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Designation:D

Designation: D7263
7263–
–09

Standard TestMethods for


Laboratory Determination of Density (Unit Weight) of Soil
Specimens1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation D7263;
D7263; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of 
originaladoptionor,inthecaseofrevision,theyearof lastrevision.A
revision.Anumberinparenthesesindicatestheyearoflastreapproval.A
reapproval. A
superscript epsilon ( ´) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope otheruses,orboth.Howoneappliesthe resultsobtainedusing


1.1 These test methods describe two ways of determining
determining this standard is beyond its scope.
the total/moist and dry densities (unit weights) of intact, 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the
disturbed, remolded, and reconstituted (compacted) soil speci- safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the
mens.Density(unitweight)asusedinthisst andardmeansthe responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-
same as “bulk density” of soil as defined by the Soil
the Soil Science
Science  priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-
Society of America.
America. Intact specimens may be obtained from bility of regulatory limitations prior to use.
thin-walled sampling tubes, block samples, or clods. Speci-
2. Referenc
Referenced
ed Documents
mens that are remolded by dynamic or static compaction
procedures may also be measured by these methods. These 2.1  ASTM Standards: 2
methods apply to soils that will retain their shape during the D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained
measurement process and may also apply to other materials Fluids
such as soil-cement, soil-lime, soil-bentonite or solidified D698 TestMethodsforLaboratoryCompactionCharacter-
3
soil-bentonite-cement slurries. It is common for the density istics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12 400 ft-lbf/ft (600
(unit weight) of specimens after removal from sampli ng tubes kN-m/m3))
and compaction molds to be less than the value based on tube D854 Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by
or mold volumes, or of in-situ conditions. This is due to the Water Pycnometer
specimen swelling after removal of lateral pressures. D1557 Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Charac-
1.1.1 Method A covers the procedure for measuring t he teristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ 
volume of wax coated specimens by determining the quantity ft3(2,700 kN-m/m 3))
of water displaced. D1587 Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils
1.1.1.1 This method only applies tospecimens in which the for Geotechnical
Geotechnical Purposes
wax will not penetrate the outer surface of the specimen. D2166 Test Method for Unconfined Compressive Strength
1.1.2 MethodB
MethodBcovers
coversthe
theprocedure
procedureby bymeans
meansofofthe
thedirect
direct of Cohesive Soil
measurement of the dimensions and mass of a specimen, D2216 TestMethodsforLaboratoryDeterminat ionofWa-
usually one of cylindrical shape. Intact and reconstituted/  ter (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
remolded specimens may be tested by this method in conjunc- D2487 Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering
tionwithstrength,
withstrength,permeability(air/water)
permeability(air/water)andandcompressibility
compressibility Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
determinations. D2488 Practice for Description and Identification of Soils
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded
regarded as the (Visual-Manual
(V isual-Manual Procedure)
standard. The values stated in inch-pound units are approxi- D3550 Practice for Thick Wall, Ring-Lined, Split Barrel,
mate. Drive Sampling of Soils
1.3 All observed and calculated values
values shall conform tothe D3740 Practice for Minimum Requirements
R equirements for Agencies
guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as
PracticeD
Practice D6026
6026.. Used in Engineering Design and Construction
1.3.1 The method used to specify how data are collected, D4220 Practices for Preserving and Transporting Soil
calculated,or
calculated, orrecorded
recordedin
inthis
thisstandard
standardisisnot
notdirectly
directlyrelated
relatedto
to Samples
the accuracy with which the data can be applied in design or D4318 Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and

1 2
Thesetest
These testmethods
methodsare
areunder
underthe
the jurisdiction
 jurisdictionof
ofASTM
ASTMCommittee
CommitteeD18
D18oonSoil For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.
www.astm.org,
org, or
and Rock and are the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D18.
Subcommittee D18.03
03 on
 on Texture,
Te xture, contactASTMCustomerServiceatservice@astm.org. For  Annual Book of ASTM 
Plasticity and Density Characteristics of Soils. Standards volumeinformation,refertothestandard’sDocumentSummarypageon
Current edition approved March 15, 2009. Published April 2009. theASTMwebsite.

1
D 7263 – 09
Plasticity Index of Soils of the specimen suspended in water. This is usually accom-
D4753 Guide for Evaluating, Selecting, and Specifying plished by a weighing hook built into the balance for that
Balances and Standard Masses for Use in Soil, Rock, and purpose, or a yoke assemblage is placed upon the pan which
Construction Materials Testing suspends a thin, non-absorbent string or wire, that is, a nylon
D6026 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotec hni- line, etc., below the balance into the water rese rvoir.
cal Data 5.1.2  Drying Oven —A thermostatically controlled, prefer-
E2251 Specification for Liquid-in-GlassASTMThermom- ablyoftheforced-drafttype, capableofmaintainingauniform
eters with Low-Hazard Precision Liquids temperature of 110 6 5°C throughout the drying chamber.
2.2 Other Reference: 5.1.3 Wax —Non-shrinking,paraffinand/or microcrystalline
Soil Science Society of America Glossary of Soil Science wax that has a known and constant density, rr, to four
Terms3 significant figures and that does not change after repeated
melting and cooling cycles.
3. Terminology
NOTE 2—The waxes generally used are commercially available and
3.1 Refer to TerminologyD653 forstandard definitions of  3
have density values in the range of 0.87 to 0.91 g/cm or Mg/m 3.
terms.
5.1.4 Wax-Melting Container —Used to melt the wax, but
4. Significance and Use shouldnotallowthewaxtooverheat.Acontainerheatedbyhot
4.1 Dry density, as defined as “density of soil or rock” in water, preferably thermostatically controlled, is satisfactory.
Terminology D653 and “bulk density” by soil scientists, can The wax should be heated to only slightly above t he melting
be used to convert the water fraction of soil from a ma ss basis pointtoavoidflashingofthewaxvaporsandtopermitquickly
toavolumebasisandvise-versa.Whenparticledensity,thatis, forming a uniform surface coating of wax. Warning—Vapors
specific gravity (Test Methods D854) is also known, dry given off by molten wax ignite spontaneously above 205°C
density can be used to calculate porosity and void ratio (see (400°F)andshouldnotbeallowedtocomeincontactwiththe
Appendix X1). Dry density measurements are al so useful for heating element or open flame.
determiningdegreeofsoilcompaction.Sincemoist urecontent 5.1.5 Wire Basket —Awirebasketof3.35mmorfinermesh
isvariable,moistsoildensityprovideslittle usefulinformation of approximately equal width and height of sufficient size to
except to estimate the weight of soil per unit volume, for contain the specimen. The basket shall be constructed to
example,poundspercubicyard,atthetimeofsampling.Since prevent trapping air when it is submerged. The basket is
soilvolumeshrinkswithdryingofswellingsoils, bulkdensity suspendedfromthebalancebyafinethreadorstring.Ahairnet
will vary with moisture content. Hence, the water content of  may also be used in lieu of the basket for smaller soil
the soil should be determined at the time of sampling. specimens.
4.2 Densities (unit weights) of remolded/reconstituted 5.1.6 Container —A container or tank of sufficient size to
specimens are commonly used to evaluate the degree of  contain the submerged basket and specimen.
compaction of earthen fills, embankments, etc. Dry density 5.1.7 Specimen Container —A corrosion-resistant container
values are usually used in conjunction wit h compaction curve of sufficient size to contain the specimen for water content
values (Test Methods D698andD1557). determination.
4.3 Density (unit weight) is one of the key components in 5.1.8 Thermometer —Capableofmeasuringthetemperature
determining the mass composition/phase relations of soil, see range within which the test is being performed graduated in a
Appendix X1. 0.1 degree C division scale and meeting the requirements of 
NOTE 1—The quality of the result produced by this standard is SpecificationE2251.
dependent on the competence of the personnel performing it and the 5.1.9 Container Handling Apparatus —Gloves or suitable
suitability of the equipment and facilit ies used. Agencies that meet the holder for moving and handling hot containers.
criteriaofPracticeD3740are generallyconsideredcapableofcompetent 5.1.10  Miscellaneous—Paintbrush, trimming tools, speci-
and objective testing/sampling/inspection/etc. Users of this standard are
men containers, and data sheets provided as required.
cautioned that compliance with PracticeD3740does not in itself assure
reliable results. Reliable results depend on several factors; Practice 5.2 For Method B the following apparatus are needed:
D3740provides a means of evaluating some of these factors. 5.2.1  Balance—See5.1.1.
5.2.2  Drying Oven —See5.1.2.
5. Apparatus
5.2.3 Specimen-Size Measurement Devices —Devices used
5.1 For Method Athe following apparatus are required: to determine the height and width or diameter of the specimen
5.1.1  Balance—Allbalancesmustmeettherequirementsof  shall measure the respective dimensions to four significant
SpecificationD4753and this section.AClass GP1 balance of  digits and shall be constructed so that their use will not indent
0.01 g readability is required for specime ns having a mass up or penetrate into the specimen.
to 200 grams and a Class GP2 balance of 0.1 g readability is
required for specimens having a mass over 200 grams. For NOTE 3—Circumferentialmeasuringtapesarerecommendedovercali-
pers for measuring the diameter of cylindrical specimens.
methodA, the balance must be capable of measuring the mass
5.2.4  Apparatus for Preparing Reconstituted or Remolded 
Specimens (Optional) —Such apparatus is only required if 
3
Availableonline: www.soils.org/sssagloss/index.php. these types of specimens are being tested.

2
D 7263 – 09
5.2.5  Miscellaneous Apparatus —Specimen trimming and NOTE 4—Ifoverheatedwaxcomesincontactwiththe soilspecimen,it
carving tools including a wire saw, steel straightedge, miter may cause the moisture to vaporize and form air bubbles under the wax.
Bubbles may be trimmed out and filled with wax.
boxandverticaltrimminglathe,specimencontainers,anddata
sheets shall be provided as required. 7.2.6 Determine and record the mass of the wax-coated
specimen in air (  M C ) to four significant figures in g or kg.
6. Samples and Test Specimens 7.2.7 Determine and record the submerged mass of the
6.1 Samples—Intact samples shall be preserved and trans- wax-coated specimen (  M sub) to four significant digits in g or
ported in accordance with Practice D4220 Groups C and D kg. This is done by placing the specimen in a wire basket
soil. Compacted or remolded specimens shall be preserved in hookedontoabalanceandimmersingthebasketandspecimen
accordance with Practice D4220 Group B soil. Maintain the in a container of water. In order to directly measure the
samples that are stored prior to testing in non-corrodible submergedmassofthewetsoilandwax,thebalancemusthave
airtight containers at a temperature between approximately 3° been previously balanced (tared to zero) with the wire basket
and 30°C and in an area that prevents direct contact with completely submerged in the container of water. Make sure
sunlight. that the specimen and basket is fully submerged, and that the
6.2 Specimens—Specimens for testing shall be sufficiently basket is not touching the sides or bottom of the container.
cohesive and firm to maintain shape during the measuring 7.2.8 Record the temperature ofthe water to 0.1 degreesC.
procedure if Method A is used, see 1.1.1.1. Specimens shall NOTE 5—Maintainwaterbathtemperatureandsubmergedbasketdepth
have a minimum dimension of 30 mm (1.3 in.) and the largest the same as when calibrated or z eroed.
particle contained within the test specimen shall be smaller
7.2.9 Remove the wax from the specimen. It can bepeeled
than one-tenth of the specimen’s smallest dimension. For
off after a break is made in the wax surface.
specimenshavingadimensionof72mm(2.8in.)or larger, the
7.2.10 Determine the water content to the nearest 0.1
largest particle size shall be smaller than one-sixth of the
percent in accordance with MethodD2216.
specimen’ssmallestdimension.If,aftercompletionofateston
an intact specimen, visual observations indicate that larger NOTE 6—Thewatercontentmaybedeterminedfroman adjacentpiece
particlesthanpermittedarepresent,indicatethisinformationin ofsoilorfromtrimmingsifappropriate,forexample,ift hewaxbecomes
the remarks section of the report of test data. difficulttoremovefromthe specimen.Noteinthereportif watercontent
is not from the specimen itself.

7. Procedure 7.3  Method B—Direct Measurement  :


7.1 Record all identifying information for the specimen, 7.3.1  Intact Specimens —Prepare intact specimens from
such as project, boring number, depth, sample type (that is, large block samples or from samples secured in accordance
tube, trimmed, etc.), visual soil classification (Practice with Practice D1587 or other acceptable tube sampling pro-
D2488), or other pertinent data. cedures, such as Practice D3550. Specimens can be obtained
7.2  Method A—Water Displacement  : from intact block samples using a sharp cutting ring. Handle
7.2.1 Determine, if not previously established, the density samples/specimenscarefullytominimizedisturbance,changes
of the wax to be used to four significant digits (see 5.1.3). incrosssection,orchangeinwatercontent,see6.1.Specimens
7.2.2 Prepare specimens in an environment that minimizes are usually cubical or cylindrical in shape.
anychangesinwatercontent.Forsomesoils,changesinwater NOTE 7—Coresamplingmightbedifficultorimpossibleingravelly or
content are minimized by trimming specimens in a controlled hard dry soils. Wet soils tend to be more plastic and subject to
environment, such as a controlled high-humidity room/  compression.
enclosure. 7.3.1.1 Specimens obtainedby tubesamplingmaybetested
7.2.3 If required, cut a specimen meeting the size require- withoutextrusionexceptforcuttingtheendsurfacesplaneand
ments given in 6.2 from the sample to be tested. If required, perpendiculartothelongitudinalaxisofthesamplingtube.The
trim the specimen to a fairly regular shape. Re-entrant a ngles height and inner dimensions of the tube may be taken to
should be avoided, and any cavities formed by l arge particles represent specimen dimensions.
being pulled out should be patched carefully with mat erial
from the trimmings. Handle specimens carefully to minimize NOTE 8—Some soils may expand into the sampling tube with a
resultant change in volume from the original in-situ condition.
disturbance, change in shape, or change in water content.
Typically, for most samples, changes in water content are 7.3.1.2 Trim specimens in an environment that minimizes
minimized by trimming specimens, in a controlled environ- any change in water content, see 7.2.2. Where removal of 
ment, such as a controlled high-humidity room/enclosure. gravel or crumbling resulting from trimming causes voids on
7.2.4 Determine and record the moist mass of the soil the surface of the specimen, carefully fill the voids with
specimen ( M t ) to four significant figures in g or kg. remolded soil obtained from the trimmings. When the sample
7.2.5 Cover the specimen with a thin coat of melted wax, condition permits, a vertical trimming lathe may be used to
either with a paintbrush or by dipping the specimen in a reduce cylindrical specimens to a uniform diameter.
container of melted wax.Apply a second coat of wax after the 7.3.1.3 Afterobtaininguniformdimensions,placethespeci-
firstcoathashardened.Thewaxshouldbesufficientlywarmto men in a miter box or trimming collar (especially for friable
flowwhenbrushedonthespecimen,yetitshouldnotbesohot soils)andcutthespecimentoauniformheightwithawiresaw
that it dries the soil. orothersuitabledevice,suchasasharpenedsteelstraightedge.

3
D 7263 – 09
Performoneormorewatercontentdeterminationsonmaterial d  = average specimen diameter, mm,and
obtained during the trimming of the specimen in accordance h = average specimen height, mm.
with Test Method D2216 for the estimated water content(s). 8.2.2.2 Cubical Shape :
Final water content shall be performed on the whole specimen
V  5  ~ l w h! /4000 (4)
orrepresentativeslice(ifothertestingsuchasplasticityli mits,
Test Methods D4318, are required) at the end of the test. where:
Determineandrecordthemass(g)anddimensions(mm)ofthe l = average length, mm,
specimen to four significant digits using the applicable appa- w = average width,mm, and
ratus described in 5.2. A minimum of three height measure- h = average height, mm.
ments(approximately120°apartifthree,90°apartiffour,etc.) 8.3 Calculate the dry density for either method A or B as
and at least three diameter measurements at the quarter points follows:
of the height shall be made to determine each the average rd  5 r m /  ~ 1 1 w /100 ! (5)
height and diameter of cylindrical specimens. A minimum of 
three measurements each of length, width and height shall be where:
made to determine the volume of cubical specimens. rd  = dry densityof soil, g/cm 3 or Mg/m 3, and
w = water content ofsoil specimen (in percent),to nearest
NOTE 9—Test Method D2166, section 6.2, describes a procedure for four significant digits.
preparing intact test specimens for strength testing.
8.4 Calculate the moist/total and dry unit weights to four
7.3.2  Remolded/Reconstituted (Compacted) Specimens — significant figures for either method A or B as follows:
Specimens shall be prepared as prescribed by the individual
gm 5 62.428 rm inlbf/ft 3 and gd  5 62.428 rd  inlbf/ft 3 (6)
assigningthetestorasprescribedbytheapplicablerelatedtest
procedure. After a specimen is formed, trim (if necessary) the gm 5 9.80665 rm inkN/m 3 and gd  5 9.80665 rd  inkN/m 3
ends perpendicular to the longitudinal axis, remove the mold,
where:
and determine the mass and dimensions of the test specimens
gm = moist/total unit weight of specimen, and
inaccordancewith7.3.1.3.Theheightandinnerdimensionsof 
gd  = dry unit weight of soil specimen.
the mold may be taken to represent specimen dimensions.
NOTE 10—It is common for the density (unit weight) of the specimen 9. Report: Test Data Sheet/Form
afterremovalfromthemoldtobelessthanthevaluebasedonthevolume 9.1 The report (data sheet) shall contain the following (see
ofthemold.Thisoccursasaresultofthespecimenswellingafterremoval
Appendix X2 and Appendix X3 ):
of the lateral confinement due to the mold.
9.1.1 Identification of the sample (material) being tested,
8. Calculations such as project, boring number, sample number, test number,
8.1 Water Content, w —Calculate in accordance with Test container number, etc.,
MethodD2216to four significant digits. 9.1.2 Sampledepthinmeters(feet)belowgroundsurfaceor
8.2 Calculate the moist density tofour significant figures as elevation in meters (feet) (if applicable),
follows: 9.1.3 Classification of soil by Practice D2487, if deter-
8.2.1  Method A—Water Displacement  : mined,orvisualclassificationofsoil(groupnameandsymbol)
as determined by PracticeD2488,
rm 5 M t  /  @~~ M c – M sub! / rw! – ~~ M c – M t ! / rr!# (1)
9.1.4 Moist/total and dry density (unit weight), to four
where: significant digits,
 M t  =mass of moist/total soil specimen, g, 9.1.5 Water content (in percent), to four significant digits,
 M c =mass of wax-coated specimen, g, 9.1.6 Method used (Aor B), and
 M sub = mass of submerged paraffin-coated specimen, g, 9.1.7 Whether the specimen was intact, disturbed, re-
rr =density of paraffin, g/cm 3 or Mg/m 3, molded, or reconstituted (compacted).
3
rw =density of water at test temperature, g/cm or
Mg/m3, (see Test MethodsD854, Table1), and 10. Precision and Bias
3
rm = density of total (moist) soil specimen, g/cm or 10.1 Precision—The precision of the procedure in this test
Mg/m3. methodformeasuringthedensity(unitweight)ofcohesivesoil
8.2.2  Method B—Direct Measurement  : specimens is being determined. In addition, Subcommittee
rm 5  ~ M t  / V ! (2) D18.03isseekingpertinentdatafromusersofthetestmethod.
10.2  Bias—Sincethereisnotanacceptedreferencematerial
where: suitable for measuring the bias for this procedure, a statement
3
V  = volume of moist soil specimen, cm . on bias cannot be made.
8.2.2.1 Cylindrical Shape :
V  5  ~ p d 2 h ! /4000 (3) 11. Keywords
11.1 density; porosity; saturation; specimen; unit weight;
where:
void ratio

4
D 7263 – 09
APPENDIXES

(NonmandatoryInformation)

X1. RELATIONSHIPS AMONG SOIL PHASES; POROSITY, VOID RATIO, & SATURATION USING METRIC UNITS

X1.1 Let: X1.2 Then:


 M d 
V –
V v V – V s Gs e
n = porosity, %, n  5 3 100 5 3 100 5 3 100 5  3 100
V  V  V  1 1 e
e = void ratio,
(X1.1)
S  = saturation, %,
V  = volume ofsoil specimen, cm 3,  M d 
3 V –
V v = volume of voids in soil specimen, cm , V v V – V s Gs n Gsw
3 e 5 5 5 5  5 (X1.2)
V s = volume of solids in soil specimen, cm , V s V s  M d  100– n S 
w = water content of soil specimen, %, Gs
Gs = specific gravity of soil solids in soil specimen as wGsrd  Gsw
determined by Test Methods D854, S  5 5 e (X1.3)
Gs –  rd 
3
rd  = dry density of soil specimen, Mg/m , and
 M d  = dry mass ofsoil in soil specimen, g.

5
D 7263 – 09

X2. EXAMPLE DATA SHEET


DISPLACEMENT METHOD—A

UNITWEIGHTS, VOIDRATIO,POROSITY,ANDDEGREE OFSATURATION


(DISPLACEMENT METHOD—A)

NAME DATE JOB NO.

LOCATION

BORING NO. SAMPLE NO. DEPTH/ELEV.

DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLE

WATERCONTENT
SAMPLE OR SPECIMEN NO.
TARE NO.
TAREPLUSWETSOIL
TAREPLUSDRYSOIL
MASS
WATER M w 
IN GRAMS
TARE
DRYSOIL M d 
WATERCONTENT w  % % % %
WEIGHT-VOLUMERELATIONS
SAMPLE OR SPECIMEN NO.
TEST TEMPE RATURE OF WATER, T, °C
SOILANDWAXINAIR
WETSOIL M t 
MASS
WAX
IN GRAMS
WETSOILAND WAX IN WATER
DRYSOIL A M d 
SPECIFICGRAVITYOFSOIL G s 
WETSOILANDWAX B
VOLUME WAX
IN CC WETSOIL V 
DRYSOIL= M  d  / G s  V s 
LBS PER WETUNITWEIGHT= ~M t  / V ! 3 62.4 gm 
CU FT DRYUNITWEIGHT= ~M d  / V ! 3 62.4 gd 
VOIDRATIO= ~V –V  s ! / V s  e 
POROSITY,%= @~V –V  s ! / V]  3 100 n  % % % %
DEGREEOF SATURATION= @V w  /  ~V –V  s !# 3 100 S  % % % %

VOLUMEOFWAX=WEIGHT OFWAX/SPECIFIC GRAVITYOFWAX=


C
VOLUMEOFWATER= V  w  =M  w   / SPECIFIC GRAVITYOF WATER

A
IFNOTMEASURED DIRECTLY,MAYBECOMPUTEDAS FOLLOWS: M  d  5 M t  /  ~ 1 1 0.01w !

B
~WTOFWETSOIL&WAXINAIR ! –  ~ WTOFWETSOIL&WAXINWATER !
VOLUME OF WET SOILAND WAX =
DENSITYOFWATERATTESTTEMPERATURE
C
SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF WATER IN METRIC SYSTEM = 1 (APPROX)

REMARKS COMPUTED BY CHECKED BY

6
D 7263 – 09

X3. EXAMPLE DATA SHEET


VOLUMETRIC METHOD—B

UNITWEIGHTS, VOIDRATIO,POROSITY,ANDDEGREE OFSATURATION


(VOLUMETRIC METHOD—B)

NAME DATE JOB NO.

LOCATION

BORING NO. SAMPLE NO. DEPTH/ELEV.

DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLE

WATERCONTENT
SAMPLE OR SPECIMEN NO.
TARE NO.
TAREPLUSWETSOIL
TAREPLUSDRYSOIL
MASS
WATER M w 
IN GRAMS
TARE
DRYSOIL M d 
WATERCONTENT w  % % % %
WEIGHT-VOLUMERELATIONS
SAMPLE OR SPECIMEN NO.
CYLINDER NO.
HEIGHT OF CYLINDER H 
CENTIMETERS
INSIDE DIAMETER OF CYLINDER D 
WET SOILAND TARE
MASS TARE
IN GRAMS WET SOIL M t 
DRYSOIL  A M d 
SPECIFICGRAVITYOFSOIL G s 
VOLUME WET SOIL (VOLUME OF CYLINDER)
IN CC DRYSOIL= M  d  / G s  V s 
LBS PER WETUNITWEIGHT= ~M t  / V ! 3 62.4 gm 
CU FT DRYUNITWEIGHT= ~M d  / V ! 3 62.4 gd 
VOIDRATIO= ~V –V  s ! / V s  e 
POROSITY,%= @~V –V  s ! / V]  3 100 n  % % % %
DEGREEOF SATURATION= @V w  /  ~V –V  s !# 3 100 S  % % % %

VOLUME OF CYLINDER, V = ( pD 2H ) / 4


B
VOLUMEOFWATER= V  w  =M  w   / SPECIFIC GRAVITYOF WATER

A
IF NOT MEASURED ON ENTIRE SPECIMEN, MAY BE COMPUTEDAS FOLLOWS: M  d  5 M t  /  ~ 1 1 0.01w !

B
SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF WATER IN METRIC SYSTEM = 1 (APPROX)

REMARKS COMPUTED BY CHECKED BY

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