.
To begin with, the SUPREME 1 is the tractive silver-banded and dark olive
frequencies of 2000 and 5000 Hz). Equali-
zation: RIAA 20-20,000 Hz ±1 dB, NAB first integrated amplifier we have front panel, shown in Fig. 1, is
20-20,000 Hz -±1 dB. Signal -to -Noise tested that actually includes six power- equipped with modern, metal-turned
Ratio: Phono, 60 dB; Phono (Low), 50 dB; ful amplifiers on one chassis (three controls, push buttons, and levers, all
Tape Head, 60 dB; Tuner, 90 dB: AUX 90 for each channel) . What's more, just of which combine to denote extremely
dB. Frequency Response: 20-50,000 Hz ±1 in case you are not ready to discard flexible but uncluttered design. The
dB. the inductance -capacitance crossover six pushbuttons at the upper left select
FILTER SECTION-Low Filter: 12 dB/ networks present in your existing signal sources while the two, two -
octave with 40- and 80 -Hz cut-off points. speaker systems, the so-called "low position levers directly below are

70 Check No. 71 on Readers Service Card

www.americanradiohistory.com
all the quality of

SHERWOOD
amazing
value
break-
Ihroui!h
Sherwood, who for almost two
decades has been known the world over as pioneers
and innovators iin sound components, now offers you
its top -rated receivers at lower -than -ever prices.
Every element of construction, precise engineering,
and pacesetting design are the same. Quality control
is incomparable; nothing is changed but the value.

Sherwood ingenuity produces


top industry quality
at incomparable prices
125 -WATT FM
PM" 90 ...Al.'...% 9e Imn API..XN M6 roeyxi MODEL 8600a

249°
1.8 pV FM sensitivity Microcircuit IF and Synchro-phase limiters
2 FET's Main & remote speaker switches Mono output Variable
FM interchannel hush FM distortion-one of the industry's lowest.
(Photos shown are in optional walnut cabinets)

125 -WATT AM -FM


MODEL 7600a

'299°
SH ERNVOOIC)
ELECTRONIC LABORATORIES, INC.

INNOVATORS
1 r oo s. 00000
IN FINEST QUALITY TUNERS / AMPLIFIERS / RECEIVERS / SPEAKERS
4300 North California Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60618
WRITE DEPT. 11-A
www.americanradiohistory.com
power and tape -monitor switches. At The lower brushed aluminum band stereo amplifiers), a line fuse and a
the lower right area below the selector of the panel turns out to be a hinged DIN multiple tape recorder socket
push buttons is a five -position mode door which, when swung downward, (standard with many foreign makes of
switch which includes such long- discloses less -often -used controls, such tape recorders) complete the rear
abandoned positions as mono, reverse, as a phono input switch (for low- or panel layout.
stereo, left only (to both speakers) high -gain operation of the second In case you're wondering how six
and right only. The volume and bal- phono input), a phase reversal switch, power amplifiers and two professional
ance controls are concentrically (How long since we've seen that, even preamplifiers can be crammed into the
mounted, but use huge front and rear on expensive equipment?), six tiny small confines of this unit, Fig. 2 dis-
knurled knobs. It is obvious that these level controls for balancing low-, mid- closes that every cubic inch of inner
are intended to be (and, in fact, are) and high -frequency speakers of each chassis surface and volume is most
the most -often -used controls. Separate channel (set only once, at installation, efficiently and neatly used. Vertically
bass controls (for each channel) and or when changing speaker comple- mounted p.c. boards abound and
treble controls occupy the right area ment), and microphone input jacks highest -quality components are in
of the panel, each calibrated in dB of and tape playback jacks which elimi- evidence. Heat sinking of output cir-
boost or attenuation. Directly below nate the need for getting at the rear cuits was found to be quite adequate
the bass controls are the low -filter panel every time you want to play a and extended use of the instrument
switch (with cut-off settings at 80 and tape through this amplifier. at high power levels (even under in-
40 Hz) and a tone-defeat switch In addition to the usual imput jacks strument and continuous testing) did
which eliminates the bass control ac- and convenience outlets located on the not raise the temperature of the case
tion entirely. Similarly, below the tre- rear panel of this amplifier, there are by more than a few degrees.
ble controls, are the hi -filter switch six sets of output terminals (binding
Electrical Measurements
with cut-off selectable at 6 or 9 kHz post type). The crossover frequency
switches are also back here, since they In general, we found the Kenwood
and a treble cross -over switch en-
SUPREME 1 to be conservatively rated
abling treble action to start at either 2 will be adjusted only once. Recorder
output jacks as well as preamp output in just about every specification. For
or 5 kHz or permitting defeat of the
jacks (for those wishing to drive other example, individual power amplifier
treble control altogether.
ratings measured 35, 25 and 15 watts
Fig. 4-Tone-control action. Note vari-
for low, medium and high channels of
Fig.3-THD measured separately for the
three amplifiers associated with each able crossover action of bass control. each stereo channel before total har-
channel. Dotted curves represent 5 -kHz setting of monic distortion (THD) of 0.5% was
treble switch. Solid treble curves are at reached. Results are shown in Fig. 3.
2 -kHz setting. Tone -control action was balanced and
symmetrical, as shown in Fig. 4 and,
10
20 for our listening tastes, we preferred
HI-RANGE AMPLIFIER AT 10 kHz
CO
15 the 5 -kHz crossover for the treble con-
MID RANGEAMPLIFIER AT 1500 Hz
de"a AMPLIFIER
'17 l0 trol because it enabled us to add just
LO-RANG
AT 400 W-5 a bit of emphasis at the extreme highs
without "lifting" the middles. A plot
á 0

of the high- and low-filter responses is


W 5

lo shown in Fig. 5 and, unlike most


15 "rumble" and "scratch" filters, these
0.11
10 100
20 100 1K 10K 20K
"12 dB per octave" circuits are legiti-
OUTPUT POWER/CHANNEL (WATTS) mate and useful, enabling the user to
FREQUENCY (Hz)
eliminate "scratch" on older records
without sacrificing musical content.
Fig. 5-Filter response curves of Kenwood Fig. 6-Response curves of electronic The crossover response for each po-
"Supreme I" multi -channel amplifier. crossover system illustrating selectable sition of both the low -mid and mid -
crossover frequencies for low -mid and high crossover circuits is shown in
mid -high crossovers. Fig. 6, and is seen to conform to pub-

m
IItII111111111Is111111;1d111111Kiix,.r.,_.
11111111HIII1111311111i111®A11lil
zqx:pe:znarg--r-,.-,..-_ _.. i: .
L
400Hz
8 0Hzl
2.5kHz
5tclLH
lished specifications. As will be noted
later, however, using the six amplifiers
to drive two sets of woofers, mid-
+5
:+:
11

pp .

1u. 6 -kHz N
Lw
5
. . range and tweeters is not all that easy.
Intermodulation (IM) distortion in a
cuTJ' Z
llfiiz:, . `
15
1111II11113111111,
1111111111111111111111111b...
1l111110Wrinlesime,
zL
w
':
15

20

25
i/ i
I . 1
multi -channel amplifier has relatively
little meaning, since the two frequen-
cies used in measuring this form of
IN t0K I00K
30 distortion will actually be fed to two
NCY (Hz) 20 100 1 K 10 K different amplifiers, and resultant IM
FREQUENCY (Hz) should be negligible. Our listening
tests disclosed that this was so-for

AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969


LISTEN TO
SySTE y
VINE ... PERSONq(

BEAUTÌFUII /
MS

fjT4'/4> FpUR bRANd-NEU/


Nd 6Fq OG,,a`p( NE T HE IiEART

/fe AO
LOST N.
PNd
GES
T ON
RNyo''
TURN
?jcFcq
d roo.

1)The President 2) The Vegas 3) El Paso 4) El Dorado


For some lovely specs, plus more detailed information about this fine new group of speaker systems, see
,
your University dealer or write Heart Line, 9500 West Reno, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73126.
Check No. 73 on Readers Service Card
AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969 73

www.americanradiohistory.com
Fig. 7-Upper
trace represents
output of mid-
range amplifier; BEES E!B1
I1,
KIM
lower trace is out-
WirkM
put of bass ampli-
fier. Frequencies
applied as noted. 100 Hï Mr
1112011,0
300 Hz NM"
-wargum-
800 Hz 2 kHz

we could detect no evidence of IM totally shattering! The highs were too tronic crossover principle that we de-
and, when attempting to overload the penetrating, while the mid -range tones cided to take a set of dual-trace scope
amplifiers, THD seemed to appear seemed like we had a double "pres- photos to illustrate just what happens
long before we could detect any evi- ence control" in the circuit. Only then between the low -range and mid -range
dence of IM distortion (the reverse is did we open the hinged "trap door" amplifiers as one sweeps from low to
usually true in conventional wide - and attack the six little level controls higher frequencies. The results are
range single amplifiers). put there for just this kind of situation. shown in Fig. 7, and the captions are
For reasons which are not readily ap- self explanatory. Note, that at 800 Hz
Power-bandwidth, that much re- parent, we 'found, after about a half (the crossover point we selected), the
spected IHF specification, also has hour of careful adjustment, that the amplitudes of output in low and mid-
little significance in a multi-channel mid -range controls wanted to be at range channels are just about equal,
amplifier of this type, since the manu- about 1 o'clock, while the high -range which is as it should be.
facturer readily admits that the mid - controls settled in at about 12 o'clock
and high -range amplifiers have less -all the while the low -range controls Summing up, the Kenwood SU-
power -handling capacity than the low - were fully clockwise! Admittedly, elec- PREME 1 will enable the patient and

range sections, so no attempt was trical measurements had disclosed that discriminating user to "shape" tonal
made to derive a power response output power was balanced for all fre- response to a degree not possible with
curve for this equipment.. quency segments when these controls conventional wide -range amplifiers. It
were all set identically, but evidently has adequate power reserve, excellent
the efficiencies of the woofer, mid- control flexibility, and is most attrac-
Listening Tests range and tweeter elements used were tive in appearance and in price. If
Since using the Kenwood SUPREME nowhere near identical, and perhaps you've already selected a "sealed"
1 involved disconnecting all crossover built-in losses in the crossover net- speaker system that you don't want
networks, we could not use "sealed" works no longer present had served to to break into, this unit is obviously not
air -suspension type speaker systems. compensate for these differences be- for you. If, however, you plan to build
We therefore employed a venerable fore. After careful adjustment of these up your own speaker arrangements,
but well-respected pair of infinite - level controls, however, we must con- buying either "ready made" but ac-
baffle, three-way systems, and pro- fess that the balance was as smooth cessible multi -element speakers or
ceeded to tear out the coils and ca- over the entire frequency spectrum as purchasing your own woofer, mid-
pacitors from each one. Following anything we had ever heard. It should range, and tweeter systems, piece-
connection instructions, and using the have been-since we were really able meal less crossover networks, the
six-wire cables supplied by Kenwood to custom -tailor it to our own indi- SUPREME 1 will be a most fitting way
for each system, we turned the ampli- vidual taste-something you just can't to supply them with precisely bal-
fier on, not knowing what to expect. do with tone controls alone. anced quantities of clean -sounding,
Our immediate disappointment was We were so intrigued with the elec- distortion-free audio power.

Scott Model Q-100 "Quadrant" The result is nearly omni-directional


Speaker System sound radiating from these units, with
very pleasing results.
MANUFACTURER'S SPECIFICATIONS: The speaker system is a small, wal-
Impedance: 6-8 ohms. Dimensions: 141/4" nut, floor -standing console with dark
x 141/4" x 22" high. Weight: 37 lbs. Price:
gold and brown grille -cloth panels on
$149.95.
four sides. The panels are removable,
Scott's "Quadrant" loudspeaker sys- exposing the six speaker complement.
term offers an unconventional solution A 3 -in. cone-type tweeter is built into
to the problem of sound dispersion (or, each of the sides, near the top of the
rather, the lack of it) Ideally, it would
. enclosure, while an 8 -in. acoustic sus-
be nice for a speaker to radiate sound pension woofer is built into each of two
omnidirectionally from a point source. opposite sides near the bottom. The
What the Scott Model Q-100 does is to speakers are all connected in phase,
radiate high frequencies from all of its and the crossover network which sep-
four sides, and lows from two sides. arates the 8-inchers from the tweeters

74 AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969


An acoustically
controlled
studio environment
still threw
wicked curves at
Empire Photosound Inc.,
Minneapolis.

But Acousta-Voicing" straightened things out.


Let Paul Martinson, Em- rejection filters. What's
pire Photosound's sound 100
FREQUENCY Hz
more, the Acousta-Voicing N

department manager, tell 95 method is unique in its


it. "Because of our com- 90
ability to insure integrity
pany's overall production of transient response in
versatility, tracks recorded 85
the total system after
in our studio may be com- 80
AFTER
equalization. The results of
pleted on film, tape or disc, BE FO RE
75 Acousta-Voicing are posi-
and may be replayed under 70 tive and dramatic. Witness
a great variety of playback 40
50
60
80
100
125
160
the response curves as
200
250
3 5
400
500
630
800
100
125
160
200
250
3 5
400
500
630
800 125

conditions. recorded by a precision 1000 10,000

"A principal problem in sound level meter in


balancing tracks for these varying situations is com- Empire Photosound's studio. Those two curves might
pensating for differences in stages to be reached in later have been recorded at any of the many recording and
recording or playback systems (low and high end roll - playback studios where Acousta-Voicing has been
off, mid -range peaking, or laying down everything employed. It has also proved to be the answer for many
possible). In attempting to establish proper compensa- churches and auditoriums with "impossible" tonal bal-
tion for these differences the engineer is greatly aided ance problems. And not only is the Altec method more
by a monitor playback system that doesn't demand effective than other systems, it is generally a far less
additional compensation for itself. I know that what expensive means of achieving well-balanced sound re-
I hear is what is being recorded; this has saved me production in the smallest studio or largest hall.
time and effort way out of proportion to the cost of Only authorized Altec Lansing CE Contractors offer
installing Acousta-Voice." Acousta-Voicing. For more information about this revo-
A cousta-Voicing" is a revolutionary lutionary equalization system, and the
equalization system developed by Altec. name of your nearest Altec CE Contractor,
It is the only system using calibrated,
LANSING- write
A[TE[
Altec Lansing, 1515 So. Manchester
fully -adjustable, critical bandwidth, band Avenue, Anaheim, California 92803.
A quality company of LTV Ling Alec, /nc.
Stereo -components and ensembles for the home / Microphones, speakers, horns, amplifiers for public address systems /Acousta-Voice" equalization /Audio
controls, consoles, monitors for professional recording, broadcast and motion picture studios / Telephone transmission and termination products / Communi-
cations equipment for offices, factories, commerce, schools, hospitals, nursing homes, doctors' registry / Specialty transformers, filters, inductors, inverters.

AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969 Check No. 75 on Readers Service Card 75


www.americanradiohistory.com
For The New Decade...
The Gauss Series 1400 is for today's creative musician -
engineer. With professional demands a prime consid-
ii the Series 1400 was skillfully designed and
ZI crafted. Some studios wanted the advantages of the
Focused Gap' recording process that received international acclaim in the Series 1200 Ultra High Speed Tape
Duplication Systems. Others desired sophisticated technical developments that were not available on most
recorders. El Triple -winding Record/Sync heads, servo -controlled constant tape tension, dual capstan in-
direct drive, modular construction and many other unique design features make the Gauss Series 1400 a superb
studio instrument rather than just another studio recorder. The innovations of the Series 1400 are incor-
porated at a price necessary for a premium product capable of outstanding performance. Prices for the new
pace -setter start at $5,300. Delivery is planned for early 1970. SPECIFICATIONS: More than adequate for
the studio of tomorrow.
gauss electrophysics
a division of mca technology inc., an mca inc. company
1649-53 12th street santa monica, california 90404 u.s.a.
®telephone: 213/451-9876 cable: gauss santa monica
BEHIND THE SCENES Disc Mastering ACOUSTICAL MATCHING
(Continued from page 16)
(Continued from page 29 )
(continued from page 42 )
reason for recording with the Dolby Sys-
tem to avoid the build-up of noise. Have
you ever entertained the idea of building of acetate, or if suction is changed.
the Dolby System right into your elec- Positioning of the stylus in the
tronics? cutterhead is very important. A fast
SCULL:Y: We have thought about this, and safe method is to use a stand possible for easy operation. The rotary
but feel that it would be very expen- which securely clamps the cutter - control has been generally abandoned
sive in its present form and it is best head and provides a microscope and straight-line attenuators which are
to leave this sort of thing as something with a calibrated hair -line reticle. easy to operate by touch are in more-
the customer would acquire on his It is a simple matter to rotate the common use, allowing the operator to
own. stylus in relation to the hair line to see the action on the stage. It is possible
position the cutting edges. The to operate several such controls at one
Larry, I know that because of current prac-
cutterhead is positioned in its sus- time. Control consoles should be so
tices in this country you must equip your
recorders with standard VU meters, which
pension by watching reflections of laid out that they become a map of the
we all agree leave something to be de- the cutterhead and stylus on an stage, perhaps with five or seven con-
sired in ballistics and accurate reading, acetate. Another method is to place trols in front representing the footlight
many people prefering the peak -reading a small non-metallic block on the microphones and several others spaced
European meters. Have you heard about turntable under the cutterhead and above representing upstage hanging
the electronic light system of Altec that is line up the cutter as it is lowered. microphones, offstage microphones, or
used as a super -visual level meter? The stylus should be perpendicular other sources operating through the
SCULLY: Yes, but like the Dolby Sys- to the disc surface in all planes. sound -reinforcement system. An opera-
tem, building it into a recorder is a The heater wires should be left tor running such a control can easily
matter of money and as yet the light- slack so that stylus motion is not correlate what is happening on the
indicating system has had limited affected. stage and what he is doing on the con-
usage. Perhaps it will become low The chip pickup tube should be trol console. He can "play" the system,
enough in cost someday to be a worth- positioned within a quarter of an minimizing the number of microphones
while addition to a recorder. inch behind the stylus and barely that are live at any one time and rais-
One other subject that has come up re-
off the acetate surface. The suction ing the gain on just those microphones
cently in regard to innovations on tape should be adjusted to the lowest that are nearest the actors, so that
recorders is the use of electrodynamic air flow that will still remove the clarity is maximized. The fewer micro-
braking, instead of the classic brake -band chip. Excessive air flow can tear phones on at any one time, the higher
concept. Have you given any thought to the chip out of the groove, or can the clarity will be.
this? actually modulate the stylus. In
Scur..LY: Yes, we have done quite a any case the noise it causes makes
bit of work on it, and it is a compli- monitoring difficult. With a low Costs
cated business. In fact, we have suction it is usually necessary to
worked out a simple tape motion - blow on the stylus as the cutter is The cost of a minimum reinforce-
sensing system that does about as well lowered to get the chip picked up, ment system for a high-school audi-
as electro -dynamic without all the but a switching device can be used torium used as a performing -arts hall
trouble and expense. You know, the to increase the vacuum just at the might run around $15-20,000 today.
best way to stop tape on any conven- time the cutter is lowered. Cost of reinforcement systems can run
tional recorder is, if you were in The electrical performance of as high as $100-200,000 if stereo
rewind, by hitting your fast -forward the transfer channel should be effects are required for reinforcement
button. The tape rapidly slows down checked regularly to make sure it and electronic reverberation is pro-
and virtually stops, and if you hit is operating within specifications. vided. If costs must be cut on a system,
your stop button, then everything is Measurements should be made on it is strongly recommended that it be
very positive and gentle. Well, we the whole chain, in addition to in- done by removing elements of the sys-
have a little sensing device, and it dividual units. A most important tem, for example, providing only the
determines tape motion and goes check is an A/B comparison be- basic reinforcement system initially.
through all that sequence I just de- tween the master tape and test cuts By providing for future reverberation
scribed automatically. You know there played on a calibrated turntable. facilities, as well as possible future tape
are all sorts of devices and techniques Mastering is perhaps the most recorders and disc playback equipment,
that can be added to a tape recorder, important single step in record can reduce costs appreciably. Cutting
but they are only worthwhile if they production. It is during this process back on quality can result in the in-
can be applied reasonably to a ma- that the product takes its form for vestment for equipment which is not
chine to effect a genuine improvement the consumer. The most important suitable for the purpose and which
in either tape motion, signal-to-noise ingredients are accurate reliable must be replaced if the system is to
ratio, harmonic and IM distortion, and equipment and an engineer with an perform as required. In the long run,
tape -handling controls. That is what a intimate knowledge of his equip- this can raise the cost of the installation.
good tape machine is all about. Æ ment and the entire process.

AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969 79

www.americanradiohistory.com
but this one is somewhat more com-

AUDIO MUSIC REVIEW


Classical 80
plex and of a more turn -of -the-cen-
tury harmonic substance, a German
version of Sir Edward Elgar. (The
Light Listening 92 work begins with variations, faintly
Jazz 96 reminiscent of Elgar's Enigma
Tape Reviews 98 Variations) .

Believe me, it takes the special


The Russian sound is expansive near-sentimental sincerity of Leonard
and impressive but, curiously, also Bernstein to make this old fashioned
mildly old fashioned for the hi-fi ear. music shine as it does in this recording.
Classical Not easy to say just how. I'd guess
(a) that the microphoning is some- Performance: A Sound: B

Records what "out of date" by our taste, re-


minding of ours, say, around 1960;
(b) the very loud parts are not quite
Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring; Scherzo
as clean as we now expect; (c) and a la Russe (the composer's two -piano
Edward Tatnall Canby there is perhaps some moderate com- arrangements). Michael Tilson Thomas,
pression-hard to avoid in a contrasty Ralph Grierson, pianists.
piece like this. I also note (d) what Angel S 36024 stereo ($5.98)
Familiar Classics Revisited seems to be less than hard transients, It is always astonishing to find how
Tchaikowsky: Romeo and Juliet; Theme the familiar ker-thump of kettle- much of a well known orchestral
and Variations from Suite No. 3. piece can be suggested by the mono-
Moscow Philharmonic, Kondrashin. drums, though the trouble could well
be to some extent in the large, rather tone coloration of the piano, whether
Melodiya Angel SR 40090 stereo ($5.98)
If a pair of attractive cover nudes, tubby acoustic surround. None of this via two hands, four hands, or two key-
young male and female, can sell you will bother your musical enjoyment boards. In the case of this new Angel
on Tchaikowsky you'll go out and in the least-pure curiosity impels recording, however, the musical cart
buy this one quick. Betcha that cover a mention. The over-all sonic effect comes before the horse. These were
wasn't made in Moscow. More like is well suited to the style of the working arrangements made before
out of Capitol in Hollywood. performance. there was any orchestral music. The
Once past the nudity and into the Rite of Spring for two pianists at two
music, you'll find an interesting and Performance: B+ Sound: B pianos dates from 1912. It was this
thoughtful performance of the early piano score (or various alternative
Tchaikowsky classic, old fashioned in one-piano versions) that was heard
Goldmark: Rustic Wedding Symphony. by all those who were working on the
the best sense, done with all leisure, New York Philharmonic, Bernstein.
allowing a full impact for every musi- Columbia MS 7261 stereo ($5.98) ballet production to come, rather than
cal effect. The slow, ominous por- Just lovely! It has been years since the orchestral version now so familiar.
tions, notably at the beginning, are I last heard this old ex -chestnut. (It In the early spring of that year, Stra-
given their full head as only Willem used to be played all the time in vinsky played it with none other than
Mengelberg could do it many years symphony concerts.) I had forgotten Claude Debussy as the second pianist.
ago (he is still audible on records); how genuine a work of sheer Teutonic On its cover Angel makes a good
the fast, violent parts go at break- corn it is. Under Bernstein's loving thing of the youthfulness of the two
neck speed but never are merely hands, the music really glows with brilliant West Coast pianists who play
hysterical. In our day of mass - gentle life, a kind of fruity Brahms it here. Some of the photos are ap-
production standard classics, this per- but less consequential and much parently several years old; a pair
formance surely stands out for its more lush. Nearest to it is perhaps of longhaired page turners, at each
integrity and freshness. I liked it. The that perennial favorite opera, Hansel piano, accentuates the "now" quality
Theme and Variations, with violin and Gretel by Engelbert Humper- of the scene. Actually, the two are
solo (Boris Simsky) is done in a sim- dinck (not the pop singer, please!- at this point 25 and 27, old enough
ilar mellow fashion and should also the original man). That work exudes for maturity, and their playing is of
please you on side 2. the same kind of nostalgic schmalz; an incredible, machine -like accuracy

('/dírriirvi/ /$i:"//r 7-9/i/ /4A

80 AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969

www.americanradiohistory.com
throughout that oddly suits the musi-
cal substance. As always, dissonance
familiar in orchestral form is accen-
tuated, made even more acerbic, by
the piano's percussiveness. No won-
der the music impressed the experts
Make yourself
who first heard it! Virtually all of
those last faint traces of Romanticism
still observable in the slow parts of
the orchestral work are here sup-
pressed, partly by the nature of the
miserable.
piano, more positively in the nature
of the playing. These boys are cool Check the features of the new Ferrograph Series Seven tape
customers, seemingly nerveless, totally decks and recorders with what you now own or plan to buy.
competent with both rhythm and
fingering. If you've been shopping for
The piano sound is ideally dis- a tape deck, or have been
tributed in the stereo with just enough thinking about upgrading
your present unit, the one
separation so that we can tell which you're looking for hasn't
pianist is playing what, yet with an been available till now.
over-all blend that presents the whole Entirely new in design, the
music as it should be heard, in one versatile Ferrograph Series
Seven tape decks and re-
piece. The sound is hard and precise, corders are from Great Brit-
properly in line with both the music ain's leading producer of
and the performance. I'd rate the quality tape recorders. They
incorporate the most wanted
whole project as impressively cool, features requested by audio-
almost chilly, rather than hot-blooded philes and professionals.
-but this is surely part of the music's Many of these features are
usually found only in much
message, especially in this one -color higher priced units.
piano form. The Scherzo a la Russe
is a brief much later commissioned
piece, originally for Paul Whiteman's
band in 1944.
NEW GENERATION FEATURES OF FERROGRAPH
Performance: A Sound: A- SERIES SEVEN TAPE DECKS/RECORDERS
All solid state with FET front end Accessible output level adjust-
Entremont Plays the Chopin Waltzes. ments
Columbia MS 7196 stereo ($5.98)
3 belt -free synchronous motors Separate control for mixing input
The record cover on this one shows for precise speed signals
Philippe Entremont, dressed in his
3 speeds (17/8, 33/4, 71/2 or 33/4, Delay device for "click -free"
tails and white tie, standing up at the 71/2, 15) recording
piano keyboard, playing (presum-
ably) the Chopin Waltzes in a most
3
Erase
heads - Record, Playback, Independent monitoring facili-
ties for each channel
undignified position. We trust he Variable speed spooling for in- V Remote control Start/Stop
didn't record them that way. It dexing and editing
doesn't sound so. They flow and purr Adjustable reel heights to elimi- Straight, direct, visible tape
and dance with the nicest elan, all nate tape scraping loading
grace and elegance but never either Brake adjustments for each reel 3 outputs per channel (8-16 ohm

effete-as speaker, 600 ohm line, low level)


in someperformances-or
metallic and explosive-as in others. 2 VU meters for monitoring Rec- ' Damped tension arms for slur-
ord and Playback free starts
Entremont is a natural-born musician
and perceiver of musical meaning, is Front panel switching for re- Automatic degaussing of tape
record, echo, multiplay and sound heads
showman or no. with sound
The sound is unusually gracious Top deck bias adjustment with 81/4" reels - 50% more record -
for Columbia, which tends towards a signal on VU meter ing than 7" reels
hard, close-up piano in many dozens
of its recordings. Here, there is And these are only the highlights. The Ferrograph Series Seven offers much
more. Available in a choice of walnut cabinet, carrying case or chassis only.
smoothness and sheen, plus a good 2 and 4 -track stereo and mono models. With and without amplifiers and
concert hall liveness to place the mu- speakers. Prices start at $549.00 through $749.00.
sic in a sort of ball room perspective.
Fine disc. lLPp See your Ferrograph dealer, or write to:
ELPA MARKETING INDUSTRIES, INC.
Performances: A- Sound: B+ New Hyde Park, N.Y. 11040

AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969 Check No. 81 on Readers Service Card 81

www.americanradiohistory.com
NOW...for the first time -a Pablo Casals conducts Schubert Unfin-
ished Symphony, Mozart Symphony
No. 40. Marlboro Festival Orchestra.
Columbia MS 7262 stereo ($5.98)
quality ORTOFON Cartridge A number of unusual circumstances
obtained in this recording from the

as low as $35.00! "live" summer Marlboro Festival of


1968. Pablo Casals, now in his 90s,
still was able to conduct-which takes
plenty of sheer physical energy. The
Marlboro orchestra is, if I am right,
a mixture of seasoned pros and bril-
liant young players who come to sit
at the feet of the mighty and absorb
their wisdom. The oldest form of edu-
cation in existence! Thus here we
have the musical style of the late
nineteenth century in the person of
Casals himself, grafted onto genera-
tion upon generation of younger mu-
sicians who do the actual playing.
(Youth, remember, is quick to ab-
sorb, even when it is the style of the
ancients.) Their earnestness is at once
evident.
Columbia has done well with the
sound, which somehow is a lot better
than most concert tapings. Could they
have added some artificial reverb? It
would help, and maybe does. There
is almost no audience noise (though
the background is not exactly Dolby -
silent) and only those occasional gen-
tle swishes that represent the remains
of an edited cough suggest, most un-
Magneto-Dynamic Stereo Cartridges obtrusively, that there was indeed
with Interchangeable Styli some interference of an audience type.
The music is very much in a fa-
If you've ever wanted to own an Ortofon cartridge but thought it was beyond
your budget, you'll welcome the new Ortofon cartridges M15 and MF15. miliar vein (to me, an older ear),
Priced for everyone, yet they sacrifice none of the superb quality that is a good old performance of the Un-
traditional with Ortofon cartridges and tonearms. Here is a new dimension finished with all the pathos and none
to the state of the art in stereo reproduction.
Interchangeable Styli - These are Matched to Most Amplifiers - Out-
of the nerves and mannerisms of more
recent attempts. Only the fairly rapid
the first Ortofon cartridges to offer put impedance is ideal for direct
the flexibility of interchangeable connection to the latest amplifiers tempo of the slow movement might
styli. The M15 plug-in stylus is ideal- having an input impedance of 47K indicate that Casals here is playing
ly suited for use with professional ohms. No external transformer is
transcription turntables and top necessary. in the sixties instead of, perhaps,
quality automatics. The MF15 plug-
in stylus was developed for automa-
Superb Tracking Force - The M15 1910 when he was merely middle
aged. Because the Unfinished is quite
tracks from 3/4 to 3 grams, ideally at
tic record changers. Available in 11/2 grams, while the M15 tracks a leisurely symphony in both its two
elliptical or spherical stylus tips for from 1 to 5 grams, ideally at 2 grams.
both models. Tracking angle is set for 15°. movements, there are no problems
Ultra -Lightweight - An incredible
0.4 milligram is the equivalent mass
Magneto -Dynamic Design-Capable
with the Marlboro ensemble.
of produc- The Mozart G Minor is less happy.
of the precision polished, natural
diamond stylus tip - the lightest of
any cartridge manufactured. Total
ing the most
exacting
Partly it is because this work is much
more demanding in terms of orches-
performance
cartridge weight is only five grams. from manual tral accuracy in all its movements.
Universal Replacement - Both mod-
els are designed so they can be
and automa-
tic turnta-
Partly, it just sounds old fashioned
mounted in all standardized shells. bles. and out of style as Casals conducts it.
M15 (Elliptical Stylus)... $60.00; (Spherical Stylus) $50.00
.
Too symphonic-in the Romantic
MF15 (Elliptical Stylus). $45.00; (Spherical Stylus).... $35.00 manner-is the best way to describe
what I have in mind, even though the
For additional details, see your Ortofon dealer, or write to: orchestra is physically not very large.
ELPA MARKETING INDUSTRIES, INC. It is a manner of playing that is no
New Hyde Park, N.Y. 11040

82 Check No. 82 on Readers Service Card AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969

www.americanradiohistory.com
longer suitable, less crisp, more
sprawling in detail than the best
Mozart and Haydn performances to-
Enjoy push-button
day, forcing the music to sound big-
ger than it should.
FM stereo at its finest.
Keep in mind that in Casals' day
the G minor was the great Mozart The ADC 1000 ...$28900
symphony, seemingly a serious and
proto -Romantic work in contrast to
what seemed the frivolity of most of
the other symphonies. The G Minor,
accordingly, always got the "heavy"
treatment, to emphasize its profund- Here is a new, improved
ity of emotion.. We no longer think ADC FM stereo receiver
with Dio-Matic push-button
that way today. We see profundity tuning priced much less
beneath even the lightest -hearted Mo- than you would expect for
zart. And so there is no longer any an instrument of this quality.
Preset any five FM stations
reason to perform the G Minor with and have music as you like it.
that doomful sound that somehow Instantly. Effortlessly. This powerful,
implies it is striving to be the Un- modular constructed, solid state 100 watt unit
includes an FET front end for perfect FM tuning. The ADC 1000
finished of Schubert, far ahead of its has been designed to perform at extremely low distortion. The
time. The Symphony is great enough result, superior sound. Crisp. Alive. Brilliant. Equipped with
without such anachronisms. facilities for all programming sources. Walnut cabinet optional.
The ADC 1000 is an American made professional
Note an occasional curious growl- receiver that merits the consideration of all audiophiles.
ing noise. It is Casals at work. Most
of the great performers seem to suffer
from vocal incontinence, especially on
the Columbia label! Glenn Gould is
a famed vocalizer and even Rudolph or this unusual value in a
Serkin, Marlboro's head man, has
been known to sing his own accom-
paniment before the stereo mikes.
90 watt FM stereo receiver.
Performances: B+, B- Sound: B- The ADC 606 ... only 999°°
Beethoven: Symphony No. 6 "Pastoral."
Boston Symphony, Leinsdorf.
RCA LSC 3074 stereo ($5.98)
Perhaps it was unconscious mental
indigestion on my part-but I did not
react with any favor to this Sixth Shop around if you wish, but
Symphony. It is all too American in the odds are you will not find
an American made solid state
an opulent sense, played by this
receiver to match the beauty and
self styled "aristocrat of orchestras" performance of the ADC 606 anywhere
in a fashion that somehow says to near this low price. True bookshelf depth
me, look how good we are, how big -only 17" wide, 5" high and 9" deep including
and powerful, too. It is not, for my side panels that eliminate need for separate cabinet.
Compare the high performance features of the amplifier
ear, dedicated to Beethoven. It is and tuner sections and judge for yourself. Write for complete
dedicated to Erich Leinsdorf and the specifications on both of these five receivers.
BSO. Prices are suggested resale.
The whole thing is both too hard
and too smooth, too much the mailed
ZAUDIO
fist in the nylon glove. The Pastoral
CCD DYNAMICS
CORPORATION
is the toughest of all the Symphonies
to project convincingly, for it is both
subtle and naive, a wonderfully or-
ganized and yet utterly trusting work;
it must be approached, somehow,
r- Please
NEW MILFORD, CONNECTICUT 06776

Name
I
with a compassionate humanity of
I send I
Address
feeling, in the playing as in the specifications
I
on ADC 1000 City
conducting. and ADC 606
Instead, when this disc began to receivers. I
State Zip
spin I received a strong mental image I I
L_ Quality Magnetic Cartridges Home Entertainment Electronics Hi Fidelity Speaker Systems
J
AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969 Check No. 83 on Readers Service Card
83
www.americanradiohistory.com
of the prosperous BSO, best pro ing movement is pure Madison ave- Sorry. I'll have to take a turns next
players in the world, sitting there nue. The jolly scherzo in the village time.
sleekly doing their thing, profession- is violent enough to sweep Beetho-
Performance: C+ Sound: B
ally perfect, even if this was the 99th ven's peasants off their jolly feet. As
time that old chestnut had hit the for the famed storm, it is as you
Boston boards. An evil approach to might expect, literally the loudest, Smetana: The Moldau and Other Works.
any Beethoven, but especially the fiercest version imaginable-and in- Slovak Philharmonic of Bratislava, Ladi-
slav Slovak, Ludovit Rajter.
Sixth. As for Leinsdorf, my inner ear sincere for it. Beethoven does not
RCA Victrola VICS 1443 stereo ($2.98)
tells me he is fussily self-conscious make good Berlioz. Only the quiet, Well, I dunno. The Czechs, of
about effects, exaggerating each pp, gentle finale variations begin to take course, usually do a splendid job con-
each sf, as though double strength off into sincere, meaningful musical ducting their own national music-
might give double value. The open- expression. So I heard it. but these are the Slovaks, from the
other end of the country. (Very con-
fusing: one of the two conductors
here is named Slovak. Bet he's a
Czech.) I found the record reason-
ably pleasing, but no more. The
Slovak orchestra isn't too accurate in
You probably think it's impossible
detail, though its playing is intelli-
to get the big sound of a 12 -inch woofer
gent and easy, and the recorded
You've SEEN and a midrange-tweeter from an
enclosure measuring only 71/4 x 101/2 x
sound has some typical East -Europe
drawbacks, a bit of distortion of a
51/2 inches...that is, until you hear
the Mini - the MAXIMUS 1! metallic sort in the loud passages, a
slightly thumpish variety of percus-
Be sure it's the MAXIMUS because sion sound (transients) and, if I am
today we've got imitators. Better still -
now HEAR let your ears compare...you'll be
able to choose THE sound imaginative
right, quite a dose of volume com-
pression. This makes the softer parts
of the music, the cleanest in sound,
the technology makes possible! rather unnaturally loud and close as
Your MAXIMUS dealer has seven compared to the climaxes. We have
MAXIMUS! superb systems from compacts to a moved well away from these familiar
magnificent 4 -speaker 3 -way system - faults, and a good thing too.
from $39.95. Only MAXIMUS makes The disc includes, besides Sme-
the original mini -MAXIMUS! tana's old favorite Moldau, Murmurs
of Spring (Sinding), the Secret of
Suzanne Overture (Wolf Ferrari),
the familiar Dances of Galanta by
Kodaly and something called Donna
Diana, the overture to an opera by
Reznicek. It turns out to be very fa-
miliar light -music stuff. As the notes
say, consider this to be a comfortable
concert ... It is, generally speaking.
But not very exciting.
Speaker systems Performances: B- Sound: C+
shown
reading
clockwise
from top:
MAXIMUS 33 The Richest Sound on Earth. (Six Ac-
MAXIMUS 44
MAXIMUS 7
claimed Triumphs of the Recording
Ion optional base) Art from the Fabulous Philadelphia
MAXIMUS 22
MAXIMUS I
Collection on Columbia Records.)
MAXIMUS 55 Philadelphia Orchestra, Ormandy.
and
MAXIMUS 5 Columbia MGP 7 stereo (two discs)
This, we note, is the Columbia ver-
t,NUMsOUN sion of the "Richest Sound on Earth,"
CORP
not the current RCA variant. Not
much more need be said, except that
MICN NOEJ
these two discs, which I assume are
specially priced,. contain the big
sound-sensations you might expect:
Side 1, the Pines of Rome by
Respighi. Side 2, the Bach Toccata
MAXIMUS SOUND CORP. 809 Stewart Ave., Garden City, N.Y. 11530, (516) CH 8-6404 and Fugue in D Minor (transcribed

Check No. 84 on Readers Service Card


84 AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969
www.americanradiohistory.com
by Ormandy, succeeding the famous wives. Emanuel's influence on the is in the slow movements, which are
Philadelphia-Stokowsky transcription) , musical art, in the intense transition full of his marvelous experiments in
and the Prokofieff Classical Sym- period between late Baroque and that expressive harmony. The outer move-
phony. Side 3, Tchaikowsky's Capric- gallant and sometimes near-Romantic ments go like the wind are very
cio Italien and the Dance of the music which led to Mozart, Haydn, "busy" in that bustling style which
Apprentices and Entrance of the and Beethoven, was tremendous in his was the beginning of the Mozart -
Meistersingers from the Wagner lifetime and even on into the Beetho- Haydn allegro.
opera. Side 4, Ravel's Bolero. No ven period, the early 19th century. Argo's record offers the same B fiat
doubt between them all these items Now, Emanuel, like so many others, Symphony as that on side 2 of the
have already sold millions of copies. is coming out of the history books into RCA disc, for an interesting compari-
Guaranteed to please. renewed musical life once more, as son.. (RCA's orchestra of "authentic"
witness these two among many recent strings plays the music a half tone
Emanuel Bach recordings. low, in A, which is the original pitch
T. A. Arne and C. P. E. Bach. (Arne: It is a curious style of symphony, intended in Bach's time.) Argo also
Harpsichord Concerto No. 5 in G highly original but also rather con- offers a harpsichord concerto (much
Minor; Sonata No. 1 in F; Overture servative in format, removed from the like the symphonies) for George
No. 1 in E Minor. C. P. E. Bach: Sym-
phony No. 2 in B flat; Vars. on Folies
familiar tradition founded (or better, Malcolm, the featured artist, plus a
d'Espagne; Concerto in C Minor.) consolidated) by Haydn. Three move- set of solo variations on the familiar
George Malcolm, hps., Academy of ments like a concerto, fast slow fast, "La Folia" theme set by Corelli for
Sy. Martin -in -the -Fields, Marriner. often running into one another and violin. RCA's record, from the Ger-
Argo ZRG 577 stereo ($5.95) cast in the binary form familiar in man Harmonia Mundi label, is all
C. P. E. Bach: Four Hamburg Symphonies.
(B minor, A, C, B flat). Gustav Leon-
Scarlatti, Handel, and Papa Bach as symphony; another well known harp-
hardt, hps. Collegium Aureum. well as a thousand other Baroque sichordist, Gustav Leonhardt, presides
RCA Victrola VICS 1453 stereo ($2.50) composers, these works are more like modestly at the continuo keyboard.
Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, usually the brief Italian Sin fonia-with far I found the British orchestra some-
called Emanuel Bach, was the mid- more seriousness and content, how- what more sensitive in its playing,
dle son among the three highly gifted ever, than the charmingly frittery lit- the German group a bit on the driv-
children of old Papa Bach, J. S. him- tle works which the Italians wrote to ing, nervous side-though to be sure,
self, out of the fabled 21 offspring preface their musical stage pieces. Bach writes plenty of nervousness into
produced by the old man via two Emanuel's most profound music here his music. Argo's British sound is

WILL I HEAR
...
THE DIFFERENCE?
If your turntable rumbles and wows If your amplifiers put out only five watts at 10% distortion . If your speakers have a frequency
range just good enough for speech ... If your phono arm has the incorrect overhang required by the older record changers ... If your cart-
ridge requires a vertical force of a dozen grams to keep its stylus in the groove ...
And if your records have been torn and mutilated by that
stylus- YOU ARE NOT LIKELY TO HEAR THE DIFFERENCE.

BUT If you own one of the many superb modern amplifiers ...
If your turntable produces no audible rumble or wow If you have ...
selected your speakers from the many excellent models available today . . If your cartridge has a response that evenly covers the audible
.

range of frequencies with little distortion ... And if the recommended tracking force is of the order of one gram ...
THEN You owe it to the engineers who designed your equipment, to the artists
and technicians who produced your records and, above all, to yourself to .. .

LISTEN TO THE SL -8 and

hear
the difference!
..I ' !-2_
.
t
. ¡

ef e(^1 i
! J1 1 - illie

`/
%/¡:
,e

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i/ _

3.1
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1^

RABCO
AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969
MANUFACTURERS OF THE ONLY STRAIGHT LINE, SERVO DRIVEN PHONOGRAPH ARM.
11937 TECH ROAD, SILVER SPRING, MARYLAND 20904
Check No. 85 on Readers Service Card
www.americanradiohistory.com 85
closer and drier than the expansive Electronic -Plus me to these discs with extended at-
German sound. The two discs are Charles Wuorinen: Time's Encomium. tention. I was very decidedly im-
close to an equality as far as com- For synthesized and processed syn- pressed. The Nonesuch series, I would
munication is concerned. (The price thesized sound. suggest, is qualitatively far ahead of
Nonesuch H 71225 stereo ($2.98) a lot of the stuff that still is being
difference is all the sillier.) Andrew Rudin: Tragoedia. For electronic
music synthesizer.
thrown out at us.
As for Thomas Arne, the history Nonesuch 71198 stereo ($2.98) I would suggest, however, that you
books have long pigeonholed him as Kenneth Gaburo: Music for Voices, In- admire the sensitive cover designs
just another British second-rater struments, and Electronic Sounds. New of Elaine Gongora on several of these,
under the shadow of Handel; some- Music Choral Ensemble, Univ. of Il- as you listen, and studiously ignore
body's ears were unsubtle when that linois Contemporary Chamber Players,
Gaburo.
the "program notes" on the reverse
judgment was made, a long while Nonesuch H 71199 stereo ($2.98) until your own ear has had a chance
back. (No LP records to help.) Arne Morton Subotnick: The Wild Bull. For to adjust to these new sounds. It is
is more conservative and far less electronic music synthesizer. the habit of most young composers,
original than Emanuel Bach but, sur- Nonesuch H 71208 stereo ($2.98) and many middle aged ones, to write
prisingly, he sounds out very clearly Three of these four Nonesuch com- preposterously pretentious annotations
of his own generation, 25 years missions are here reviewed late-and of a sort designed to impress their
younger than Handel. He writes in for good reason. They arrived at a professional colleagues rather than
an outwardly Handelian manner but time when suddenly the air was full reassure the unknowing outsider (who
the sound-to our ears now-is of electronics. Dozens of records were buys the record, after all). Not that
clearly different, already implying the hurled onto the market all in a rush the notes are false, or in the end lack
turn to gallant music which was to to get on some sort of sales band- usefulness. But it is so easy to be
overwhelm England a dozen or more wagon (as far as I can figure) and snobbish and obscure in words, where
years after these works were com- no honest reviewer in his senses could the musical product itself-even elec-
posed. The Arne side of the Argo possibly have listened to such an
tronic-is a far more direct and hon-
record parallels the Bach, with an enormous barrage with any intelli-
est presentation to the ear. I warn
orchestral work, a concerto and brief gent reaction, even if there weren't
parallel masses of Beethoven, Mozart, you that if you read these accounts
solo sonata, for Mr. Malcolm's harpsi- before listening, you will merely be
chord. and the rest!
Better late than never. Luckily, a intimidated. Put off. Even horrified.
Performances: A-,A- Sound: B, B, private project came up that brought Like, say, "The poem, with regard to

D011'í
listen to the
AIexperts ...
An expert hears music one
an
way; you hear it another.
Nothing is more personal
than a man's relationship with his music. So no
one can recommend a certain sound, or speaker
to you. No one knows that much about you.
That's why University offers the widest selec-
tion of speaker systems in the industry
cause as a listener you are your own
be-
expert.
-
And because every expert also has his own price
range, the University line starts at less than $50
and extends beyond $300.
There's only one way to choose. Look and listen,
until one particular sound, style, and price
listen to
listen closely enough
choose University.
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86 AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969
rMwr Wn Af. nn Random Carviea rar.i
www.americanradiohistory.com
its formal design, semantic and pho- years. (Composers, generally still has a curiously academic and non-
netic content, morphology and articu- oriented towards live audiences, ob- electronic sound to it, one of relative
latory potential (governed on one ject to a "live" performance solely conservatism. The reason is interest-
level by concern for intelligibility), via loudspeakers in a hall. Who ing. In the composer's words, "The
to a large extent determined the
structure of the composition." OK,
wouldn't?) The choral movements, RCA Synthesizer ...
is prejudiced by
the startling single voice of a soprano, its design toward 12 -tone equal tem-
OK, but how about saying it in Eng- the sudden bray of brass, are beauti- perament." And so his music is com-
lish? That would help. fully integrated with the electronic posed in the tempered scale like "old
These are works of the new and elements of the Gaburo piece. fashioned" music. Who would have
much improved generation of elec- Only Charles Wuorinen's recent ever thought it would sound strange,
tronic sound, cleanly synthesized, "Time's Encomium," worked out on as electronic music, because of this
richly varied, bright, percussive, no the relatively ancient Columbia - very fact? It does. That's how far
longer with that dull "recorded" Princeton (RCA) Music Synthesizer, we have come.
sound of the early attempts, so often
lifeless in color and lacking in any
transient impact. Impossible to char-
acterize each in detail-but speaking
generally, there are several further
points. Not only is the sound clean
Tandlwras Love Child WNW1ïVipii r
and varied but the style of sound is
now more fully in line with electronic SERIES 11
capabilities, full of short, sharp twit- Full Track and
ters, blops, twangs, sizzles, with a Half Track
minimum of those dismal dun-colored
wailings so common in the older
music. Moreover, the shift from tem-
pered pitch to all-inclusive pitch-no
fixed scales-is marvelously well ac-
complished, again very much in line
with the medium's own nature. This
is a lot more important than we may
yet realize.
Further: the greatest single ele-
ment of dramatic exposition in these
very long works is tempo, the sense
of speed or slowness of motion which
has governed traditional music of all
sort and here reasserts itself in new
terms. Morton Subotnick, for instance,
has some of the most purely fast
PORTABLE/SOLID STATE/BATTERY OPERATED/TAPE RECORDER
music I ever hope to hear on side 1
of his splendid "Wild Bull," an ab- At first, it was almosta labor of love to meet all the rigorous demands for
soletly breathtaking tempo and one of Tandberg excellence. Then, after exhaustive development, this fine product
was born for critical, on -the -spot, professional -type recordings that require
the most powerfully exciting displays
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"better, clearer, more natural sound." The quality speaks for itself
Tandberg. Try it. But first, to start with, review these important features:
-
Similarly and oppositely, Kenneth 3 separate heads; 3 speeds; 7" reel `capacity (cover off); mixing facilities
Gaburo's Music for Voices, Instru- with separate level controls; ±0.5% absolute speed tolerance; automatic
ments, and Electronic Sounds includes imiting control; 200 ohm monitor headphone socket; built-in speaker;
accepts ten 1.5 D cell or nickel cadmium batteries; weight 10 lbs.
a long slow movement that is full of
the most startlingly silent pauses, SPECIFICATIONS
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Frequency Response: 71/2 ips 30-20,000Hz (±2 - ALSO, AVAILABLE
briefly interrupted at precisely the db 40-16,000Hz); 33/4 ips 30-13,000Hz (±2db
right rhythmic intervals to produce 50-9,000Hz); 17/e ips 30-7,000Hz (±2db 60- "Pilotone"
4,500Hz). Signal-to-noise Ratio: ± 71/z ips 61db.
an ultra -slow feeling of tempo. (And Now: 71/2 ips better than .1%; 33/4 ips better
what gorgeously silent record faces! 'hen .15%; 17/a ips better than .35%. Erase &
Bias Frequency: 85.5KHz ±2KHz; below 5% distor-
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Optional AcesssariES:
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Check No. 87 on Readers Service Card


AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969 ;s'
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This round
surround
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other comparably priced speaker See your University dealer and
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with the Project M's exceptionally
SPECIFICATIONS: Acoustic Suspension
It suspends the woofer cone System Frequency Response: 30 to
in University Sound's newest 20,000 Hz Power Handling Capacity:
speaker system -the Project M. 60 watts Recommended Amplifier Power:
30 watts IPM Impedance: 8 ohms
It allows the cone to make inch - Finished on four sides in oiled walnut
long excursions and still maintain Dimensions: 231/2" x 123/4" x 11/8"
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The Technical Qi ...' r L..


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M I)IC)
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88 AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969

www.americanradiohistory.com
LAYMAN'S GUIDE TO This effect is utilized in electrostatic like a push-pull amplifier; distortion is
SPEAKER SYSTEMS speakers. In the simplest type, the dia- greatly reduced. Electrostatic speakers
(Continued from page 24) phragm is a thin, conductive mem- require a connection to the power line
brane, spaced a short distance away for the high -voltage bias supply but
from a perforated metal plate. The consume very little current and can be
Driver Unit-Speakers with rela- signal voltage is applied between the left plugged in all the time. The dia-
tively small, light diaphragms designed two conducting surfaces, together with phragms are very light. Since they are
for use in horn speakers (see defini- a fixed d. c. bias voltage. The push- driven virtually uniformly over their
tion). Also used on occasion to refer pull type of electrostatic speaker uses entire surfaces, response can be made
to a direct -radiator speaker itself to a diaphragm suspended between two very smooth. They are used mostly
distinguish it from the assembly of a conducting surfaces or a series of for the higher frequencies.
speaker or speakers in an enclosure, or closely spaced wires. It operates much (To be continued)
speaker system.
Dynamic Speaker (Moving-Coil
Speaker)-A speaker in which the
varying magnetic field produced by
the varying signal current in a coil of
wire interacts with a surrounding fixed
magnetic field produced by a perma-
nent (or electro-) magnet, to produce
motion of the diaphragm. The voice
coil is generally composed of a num-
ber of turns of wire forming a cylin-
der. Some unusual designs use a zig-
zag metal ribbon as a voice coil;
Modern
"printed -circuit" construction has also
been used.
Ducted Port-A tube or duct join-
ing the air outside the cabinet to that
inside. In small bass -reflex cabinets
designed to produce extended bass re-
sponse, the required size of a simple
port is so small that there are excessive
energy losses due to friction as the air
oscillates back and forth in the port.
A duct permits the opening to be made
larger and the losses reduced.
Edge Damping-A viscous com-
pound applied to the surround of a
cone speaker. When a signal current
starts in a speaker, the motive force
generated by the voice coil is applied
to the apex of the cone. Because of the
mass and flexibility of the cone, a wave
is set up that travels radially outward
along the cone to its edge, at the sur-
round. Here it is reflected and travels
back toward the voice coil and is re-
flected outward again. The resulting
This is the Yikko STA -701 B...th In performance, styling, features
wave-like motion of the cone surface hottest performer ii tig Nikko line (like F.E.T., I.C. and Triple Ci -cuit
gives rise to irregularities in the fre- This is the pteduc1 of years of pian Breaker Protect on) and valuº .. .
quency response. A viscous material ring and design...carefal y, tho.ght- Nikko has created the Modern Mas-
Lilly defiled in every :.tail, to f II terpiece . . . t ead and shouìders
on the surround absorbs the outward special need in t -e s:e-eo make- above the masses.
travelling wave and smooths the re- tday! You may not know from F E T
sponse because of its internal energy but you do know what you like -tear
loss. the '701 B . . s:on.

Electrostatic Speaker-A force is


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particles: similar charges repel; unlike
charges attract. The force is propor-
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N I KKC3 31201 LAN KEPI
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Check No. 89 on Readers Service Card

AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969 89


Rick Grech, an electric bassist who as a partial shadow of Traffic, which
also had made a small dent in British also crumbled because of personality
rock history by his skill with an elec- clashes. Winwood, author of three of
Light trified violin. Voila! Blind Faith, a
name reportedly chosen "as an ac-
the selections on the quartet's first out-
ing ("Had to Cry Today," "Can't Find
My Way Home" and "Sea of Joy"),
Listening knowledgment of the inspiration that
they find in each other's work." plays organ, piano, guitar and bass.
"It was by playing several instru-
Weingarten The quartet's first album, BLIND
Sherwood L. ments," he relates, "that I came to dis-
FAITH (Ateo, SD 33-304) , shows
that Clapton and Baker no longer vie cover that I could not express myself
with each other for attention, each on only one. A small part of me comes
Rock For All Ages integrated better as a group member, over with each different instrument."
"Rock" is a veritable melting pot of each still shining as a soloist. The Grech, who for five years starred
musical styles and motifs. At times, it frenzy of Cream is gone, but the vir- with a group called Family, is 23. The
acts as a show business garbage can, tuosity lingers on. least well known of the four, he claims
collecting all the brash trash in sight; Clapton, who wrote the exciting "it is nerve shattering to play with
at others, it is a perceptive mirror into "Presence of the Lord," the final of three of the greats." And he adds that
the future, reflecting the notions of four tracks on Side One, is a slight the result of being part of Blind Faith,
youth; but most often it is a musical man of 24 who prefers donning bright ironically, "is that I might well not be
flycatcher that with its sticky sales ap- velvet clothing. A dropout, he played a better guitarist. It is just that mov-
peal manages to trap classical, folk, initially with a forgettable outfit called ing from a relatively unknown group
jazz, blues, and virtually every other to one where the attention is focused
category, in one bag. on you all the time means that you
Where is rock heading? Even its are likely to get recognition."
musicians and buffs are not sure. And Over-all, the LP is excellent rock,
the rapid breakup of existing groups, technically and acoustically brilliant,
the formation of what seems a galaxy harmonic, and definitive-but still a
of new ones, and the short leases taken combination of Cream and Traffic.
by hit tunes on the charts, all indicate Someday it may develop an identity
no consensus is possible. But one cur- of its own. The record jacket, not inci-
rent trend is the construction of what dentally, is available in two formats.
is termed by the flacks "supergroups," The first features a nude photo of an
a joining of musicians from defunct but adolescent girl, the second a routine
once successful combos. Case in point: group shot of the quartet.
Blind Faith, kind of a re -whipped And for those who haven't soured
BLIND FAITH-(I to r), Eric Dapton, Steve
Cream. on the old Cream, a new 10 -track
Winwood, Ginger Baker, and Rick Grech.
The Cream (which consisted of Eric anthology, BEST OF CREAM (Ateo,
Clapton on guitar, Jack Bruce on bass, the Roosters, which lasted but two SD 33-291) , is available. It includes
harmonica and vocals, and Ginger months. He then joined the Yardbirds the gold -record -winning "Sunshine of
Baker on drums) for a long time by and moved on to John Maya11's blues Your Love," the unpronounceable
rocks standards (three years) was the group, where he first played with "Swlabr," the chartbuster "White
group. The trio's albums sold ex- Baker. Says Clapton: "Really I am a Room," and "Born Under a Bad Sign."
tremely well, and its personal appear- freak sideshow. An English kid play- * * *

ances consistently drew throngs of ing the blues just doesn't fit. In any
case I am not really any longer a blues Rock that can bridge the generation
screaming moptops; its material was
guitarist. I went into Cream a blues gap is provided by a pair of Flower
original (written by Clapton and
guitarist and came out a rock and roll children (that's their last name, not
Bruce) and stood far above that of
player." their social label) on GENESIS (Skye,
the many mini-talents.
Baker, now 29, is a one-man tor- SK -1006D), part of the recording
But the Cream's harmony curdled,
with its members creating much verbal nado. His expertise is especially evi- company's "discovery series." Wendy
noise tinged with egocentricity (each dent on "Do What You Like," his own (age 18) and Bonnie (age 15) actu-
wanted the limelight; each, in truth, composition and at 15:20 the longest ally sing (instead of vocalizing with
merited it). So the triangle, as most cut of the LP. His musical bag encom- a rasp or shout) and offer gentle har-
human triangles eventually do, broke passed everything, sitting in with al- mony. The background of the disc,
down. most every band available at first, then produced by jazzman Gary McFar-
After the split, Clapton and Steve meandering through traditional and land, consists of light strains from
Winwood, who originally was with avant-garde jazz to his place in rock. drums, fender bass, organ, piano, and
Spencer Davis' band before forming "For about two years," he admits, "I guitar.
Traffic, began jamming together. Red- just sat on the drums and played non- The duo, who wrote the tunes (and
haired Baker, cooled by time, swal- stop. I didn't care if I was on my lyrics, which neatly avoid hammer -
lowed his remaining anger and joined own, I just used to play away." like references to drugs, Vietnam,
in. But the trio, though good, sounded Winwood, only 21, is Blind Faith's black problems, etc.), sing mostly in
too much like the Cream. Along came voice and, as such, stamps the combo unison on the 10 tracks, but occasion-

92 AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969


ally one steps to center stage and Rock with strings? Sure, two of the either David individually or the pair
solos, with the second joining in on 10 tracks ("Ghetto" and "Do Right in collaboration.
choruses. Woman," a soulful composition), spot- "Time Is," the longest piece at 9:42,
Best of the songs by the San Fran- light them. But don't miss "Someday," is a somewhat typical mod-ern com-
cisco pair are "Five O'Clock in the which has some exquisite big -band position in that a cornucopia of
Morning," a slow number whose simu- sounds. rhythms and styles are evident; its
lated boredom and loneliness is pro- * * * most demanding segment, however, is
duced by a melodic repetition; "You More pop-rock variety, with stress a lengthy percussion interlude. "White
Keep Hanging Up On My Mind," a on the softening of the type of sound Bird" showcases a Latin beat, and
zippy contemporary rocker; "I Real- many older music lovers cringe at, is "Hot Summer Day" adds the harmon-
ized You," which builds to a cres- found on IT'S A BEAUTIFUL DAY ica flair of Bruce Steinberg. "Girl With
cendo; "Let Yourself Go Another (Columbia, CS 9768), a disc with No Eyes" is a smooth ballad, contrast-
Time," with its driving beat, and "The seven cuts, all of which (except one) ing with "Wasted Union Blues," which
Paisley Window Pane," a poetic bal- run four minutes or longer. The instru- includes a cacophony at its tail.
lad backed by a silky Latin beat. mentation here is the key to the sound, "Bombay Calling" is a slightly cliched
Ah, maybe there's hope, the oldsters for David Laflamme, the lead vocalist, instrumental, with heavy Eastern over-
will cry. plays a violin, and Linda Laflamme tones, and "Bulgaria" is a moody musi-
Call it gospel -rock or call it blues - switches from organ to piano to elec- cal treatise.
rock or call it whatever you want. The tric piano to celeste to harpsichord. The album is uneven, but it proves
only necessity is that you call it good. Others in the sextet are Pattie Santos, just what can be done within a basic
The music is by THE ORIGINAL who also sings, and plays tambourine, rock format.
DELANEY & BONNIE (Elektra, EKS bells, block, and gourd; and the rhythm * * *
74039), who have been packing them section consisting of guitarist Hal "Uncle Meat," a madcap creation of
in at personal appearances. Both prin- Wagenet, bassist Mitchell Holman, and Frank Zappa, leader of the Mothers of
cipals sing (Delaney also plays gui- drummer Val Fuentes. Invention, allegedly is "an album of
tar), and they're supported by seven Words throughout are intelligible- music from a movie you will probably
musicians. When group voices are and intelligent, and there is often more never get to see." In a booklet that
needed, Rita Coolidge and Bobby than a hint of classical borrowing that accompanies the LP, which contains a
Whitlock chime in to enhance the lends an air of melodic cool. The zany film synopsis and photos of the
D&B rating. Laflammes composed all the melodies, Mothers, Zappa explains that the

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Check No. 93 on Readers Service Card 93


AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969
I

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I IIIIIIIII I I I I IIIIIIIIIIIIIII11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111IIIIIIII
111111111111111111111111111111111111111111IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII1111I
I IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIR

:IIIIIIIIIIIIIII11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111III
3

MOOG JAZZ in the GARDEN


= BERTRAM STANLEIGH

syn- musicians swung into a pleasantly _


phonic, bass, and percussion melodic four -movement suite
that
here has been so great a pro- thesizers, and an electronic
piano. -bass con-
liferation of Moog Synthesizer was seemed strong on treble
or The output of each instrument CM - trasts but was somewhat lackingvar-
in
recordings in the last year fed to a separate, large Bozak At
so that no general introduction
to of emphatic mid -range voices.
is necessary. Prob- 109 speaker system. The output up ious times, sounds were reminiscent
these instruments these units was in turn picked harp-
ably the best known of the Bach,
lot has to the of trumpet, flute, saxophone,
Switched -on by a microphone and fed sys- sichord, accordion, and several va-
been Columbia's Museum's sound reinforcement but, in general, one
of drum,
a group of Bach works successfully tem, consisting of several compact rieties
music
transcribed for electronic synthe- hung was content to listen to the
Carlos. acoustic - suspension systems own terms, without trying to
sizer by composer Walter along the Fifty -Fourth Street wall on its
with con-
Original music for these instruments Garden. No prere- draw any comparisons
has been recorded on Elektra
by of the Sculpture
Every ventional instrumentation. These
corded tapes were employed. were real musicians playing
real
Andrew Rudin and others, but
se- on the
sound produced was created clear that their
has not been the composed music, and it was
rious composition and though this was
sole medium for these instruments.
spot,
re- message was getting to the audi-
music that had been carefully
Both the Beatles and the Rolling hearsed, there were ample breaks ence.
Stones own and use Moog Synthe- in both composers' work for
pro-
The Chris Swanson group that
_
sizers in their musical performances, longed improvisation. rounded out the concert was some-
and a flock of pop and rock record- what more raucous than gen- the
ings with Moog embellishments Interest in the concert had been but their
sale Deutsch contingent,
have been released recently. particularly high. The advance
of tickets had been greater than eral style reflected the same main-
Until August 28, however, the
to for any previous performance
in this stream jazz - pop - rock orientation,
Moog Synthesizer was confined this and they brought no new colors
or
the recording studio, where its older very popular series, and when already heard. _
at the Museum at 6 voices to the sounds
and more cumbersome ancestors writer arrived
however, participants in
had always worked. On that date p.m. to observe advance prepara- They were,
tions for the 8:30 concert,
there one of the evening's highlights. Just
an important new step was taken
in
.71
The already a large crowd gathered before the close of their number,
public musical performance. was
in. someone kicked a power plug loose,
Moog was introduced to a
live on 53rd Street waiting to get
was allowed into the and the audience was bathed in
audience at the final 1969 concert The public
sudden silence. Poor Robert Moog
of the Museum of Modern
Art's garden at 7 p.m., and long before
the starting time, the Museum was was clearly disconsolate as he an-
"Jazz in the Garden" series. The
forced to turn away would-be at- nounced the power failure and ad-
compact, modular construction of vised that the concert as at an end.
the Moog has made it possible
to tendants. Those lucky enough to
wide variety of oscil- get in waited and watched for an But he was dealing with an audi-
encompass a
lators, filter banks, reverb units, hour -and -a-half while Robert Moog, ence that was having too much fun
mixers, etc., in a single console and his staff, and the two groups of to quit. The plug was reconnected,
to control these circuits through a musicians made various adjustments and another piece was played to
pair of organ-like keyboards. As a to their synthesizers, patched mod- everyones' delight. One thing was
result, music can be produced di- ules,, turned potentiometers, and clear; from now on the Moog will
rectly without the recording, dub- flicked switches. All such adjust- have an established place in live
bing, splicing, looping, redubbing ments were made with the aid of performances.
complications of earlier synthesizers. headphones, and not a single sound There were many imperfections
Any musician who is familiar with was fed to the audience until 8:30 in the August 28th Moog concert,
keyboard techniques can generate when Mr. Moog stepped to the and I'm sure they were as apparent
some sort of musical output from a center of the concert platform, of- to the audience as to this critic. But
Moog in a very short space of time, fered a few modest words of grati- it was an audience that saw through
and improvisation can be interpo- fication at the wide interest in his surface flaws to the concert's real
lated into a performance as freely equipment, and introduced Mr. message. Concert history is filled
as with any conventional instru- Deutsch, Hank Jones on polyphonic with dazzling debuts ruined by un -
ment. synthesizer, Artie Doolittle, bass discerning audiences. Robert Moog
The first Moog concert featured synthesizer, and Jim Pirone, percus- had the good fortune to have a sen-
two jazz composers, Herb Deutsch sion synthesizer. sitive audience note the promise of
and Chris Swanson, and their an instrument at a concert that was
quartets. The instrumentation was Then, following a few prepara- EE

less than a total musical success.


entirely electronic, employing poly- tory bleeps, hoots, and grunts, the

lllllllllf IIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIIIillllllllllll llllllllillllll IIIIII IIIIIII IIIIIII III II IIIIIIII IIII IIII IIII II fl II IIIIIG
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIilllll IIIIIIIIIf II IIIIIIIIII
I I I I II Illi II I I Il llllll lli I I I I I lllllll llllllll
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;illlllllll III II IIIIIII III


I IIIIIIIII I I I II IIIIII I II NIIIIIII II I I III I I I I I I I I II I III II III
I I I

96 AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969


bamboo flute, by a player who has
JAZZ RECORDS difficulty keeping up with the rest of
Bertram Stanleigh
the group. Maybe someday a research
psychologist will get a grant to probe
musicians' minds and find out why so
Charlie Barnet, Volume II many music makers have this de-
RCA Mono LPV 567 plorable compunction to mess around
Such bigtime Barnet favorites as with Johann Sebastian.
Redskin Rhumba, Cherokee, and
Pompton Turnpike were all included Performance: C Sound: A
in the first volume of Vintage Series
reissues (LPV-551) As a result, this
. Miles Davis: In a Silent Way.
new release gives us a chance to re- Columbia CS 9875
assess the less spectacular portions of With Herbie Hancock and Chick
the Barnet repetoire. All 15 of the Corea, electric piano, Josef Zawinul,
numbers on this platter were origi- electric piano and organ, Wayne
Everything needed
nally recorded during the heyday of Shorter, tenor, Dave Holland, bass, to wire your home

the swing era, from 1939 to 1941, John McLaughlin, guitar, and Tony MODELS;
for multiple set
reception-in
and they reflect the sound musical Williams, drums, Davis creates a set HWK-75 easy -to -handle kit
75 ohm form.
judgment and serious approach of of ravishing sound impressions. This HWK-300
For Color TV- FM/FM
300 ohm
is beautiful, meaningful musicmaking, UHF/VHF Stereo
this bandleader and saxophonist. Four
Ellington numbers are included: Har- flawlessly recorded, and in the grand Turn your whole house into a home
entertainment center. Operate up to
lem Speaks, The Gal from Joe's, tradition of Davis' most exalted per- four sets, or be able to move your
formances. All of the strength, con- entertainment equipment from room to
Echoes of Harlem, and Lament for a room. Kit includes all necessary parts,
Lost Love. Two numbers feature trol, and imagination that characterize fittings and instructions.
Lena Horne, who sang with the band this performer's finest work are
in 1940 and '41: Haunted Town brought into focus here. THE FINNEY
and Good-f or -Nothin' Joe. Possibly Performance: A+ Sound: A
COMPANY
34 W. Interstate St., Dept. AM- lBedford.Ohio44146
I

because none of the material ever got


to the top of the best seller charts, it Check No. 23 on Readers Service Card

sounds less dated today. For this lis-


tener, everything, with the exception
of The Wrong Idea, a satire on the
Kay Kyser, Sammy Kaye, Guy Lom-
bardo kind of music, sounds direct
McIntosh CATALOG
and valid as a contemporary musical
statement. The excellent sound is a and FM DIRECTORY
decided factor in creating this im-
Get all the newest and latest information on the new Mcl ntosh
pression. id State equipment in the McIntosh catalog. In addition you Sol-
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Performance: A Sound: A-
A New Sound from the Japanese Bach
Scene.
Victrola VICS 1458
The remarkable ability of Bach's
music to survive assaults from sym-
phony orchestras, jazz trios, scat sing-
ers, and electronic synthesizers has
not gone unnoted in Japan. They
have organized a frontal attack con-
sisting of two kotos, a shakuhachi, MX112
guitar, bass, and drums. And the FM STEREO/AM TUNER PREAMPLIFIER
pieces they fiddle with are pretty
much the same ones that every one -ALL SOLID STATE
else knocks about. Not much jazzing McIntosh Laboratory Inc.
up has been accomplished here, al- 2 Chambers St., Dept. AE11
though the notes suggest that at one
point "a bossa nova rhythm has been
SEND Binghamton, N.Y. 13903
NAME
added for special seasoning." The
music not only sounds quite straight,
it also sounds a trifle stiff, particularly
TODAY! ADDRESS

CITY STATE ZIP


when played on the shakuhachi, or
Check No. 97 on Readers Service Card
AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969
97
www.americanradiohistory.com
and putting their hearts into the per- Vienna men playing for him as if he
formance. Perhaps some nit-picking is amiable. Above all he has the
experts will detect some shortcomings were Furtwangler himself. This is
Recorded with this version ... as for me I was music making of high order. It isn't
too entranced to worry over such every day you can hear such ravish-
ing strings, mellifluous woodwinds, nor
Tape bones.
A good portion of the credit for mellow brass!
this sonic euphoria must go to Lon- The sound is equal to the challenge
Reviews don, who have mounted the produc-
tion with splendid sound. The acoustic
of the playing. Moderately broad
acoustics lend a fine round liveness,
perspective was spacious enough to without blunting orchestral detail. In-
lend liveness, without obscuring the ner balances in the orchestra were
vocal parts, and orchestral detail held revealing without spotlighting or iso-
BERT WHYTE
up very well. Vocal/choral/orchestral lation. Modest directional effects with
balances were all judicious, one never a good center fill. Quite a wide dyna-
covering the other. The principals mic range on this tape, so I suggest you
were well projected, but never out of not set your gain controls at too high
Gilbert and Sullivan: The Pirates of Penz- proportion for the mere sake of clarity. a level at the beginning of the work.
ance. The D'Oyly Carte Opera Co. Isi- Nice clean strings, bright brass, and Both the cello and the viola are nicely
dore Godfrey conducting the Royal good solid percussion were note- balanced with the orchestra, and both
Philharmonic. Ampex/London, LOD- are richly sonorous. Tape hiss pleas-
worthy. The only fall from grace was
90156, 2 -reels, 71/2 ips ($16.95) ingly low here, print -through and
an occasional bit of stridency and
overload from the chorus. Tape hiss in crosstalk of no consequence. If you're
Needless to say, for all devoted tired of all the other Straussian fan-
my copy was fairly low considering I
savoyards this tape is an absolute tasies, this may appeal to your jaded
like my "G and S" at a good robust
must. For those with only a passing palate.
level. A little print -through was noted
acquaintance with Gilbert and Sulli-
van, or whose memory of it has
here and there, no audible crosstalk.
grown dusty from long silence, this
One of the best tapes of recent months.
The Sound of Celestial Stereo: American
is as fine a passport to their magical Airlines AstroStereo. Ampex/DGG,
world as one could desire. Recording CW223, open reel, 33/4 ips (24.95)
Richard Strauss: Don Quixote. Lorin Ma-
under the banner of the renowned
azel cond. the Vienna Philharmonic This is another of those tapes that
D'Oyly Carte Company gives this
Orch. Ampex/London, LCL80208, open you are supposed to hear on American
production a certain cachet. And the reel, 71/2 ips ($7.95)
company is as good as my memory Airlines for three solid hours. I can't
serves me. Naturally there have been One of the least played of Strauss' quite conceive of that on a plane
tone poems, Don Quixote, has never ( gives you no time to ogle the stew-
many changes, but the good basics
remain-the sheer ebullience of the achieved the popularity of his knightly ardesses or drink your booze). But on
performance, the good diction and brother Don Juan or the rascally Till a rainy weekend at home, this is just
articulation even when using the var- Eulenspiegel. If it does not have their the thing if you want some classical
ious accents, the fine ensemble work level of inspiration, it is nonetheless background music instead of the 59th
and good vocal balances. You know an interesting work that grows in sta- version of "hey Jude." This is taken
this is a company enjoying themselves ture with repeated listening. Those from Deutsche Grammophon albums,
not acquainted with this score or those and as such is pretty superior record-
seeking an updated stereo recording ing.. The selections are reasonably well-
CONTROL CENTERS of it, will be equally well -served with chosen with such items as the Handel
m Switch Speakers!
this superb, finely wrought perform- Water Music, Finlandia, Blue Dan-
For Stereo.
ance. The important cello part is con- ube, Hungarian Rhapsody, and they
Input Mixing.
vincingly played by Emanuel Brabec, occasionally jolt you with a Mahler 1st
Monitoring!

ist Time!\
'®® and the solo viola by Josef Staar. or Prokofiev 5th symphony (excerpts
Maazel may be young in years but of course) . The sound is up to
.4lco Control Center allows your choice of up
to 6 stereo speaker systems to be selected his reading here is amazingly mature. Deutsche Grammophon's high stand-
simultaneously. Push -on & push -off switches
enable you to optionally select your choice of His balances are all good, he never ards and the transfer to 33/4 ips is not
speaker pairs. Easy access rear panel connec- too devastating, except in some of the
tors to match your particular system. No ex- overpowers in the solo parts, his pace
ternal power required; no impedance match more robust sections where it is all
problems. Useable with low or high impedance namamaa4
circuits. Leather -styled black metal with too easy to hear the compressor at
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Check No. 98 on Readers Service Card Check No. 22 on Readers Service Card
98 AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969

www.americanradiohistory.com
ASK...
work. With a tape machine with auto- soon to be followed by RCA cassettes,
YOUR DEALER
matic reverse, this is a great three-
hour escape from the usual and in-
and this marks the entry of the big
boys into the cassette derby. It is
FOR AMINADO
creasingly banal music on FM. none of my business what delayed
their entry, `null said that with the emor?stpatior?
The Anita Kerr Singers. Ampex/Dot, promotional push that they can and
X5951, open reel, 33/4 ips ($5.95)
are putting behind their cassettes, the
Nothing earth -shaking here, but little package is headed for the big It'll
good solid pop stuff, expertly per- time. I still think the price has to turn
formed and cleverly arranged. Main come down some before they really you
blessing is that they don't scream at on!
catch on with the kids, which is where
you, but are actually quite articulate the big money is, but this is just a
and pleasant-voiced. The group tackles matter of time.
such as "When the World Was Young," Are Columbia's cassettes any better
"Windmills of Your Mind," "Good- than what has been issued by other
bye," "My Way," and seven others. companies? They appear to have a
Orchestral playing is top notch little less hiss than most cassettes, the
and good balances between voice and distortion content is fair, but on sev-
orch. Nice, bright, clean sound, low eral I caught what sounded like drop-
hiss, slight print-through and cross- out or tape making poor contact with
talk. the heads. Frequency response seems Mikado Model 2410 ... has everything
to -'tend to 8-9 kHz, but with the you'll ever need in a music system. 20
West Side Story (Original Sound Track) still very evident tape hiss, it isn't very Watts AM/FM/FM MPX Tuner amplifier
Columbia, Cassette 16 12 0004 ($5.95) complete with Garrard automatic changer
usable. There seems to be a fair quo- and two speakers. Fits most pocket
I Love How You Love Me: Ray Conniff.
tient of mechanical problems with the books $189.95
Columbia,Cassette 16 10 0612 ($5.95)
Today's Themes For Young Lovers. Percy cassettes themselves; some reel stick-
Faith Orch. and Chorus. Columbia, ing and binding, for example, (a pro-
Cassette 16 10 0290 ($5.95) duction of "Camelot," was unusable
My Name is Barbra: Barbra Streisand. in this respect). In summation, they
Columbia, Cassette 16 10 0168 ($5.95) got their balloon off the ground, and
no doubt the product will please those Mikado Model 2425... This 60 Watts
This, as you can see, is a batch of who are less critical. It is obvious they AM/FM/FM MPX Tuner amplfier is one of
cassettes from Columbia. Nothing can do better, and with some of the the outstanding buys on the market to-
extra -ordinary about the titles, stand- day. Engineered to give you 99% pure
promised improvements in cassettes sound. This is 1% or less harmonic dis-
ard Columbia fare. What is news is reportedly not too far off, the medium tortion across the entire bandwidth (20-
that there now are Columbia cassettes, may soon mature. 20,000 CPS) at 10 Watts RMS per channel
or 20 Watts both channels. Compare this
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AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969 99

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FOR SALE

FM BACKGROUND MUSIC-Miniaturized
CLASSIFIED SCA Adapter Module connects to any FM
Tuner. Operates on 12 volts. $29 postpaid.
506 per Performance guaranteed. K-LAB, Dept.
Rates: 256 per word per insertion for noncommercial advertisements; Al, Box 572, S.Norwalk, Conn. 06856.
word for commercial advertisements. Frequency discounts as follows: 2 times,
less 15%; 6 times, less 20%; 12 times, less 30%. Closing
date is the FIRST of HARTLEY CONCERTMASTER in home
the second month preceding the date of issue. Payment must accompany
all demonstration: West Orange, Scotch
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168 W. 23rd St., New York, N.Y. 10011 cartridge and we will ship you via air pre- RECORDS, TAPES, MOVIES, BOOKS. Un-
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Top Stereo Cartridges: Shure V-15 Type II, for record or tape catalog, 259 for others.
RENT STEREO tapes $1.00 week. Catalog Empire 999VE, Stanton 681EE. These are Specify catalog desired. Murphy's, P.O.
259. Tape Library, Box 8126, Washington, NEW and include diamond stylus. Write Box 358A, LaPlace, Louisiana 70068.
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tubes, tools, stereo amplifiers, tuners, CB, Brotherhoods for a New Age civilization, STEREO COMPONENTS from Japan-tape
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AMPEX AG -350-2, portable or rack, for model number. Furniture, 933 W. 7th
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N. Saltair, Los Angeles, Calif. 90049, (213) PROTECT YOUR LPS-Heavy poly sleeves
476-4276. for jackets 59, Roundbottom for records EQUALIZER. Passive. Unlimited Applica-
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order $5.00. House of Records, Box 323A,
chure $1.00. Neg-Eye, Box 1036, Ander- Hillburn, N. Y. 10931.
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Send 259 for catalog. R. Mussehl, Route 1,
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repairing. (Weathers, Ortofon, Edison, FOR SALE
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CLASSIC radio shows! For sale on tape.
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FREE Catalog: Low-priced, high-perform- ton 98118.
ACOUSTIC RESEARCH, Dyna, Koss, Shure ance subminiature listening devices direct
discount specialists. Write for free catalog. from manufacturer. Dealers welcome. FOR SALE: Marantz 15, $265.00 and Mar-
SCS Corp., 95 Vassar St., Cambridge, Mass. Audiotronix Adm 1, 156 Fifth Avenue, antz 7T, $260.00 with oil cab. Paul Mas-
02139. New York, N.Y. 10010. cetta, 2837 Decatur Ave., Bx, N.Y. 10458

100
AUDIO NOVEMBER 1969
FOR SALE FOR SALE EQUIPMENT WANTED
AMAZING DISCOUNTS on famous brand FOR SALE: Ampex 300-350 1/2" 4 Trk- YOUR OLD CARTRIDGE IS WORTH
high fidelity stereo components. No $2500; 602-2 71/2-IPS-$450, 350-2 Play- MONEY! Send us the following amount
small wonder that we have set new sales back Elecs., $100, 300 Mono Elecs. with now-and your old cartridge AFTER
records each year since 1959. Write. meter panel-$75; 350 type sel-sync- you've received your factory -fresh
Arkay Electronics, 1028-05 Common- $35; 350-3 master bias osc.-$50, Sigma replacement by return airmail: SHURE
wealth, Boston, Mass. 02215. 4-mic mixer-$75; REL Precedent tuner- V15 Type II, $48.50; M91E, M92E, M93E,
$100, Guy Heitmann, 12 Lake Rd. Peek- $18.50; M55E, $14.75; M3D, $8.75. STAN -
FOR SALE: Marantz 7C w/cab. $140, 9's skill, N.Y. 10566. TON 681EE, $34.50; 500E, $19.50. EMPIRE
(new) $500 a pair, SLT-12U turntable $125. 999VE, $47.50; 888VE, $34.50; 808E, $17.50.
Sony turntable w/base/A&D arm/Decca MARANTZ 7C and 8B. HEATH 10-14 PICKERING XV-15/750E, $34.50. ADC 25,
cart. $200. 1-581-1311. P. Haley, 1021 Scope. Mint condition. Best offer. Shep- $72.50; 10E Mk II, $32.50. When sending
Hazel Place, Mexico, Mo. 65265. ard, Box 4302, State College, Miss. 39762, us your trade-in cartridge, you may add
601-323-2756. a pair of KOSS, SUPEREX, SHARPE, etc.
FILIGREE WOODWORK used by top headsets to your order for a total savings
quality hi-fi manufacturers available for OLD RADIO PROGRAMS on tape. Gang- of up to 50%. INFORMATION WILL BE
handi-crafters. Send $0.50 for sample and busters, Jack Armstrong, Whistler, etc. ENCLOSED. KIMBERLEY ELECTRONIC
literature. Empire, Box 937, Pacific Pali- Sample: 2 hr. $6.00, 4 hr. $9.00. Hundreds ASSOCIATES, 101 Oak Street, San Fran-
sades, Calif. 90272. more in Hobby Magazine ($1.25 or free cisco, Calif. 94102.
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HARPSICHORD: Same as owned by Phila- 9875 S.W. 212 St., Miami, Fla.
WANTED: Stereo Disc Cutter. 3C Westrex
delphia Orchestra and RCA Victor. In kit or better. Peter J. Helffrich, RD No. 2,
form for home workshop assembly, $150. Allentown, Pa. 18103.
Clavichord kit, $100. Free brochure. Write:
CASH FOR YOUR unwanted LP's and pre-
Zuckermann Harpsichords, Dept. R., 115
INSTRUCTION recorded tapes. Record House, Hillburn,
Christopher St., New York, N.Y. 10014.
New York 10931.
SOLID-STATE audio plug-in octal (1" dia. EARN YOUR Degree in Electronics Engi-
x 2" H) modules. Mic preamps, disc & neering through combination correspond-
SITUATION WANTED
tape preamp-equalizers, tape bias osc. & ence -classroom educational program. Free
record amp., power amps & power sup- catalog. Grantham Electronics Engineering AUDIO SPECIALIST MANUFACTURERS
plies. Send for free catalog and audio Institute, 1505 N. Western, Hollywood, REPRESENTATIVE seeks new lines for Ari-
applications. Opamp Labs, 172 S. Alta California 90027. zona. California representatives wanting
Vista Blvd., Los Angeles, Calif. 90036. affiliate sales office invited. Box AN9-1.
LEARN Electronic Organ Servicing at
OLDIES -45 RPM. Original hits. Over 4000 home. All makes including transistors. Ex- WOULD LIKE TO WORK as a record dis-
available. Catalog 25g. C & S Record Sales, perimental kit-trouble-shooting. Accred- tributor assistant. Call (215) KI 6-0220.
Box 197, Wampsville, N. Y. 13163. ited NHSC. Free Booklet. Niles Bryant
School, 3631 Stockton, Dept. 1D, Sacra- HELP WANTED
KENWOOD amplifiers and speakers-dis- mento, Calif. 95820.
count prices-free catalog and quotations. SERIOUS RECORDISTS to make records
Playboy Shop, Box 221, Agana, Guam. WALL SYSTEM-Cabinet Builders-New manufactured by RCA custom records. We
techniques described in booklet, "Cabinet train, equip and provide protected fran-
CATALOGS Broadcasts, Soundtracks, Per- Panel Cutting with Portable Saw." Send chised territories. Modest investment re-
sonalities of Thirties, Forties. Box 225, 600 (Stamps accepted) Independence Spe - quired. Send resume to Mr. Bloch, 418 N.
New York, N.Y. 10028. cialties, Box 2988, Phila., Pa. 19126. Main St., Englewood, Ohio 45322.
I- 1
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Ampex Corporation 33 Clark, David 95
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Electro -Voice, Inc. Cover IV, 2

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57 Bose Co., The 69
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Here are 10 facts about uniCLUB. uniCLUB supplies hi-fidelity equipment of vir- Matsushita Electric Corp. of America 75
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label available. Columbia-Capitol-RCA- fers members at least 25% off on any book in 89
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You cyan tell it's the Márkgrafliçhes Opernhaus
when you listen with a .$tanton.
The Markgräflicies Opernhaus in Bayreuth, built 1745-48, Germany's orly large tarcque theater pr -served in its origina. condition.

The ultmate test of a stereo cartridge isn't tae The acoustical characteristics that d_stinguish one hall
sound of the music. from another, or any hall from your listening room., represent the
It's thesound of the hall. subtlest frequency and phase cotmuonents of :he recorded waveform.
Many cf today's smoother, better -tracking cartridges can They end up as extremely fine cndu:azions Df the record gr. ove,
reproduce instrumental and vocal timbres with conside-ab:e even Ener than the higher harmonics 3f most instruments.
naturalism. But something is often missing. That nice, indistorzd When a cartridge reproduces these undulations with the ctrrcst
sound seems to be coming from the speakers, or from nowhere .n precision, you can hear the specific acpustics of the Markgräfliches
particular, ra:her than from the concert hall or cpera stage. Opernhaus in Bayreuth, or of ar.y oth.r hall. If it doesn't, you can':.
It's easy to blame the recording, but often it's the cartridge The Stanton does.

"The tracking was excellent and distinctly better in this respect than any other cartridge we have tested ...
The frequency response of the Stanton 681EE was the flattest of the cartridges tested, within ±1 dB over most of the audio range."
Hirsch -Houck Laboratories, HiFi/Stereo Review, July, 1968.

The specifications. Frequency response, from 10 Hz to 10kHz, ±'/t dB. From 10kHz to 20kHz, individually calibrated. Nominal output, 0.7mV/cm/sec. Nominal channel
separation, 35dB. Load resistance, 47K ohms. Cable capacitance, 275 pF_ DC resistance, 1K ohms. Inductance, 500mH. Stylus tip, .0002" x .0009" elliptical. Tracking force, 8/4 to L'/r gm.
Cartridge weight, 5.5 gm. Brush weight (self-supporting), 1 gm. "Each Stanton 681 is tested and measured against the laboratory standard for frequency response, channel separation,
output, etc. The results are written by hand on the specifications enclo..ed with every cartridge. The 681EE, with elliptical stylus and the "Longhair" brush that cleans
record grooves before they reach the stylus, costs $60. The 681T, identical but with interchangeable elliptical and conical styli both included, costs $75.
For free literature, write to Stanton Magnetics, Inc., Painview, L.I., N.Y. 11803.
Check No. 103 on Reader Service Card
SPANISH/Oak s. ''f ' ` CONTEMPORARY/Pecan

TRADITIONAL /Cherry

Unretouched photographs
and the unvarnished truth about
the new ARIES Console Speaker System.
The Aries 21/2" cone/dome tweeter is
particularly unique. For instance, to ob-
1,1111,1
tain ultimate response, damping com-
pound is metered onto the cone within
a tolerance of ±0.001 oz. And control
,
of cone/dome materials insures a radia-
Y. -r., w-. tion area that varies predictably with
......
frequency to insure uniform dispersion
TONE BURST
TONE BURST TONE BURST
Il
at all frequencies.
0 db Even the crossover network is unusual.

-5db
/*- Four inductors (iron -core type for the
woofer to avoid losses), three capacitors
(with a Mylar type for the tweeter to
10 db N W vi maintain response beyond the high fre-
O
yy
O 0pp ÓÓÓ00 O
O
O HAT; 7C

w
X
Ñ S g Sc quency limitations of electrolytic types),
FREQUENCY IN HERTZ
and a 5 -position rotary ceramic switch
offers precise control with up to 10 db
attenuation at 10 kHz.
But Aries is more than a distinguished
If you are as serious about musical half -roll surround, and rigid deep-cone music reproducer. It is also handsome
of: reproduction as we are, the follow- geometry. It's a combination that insures furniture in its own right. Tasteful design
ing discussion may help you in choosing 3/4" linear cone movement, precise tran- and robust construction set Aries apart
your next speaker system. And the actual sient response, and high power handling from the anonymous styles of the past.
response curves and tone burst tests may capacity without frequency doubling. In every detail from the hidden 2' x 4"
prove most revealing when compared with The mid -range was designed with equal bracing to the authentic hardware and
other speaker systems currently available. care. A specially treated 6" cone speaker richly finished hardwood veneers, Aries
is mounted in its own sealed inner en-
can be an attractive addition to your
Aries is an uncommon speaker system.
home ... a delight to ear and eye.
Larger than the ubiquitous bookshelf closure. Speaker resonance is well below
speakers for a very sound reason greater : the crossover point to insure peak -free See and hear the new Aries at your
internal volume permits a worthwhile ex- response and clean transients in this sen- E -V dealer's soon. Look ... touch ... and
tension of bass with lower distortion and sitive part of the spectrum. Oscilloscope above all, listen. It can be an eye-opening
higher efficiency. Effective use of this vol- testing of every unit is routine so that experience. $275.00.
ume comes from a 12" woofer with 91/2 laboratory standards are maintained in ELECTRO -VOICE, INC., Dept. 1194A
pound magnet structure, new sealed -foam production. 602 Cecil Street, Buchanan, Michigan 49107

For name of nearest dealer, call TOLL -FREE: (800) 243-0355 /ll o
ANY HOUR, ANY DAY. In Connecticut call collect: 853-3600 V
A SUBSIDIARY OF GULTON INDUSTRIES, INC.
Check No. 104 on Reader Service Card