The Coordinative Way of Thinking

Dia 1 Eastern connections to the Hungarian culture Ferenc Cser Queanbeyan, Australia e-mail: cserenc@netscape.net Abstract In his book, The Forms of the Hungarian Soul (printed in 1942) Gábor Lükő declared the Hungarian culture to have a coordinative way of thinking. Gordon Childe explained the success of the Indo-European people by the subordinative nature of their language in his book The Arians printed in 1926. I will show the essence of the two ways of thinking, describe their historical background and point out that the coordinative way of thinking is originated from the ancient men. This ancient way of thinking in modern Europe is now characteristically Hungarian but this was the ancient form of most of the cultures in Asia, and it can be traced there, even now. The similar way of thinking of these cultures does not mean either ethnic or cultural dependence as well as origin this is only a similar human reflection of similar environmental conditions of the humanity in different parts of the world. Introduction The human is a communal being. People living in communities and having collective activities can be in two relationships with each other. One of the relationships is when one person is subordinated to the other one, ie they are not connected to each other with equal rights. One of the two persons in this relationship is always in a higher, in a commanding position while the other one is in a lower, executive one. Their relationship is uni-directionally dependent. There is the lord, the boss, the commander who commands the other person, and there is the serf, the dependent, and the executive one who acts according to the commands of the previous one. This relationship is well known, it means a hierarchy and practically all of the organisations are built up accordingly in our time. A pyramid can represent this relationship. The commands are running here from the top towards the bottom. The lower levels are subordinated to the upper ones. Beöthy1 defined society even by this concept. According to him, there is no society without a chieftain. He does not understand the society of the Australian aborigines, where there are no bosses, and therefore he declared these societies as primitive hordes. There is no doubt, this relationship is well known by everyone and it is generally accepted as well. The opposite of this system is the coordinative form of relationships. No one person is subordinated to the other in this relationship. Their activities are characterised by equivalence. This kind of relationship can be observed many times even within the subordinative one when persons acting on the same level are compared to each other. The activities of the people being side by side are coordinated by a member of the upper level. This relationship is also well known and accepted.

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Beöthy (1878), pp.: 27-140, ill. Beöthy (1882), pp.: 154-174.

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There is, however, a particular case of the coordinated relationship when the persons supposed to be equivalent are not bound together by another one from the upper level. The question arises: can they be acting cooperatively in this case? May a society exist with equivalent members, where there is no chieftain at all? Many – as we could see including Beöthy – gives an unambiguously NO answer saying that without a coordinating third, the relationship of two persons is destined to be disordered, or anarchic. It means an order is dismissed and it results in some kinds of chaos. The question now arises: is this true? My unambiguous answer is no, it is not true. I can list many items of social life as examples where people are successful in their mutual activities without the superiority of anyone; without anyone filling in a superior role among them. The best examples are small musical ensembles. Naturally, there is often a person among them who is the engine of their activities, but just as often the music, the product itself is the driving force, giving the beat and consequently the production is a result of the cooperation of equal musicians. The mediating person (if he/she exists) is not a chief here, but a leader standing out of the community who is equal among equals. A similar case can be seen in the Australian aborigine peoples in an example of a complete society where this relationship and living form has worked for many millennia. They did not own land, they did not have wars, they did not kill each other in stockpiles, but they shared peacefully their common land and cooperated with each other. This is a coordinated type of human relationship. In his book of Gábor Lükő showed the Hungarian culture as coordinative one. It reads: “Two different respects are realised at the same time by the Hungarian compositions according to the coordinative sense.”2 “The Hungarian artist pushed the items close to him under the horizon, the further items were risen above it and draw it onto the sky.” “Such a kind of filling of the space or the plane derives from the coordinative way of thinking of the eastern man.”3 This has been supported by many examples in the book of Lükő. Zsolt Zétényi cites István Kocsis4, who writes: “We should not forget: there were many lawful people in the old ages as the Doctrine of the Sacred Crown did not reinforce the subordinative consciousness but it did reinforced the sense of responsibility, as well as the cult of the equivalence and the cult of the dignified attitudes determined by the constitutional concept of the Membership of the Sacred Crown; because it promoted the concept of the coordination and not that of the subordination in the attitude of the inhabitants of the country 5.”

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Lükő (1942), p.: 194. Lükő (1942), p.: 189. 4 Zétényi (1997), p.: 17. 5 Kocsis (1996), p.: 288.

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: 4. year etc. as a coordinating third one is missing from this relationship? Neither is. when unexpectedly the beast appears at the nest. There is no doubt that the coordinately thinking Hungarian culture has been in existence for at least a millennium among the environment of an opposite way of thinking. The book of Kata Beke is not available for me at this moment therefore I cannot give its edition. who owns his wife. Childe in his book The Aryans explained the great success of the Aryan people by the subordinative character of their language6. The coordinative way of thinking can be recognised either in the Hungarian language or in a broader sense in the social political concepts as well. This role is different for the female and for the male. What are the human relationships there? They are naturally very complicated as the relationship between the parents and the children is subordinative most of the time. firstly those of birds. On the other hand. This is expressed in the Hungarian language by the word wife as feleség. Let us examine in detail what is the essence of these contradicting concepts and how the coordinative way of thinking of the Hungarian culture is connected to that of the eastern cultures. The relationship of the parents to each other is not necessarily subordinative. and. 3 . The first task needs a high capability to hide. the female is colourless and tactic. We have two different qualities here but we are not forced to transfer the differences into a category of values that relate one unto the other as more or less valuable. At the same time Gordon V.(Highlights by me). We can immediately valuate this expression when we compare it to the English one. The wife is a property there and is not an equivalent half of a relationship called ‘family’. where the male is a husband. p. One of them protects the nest and the young chicks from the beast of prey. the bird needs to find a method of protection. the two parents are reliant on each other and have coordinative roles. It is even so if we consider the two roles – that of the mother and that of the father – as nonequivalent. the other task needs strategy. What is the true question? The problem can better be understood if we take the relationships of animal families into account. The difference in the colour of the females and males of the birds is not accidental. 6 7 Childe (1926). Kata Beke7 has dealt with this problem in her splendid book As the people have two sexes in the chapter entitled Colourful feather colour-blind males. This requires high tactical capabilities. It is well known that most of the female birds are grey or colourless however. the other one has the task of luring the beast from the nest. Coordination and subordination To make the problem clearer let us start to examine the family. which has a titular meaning of halfness. then to lure the enemy far from the nest –offering himself as a victim – and when they are far away from the critical place taking care of his own life or security. but the parent is more a leader than a chieftain character. the male partners are very frequently colourful. The two roles are equal with respect to the security and existence of the ‘family’. Which one is subordinated to the other one. It is closely connected to their biological roles in the protection of the family. The male is therefore colourful and strategic. Firstly to engage the attention of the predator.

the secrets of the refinement of metals suitable to prepare weapons. which are not available for societies with subordination.: 39-41. they can keep their coordinative nature. and interaction is accepted. In societies characterised by the subordinative way of thinking the human relationship – as well as all the relations. it is immediately declared that this culture is an underdeveloped one. The difference between the two ways of thinking is important when extended to the dimension of a society. pp. carved in stones or baked into clay. The reasons and the results are not standing against each other. The kings are generally subordinated to their gods or are even derived from them. events. This corresponds to the dialectic method of philosophy. consequently more valuable than the other ones. The system or world of belief. sagas. In order to eliminate any confusion let me remark that Marxism was declared dialectic materialism but it should not be rejected solely because this ideology declared itself dialectic. These differences are not regarded as different values in the coordinative way of thinking. phenomena and qualities regarded in philosophical terms – are all subordinated to each other. The consequences of the subordinative way of thinking are easily visible. given from mouth to mouth. When the world of belief of a culture is studied and gods are not found there. The best examples are the Egyptian 8 Ipolyi (1853). a subordinate kind of method. the results can affect the reasons. we can state that the dominating way of thinking in Europe is a subordinating one. According to the Finno-Ugric hypotheses the Hungarians are always secondary ones. Generally. the result is determined by the reason and never reacts back upon the reason. Because it did not reach the concept of gods – as we can read in the introductory paragraphs of the book of Ipolyi8. This kind of society is only visible by its products. In societies producing metals and metallic products there is no need for subordination. The metaphysical examining method in philosophy is basically. even as dwarfs as we can read in Snow White the tale of Andersen.The two kinds of human relationships are the consequence of two different ways of thinking. etc. This does not express only an order. with the knowledge of a foreign nation. It is characteristically a subordinative way of thinking and that does not start from the Hungarian side. they are known by all. they appear as masters from foreign countries. however. ancestral lines are counted and recorded in legends. as they do not have gods they do not have legendary names as well. The only pledge of its existence is its intellectual power or knowledge. These may equally mean order in the time and/or order as a logical relation. In this way of thinking any of the non-equal phenomena immediately requires the valuation: which one is the original. subordinated to foreign kings who are also without a name. even if they produce weapons. all the others represent the primary ones. tales. but they appear there as masters. They are not mentioned in the legends or tales of the subordinative societies by name. This characterises the structure and actions of the Catholic Church. it is generally characteristic of kingdoms. Alternatively. this also expresses the relationships as values. In this philosophical method. 4 . subordinated. The coordinative way of thinking is however hiding and it is invisible in the sea of subordination in many times. Interaction is generally not possible in this system. Many times. Today the subordinative way of thinking is always present where there are stories of kings and heroes who have been glorified. but they need them like metallurgy. ie the primary and which one is the derivate. the people are subordinated to the kings. ie the secondary. the phenomena follow each other strictly both in time and in logic. thought and ideas of their own are regarded always as primary.

181. songs. The Doctrine subordinated the King to the Crown. which is a tale using the coordinative way of thinking. as there is no fear of the punishment of his/her own ‘god’. poems are born there. Zöld Péter. In the area. see also as a story of Ovidius in Grant (1995). pp. The acceptance of other people as equals promotes the learning.Pharaoh who is deemed the Son of God. The essence of both stories is that a girl is looking for her pair and calls boys to complete a test. during his initiation by anointing with the fat of the sacred crocodile called messhiah9. pp.: 152.: 17.a story using the subordinative way of thinking. the king did not own the country he was subordinated to the Crown as equal partner of the nation itself. who actually did not want to marry as an oracle had said that she would become an animal after her marriage – and her godly inheritance belongs to the essence of the story. none of the nation could bypass the ownership of the lands. and Hippomenes in the story of Ovidius). p. The Hungarians have not generally accepted the feudalism dominating the European societies until the age of Maria Theresa. ie less significant as well. There is no importance of the self-identity or personality in the case of the coordinative way of thinking therefore they are not named. p. to the Greek story of Wonderful Atalanta12 . 392.: 343-5. However. they submit themselves to the announced test. 12 Grimal (1965). This might be a matter of life and death. The best example for this answer – which is known in the Hungarian culture as ‘brain over brawn’ – is the Doctrine of the Sacred Crown. In contrary. but the dominating feudal system represented a subordinative one. they are less noble than Atalanta . in the tale of Gál Istvánné.both were made to be equal members of the Crown. It can be done. or Zétényi (1999). The Doctrine of the Sacred Crown represented a coordinative way of thinking. ie a demigod. In Hungary. the men with a coordinative way of thinking can bow their knees or heads without the fear of punishment and do not aggravate the lord by denying it. or better say a ‘being supposed to be superior’ was created without the real content of its essence. Formally. Let us compare the Hungarian tale of The All-seeing Princess11. the efficiency of teaching. pp. however. In a society with mixed concepts eg that the God of the lord should be respected. it expresses the inner problems of the society. The girl has a definite name in the subordinative way of thinking – in our case it is Atalanta. or Aszódi (1962). Instead of heroic legends educating tales. the social memory is not filled with the legends and stories of aristocrats. a human being has not legally been owned by another until the age of Werbőczy when the Doctrine of the Sacred Crown was remastered according to the feudal concept. This also valid for the boy (in the Greek legend his name is Melanion. The boys want to marry as well.they are less valued. a ‘superior being’. p. 11 Kovács (1994). The concept for Son of God can be derived from here. to whom inheritance and a heroic past are also very important. In Hungary.: 104-110.: 79. by establishing the Doctrine of the Sacred Crown10. their inheritance lines or heroic deeds. however. As it does not create born aristocrats. when feudalism was the accepted social system everywhere. 10 5 .: 102. or Knight (1997). therefore. The Hungarian society bypassed it. p. 9 See eg Osman (1993). stories. They established a sacred object equipped with personal characteristics and the land was given into its possession. but the inhabitants of the country were also subordinated to the Crown and not to the King . They bear only the titles of princess or swineherd.: 152. the coordinative way of thinking does not create superior personalities whom must be worshiped and feared.: 155. pp. See in more details in Cser (2000).

human representations. drawings. it is obvious that they are related to each other. Human cultures could be found only at the southern parts of the continent as well as the tundra. It is the final point of the Greek story that when they were married they provoked the anger of Zeus (or of Cybele in Ovidius) who turned them into animals and it was humiliating for both of them. the boy of the subordinative way of thinking obtains the grace of a god (in the Greek story she is Aphrodite. The boy of the coordinative way of thinking gets his helpers by offering his own help to them during his trip to the princess. as the boy does not conquer the girl. that of the Mousterian culture (2-4). a warm environment of the Caucasia (5). he must defeat her. Recently we find subordination as ruling way of thinking in human relationships. she is Venus in Ovid) what can be achieved by some kinds of rite. It is impossible among natural conditions. Reversed origin is rather more probable.The boys in both stories need help to complete the task. how can he be cooperating. He helps of his own accord. he is humane to them and he is generally a good guy. We can recognise the Pelages story in the Hungarian culture. It is very hard to be hidden otherwise. paintings. Before the warming up of Würm most of Europe was under an ice cover. but he does not enhance his own skill. the compactness and logical coherence of the tale of The All-seeing Princess makes it practically impossible to regard the Greek story as the primary and the Hungarian as the derivative. For a much further study. In contrary. on the basis of which the way of thinking or creed can be concluded. The question arises: which one is the original way of human view? Where and when can we first recognise either a subordinative or a coordinative way of thinking or view during the history of humanity? Above we have already declared the coordinative story as the basis and the subordinative one as the derivative. A story with coordinative way of thinking might have served as the basis of the other one it might have been a primary one – if we want to handle the problem using subordinative way of thinking. as well as the cold climate Aurignacian culture (1) including the rest of the true cold climate men. Whether the test is completed successfully or not it is determined by the behaviour of the boy in the coordinative way of thinking. must overcome the girl. Basically two cultures can be recognised in this period: the gravetti culture (8) being dispersed westwards from the idyllic Eden. The Greek culture having conquering the settled Pelages one might have taken the basic story from the conquered culture and transferred it according to its way of thinking. The closing line is you are mine and I am yours. The golden apples were obtained from the deity as a reward The success of the test is not humiliating in the coordinative way of thinking. By this time the following objects have already appeared: grave supplements. and while she stops to pick up the apple the boy gets the advantage. Dia 3 Figure 1 represents the position and movement of human cultures in Europe at the end of the Würm ice age. ie how is he good. we should go back at least to the ice ages to be able to investigate the way of thinking of human cultures. The origin of the coordinative way of thinking Dia 2 When we compare the two stories. carvings. the boy conquers the girl in the Greek story and he gets to be her ruler and commander. power or speed but he utilises the weakness of the other one: he throws the golden apple before her. In contrary. The rest of the old Mousterian cultures can be found at three 6 . In contrary. sculptures. Which one is the original and which one is the derivative? – a question is put according to the subordinative way of thinking. the boy with a subordinative way of thinking. It depends upon how is he skilful or ingenious. The moral teaching.

the respect of fertility and not a personified concept are seen on the sculptures produced in this age (eg Venus of Villendorf or Dolni Vestonice14). It does not matter which big animal was the prey of the man living at the end of the Würm. The flowers are recently known as 13 14 Cser (2000).: 131. Rudgley (1999).: 216-217. that had been his main diet before and has died out just at this time. 7 . in the valley of Po we find the Uluzzi culture (3) and at the Bükk mountains (Carpathians) there is the Szeleta culture (4). Cooperation among these climatic conditions was a matter of life or death. The cultures of Europe in the Middle Stone and in the Mesozoic ages13. pp.: 38. There was no surplus of food to be stored for a longer time.: 153. Roux (1992). p. there is no sign of subordination or distinction according to birth. There is no face on the sculptures representing a human being . spots: at the base of the Pyrenes and at the Middle Mountains there is the Chatelperony culture (2). pp.they show the body of an exaggerated fat woman only. it must have been the result of a collective activity. 15 Solecki (1971). Gods have not been found here. the hunting of these animals could not have been the success of single men. the people were ordained side by side by the strength of the climate. photograph and p. The crippled man had been living after this operation for decades until a rock killed him. which is assured by a cooperative way of thinking.: 195-196. p. At the end of the Würm the warm climate men lived also in a cold climate environment and the gravetti man has turned even in the CarpathianBasin to hunt the deer instead of the mammoth. Rudgley (1999). XXI. At the same time signs are found that the man of this age had had morals. The graves are equal. Social aid helped this man to survive being crippled from birth.. It needs close human cooperation. Very strong evidences are derived from the cave of Shanidar15 where the skeleton of a Neanderthal man showed a birth distortion on his right arm healed by amputation. There were also signs of a funeral rite in the grave of another man of the same age: pollens of freshly collected flowers arranged in groups.Figure 1.

p. pp. The origin of subordination The earliest appearance of a subordinative way of thinking can be observed in the times after the basin of the Black Sea was filled with saline water. The Mousterian man had had morals21. the objects of the age definitely cite the same. Rudgley (1999).: 114-115. 7: Karanovo culture. 12: Dniester-Bug culture.: 258. 13: Nemuna culture. 16 17 Rudgley (1999). 2: Vinča culture. as the buried humans were supplemented by objects serving his/her post-mortem life. p.: 27-48. (based on Gimbutas (1991). The grave belonged to people of the herding culture of the steppe near the Volga River.: 21-23. 9: Cucuteny culture. pp.: 214-215. 11: pastoral culture of the steppe. 20 Flood (1995). That these people had a sense of morality is also visible in a couple of graves of Mousterian man eg in the Teshik-Tas cave in Uzbekistan17. Ritually buried Mousterian man is also mentioned by Gáboriné18 in the Subalyuk culture from the first cool period of Würm.healing plants including Ephedra whose extract is known among the amphetamin drugs (ephedrin) 16.: 39. 10: Halaf culture. 3: Lengyel culture. + Çatal Hüyük. Godden (1997).: 16-17. pp. mentioning the morals of this man19. 8 .. as he was too young.: 63. See more details Rudgley (1999) pp. Cowan (1992). and their traditional social life supports the statements compiled above20. This was around the middle of the eighth millennium BP. pp. It caused floods at the shallow shores as well as at the mouth of rivers. During the warming of the second Dryas the ice block in Canada had been broken and a huge amount of water streamed into the ocean resulting in an increase its level by 5 m. 35.. This was the way of thinking of the ancestral man. One thing is definitely visible from the graves of ancient people: the man of this age had had a belief of the immortality of the soul. 53). In a grave derived from the middle of the eighth millennium before present (BP) a dagger suitable for killing humans has been found besides the bones of a child. Gábori also refers to the social life of the Mousterian man describing the grave of a child decorated by the horns of goats. pp. 4: the edge of the culture with bound ceramics. 18 Gáboriné (1980). The coordinative way of thinking of our ancient forefathers cannot only be logically concluded. 19 Gábori (1974). 21 Clarke (1965). This is the oldest case where birthright can be detected. The extent of the agriculture between 8700 and 8500 BP. pp. The numbers in Figure have the following meaning: 1:.: 219.:5. Settlements on the shores at the mouths of the Tiger and Euphrates rivers were also flooded22. p. x: Hacilar. as well as the limit of the agriculture in 7500 BP. 14 and 15: Arrows indicate the dispersion of the population from the Basin of the Black Sea in around 7500 BP at the time of its fill up (based on Ryan (1999) p. The child had been buried with great ceremony that could not be explained by him having committed great deeds. 5: Tisza culture. p. 6: Boian culture.: 214-215. The life of the recent aboriginal inhabitant of Australia is a straight continuation of a cultural life extending over tens of millennia. 22 Oppenheimer (1999).: 194). Dia 4 Figure 2 summarises the European cultures at and after the closing scene of the Würm ice age. 8: Bükk culture. which cannot be declared for the modern man without consent even in much later times.

The shore of the dried Black Sea gives. This culture can be found in places where the climate assured at least the 200 mm of rain per year necessary to harvest grain without irrigation. animal herding meant sheep. p. when the hunting of the steppe 23 Cser (2000). eg in the Vinča culture. The Black Sea filled up very quickly with salt water. a reasonable explanation for both the disappearance of the Middle-Eastern cultures in the last period of the ice age ie at the beginning of the second Dryas and their reappearance suddenly with more developed techniques after it. 9 .: 141. According to the yields there was a surplus in the food production here and this made it possible for other societies to settle above them and appropriate their food surplus without the extermination of the food producers. The people who had settled on the shore as well as far from the shore were either inundated or escaped to another parts of the continent. One of them is a settled. Two cultures different in their basics can be found in Europe after this age. The source of these cultures is unknown. however. Dia 5 The fresh water level of the Black Sea (that developed during the first melting of the Würm ice age) was over 100 m below sea level as the gap at Bosporus was closed at that that time. food producing one where the main source of food was domesticated grain. When the level of the ocean increased by 5 m the gap of Bosporus broke – this may have been due to the very high differences in the level of water. Not much later Samara cultures also appeared. It was developed in the steppe area of the continent where the yearly precipitation was less than 200 mm and grain could not be grown. Anatolia became populated again. eg Çatal Hüyük or Halaf but now they were equipped with defensive measures. but later on. Smelting of copper is also known at from this time. Vinča culture in Danube valley. Karanovo and Thessaloniky cultures in the Balkan appeared suddenly at this time. and their irrigation techniques had already been developed. European human cultures between 9th and 7th millennia BP23.Figure 2. All these cultures harvested domesticated wheat and barley. used the plough. tripling its volume in a couple of months. The other type of culture practiced animal herding. At the beginning.

The basic data see at Semino (2000). where the graves did not show separation to rich and to poor until the 7th – 8th century Before Christ (BC). the bloodgroups strictly follow Mendel’s rules. It started to conquer the agricultural societies who had a surplus in their food production. Cultural data also supports this conclusion eg. The originally Anatolian population can only be traced at the shore of the Mediterranean Sea using the genetic data. However. therefore this kind of mixing can not be accepted. This blood group is nearly exclusive in Africa. We can conclude the same if we look at the data of blood-group analyses. but even. The ancient population of Europe has remained intact. This society. as antigen has already been developed against these blood groups in the original population25. but recent genetic and blood group information has denied this concept. or better-known Bükk culture. the other population carrying the agricultural techniques did not replace the Aurignician population of Old Europe. This lead to the protection of the herding areas against other people and consequently it resulted in the development of a military force to protect itself. The basic blood group of humanity is zero. This area is the Northern and eastern territories of the Carpathian Basin. ie the territory of the ancient Band Ceramic. The godly respect of the weapon is seen in the graves. time-by-time a definite shortage in food could have appeared. however. Genetic and blood-group data Dia 6 Formerly it was believed that parallel with agriculture the man cultivating the land also spread. we can see a separation of graves to those of the poor and to those of the rich. From these data it is evident that the recent men around the Carpathian Basin were in a vicinity of each others since ancient times and they do not have any close relationship to the man of Ural mountains. Both are very old. if they had had any at all. having the horse and the cart. the aborigines in America and in Australia. The original population of Middle Europe has learnt the agricultural techniques it has not been replaced by the man of Anatolia at that time24. at this time its extent was not as general as nowadays. after the Kurgan culture started to conquer its neighbours. In parallel. This gene remained intact in the middle of Europe after the proposed invasion.horse was stopped and horse riding had started. personalised symbols did not appear in the area of Linear Band Ceramic culture. It became general and determining only after a couple of millennia. Protection does not only mean defence but also the opposite: attack. 24 Recently Gibbons (2000) summarised the concept of Cavalli-Sforza and Renfrew concerning the genetic test and declared that the Aurignacian man did not come here from Africa but rather from Middle-Asia. p. 10 . blood group B is characteristic of the Chinese man.: 64. due to the annual variation of the rain. This kind of culture did not have a surplus in food. this population then developed it with new ideas and methods. Having learnt the agricultural techniques. 25 Nagy (2000). Blood group A is characteristic of the Caucasian man. We can however find such an area in the map of Europe where subordination did not appear even for transient periods. Blood groups A and B are the early mutation of this original blood group. Blood-group AB was thought to be formed as a mixture of A and B. The original Aurignacian gene is not characteristic to the people of old Anatolia who have invented the agriculture. herding of horses and cattle was also practiced. The appearance of the dagger already suitable to kill human beings is a true indication of this change. was able to travel large distances. The societies with a subordinative way of thinking can be well recognised after the filling up of the Black Sea.

the human. The modern Hungarians are living on the same area and have similar cultural elements the Linear Band Ceramic culture had. hűlt (shut. listen. ellik. breathe. hulla. We can consider that the AB mutation originated from the Carpathian Basin. they form a single unit. soul. lélegzik. The words connected to life and to the soul are simple. it is distinctly higher (15% ) in the Hungarian population for the loss of blood-group 0. alél. which carries the 0 blood group. it covers only 5% on average. There are two basic branches of the shrub of words. halál. fish. The man is subordinated neither to his soul. sit. The soul is within the man. bear. hál. 11 . halad. in English: The man has breathed out his soul. air. ie the man is dead. It is particularly interesting to name the concept of life using the Hungarian vocabulary. The soul resides within the man and it forms the essence of a human being. The man of the Bükk culture might be the source of the later man with Linear Band Ceramic of the same area as there is a cultural continuity here. hall. find. get to be unconscious. ölel. This culture can be regarded as the origin of the cooperative way of thinking in the Carpathian Basin26. As it is not old enough. breath.Blood group AB is relatively rare among the population. corpse. go on. death. therefore we can state that the Hungarian culture is a continuation of the much older Linear Band Ceramic culture of the same territory. hal. generally one-syllable words reflecting the most ancient time of the Hungarian language. We find here the same: life is already far away! Az ember kilehelte a lelkét. Some members of the other group are: ál. life. stand. The words with high vowels in the Hungarian language generally express concept with a characteristic of vicinity. ül. breathe. holt. lehel. The man of the Bükk culture can bear the AB mutation. dream. with the English meaning accordingly: live. álom. The cultures and nations in the environment of the Hungarians look at the soul with a completely different manner. there is no antigen against it in the original population. lel. like lő. the other one with low vowels. hull. is cooling down. forming a shrub of words. These words express the concept of life connected to living ones. lehelet. levegő. hűl. embrace. éled. which is frequency 25% instead of 35%. it has become superior to the man and the personified soul has the man subordinated to him. the most important essence of the life of a man. They are all built around the consonant l. háló. cold) can also be reckoned here. kill. This is reasonable concept. as there was a self-standing continuation of ancient population within Carpathian Basin since the ice age of Mindel. The question arises: what might be the bases of the belief of the men with a cooperative way of thinking? My answer is belief in the soul. existence. One is characterised by high vowels. öl. The connection is equal. According to the Hungarian language. élet. áll. Words meaning extinguishing life. azaz meghalt we say. The soul in their belief has detached itself from the human being. words with low vowels are generally expressing a distance. lét. Lükő writes 26 Cser (2001). fall. Some words with high vocals are as follows: él. sleep. with their English meaning: false. revive. lélek. The Hungarian language names the concept connected to the soul with a cooperative way of thinking. The belief of men with the cooperative way of thinking Dia 7 Let us continue our study with the investigation of the world of belief of the cooperative way of thinking. nor vice versa. net.

Its most known symbol is the bird. They are also present in our folk legends. the Son. 27 28 Lükő (1942). like fish. but mainly the plant. it breathes out a new plant indicating the way of creation of living beings. In order to eliminate any doubt about the symbol of the bird. The circular form.: 30. tales or songs. water. its golden basic colour remirror from Transdanubia28 mind us of the Sun. The soul has interested the Hungarian people as well as their Ural-Altaian relatives always and only in its primitive reality. the Father. the intellectual power. With us. p. earth are only personified by the abstract thinking Indo-German people. Water: It is the fertilising power. Dia 9 These elements did not become members of a personified ‘family’. frog. The personal characters mentioned above serve to identify them according to their role in the other cultures where these elements were personified. snake. 12 . They are the following: • • • • Fire: It is the light. detached from its body at the moment of the death.” 27 The elements can be regarded in reality as elements of the soul. Its symbol and in many cases its source is the Sun. particularly its seed. Dömötör (1981). they did not receive personal characters in the Hungarian culture. Its symbols are very variable. the Mother. She creates life. or simple a waving line. Its symbol is variable. the soul alone. Air: It is the life keeping power. however. Their role can be recognised in the clearest form in the old Egyptian belief. the soul remained only as a subordinate member of the Holly Trinity. among colour photographs. be very frequently found in the pictorial representations of Hungarian folk art. the Soul. fire. Figure 3 represents the Figure 3 Symbolic elements of the soul on a back of a mirror derived from Transdanubia. and even later in the gnostic doctrines. the mermaid represents the water. Later on the system of concepts appeared in the philosophy of Plato. she is the Holy Spirit. The symbols can. Earth: It is the fertility. The role of the mother in the Christian religion has already been excluded. the elements are always the symbol of one unknown. the plants shooting from the hands of the mermaid represent the earth and the bird on the top of the picture means the air.Dia 8 „The ‘elements’ ie wind.

ie the light. The picture represents a deer. which we can expect of this animal. With their complicated branch system it is rather the tree of life than simple antlers. picture. The deer bears antlers like the tree of life on his head. The plant has consecutively different flowers that are symbols of the seed of life. The fragment was excavated at Csépa. The animals are in a role to protect the Deer with antlers like the tree of tree of life as it can be seen in another piece of Figure 5 30 life baked clay digged out at Sipitsini.Similar symbols can be seen as a decoration of some furniture (Figure 4). 8. Kalicz (1970). on the cover of the book. 13 . The central element here is a bird breathing out through her open beak a very complicated series of plants. The Tree of Life Figure 5 shows a piece of baked clay with a deer on it. and the symbol of life can be found in this form even in the most ancient representations of the Linear Band Ceramic culture of Old Europe. The tree of life is closely connected here to a deer. Hungary. which is a place of 6th millennium BP within the Cucuteny culture. but its antlers represent more than those. The plant represents the tree of life in its reality. A chain of different flowers attached to the same branch is very frequently present in the pictorial representation of Hungarian folk art. The golden background of the picture reminds us also of the Sun. from the age of 8th millennia BP ie it was produced in the Bükk culture. but in another representations they are already separated. Dia 10 29 30 Domanovszky (1981). The bird represents the soul itself Figure 4 Symbols of life on furniture29 so the life is originated from her breathes in the form of a plant. or the fire.

The tree of Figure 7 Samoyed (Siberia) representation of tree of life life is surrounded here by many animals. is not multiple branched as we could see above either as antlers of deer or as a tree like the Christmas tree. the earth and the underworld. but it definitely divides the space in three zones. therefore all other hypotheses or conceptions are regarded as heretic. which can clearly be recognised on the picture. 14 . Let us compare. The elements of Hungarian folk art are generally compared with those of the Ural-Altai cultures or general with those of the Siberian cultures. The tree. including fish.All these symbols are characterised by the tree standing straight on the earth. they are rather matters of distance in Hungarian folk art. This kind of division is obstinately missing from the Hungarian folk art.: 101.: 171. but they are not matters of height. A great many of the animals belong to the underworld. Figure 6 Tree of life with protecting animals dethe Hungarian culture is not only comrived from the Cucuteny culture31. The differences can immediately be seen. and the underworld is not represented on the pictures. pared but also rather derived from there. their antlers are highly branched. the ancient tree of life found in Linear Band Ceramic culture ie in the Carpathian Basin to those of Siberia. however. It is better said. The netherworld does not split into the rewarding good world (heaven) and the punishing bad world (hell) here. p. and therefore. 31 32 Gimbutas (1982). This constitutes the basics of the recent historical science in Hungary. Figure 7 shows such a representation. which cannot be stated of the 32 previous ones. Here the tree of life cuts the space into three zones. The this-world and the netherworld are present there. The animals belonging to the border of the earthly world are deer. therefore. These trees of life do not separate the space of life into three zones. p. It also divides the space of life into the heavens. although there are also a couple of similarities. they can mostly be compared to those found on the ancient representations. László (1967).

They were divided in two regions in the beginning. Their culture could be characterised by a cooperative way of thinking and signs of subordination have appeared in pictorial representations only parallel with the expansion of the Kurgan culture over them. This phenomenon was not characteristic of the northern and eastern hilly and mountainous parts of the Carpathian basin. p. The Kurgan invasion changed everything here as well. 15 . the graves indicate then a society with a small number of rich aristocrats and a huge number of subordinated masses. were definitely settled ones and practiced agriculture. Figure 8 Copper smelting and mining places of the Old European cultures33 The southern territories of the Old European Culture. these elements have not been personified. Those in the northern territories which were characterised by their linear decoration and called Linear Band Ceramic have kept the ancient elements of soul for a couple of millennia. 33 Cser (2000).: 145. did have personified elements of the soul even in the earliest periods. and villages with a couple of thousand inhabitants have been in existence for millennia indicating equalities in social life. but the church economy and the division of the graves so characteristic of the subordinative way of thinking have not been in existence here also for millennia. however. The whole character of the culture was changed when the Kurgan invasion reached the territory. There was no social division in these territories.Dia 11 The culture of Old Europe The cultures called ‘Old European’. developed in the New Stone Age. the graves report equality in the society.

5 millennium BP) have been found. p.: 84. This is the place where written tablets from this age (7.5 millennia older the oldest written tablets or tokens of the Sumerian culture. The traces of the earliest copper smelting in human history together with copper mining activities could have been found here. This is true. tablets. (7) Karanovo culture. (09) Hanangia culture. The baked clay tablets were prepared from the clay of the place. (2) Cucuteny culture. There are many hundreds of figures. mountainous places (10). (4) Boian culture. Three Figure 9 The tablets of Tatárlaka . forms of writing can be seen on the tablets. (3) Petresti culture. dia 13 Tatárlaka can be found in the territory of the Petresti culture. (5) Vinča culture. Tablet no 3 contains 13 linear signs. The ancient elements of writing cannot be found on the Tatárlaka tablets alone. Tablets no 1 shows a pictorial representation. it can not be regarded as true writing. Particularly as this writing originated here and is much older than the Sumerian writing. Copper smelting places are indicated by (11). and parts of them holding written signs. therefore. These written tablets are 1. Following cultures can be found in the figure: (1): Lengyel culture. These figurines and fragments show nearly 300 different runic signs and half of them can also be found Figure 10 Clay sculpture among the runic signs of the Linear A writing of South Balkan. Hilly. copper mines are marked by (12). from the Cucuteny The signs can therefore be regarded as elements of writing of the culture35. the writing that cannot be connected to commercial activities. many scholars do not accept it as true writing. This age and the cultures of Old Europe produced many more remnants holding written signs. Old European cultures. The tablet no 2 shows abstract signs of writing intermediate between the pictorial and sound writing.Dia 12 The Copper Age cultures of the Carpathian Basin The Carpathian Basin had had a particular position in this culture. The sculptures are also characterised without a face as it can be seen in Figure 10.49 Gimbutas (1982). Dia 14 34 35 Forrai (1994). 8 of these can be found among the character set of the ancient Hungarian runic writing called Székely writing. (6) Tisza culture. as neutron activation analyses have proved. (8) Danilo-Hvar culture. p. The copper smelting and mining places are shown in Figure 8. The tab34 lets are shown in Figure 9. 16 .: .

: 510. The soul is the essence of these religions and it is immortal ie has everlasting life.: 16 39 Kiszely (1996). Many of the characteristics of the Linear Band Ceramic culture of Old Europe. They together give wholeness. Remarkable is that the stroke at the upper left corner. The role of the individual persons in this concept is to prepare his/her soul for the return. 36 37 Ji (1989). All represent the cooperative way of thinking of these cultree of life with bird39. They are ordered side by side and not under each other. it is represented in the Chinese philosophy as the concept of Yin and Yang37. acter of life in eastern writing The soul and the life are also strongly related here and this is represented even by the most ancient societies. which is regarded by scholars as a flower. 38 Ji (1989). Grimal (1965). p. According to our recent knowledge this stroke should represent a bird symbolising the soul. The lower line represents the earth. coordinative way of losophy36. however Yang represents the heavenly.circulation. The soul and the tree of life are ordered side by side. the positive and male properties. In its purest form. Saso (1991). for the unification – depending on the actual religion to finish the everlasting Figure 12 The char. It appears as the description of the structure of the world and it represents the concept that the black and its substituting formally identical white figurines define totality only together.: 16.: 349. p. Dia 16 Figure 11 Yin and Yang. thinking can be found at the ancient forms of the eastern religion. Both figurines have the same form. none of them being subordinated to the other one.Dia 15 Coordinative way of thinking in eastern cultures The coordinative way of thinking can be also found in eastern cultures. to unity or so. so the lines do not divide the space into three zones. they fill the space together and disregarding their colour are identical. p. p. Yin represents the earthy. the negative and the female ones38. There is definitely a bird at the top of the tree of life and it is not a flower.: 273. those of the Hungarian culture and those of the Eastern cultures Figure 13 The are common. the basic concept in the Chinese phiSimilarly. The idea is shown in Figure 11. as it is visible in a Nógrád representation from the beginning of the 20th century (see Figure 13). The soul belongs to the individual person and can appear in different forms during the changes and its final goal is to return to the world soul. p. Life had also been represented here with the tree of life and this sign can be found as the written symbol of life both in the Chinese and Japanese writing (see Figure 12). This sign shows the tree of life with three horizontal lines and with an additional stroke at the left top. 17 .

but in the shadow of Christianity it has remained as a wish to do good. The lack of the named gods also means the lack of the names of human beings. Buddhism or Shintoism have symbols of subordination and consequently have also gods. Janaism. this does not mean that either of them is derived from the other one. only to be freed at the end from this world. conceptions.tures. as the soul is everlasting . The named gods in the subordinative way of thinking lead straight to the godly ancestors of the heroes or kings holding the name of the gods in their names as well. the eastern one based on rice. Both the Hungarian and the eastern kitchens are cooking ones. This is not unusual as they were compiled and written by Christian priests. This does not become as part of the philosophy of life. therefore. The human being is determined by the soul. Therefore. The human life does not have a definite aim. we find only a princess or shepherd in the tales. Both the Hungarian and the eastern cultures have been settled agricultural societies. The recent forms of eastern religions like Hinduism. In the recent philosophy of the Fareast some predatory animals can already been found. the baking kitchen is subordinated there. • • • • • • Dia 18 Although a lot of common characteristics. The lack of the elements of the zodiac. Their appearance can be regarded as later settlement onto the old cultures. The eastern philosophy also does not create myths of creation. All these are missing from the Hungarian cosmology. which exists together with him/her. it does not mean origin. They have appeared in the Hungarian culture only as rarities. Both the Hungarian and the eastern folk arts represent mainly motifs of plants or peaceful scenic views where the bird. who do not have name at all. Plant producing economy. Cooking kitchen. This is a logical consequence of the coordinative way of thinking. The representation and use of predatory animals in the eastern cultures appeared much later under the influence of subordinating cultures.it is not a created thing. the yearly changes of climate and light are the dominant effects. the symbol of the soul. The settled societies are living according to a yearly cycle. Lack of predatory animals in the folk art. It is not the zodiac important in their cosmology. however. but they can be interpreted within the 12-year cycle of Jupiter where nonpredatory animals are dominant. the production and preparation of food from plants stimulate a coordinative way of thinking. but they are belief of the soul in their basics. The legends of the Árpád family are not true myths of creation. The common characteristics are as follows: • Dia 17 Soul-belief. The lack of named gods. They are also missing from the cosmology of the Australian aborigine people. Both the Hungarian and the far-eastern cultures exist in the higher region of the northern hemisphere. The Hungarian society is based on grain. by eastern cultural elements since many eastern people 18 . The lack of creation myths. is also present. The later effects of Christianity come through these myths. Plant producing economy needs a cooking kitchen. parallelisms or even identities have been found in the Hungarian and the eastern cultures. Any strong efforts of the ethnographers have failed to find creation myths in Hungarian folklore. The lack of the elements of the zodiac in their philosophy also means the lack of heavenly commands. The Hungarian culture in the Carpathian Basin has been influenced. The soup is dominantly important in the Hungarian kitchen.

nor their system of symbols can be traced among the Carpathians. They mean the same in the far-eastern cultures and opinions as well. people were settled in the steppe parts of the Basin and then were dissolved completely into the original population and culture of the Basin. as their whole power system was based accordingly. They mean the common ancient concept and way of thinking of the humanities. Kuns. arrived into the Basin who all brought the steppe way of life with them. the symbols of their original culture have vanished forever. that which one is the primary one does not arise in the coordinative way of thinking as it can be accepted that both things belong to the same phenomenon. It is the question and it is the problem. which has been compiled mistakenly. that they arrived into the Carpathian Basin after they had lost their power and then their people was dissolved by the aborigines of the Basin. ie which one is the original and which one is the derivative? Which one is the everlasting and which one is the created? Which one is valuable and which one is worthless? The problem could have not been solved. The subordinative way of thinking was the basis of their culture. The parallelism between the Hungarian and the eastern cultures mean therefore something different. We can see. all the other incomers like Cimmerians. as well as even much later Pechengs. and its dominant presence in the folk culture and in the concepts. therefore it had taken only the cultural elements into its own but its way of thinking has not been included in the philosophy of the society. however. opinions of the recent Hungarians. Tatars. Scythians. Not counting the ancient gravetti people from the Caucasus. they are inseparable. eg in the middle of the 4th millennium BP in India when the Harappa culture collapsed. however. Closing thoughts Dia 19 The opposition of materialism to idealism based also on the problem of subordination and coordination. The differences mean rather the reflection of the original culture to the effect of the other ones during the millennia. It has already been mentioned that the coordinative way of thinking can be related to the dialectic method of philosophy. These tribes. how they could have stood against the influences of the cultures with a subordinative way of thinking. This kind of thinking separates the two concepts from each other and stands them to be opposing and conducts endless debates on an artificial problem. The Hungarian culture was hit straight and in a concentrated form at the early stage of the invasion. They mean the concept and way of thinking of the (Hungarian) culture of Old Europe. Quantum mechanics has already delivered this solution by handling the particle and wave nature of the matter (they correspond formally to the material and the consciousness in the philosophy) as inseparable characters of the matter where the two phenomena are the result of two different approach of the matter. This problem. they are two different sides of the same concept. Later on people definitely with Mongolian origin like the Huns. It could have kept its identity only with a complete closeness of the society. The subordinative way of thinking arrived to the Far East only in the age of the first dynasties. Neither the belief of the steppe. these did not turn to be dominant there. and Sarmatans were steppe people. Subordination did not arrive into the Basin with them. and arrived there much slower and later. The subordinative way of thinking was diffused towards the east in a diluted form of the culture of the people from the Black Sea basin. they belong to each other. Avars or the Magyars of Árpád.have arrived there and have settled among the aborigine people of the Basin. Dialectic can be employed within both ways of thinking. The two concepts are. not identical. This problem was created by the subordinative way of thinking. The subordinative way of thinking was dominant in 19 .

Grahen & Piggot. 1977. Budapest. but it is totally alien for its practice. Dömötör (1981) Tekla: A magyar nép hiedelemvilága. The different social orders were arranged in a consecutive series and values were put to each member of the series. in: A magyar néprajz klasszikusai. pp. ed. The changes are non-linear according to mathematical concepts. Lakitelek. Budapest. This concept is. Az ősi társadalom magyar kutatói. Communism is also based on the falsification of the reality and on the lying. Clarke (1965). Ortutay Gyula. Sydney. pp. Hutchinson. Az ősi társadalom magyar kutatói. Shaftsbury. Gondolat. Angus & Robertson. Josephine: Archaeology of the Dreamtime. it has rather suitable forms. in: A magyar néprajz klasszikusai. Forrai (1994) Sándor: Az ősi magyar rovásírás az ókortól napjainkig. 20 . The ideology of communism contains the concepts and thoughts. London. 1977. however.the philosophy of Hegel and its consequence was the concept of developing a spiral or coil. The practice was refused by the Hungarians in 1956 when they could be rid of the yoke of the communists for a short time and the need to do it again is yet alive. Cowan (1997). one phenomenon is based on another one and quantitative changes suddenly lead into qualitative changes. but its practice.. sz. Domanovszky (1981) György: A magyar nép díszítő művészete. Melbourne. The former was declared a reactionary the latter to be a progressive social system. Móra. Flood (1995). This is why a dogmatic ideology that is now in existence in the Far East is alien to this way of thinking. ZMTE kiadás. The eastern parallelisms in the culture with the Hungarian ones can be handled similarly: they are similar human answers to similar problems. erroneous. Accordingly. Antológia. Corvina. Gondolat. J. References Aszódi (1962) Éva (válogatása): Világszép népmesék I. These changes were represented as revolution by the doctrine of the historical materialism. A direct consequence of the coordinative way of thinking is that our life is not determined by strict rite. gen. Melbourne. its forced distribution over the other people is strictly subordinative concepts. Beöthy (1878) Leo: A társadalom keletkezéséről. Stuart: The History of Human Society. London.H. Beöthy (1882) Leo: A társadalmi fejlődés kezdetei. Kennikat Press.: The Aryans. Therefore a given direction cannot be attached to the changes. The equivalence of the people appears in the doctrines of communism. Ortutay Gyula.: 141-200. Akadémiai Kiadó. Budapest.: The Aborigine Tradition. Budapest. Cser (2001) Ferenc: Gondolatok a magyar nyelv és nép Kárpát-medencei eredetéről. which are ideal for the people with a coordinative way of thinking. Gordon V. Childe (1926).: 27-140. The story of prehistoric Australia and its people. We should accept also in the coordinative way of thinking that the world as an entire entity is in a state of permanent change – this is dialectic handling of the problem – but this change does not follow a well-defined line. ie the changes cannot be handled as progression or development. Plumb. what this means is that the changes are always reflections of the actual conditions and the way of reflection depends on them. The Hungarian language bears the signs of the coordinative way of thinking and mutually reinforced by the culture act in concord. Szerzői kiadás. Budapest. A Study of Indoeuropean Origins. This also helps us to build language that is more suitable. sz. which are completely alien to the coordinative way of thinking. James G. because this would mean comparing things to a line defined arbitrary. Cser (2000) Ferenc: Gyökerek – Töprengések a magyar nép és nyelv Kárpát-medencei származásáról.

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