The Coordinative Way of Thinking

Dia 1 Eastern connections to the Hungarian culture Ferenc Cser Queanbeyan, Australia e-mail: cserenc@netscape.net Abstract In his book, The Forms of the Hungarian Soul (printed in 1942) Gábor Lükő declared the Hungarian culture to have a coordinative way of thinking. Gordon Childe explained the success of the Indo-European people by the subordinative nature of their language in his book The Arians printed in 1926. I will show the essence of the two ways of thinking, describe their historical background and point out that the coordinative way of thinking is originated from the ancient men. This ancient way of thinking in modern Europe is now characteristically Hungarian but this was the ancient form of most of the cultures in Asia, and it can be traced there, even now. The similar way of thinking of these cultures does not mean either ethnic or cultural dependence as well as origin this is only a similar human reflection of similar environmental conditions of the humanity in different parts of the world. Introduction The human is a communal being. People living in communities and having collective activities can be in two relationships with each other. One of the relationships is when one person is subordinated to the other one, ie they are not connected to each other with equal rights. One of the two persons in this relationship is always in a higher, in a commanding position while the other one is in a lower, executive one. Their relationship is uni-directionally dependent. There is the lord, the boss, the commander who commands the other person, and there is the serf, the dependent, and the executive one who acts according to the commands of the previous one. This relationship is well known, it means a hierarchy and practically all of the organisations are built up accordingly in our time. A pyramid can represent this relationship. The commands are running here from the top towards the bottom. The lower levels are subordinated to the upper ones. Beöthy1 defined society even by this concept. According to him, there is no society without a chieftain. He does not understand the society of the Australian aborigines, where there are no bosses, and therefore he declared these societies as primitive hordes. There is no doubt, this relationship is well known by everyone and it is generally accepted as well. The opposite of this system is the coordinative form of relationships. No one person is subordinated to the other in this relationship. Their activities are characterised by equivalence. This kind of relationship can be observed many times even within the subordinative one when persons acting on the same level are compared to each other. The activities of the people being side by side are coordinated by a member of the upper level. This relationship is also well known and accepted.

1

Beöthy (1878), pp.: 27-140, ill. Beöthy (1882), pp.: 154-174.

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There is, however, a particular case of the coordinated relationship when the persons supposed to be equivalent are not bound together by another one from the upper level. The question arises: can they be acting cooperatively in this case? May a society exist with equivalent members, where there is no chieftain at all? Many – as we could see including Beöthy – gives an unambiguously NO answer saying that without a coordinating third, the relationship of two persons is destined to be disordered, or anarchic. It means an order is dismissed and it results in some kinds of chaos. The question now arises: is this true? My unambiguous answer is no, it is not true. I can list many items of social life as examples where people are successful in their mutual activities without the superiority of anyone; without anyone filling in a superior role among them. The best examples are small musical ensembles. Naturally, there is often a person among them who is the engine of their activities, but just as often the music, the product itself is the driving force, giving the beat and consequently the production is a result of the cooperation of equal musicians. The mediating person (if he/she exists) is not a chief here, but a leader standing out of the community who is equal among equals. A similar case can be seen in the Australian aborigine peoples in an example of a complete society where this relationship and living form has worked for many millennia. They did not own land, they did not have wars, they did not kill each other in stockpiles, but they shared peacefully their common land and cooperated with each other. This is a coordinated type of human relationship. In his book of Gábor Lükő showed the Hungarian culture as coordinative one. It reads: “Two different respects are realised at the same time by the Hungarian compositions according to the coordinative sense.”2 “The Hungarian artist pushed the items close to him under the horizon, the further items were risen above it and draw it onto the sky.” “Such a kind of filling of the space or the plane derives from the coordinative way of thinking of the eastern man.”3 This has been supported by many examples in the book of Lükő. Zsolt Zétényi cites István Kocsis4, who writes: “We should not forget: there were many lawful people in the old ages as the Doctrine of the Sacred Crown did not reinforce the subordinative consciousness but it did reinforced the sense of responsibility, as well as the cult of the equivalence and the cult of the dignified attitudes determined by the constitutional concept of the Membership of the Sacred Crown; because it promoted the concept of the coordination and not that of the subordination in the attitude of the inhabitants of the country 5.”

2 3

Lükő (1942), p.: 194. Lükő (1942), p.: 189. 4 Zétényi (1997), p.: 17. 5 Kocsis (1996), p.: 288.

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It is even so if we consider the two roles – that of the mother and that of the father – as nonequivalent. the other task needs strategy. This role is different for the female and for the male. There is no doubt that the coordinately thinking Hungarian culture has been in existence for at least a millennium among the environment of an opposite way of thinking. The difference in the colour of the females and males of the birds is not accidental. Firstly to engage the attention of the predator. where the male is a husband. It is closely connected to their biological roles in the protection of the family. The two roles are equal with respect to the security and existence of the ‘family’.(Highlights by me). Childe in his book The Aryans explained the great success of the Aryan people by the subordinative character of their language6. 6 7 Childe (1926). The male is therefore colourful and strategic.: 4. when unexpectedly the beast appears at the nest. The coordinative way of thinking can be recognised either in the Hungarian language or in a broader sense in the social political concepts as well. then to lure the enemy far from the nest –offering himself as a victim – and when they are far away from the critical place taking care of his own life or security. The relationship of the parents to each other is not necessarily subordinative. What is the true question? The problem can better be understood if we take the relationships of animal families into account. This is expressed in the Hungarian language by the word wife as feleség. We have two different qualities here but we are not forced to transfer the differences into a category of values that relate one unto the other as more or less valuable. but the parent is more a leader than a chieftain character. firstly those of birds. the other one has the task of luring the beast from the nest. as a coordinating third one is missing from this relationship? Neither is. the female is colourless and tactic. p. who owns his wife. This requires high tactical capabilities. which has a titular meaning of halfness. the male partners are very frequently colourful. The wife is a property there and is not an equivalent half of a relationship called ‘family’. We can immediately valuate this expression when we compare it to the English one. At the same time Gordon V. The book of Kata Beke is not available for me at this moment therefore I cannot give its edition. One of them protects the nest and the young chicks from the beast of prey. It is well known that most of the female birds are grey or colourless however. the two parents are reliant on each other and have coordinative roles. and. Which one is subordinated to the other one. year etc. On the other hand. 3 . Let us examine in detail what is the essence of these contradicting concepts and how the coordinative way of thinking of the Hungarian culture is connected to that of the eastern cultures. Kata Beke7 has dealt with this problem in her splendid book As the people have two sexes in the chapter entitled Colourful feather colour-blind males. The first task needs a high capability to hide. Coordination and subordination To make the problem clearer let us start to examine the family. the bird needs to find a method of protection. What are the human relationships there? They are naturally very complicated as the relationship between the parents and the children is subordinative most of the time.

it is immediately declared that this culture is an underdeveloped one. all the others represent the primary ones. however. ancestral lines are counted and recorded in legends. Interaction is generally not possible in this system. even if they produce weapons. they appear as masters from foreign countries. this also expresses the relationships as values. subordinated. a subordinate kind of method. they are known by all. In societies producing metals and metallic products there is no need for subordination. The consequences of the subordinative way of thinking are easily visible. In order to eliminate any confusion let me remark that Marxism was declared dialectic materialism but it should not be rejected solely because this ideology declared itself dialectic. Alternatively. the phenomena follow each other strictly both in time and in logic. The kings are generally subordinated to their gods or are even derived from them. According to the Finno-Ugric hypotheses the Hungarians are always secondary ones. carved in stones or baked into clay. it is generally characteristic of kingdoms. events. Many times. Generally. etc. but they need them like metallurgy. These differences are not regarded as different values in the coordinative way of thinking. with the knowledge of a foreign nation. they can keep their coordinative nature. In this philosophical method. the results can affect the reasons. This does not express only an order. even as dwarfs as we can read in Snow White the tale of Andersen. we can state that the dominating way of thinking in Europe is a subordinating one. They are not mentioned in the legends or tales of the subordinative societies by name. This kind of society is only visible by its products. pp. It is characteristically a subordinative way of thinking and that does not start from the Hungarian side. In societies characterised by the subordinative way of thinking the human relationship – as well as all the relations. phenomena and qualities regarded in philosophical terms – are all subordinated to each other. Because it did not reach the concept of gods – as we can read in the introductory paragraphs of the book of Ipolyi8. The metaphysical examining method in philosophy is basically. When the world of belief of a culture is studied and gods are not found there. tales. and interaction is accepted. sagas.The two kinds of human relationships are the consequence of two different ways of thinking. The system or world of belief. The best examples are the Egyptian 8 Ipolyi (1853). the result is determined by the reason and never reacts back upon the reason.: 39-41. the secrets of the refinement of metals suitable to prepare weapons. Today the subordinative way of thinking is always present where there are stories of kings and heroes who have been glorified. The only pledge of its existence is its intellectual power or knowledge. consequently more valuable than the other ones. In this way of thinking any of the non-equal phenomena immediately requires the valuation: which one is the original. The difference between the two ways of thinking is important when extended to the dimension of a society. ie the primary and which one is the derivate. subordinated to foreign kings who are also without a name. thought and ideas of their own are regarded always as primary. as they do not have gods they do not have legendary names as well. 4 . This corresponds to the dialectic method of philosophy. which are not available for societies with subordination. This characterises the structure and actions of the Catholic Church. These may equally mean order in the time and/or order as a logical relation. given from mouth to mouth. The coordinative way of thinking is however hiding and it is invisible in the sea of subordination in many times. The reasons and the results are not standing against each other. ie the secondary. the people are subordinated to the kings. but they appear there as masters.

they are less valued. ie a demigod. to the Greek story of Wonderful Atalanta12 .: 152. p. The girl has a definite name in the subordinative way of thinking – in our case it is Atalanta. but the dominating feudal system represented a subordinative one. The Doctrine subordinated the King to the Crown. In the area.: 155. Formally. and Hippomenes in the story of Ovidius). In Hungary. 181. 392. but the inhabitants of the country were also subordinated to the Crown and not to the King . The acceptance of other people as equals promotes the learning. The Hungarian society bypassed it.a story using the subordinative way of thinking. or better say a ‘being supposed to be superior’ was created without the real content of its essence. There is no importance of the self-identity or personality in the case of the coordinative way of thinking therefore they are not named. 12 Grimal (1965). See in more details in Cser (2000). Instead of heroic legends educating tales. they submit themselves to the announced test. it expresses the inner problems of the society. a human being has not legally been owned by another until the age of Werbőczy when the Doctrine of the Sacred Crown was remastered according to the feudal concept. They established a sacred object equipped with personal characteristics and the land was given into its possession. p. when feudalism was the accepted social system everywhere. however. In contrary. Let us compare the Hungarian tale of The All-seeing Princess11. This might be a matter of life and death.: 17. pp.Pharaoh who is deemed the Son of God. As it does not create born aristocrats. the men with a coordinative way of thinking can bow their knees or heads without the fear of punishment and do not aggravate the lord by denying it. by establishing the Doctrine of the Sacred Crown10. The Doctrine of the Sacred Crown represented a coordinative way of thinking. the efficiency of teaching. This also valid for the boy (in the Greek legend his name is Melanion. The best example for this answer – which is known in the Hungarian culture as ‘brain over brawn’ – is the Doctrine of the Sacred Crown. The concept for Son of God can be derived from here. pp. the coordinative way of thinking does not create superior personalities whom must be worshiped and feared. In a society with mixed concepts eg that the God of the lord should be respected.: 102.both were made to be equal members of the Crown. The boys want to marry as well. none of the nation could bypass the ownership of the lands. or Aszódi (1962). poems are born there. 9 See eg Osman (1993). Zöld Péter.: 104-110. see also as a story of Ovidius in Grant (1995). they are less noble than Atalanta . ie less significant as well. pp. to whom inheritance and a heroic past are also very important. pp. 10 5 . The Hungarians have not generally accepted the feudalism dominating the European societies until the age of Maria Theresa. p. They bear only the titles of princess or swineherd. the king did not own the country he was subordinated to the Crown as equal partner of the nation itself. the social memory is not filled with the legends and stories of aristocrats. stories. however. However. or Zétényi (1999). their inheritance lines or heroic deeds. The essence of both stories is that a girl is looking for her pair and calls boys to complete a test. 11 Kovács (1994). who actually did not want to marry as an oracle had said that she would become an animal after her marriage – and her godly inheritance belongs to the essence of the story.: 79. as there is no fear of the punishment of his/her own ‘god’. In Hungary. songs. which is a tale using the coordinative way of thinking. or Knight (1997).: 343-5. a ‘superior being’.: 152. during his initiation by anointing with the fat of the sacred crocodile called messhiah9. It can be done. therefore. in the tale of Gál Istvánné. p.

he must defeat her. Which one is the original and which one is the derivative? – a question is put according to the subordinative way of thinking. that of the Mousterian culture (2-4). the boy conquers the girl in the Greek story and he gets to be her ruler and commander. drawings. it is obvious that they are related to each other. The closing line is you are mine and I am yours. on the basis of which the way of thinking or creed can be concluded. It is the final point of the Greek story that when they were married they provoked the anger of Zeus (or of Cybele in Ovidius) who turned them into animals and it was humiliating for both of them. Dia 3 Figure 1 represents the position and movement of human cultures in Europe at the end of the Würm ice age. Before the warming up of Würm most of Europe was under an ice cover. sculptures. the boy of the subordinative way of thinking obtains the grace of a god (in the Greek story she is Aphrodite. A story with coordinative way of thinking might have served as the basis of the other one it might have been a primary one – if we want to handle the problem using subordinative way of thinking. The origin of the coordinative way of thinking Dia 2 When we compare the two stories. Basically two cultures can be recognised in this period: the gravetti culture (8) being dispersed westwards from the idyllic Eden. how can he be cooperating. In contrary. He helps of his own accord. as the boy does not conquer the girl. but he does not enhance his own skill. The rest of the old Mousterian cultures can be found at three 6 . the compactness and logical coherence of the tale of The All-seeing Princess makes it practically impossible to regard the Greek story as the primary and the Hungarian as the derivative. Whether the test is completed successfully or not it is determined by the behaviour of the boy in the coordinative way of thinking. The Greek culture having conquering the settled Pelages one might have taken the basic story from the conquered culture and transferred it according to its way of thinking. power or speed but he utilises the weakness of the other one: he throws the golden apple before her. carvings. ie how is he good. The boy of the coordinative way of thinking gets his helpers by offering his own help to them during his trip to the princess. Recently we find subordination as ruling way of thinking in human relationships. The question arises: which one is the original way of human view? Where and when can we first recognise either a subordinative or a coordinative way of thinking or view during the history of humanity? Above we have already declared the coordinative story as the basis and the subordinative one as the derivative. he is humane to them and he is generally a good guy. a warm environment of the Caucasia (5). For a much further study. Reversed origin is rather more probable. By this time the following objects have already appeared: grave supplements. the boy with a subordinative way of thinking. must overcome the girl. In contrary. The golden apples were obtained from the deity as a reward The success of the test is not humiliating in the coordinative way of thinking. It depends upon how is he skilful or ingenious. and while she stops to pick up the apple the boy gets the advantage. It is impossible among natural conditions. we should go back at least to the ice ages to be able to investigate the way of thinking of human cultures. The moral teaching. Human cultures could be found only at the southern parts of the continent as well as the tundra. It is very hard to be hidden otherwise. she is Venus in Ovid) what can be achieved by some kinds of rite. We can recognise the Pelages story in the Hungarian culture.The boys in both stories need help to complete the task. human representations. In contrary. paintings. as well as the cold climate Aurignacian culture (1) including the rest of the true cold climate men.

7 . it must have been the result of a collective activity. Roux (1992). which is assured by a cooperative way of thinking. Cooperation among these climatic conditions was a matter of life or death. that had been his main diet before and has died out just at this time.: 216-217. Gods have not been found here. the hunting of these animals could not have been the success of single men. XXI.: 38.they show the body of an exaggerated fat woman only. 15 Solecki (1971). in the valley of Po we find the Uluzzi culture (3) and at the Bükk mountains (Carpathians) there is the Szeleta culture (4). The flowers are recently known as 13 14 Cser (2000). Rudgley (1999)..: 195-196. Social aid helped this man to survive being crippled from birth. There is no face on the sculptures representing a human being . p. The graves are equal. There were also signs of a funeral rite in the grave of another man of the same age: pollens of freshly collected flowers arranged in groups.: 153.: 131. there is no sign of subordination or distinction according to birth. photograph and p. pp. It needs close human cooperation. At the same time signs are found that the man of this age had had morals. The crippled man had been living after this operation for decades until a rock killed him.Figure 1. At the end of the Würm the warm climate men lived also in a cold climate environment and the gravetti man has turned even in the CarpathianBasin to hunt the deer instead of the mammoth. pp. There was no surplus of food to be stored for a longer time. The cultures of Europe in the Middle Stone and in the Mesozoic ages13. Very strong evidences are derived from the cave of Shanidar15 where the skeleton of a Neanderthal man showed a birth distortion on his right arm healed by amputation. p. It does not matter which big animal was the prey of the man living at the end of the Würm. Rudgley (1999). the respect of fertility and not a personified concept are seen on the sculptures produced in this age (eg Venus of Villendorf or Dolni Vestonice14). spots: at the base of the Pyrenes and at the Middle Mountains there is the Chatelperony culture (2). the people were ordained side by side by the strength of the climate.

p. pp.:5. The grave belonged to people of the herding culture of the steppe near the Volga River. and their traditional social life supports the statements compiled above20. 5: Tisza culture. pp. Godden (1997). 8: Bükk culture. Ritually buried Mousterian man is also mentioned by Gáboriné18 in the Subalyuk culture from the first cool period of Würm. 14 and 15: Arrows indicate the dispersion of the population from the Basin of the Black Sea in around 7500 BP at the time of its fill up (based on Ryan (1999) p. The life of the recent aboriginal inhabitant of Australia is a straight continuation of a cultural life extending over tens of millennia. which cannot be declared for the modern man without consent even in much later times. pp.: 63. x: Hacilar. 16 17 Rudgley (1999). the objects of the age definitely cite the same. It caused floods at the shallow shores as well as at the mouth of rivers. In a grave derived from the middle of the eighth millennium before present (BP) a dagger suitable for killing humans has been found besides the bones of a child.: 214-215. 13: Nemuna culture. + Çatal Hüyük. 22 Oppenheimer (1999).: 194). Gábori also refers to the social life of the Mousterian man describing the grave of a child decorated by the horns of goats.: 21-23. The extent of the agriculture between 8700 and 8500 BP. 53). One thing is definitely visible from the graves of ancient people: the man of this age had had a belief of the immortality of the soul. 11: pastoral culture of the steppe. pp. pp. This is the oldest case where birthright can be detected. 3: Lengyel culture. 21 Clarke (1965). The coordinative way of thinking of our ancient forefathers cannot only be logically concluded.: 114-115.: 27-48. pp.: 16-17.: 219. as well as the limit of the agriculture in 7500 BP. See more details Rudgley (1999) pp. During the warming of the second Dryas the ice block in Canada had been broken and a huge amount of water streamed into the ocean resulting in an increase its level by 5 m. Dia 4 Figure 2 summarises the European cultures at and after the closing scene of the Würm ice age. (based on Gimbutas (1991). This was around the middle of the eighth millennium BP. mentioning the morals of this man19. 9: Cucuteny culture. The Mousterian man had had morals21. 6: Boian culture. The child had been buried with great ceremony that could not be explained by him having committed great deeds. This was the way of thinking of the ancestral man. 8 . as he was too young. 18 Gáboriné (1980). The numbers in Figure have the following meaning: 1:. 2: Vinča culture. That these people had a sense of morality is also visible in a couple of graves of Mousterian man eg in the Teshik-Tas cave in Uzbekistan17. The origin of subordination The earliest appearance of a subordinative way of thinking can be observed in the times after the basin of the Black Sea was filled with saline water. 7: Karanovo culture.: 214-215. as the buried humans were supplemented by objects serving his/her post-mortem life. p. Cowan (1992).healing plants including Ephedra whose extract is known among the amphetamin drugs (ephedrin) 16. 19 Gábori (1974). 20 Flood (1995). 10: Halaf culture. 4: the edge of the culture with bound ceramics. p.: 39. 12: Dniester-Bug culture. p.: 258. Rudgley (1999).. 35. Settlements on the shores at the mouths of the Tiger and Euphrates rivers were also flooded22..

when the hunting of the steppe 23 Cser (2000). Smelting of copper is also known at from this time. but later on. The people who had settled on the shore as well as far from the shore were either inundated or escaped to another parts of the continent. Two cultures different in their basics can be found in Europe after this age. It was developed in the steppe area of the continent where the yearly precipitation was less than 200 mm and grain could not be grown.: 141. According to the yields there was a surplus in the food production here and this made it possible for other societies to settle above them and appropriate their food surplus without the extermination of the food producers. used the plough. and their irrigation techniques had already been developed. One of them is a settled. Dia 5 The fresh water level of the Black Sea (that developed during the first melting of the Würm ice age) was over 100 m below sea level as the gap at Bosporus was closed at that that time. Vinča culture in Danube valley. All these cultures harvested domesticated wheat and barley. The source of these cultures is unknown. p. eg in the Vinča culture.Figure 2. This culture can be found in places where the climate assured at least the 200 mm of rain per year necessary to harvest grain without irrigation. At the beginning. Karanovo and Thessaloniky cultures in the Balkan appeared suddenly at this time. Anatolia became populated again. a reasonable explanation for both the disappearance of the Middle-Eastern cultures in the last period of the ice age ie at the beginning of the second Dryas and their reappearance suddenly with more developed techniques after it. The other type of culture practiced animal herding. 9 . European human cultures between 9th and 7th millennia BP23. food producing one where the main source of food was domesticated grain. animal herding meant sheep. tripling its volume in a couple of months. Not much later Samara cultures also appeared. The Black Sea filled up very quickly with salt water. however. The shore of the dried Black Sea gives. eg Çatal Hüyük or Halaf but now they were equipped with defensive measures. When the level of the ocean increased by 5 m the gap of Bosporus broke – this may have been due to the very high differences in the level of water.

as antigen has already been developed against these blood groups in the original population25. after the Kurgan culture started to conquer its neighbours. Cultural data also supports this conclusion eg. The original population of Middle Europe has learnt the agricultural techniques it has not been replaced by the man of Anatolia at that time24. Blood-group AB was thought to be formed as a mixture of A and B. at this time its extent was not as general as nowadays. The basic blood group of humanity is zero. It became general and determining only after a couple of millennia. ie the territory of the ancient Band Ceramic. The godly respect of the weapon is seen in the graves. time-by-time a definite shortage in food could have appeared. p. However. Both are very old. 10 . we can see a separation of graves to those of the poor and to those of the rich. This area is the Northern and eastern territories of the Carpathian Basin. Blood group A is characteristic of the Caucasian man. this population then developed it with new ideas and methods. was able to travel large distances. From these data it is evident that the recent men around the Carpathian Basin were in a vicinity of each others since ancient times and they do not have any close relationship to the man of Ural mountains. This kind of culture did not have a surplus in food. having the horse and the cart. if they had had any at all. therefore this kind of mixing can not be accepted. but recent genetic and blood group information has denied this concept. In parallel. the other population carrying the agricultural techniques did not replace the Aurignician population of Old Europe. however. the aborigines in America and in Australia. This blood group is nearly exclusive in Africa. personalised symbols did not appear in the area of Linear Band Ceramic culture. but even. where the graves did not show separation to rich and to poor until the 7th – 8th century Before Christ (BC). The ancient population of Europe has remained intact. This society. or better-known Bükk culture. herding of horses and cattle was also practiced. The societies with a subordinative way of thinking can be well recognised after the filling up of the Black Sea. 24 Recently Gibbons (2000) summarised the concept of Cavalli-Sforza and Renfrew concerning the genetic test and declared that the Aurignacian man did not come here from Africa but rather from Middle-Asia. Having learnt the agricultural techniques. Genetic and blood-group data Dia 6 Formerly it was believed that parallel with agriculture the man cultivating the land also spread. It started to conquer the agricultural societies who had a surplus in their food production. 25 Nagy (2000). The basic data see at Semino (2000). We can however find such an area in the map of Europe where subordination did not appear even for transient periods. blood group B is characteristic of the Chinese man. the bloodgroups strictly follow Mendel’s rules. Protection does not only mean defence but also the opposite: attack. The originally Anatolian population can only be traced at the shore of the Mediterranean Sea using the genetic data. We can conclude the same if we look at the data of blood-group analyses.horse was stopped and horse riding had started. due to the annual variation of the rain. The appearance of the dagger already suitable to kill human beings is a true indication of this change. Blood groups A and B are the early mutation of this original blood group. This lead to the protection of the herding areas against other people and consequently it resulted in the development of a military force to protect itself.: 64. This gene remained intact in the middle of Europe after the proposed invasion. The original Aurignacian gene is not characteristic to the people of old Anatolia who have invented the agriculture.

hál. As it is not old enough. death. háló. generally one-syllable words reflecting the most ancient time of the Hungarian language.Blood group AB is relatively rare among the population. éled. in English: The man has breathed out his soul. azaz meghalt we say. with the English meaning accordingly: live. with their English meaning: false. fish. is cooling down. breathe. This culture can be regarded as the origin of the cooperative way of thinking in the Carpathian Basin26. ölel. forming a shrub of words. Some members of the other group are: ál. which is frequency 25% instead of 35%. The soul in their belief has detached itself from the human being. holt. sit. net. breath. soul. álom. words with low vowels are generally expressing a distance. alél. the other one with low vowels. Words meaning extinguishing life. dream. halad. hull. existence. halál. áll. listen. ie the man is dead. The connection is equal. hulla. hal. therefore we can state that the Hungarian culture is a continuation of the much older Linear Band Ceramic culture of the same territory. find. it has become superior to the man and the personified soul has the man subordinated to him. öl. lélek. levegő. The man is subordinated neither to his soul. There are two basic branches of the shrub of words. They are all built around the consonant l. The words with high vowels in the Hungarian language generally express concept with a characteristic of vicinity. hűlt (shut. stand. the most important essence of the life of a man. cold) can also be reckoned here. it covers only 5% on average. air. lét. like lő. sleep. Lükő writes 26 Cser (2001). The belief of men with the cooperative way of thinking Dia 7 Let us continue our study with the investigation of the world of belief of the cooperative way of thinking. embrace. One is characterised by high vowels. there is no antigen against it in the original population. lélegzik. revive. ül. We find here the same: life is already far away! Az ember kilehelte a lelkét. The soul resides within the man and it forms the essence of a human being. life. go on. they form a single unit. According to the Hungarian language. élet. hall. This is reasonable concept. 11 . The man of the Bükk culture might be the source of the later man with Linear Band Ceramic of the same area as there is a cultural continuity here. The soul is within the man. lehelet. kill. The man of the Bükk culture can bear the AB mutation. The question arises: what might be the bases of the belief of the men with a cooperative way of thinking? My answer is belief in the soul. The words connected to life and to the soul are simple. corpse. bear. it is distinctly higher (15% ) in the Hungarian population for the loss of blood-group 0. lehel. Some words with high vocals are as follows: él. as there was a self-standing continuation of ancient population within Carpathian Basin since the ice age of Mindel. lel. The Hungarian language names the concept connected to the soul with a cooperative way of thinking. hűl. These words express the concept of life connected to living ones. get to be unconscious. breathe. the human. The modern Hungarians are living on the same area and have similar cultural elements the Linear Band Ceramic culture had. The cultures and nations in the environment of the Hungarians look at the soul with a completely different manner. which carries the 0 blood group. nor vice versa. It is particularly interesting to name the concept of life using the Hungarian vocabulary. ellik. We can consider that the AB mutation originated from the Carpathian Basin. fall.

or simple a waving line. The symbols can. Dia 9 These elements did not become members of a personified ‘family’. Its symbols are very variable. the intellectual power. Figure 3 represents the Figure 3 Symbolic elements of the soul on a back of a mirror derived from Transdanubia. The soul has interested the Hungarian people as well as their Ural-Altaian relatives always and only in its primitive reality. the Mother. snake. however. The role of the mother in the Christian religion has already been excluded. Their role can be recognised in the clearest form in the old Egyptian belief. They are also present in our folk legends. fire. 27 28 Lükő (1942).” 27 The elements can be regarded in reality as elements of the soul. tales or songs. Air: It is the life keeping power. but mainly the plant.Dia 8 „The ‘elements’ ie wind. Dömötör (1981). Later on the system of concepts appeared in the philosophy of Plato. it breathes out a new plant indicating the way of creation of living beings. water. the mermaid represents the water. particularly its seed. be very frequently found in the pictorial representations of Hungarian folk art.: 30. detached from its body at the moment of the death. Its symbol and in many cases its source is the Sun. In order to eliminate any doubt about the symbol of the bird. the elements are always the symbol of one unknown. earth are only personified by the abstract thinking Indo-German people. the Father. frog. She creates life. the plants shooting from the hands of the mermaid represent the earth and the bird on the top of the picture means the air. p. Its most known symbol is the bird. the Soul. like fish. Water: It is the fertilising power. 12 . They are the following: • • • • Fire: It is the light. the soul alone. she is the Holy Spirit. Its symbol is variable. The personal characters mentioned above serve to identify them according to their role in the other cultures where these elements were personified. Earth: It is the fertility. the soul remained only as a subordinate member of the Holly Trinity. and even later in the gnostic doctrines. its golden basic colour remirror from Transdanubia28 mind us of the Sun. among colour photographs. With us. the Son. they did not receive personal characters in the Hungarian culture. The circular form.

which we can expect of this animal. The Tree of Life Figure 5 shows a piece of baked clay with a deer on it. 13 . Hungary. The deer bears antlers like the tree of life on his head. but its antlers represent more than those. The golden background of the picture reminds us also of the Sun. With their complicated branch system it is rather the tree of life than simple antlers. The plant has consecutively different flowers that are symbols of the seed of life. 8.Similar symbols can be seen as a decoration of some furniture (Figure 4). The animals are in a role to protect the Deer with antlers like the tree of tree of life as it can be seen in another piece of Figure 5 30 life baked clay digged out at Sipitsini. which is a place of 6th millennium BP within the Cucuteny culture. but in another representations they are already separated. A chain of different flowers attached to the same branch is very frequently present in the pictorial representation of Hungarian folk art. The picture represents a deer. picture. Kalicz (1970). The bird represents the soul itself Figure 4 Symbols of life on furniture29 so the life is originated from her breathes in the form of a plant. on the cover of the book. Dia 10 29 30 Domanovszky (1981). The plant represents the tree of life in its reality. ie the light. The fragment was excavated at Csépa. The central element here is a bird breathing out through her open beak a very complicated series of plants. or the fire. from the age of 8th millennia BP ie it was produced in the Bükk culture. and the symbol of life can be found in this form even in the most ancient representations of the Linear Band Ceramic culture of Old Europe. The tree of life is closely connected here to a deer.

Here the tree of life cuts the space into three zones. the ancient tree of life found in Linear Band Ceramic culture ie in the Carpathian Basin to those of Siberia. is not multiple branched as we could see above either as antlers of deer or as a tree like the Christmas tree. but it definitely divides the space in three zones.: 171. including fish. The this-world and the netherworld are present there. although there are also a couple of similarities. 14 . It is better said. which cannot be stated of the 32 previous ones. their antlers are highly branched. p.All these symbols are characterised by the tree standing straight on the earth. and therefore. 31 32 Gimbutas (1982). A great many of the animals belong to the underworld. therefore all other hypotheses or conceptions are regarded as heretic. These trees of life do not separate the space of life into three zones. p. which can clearly be recognised on the picture. pared but also rather derived from there. This constitutes the basics of the recent historical science in Hungary. This kind of division is obstinately missing from the Hungarian folk art. The netherworld does not split into the rewarding good world (heaven) and the punishing bad world (hell) here. Let us compare. The elements of Hungarian folk art are generally compared with those of the Ural-Altai cultures or general with those of the Siberian cultures. Figure 7 shows such a representation. It also divides the space of life into the heavens.: 101. Figure 6 Tree of life with protecting animals dethe Hungarian culture is not only comrived from the Cucuteny culture31. therefore. The tree. László (1967). the earth and the underworld. The tree of Figure 7 Samoyed (Siberia) representation of tree of life life is surrounded here by many animals. however. they can mostly be compared to those found on the ancient representations. they are rather matters of distance in Hungarian folk art. The animals belonging to the border of the earthly world are deer. The differences can immediately be seen. but they are not matters of height. and the underworld is not represented on the pictures.

This phenomenon was not characteristic of the northern and eastern hilly and mountainous parts of the Carpathian basin. were definitely settled ones and practiced agriculture. There was no social division in these territories. and villages with a couple of thousand inhabitants have been in existence for millennia indicating equalities in social life. these elements have not been personified. developed in the New Stone Age.Dia 11 The culture of Old Europe The cultures called ‘Old European’. the graves report equality in the society. 15 . however. They were divided in two regions in the beginning. but the church economy and the division of the graves so characteristic of the subordinative way of thinking have not been in existence here also for millennia. Those in the northern territories which were characterised by their linear decoration and called Linear Band Ceramic have kept the ancient elements of soul for a couple of millennia. The Kurgan invasion changed everything here as well.: 145. The whole character of the culture was changed when the Kurgan invasion reached the territory. p. Figure 8 Copper smelting and mining places of the Old European cultures33 The southern territories of the Old European Culture. the graves indicate then a society with a small number of rich aristocrats and a huge number of subordinated masses. Their culture could be characterised by a cooperative way of thinking and signs of subordination have appeared in pictorial representations only parallel with the expansion of the Kurgan culture over them. did have personified elements of the soul even in the earliest periods. 33 Cser (2000).

: 84. and parts of them holding written signs. (2) Cucuteny culture. (7) Karanovo culture.5 millennia older the oldest written tablets or tokens of the Sumerian culture. Particularly as this writing originated here and is much older than the Sumerian writing. mountainous places (10). The copper smelting and mining places are shown in Figure 8. therefore. This age and the cultures of Old Europe produced many more remnants holding written signs. Hilly. There are many hundreds of figures. from the Cucuteny The signs can therefore be regarded as elements of writing of the culture35. Copper smelting places are indicated by (11). many scholars do not accept it as true writing. Three Figure 9 The tablets of Tatárlaka . This is the place where written tablets from this age (7. copper mines are marked by (12). The ancient elements of writing cannot be found on the Tatárlaka tablets alone. This is true. (6) Tisza culture. 16 .Dia 12 The Copper Age cultures of the Carpathian Basin The Carpathian Basin had had a particular position in this culture. Dia 14 34 35 Forrai (1994). p. 8 of these can be found among the character set of the ancient Hungarian runic writing called Székely writing. The baked clay tablets were prepared from the clay of the place. The sculptures are also characterised without a face as it can be seen in Figure 10. it can not be regarded as true writing. Following cultures can be found in the figure: (1): Lengyel culture. (8) Danilo-Hvar culture. forms of writing can be seen on the tablets. Old European cultures. Tablets no 1 shows a pictorial representation. (5) Vinča culture. as neutron activation analyses have proved. the writing that cannot be connected to commercial activities. The traces of the earliest copper smelting in human history together with copper mining activities could have been found here. (3) Petresti culture. The tab34 lets are shown in Figure 9. The tablet no 2 shows abstract signs of writing intermediate between the pictorial and sound writing.49 Gimbutas (1982). tablets.5 millennium BP) have been found. (09) Hanangia culture. dia 13 Tatárlaka can be found in the territory of the Petresti culture.: . These figurines and fragments show nearly 300 different runic signs and half of them can also be found Figure 10 Clay sculpture among the runic signs of the Linear A writing of South Balkan. (4) Boian culture. Tablet no 3 contains 13 linear signs. These written tablets are 1. p.

They together give wholeness.: 16 39 Kiszely (1996). p. Dia 16 Figure 11 Yin and Yang.: 349. Both figurines have the same form. to unity or so. they fill the space together and disregarding their colour are identical. Remarkable is that the stroke at the upper left corner. The soul belongs to the individual person and can appear in different forms during the changes and its final goal is to return to the world soul. This sign shows the tree of life with three horizontal lines and with an additional stroke at the left top. acter of life in eastern writing The soul and the life are also strongly related here and this is represented even by the most ancient societies. Many of the characteristics of the Linear Band Ceramic culture of Old Europe. There is definitely a bird at the top of the tree of life and it is not a flower. According to our recent knowledge this stroke should represent a bird symbolising the soul. Saso (1991). All represent the cooperative way of thinking of these cultree of life with bird39. however Yang represents the heavenly. it is represented in the Chinese philosophy as the concept of Yin and Yang37. so the lines do not divide the space into three zones.Dia 15 Coordinative way of thinking in eastern cultures The coordinative way of thinking can be also found in eastern cultures. The role of the individual persons in this concept is to prepare his/her soul for the return. for the unification – depending on the actual religion to finish the everlasting Figure 12 The char. 38 Ji (1989). It appears as the description of the structure of the world and it represents the concept that the black and its substituting formally identical white figurines define totality only together.: 510. In its purest form.circulation. p. 17 . thinking can be found at the ancient forms of the eastern religion. coordinative way of losophy36. The soul and the tree of life are ordered side by side. Grimal (1965). p. none of them being subordinated to the other one. the negative and the female ones38.: 16. The soul is the essence of these religions and it is immortal ie has everlasting life. as it is visible in a Nógrád representation from the beginning of the 20th century (see Figure 13). Yin represents the earthy.: 273. those of the Hungarian culture and those of the Eastern cultures Figure 13 The are common. Life had also been represented here with the tree of life and this sign can be found as the written symbol of life both in the Chinese and Japanese writing (see Figure 12). the basic concept in the Chinese phiSimilarly. They are ordered side by side and not under each other. which is regarded by scholars as a flower. The lower line represents the earth. p. p. The idea is shown in Figure 11. the positive and male properties. 36 37 Ji (1989).

The eastern philosophy also does not create myths of creation. They have appeared in the Hungarian culture only as rarities. They are also missing from the cosmology of the Australian aborigine people. conceptions. this does not mean that either of them is derived from the other one. Therefore. This is not unusual as they were compiled and written by Christian priests. The lack of creation myths. which exists together with him/her. The later effects of Christianity come through these myths. it does not mean origin. Plant producing economy needs a cooking kitchen. Lack of predatory animals in the folk art. Janaism. The lack of the named gods also means the lack of the names of human beings. In the recent philosophy of the Fareast some predatory animals can already been found. The settled societies are living according to a yearly cycle. is also present. • • • • • • Dia 18 Although a lot of common characteristics. Buddhism or Shintoism have symbols of subordination and consequently have also gods. Their appearance can be regarded as later settlement onto the old cultures. The soup is dominantly important in the Hungarian kitchen. The legends of the Árpád family are not true myths of creation. The representation and use of predatory animals in the eastern cultures appeared much later under the influence of subordinating cultures. but in the shadow of Christianity it has remained as a wish to do good. but they are belief of the soul in their basics. Plant producing economy. by eastern cultural elements since many eastern people 18 . Cooking kitchen. Both the Hungarian and the eastern kitchens are cooking ones.tures. The Hungarian society is based on grain. as the soul is everlasting . only to be freed at the end from this world. the eastern one based on rice. therefore. This is a logical consequence of the coordinative way of thinking. the yearly changes of climate and light are the dominant effects.it is not a created thing. The human life does not have a definite aim. we find only a princess or shepherd in the tales. however. The recent forms of eastern religions like Hinduism. Both the Hungarian and the far-eastern cultures exist in the higher region of the northern hemisphere. who do not have name at all. the baking kitchen is subordinated there. This does not become as part of the philosophy of life. The lack of the elements of the zodiac in their philosophy also means the lack of heavenly commands. Both the Hungarian and the eastern folk arts represent mainly motifs of plants or peaceful scenic views where the bird. The Hungarian culture in the Carpathian Basin has been influenced. Any strong efforts of the ethnographers have failed to find creation myths in Hungarian folklore. the symbol of the soul. The lack of named gods. but they can be interpreted within the 12-year cycle of Jupiter where nonpredatory animals are dominant. parallelisms or even identities have been found in the Hungarian and the eastern cultures. All these are missing from the Hungarian cosmology. the production and preparation of food from plants stimulate a coordinative way of thinking. The common characteristics are as follows: • Dia 17 Soul-belief. Both the Hungarian and the eastern cultures have been settled agricultural societies. The lack of the elements of the zodiac. The human being is determined by the soul. The named gods in the subordinative way of thinking lead straight to the godly ancestors of the heroes or kings holding the name of the gods in their names as well. It is not the zodiac important in their cosmology.

The subordinative way of thinking was the basis of their culture. all the other incomers like Cimmerians. This problem. however. They mean the concept and way of thinking of the (Hungarian) culture of Old Europe. that they arrived into the Carpathian Basin after they had lost their power and then their people was dissolved by the aborigines of the Basin. opinions of the recent Hungarians. Dialectic can be employed within both ways of thinking. which has been compiled mistakenly. This problem was created by the subordinative way of thinking. they are inseparable. The parallelism between the Hungarian and the eastern cultures mean therefore something different. These tribes. Not counting the ancient gravetti people from the Caucasus. The subordinative way of thinking was diffused towards the east in a diluted form of the culture of the people from the Black Sea basin. people were settled in the steppe parts of the Basin and then were dissolved completely into the original population and culture of the Basin. and arrived there much slower and later. This kind of thinking separates the two concepts from each other and stands them to be opposing and conducts endless debates on an artificial problem. The two concepts are. Closing thoughts Dia 19 The opposition of materialism to idealism based also on the problem of subordination and coordination. however. We can see. It is the question and it is the problem. The Hungarian culture was hit straight and in a concentrated form at the early stage of the invasion. They mean the common ancient concept and way of thinking of the humanities. It could have kept its identity only with a complete closeness of the society. Subordination did not arrive into the Basin with them. nor their system of symbols can be traced among the Carpathians. Quantum mechanics has already delivered this solution by handling the particle and wave nature of the matter (they correspond formally to the material and the consciousness in the philosophy) as inseparable characters of the matter where the two phenomena are the result of two different approach of the matter. Scythians. It has already been mentioned that the coordinative way of thinking can be related to the dialectic method of philosophy. not identical. They mean the same in the far-eastern cultures and opinions as well. therefore it had taken only the cultural elements into its own but its way of thinking has not been included in the philosophy of the society. eg in the middle of the 4th millennium BP in India when the Harappa culture collapsed. that which one is the primary one does not arise in the coordinative way of thinking as it can be accepted that both things belong to the same phenomenon.have arrived there and have settled among the aborigine people of the Basin. Neither the belief of the steppe. Later on people definitely with Mongolian origin like the Huns. as their whole power system was based accordingly. these did not turn to be dominant there. The subordinative way of thinking arrived to the Far East only in the age of the first dynasties. and its dominant presence in the folk culture and in the concepts. they belong to each other. the symbols of their original culture have vanished forever. Avars or the Magyars of Árpád. The differences mean rather the reflection of the original culture to the effect of the other ones during the millennia. as well as even much later Pechengs. arrived into the Basin who all brought the steppe way of life with them. and Sarmatans were steppe people. Kuns. The subordinative way of thinking was dominant in 19 . ie which one is the original and which one is the derivative? Which one is the everlasting and which one is the created? Which one is valuable and which one is worthless? The problem could have not been solved. how they could have stood against the influences of the cultures with a subordinative way of thinking. Tatars. they are two different sides of the same concept.

Melbourne.: The Aborigine Tradition. Beöthy (1882) Leo: A társadalmi fejlődés kezdetei. James G. Szerzői kiadás. Az ősi társadalom magyar kutatói. ie the changes cannot be handled as progression or development. 1977. which are completely alien to the coordinative way of thinking. Accordingly. pp. The former was declared a reactionary the latter to be a progressive social system. Flood (1995). A Study of Indoeuropean Origins. pp. Budapest. which are ideal for the people with a coordinative way of thinking. This is why a dogmatic ideology that is now in existence in the Far East is alien to this way of thinking. London. Josephine: Archaeology of the Dreamtime. Corvina. in: A magyar néprajz klasszikusai. sz. but its practice. in: A magyar néprajz klasszikusai. Antológia. Gondolat. Shaftsbury. This also helps us to build language that is more suitable. Gordon V. The different social orders were arranged in a consecutive series and values were put to each member of the series. ed. its forced distribution over the other people is strictly subordinative concepts. Cowan (1997). however. Móra. References Aszódi (1962) Éva (válogatása): Világszép népmesék I. Akadémiai Kiadó. Melbourne. Az ősi társadalom magyar kutatói. The eastern parallelisms in the culture with the Hungarian ones can be handled similarly: they are similar human answers to similar problems. Cser (2001) Ferenc: Gondolatok a magyar nyelv és nép Kárpát-medencei eredetéről. Stuart: The History of Human Society. Cser (2000) Ferenc: Gyökerek – Töprengések a magyar nép és nyelv Kárpát-medencei származásáról. Domanovszky (1981) György: A magyar nép díszítő művészete. 1977. gen. Budapest. Grahen & Piggot. This concept is.: 141-200. The ideology of communism contains the concepts and thoughts. Forrai (1994) Sándor: Az ősi magyar rovásírás az ókortól napjainkig. A direct consequence of the coordinative way of thinking is that our life is not determined by strict rite. The story of prehistoric Australia and its people. but it is totally alien for its practice. Plumb. ZMTE kiadás. Clarke (1965). Communism is also based on the falsification of the reality and on the lying.H. The Hungarian language bears the signs of the coordinative way of thinking and mutually reinforced by the culture act in concord. The equivalence of the people appears in the doctrines of communism. it has rather suitable forms.. London. Sydney.the philosophy of Hegel and its consequence was the concept of developing a spiral or coil. Childe (1926). We should accept also in the coordinative way of thinking that the world as an entire entity is in a state of permanent change – this is dialectic handling of the problem – but this change does not follow a well-defined line. because this would mean comparing things to a line defined arbitrary.: The Aryans. erroneous. The practice was refused by the Hungarians in 1956 when they could be rid of the yoke of the communists for a short time and the need to do it again is yet alive. what this means is that the changes are always reflections of the actual conditions and the way of reflection depends on them. 20 . Lakitelek. Dömötör (1981) Tekla: A magyar nép hiedelemvilága. Gondolat. The changes are non-linear according to mathematical concepts. J. Budapest. Hutchinson. These changes were represented as revolution by the doctrine of the historical materialism. one phenomenon is based on another one and quantitative changes suddenly lead into qualitative changes. Budapest. sz. Budapest.: 27-140. Angus & Robertson. Ortutay Gyula. Kennikat Press. Beöthy (1878) Leo: A társadalom keletkezéséről. Therefore a given direction cannot be attached to the changes. Ortutay Gyula.

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