The Coordinative Way of Thinking

Dia 1 Eastern connections to the Hungarian culture Ferenc Cser Queanbeyan, Australia e-mail: cserenc@netscape.net Abstract In his book, The Forms of the Hungarian Soul (printed in 1942) Gábor Lükő declared the Hungarian culture to have a coordinative way of thinking. Gordon Childe explained the success of the Indo-European people by the subordinative nature of their language in his book The Arians printed in 1926. I will show the essence of the two ways of thinking, describe their historical background and point out that the coordinative way of thinking is originated from the ancient men. This ancient way of thinking in modern Europe is now characteristically Hungarian but this was the ancient form of most of the cultures in Asia, and it can be traced there, even now. The similar way of thinking of these cultures does not mean either ethnic or cultural dependence as well as origin this is only a similar human reflection of similar environmental conditions of the humanity in different parts of the world. Introduction The human is a communal being. People living in communities and having collective activities can be in two relationships with each other. One of the relationships is when one person is subordinated to the other one, ie they are not connected to each other with equal rights. One of the two persons in this relationship is always in a higher, in a commanding position while the other one is in a lower, executive one. Their relationship is uni-directionally dependent. There is the lord, the boss, the commander who commands the other person, and there is the serf, the dependent, and the executive one who acts according to the commands of the previous one. This relationship is well known, it means a hierarchy and practically all of the organisations are built up accordingly in our time. A pyramid can represent this relationship. The commands are running here from the top towards the bottom. The lower levels are subordinated to the upper ones. Beöthy1 defined society even by this concept. According to him, there is no society without a chieftain. He does not understand the society of the Australian aborigines, where there are no bosses, and therefore he declared these societies as primitive hordes. There is no doubt, this relationship is well known by everyone and it is generally accepted as well. The opposite of this system is the coordinative form of relationships. No one person is subordinated to the other in this relationship. Their activities are characterised by equivalence. This kind of relationship can be observed many times even within the subordinative one when persons acting on the same level are compared to each other. The activities of the people being side by side are coordinated by a member of the upper level. This relationship is also well known and accepted.

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Beöthy (1878), pp.: 27-140, ill. Beöthy (1882), pp.: 154-174.

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There is, however, a particular case of the coordinated relationship when the persons supposed to be equivalent are not bound together by another one from the upper level. The question arises: can they be acting cooperatively in this case? May a society exist with equivalent members, where there is no chieftain at all? Many – as we could see including Beöthy – gives an unambiguously NO answer saying that without a coordinating third, the relationship of two persons is destined to be disordered, or anarchic. It means an order is dismissed and it results in some kinds of chaos. The question now arises: is this true? My unambiguous answer is no, it is not true. I can list many items of social life as examples where people are successful in their mutual activities without the superiority of anyone; without anyone filling in a superior role among them. The best examples are small musical ensembles. Naturally, there is often a person among them who is the engine of their activities, but just as often the music, the product itself is the driving force, giving the beat and consequently the production is a result of the cooperation of equal musicians. The mediating person (if he/she exists) is not a chief here, but a leader standing out of the community who is equal among equals. A similar case can be seen in the Australian aborigine peoples in an example of a complete society where this relationship and living form has worked for many millennia. They did not own land, they did not have wars, they did not kill each other in stockpiles, but they shared peacefully their common land and cooperated with each other. This is a coordinated type of human relationship. In his book of Gábor Lükő showed the Hungarian culture as coordinative one. It reads: “Two different respects are realised at the same time by the Hungarian compositions according to the coordinative sense.”2 “The Hungarian artist pushed the items close to him under the horizon, the further items were risen above it and draw it onto the sky.” “Such a kind of filling of the space or the plane derives from the coordinative way of thinking of the eastern man.”3 This has been supported by many examples in the book of Lükő. Zsolt Zétényi cites István Kocsis4, who writes: “We should not forget: there were many lawful people in the old ages as the Doctrine of the Sacred Crown did not reinforce the subordinative consciousness but it did reinforced the sense of responsibility, as well as the cult of the equivalence and the cult of the dignified attitudes determined by the constitutional concept of the Membership of the Sacred Crown; because it promoted the concept of the coordination and not that of the subordination in the attitude of the inhabitants of the country 5.”

2 3

Lükő (1942), p.: 194. Lükő (1942), p.: 189. 4 Zétényi (1997), p.: 17. 5 Kocsis (1996), p.: 288.

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This role is different for the female and for the male. Firstly to engage the attention of the predator. Coordination and subordination To make the problem clearer let us start to examine the family. 3 .(Highlights by me). This is expressed in the Hungarian language by the word wife as feleség. the other task needs strategy. The relationship of the parents to each other is not necessarily subordinative. The wife is a property there and is not an equivalent half of a relationship called ‘family’. as a coordinating third one is missing from this relationship? Neither is. The book of Kata Beke is not available for me at this moment therefore I cannot give its edition. What is the true question? The problem can better be understood if we take the relationships of animal families into account. One of them protects the nest and the young chicks from the beast of prey. We have two different qualities here but we are not forced to transfer the differences into a category of values that relate one unto the other as more or less valuable. but the parent is more a leader than a chieftain character. and. the bird needs to find a method of protection. firstly those of birds. when unexpectedly the beast appears at the nest. Which one is subordinated to the other one. 6 7 Childe (1926). On the other hand. It is well known that most of the female birds are grey or colourless however. The male is therefore colourful and strategic. who owns his wife.: 4. The first task needs a high capability to hide. then to lure the enemy far from the nest –offering himself as a victim – and when they are far away from the critical place taking care of his own life or security. This requires high tactical capabilities. At the same time Gordon V. year etc. p. the male partners are very frequently colourful. where the male is a husband. There is no doubt that the coordinately thinking Hungarian culture has been in existence for at least a millennium among the environment of an opposite way of thinking. The two roles are equal with respect to the security and existence of the ‘family’. We can immediately valuate this expression when we compare it to the English one. What are the human relationships there? They are naturally very complicated as the relationship between the parents and the children is subordinative most of the time. The coordinative way of thinking can be recognised either in the Hungarian language or in a broader sense in the social political concepts as well. Let us examine in detail what is the essence of these contradicting concepts and how the coordinative way of thinking of the Hungarian culture is connected to that of the eastern cultures. which has a titular meaning of halfness. Kata Beke7 has dealt with this problem in her splendid book As the people have two sexes in the chapter entitled Colourful feather colour-blind males. the other one has the task of luring the beast from the nest. Childe in his book The Aryans explained the great success of the Aryan people by the subordinative character of their language6. the two parents are reliant on each other and have coordinative roles. It is even so if we consider the two roles – that of the mother and that of the father – as nonequivalent. The difference in the colour of the females and males of the birds is not accidental. the female is colourless and tactic. It is closely connected to their biological roles in the protection of the family.

all the others represent the primary ones. This kind of society is only visible by its products. It is characteristically a subordinative way of thinking and that does not start from the Hungarian side. The difference between the two ways of thinking is important when extended to the dimension of a society. as they do not have gods they do not have legendary names as well. the result is determined by the reason and never reacts back upon the reason.The two kinds of human relationships are the consequence of two different ways of thinking. The only pledge of its existence is its intellectual power or knowledge. thought and ideas of their own are regarded always as primary. Alternatively. In this way of thinking any of the non-equal phenomena immediately requires the valuation: which one is the original. the people are subordinated to the kings. they are known by all. carved in stones or baked into clay. The best examples are the Egyptian 8 Ipolyi (1853). The kings are generally subordinated to their gods or are even derived from them. the results can affect the reasons. even as dwarfs as we can read in Snow White the tale of Andersen. They are not mentioned in the legends or tales of the subordinative societies by name. but they need them like metallurgy. but they appear there as masters. the phenomena follow each other strictly both in time and in logic. even if they produce weapons. In societies characterised by the subordinative way of thinking the human relationship – as well as all the relations. subordinated. they can keep their coordinative nature. sagas. When the world of belief of a culture is studied and gods are not found there. This characterises the structure and actions of the Catholic Church. with the knowledge of a foreign nation. the secrets of the refinement of metals suitable to prepare weapons. however. In order to eliminate any confusion let me remark that Marxism was declared dialectic materialism but it should not be rejected solely because this ideology declared itself dialectic. These differences are not regarded as different values in the coordinative way of thinking. These may equally mean order in the time and/or order as a logical relation. it is immediately declared that this culture is an underdeveloped one. they appear as masters from foreign countries. which are not available for societies with subordination. The system or world of belief. tales. Because it did not reach the concept of gods – as we can read in the introductory paragraphs of the book of Ipolyi8. consequently more valuable than the other ones. we can state that the dominating way of thinking in Europe is a subordinating one. The reasons and the results are not standing against each other. and interaction is accepted. this also expresses the relationships as values. According to the Finno-Ugric hypotheses the Hungarians are always secondary ones. 4 . This corresponds to the dialectic method of philosophy.: 39-41. Generally. The metaphysical examining method in philosophy is basically. phenomena and qualities regarded in philosophical terms – are all subordinated to each other. ie the primary and which one is the derivate. etc. Today the subordinative way of thinking is always present where there are stories of kings and heroes who have been glorified. events. it is generally characteristic of kingdoms. In this philosophical method. pp. subordinated to foreign kings who are also without a name. Many times. a subordinate kind of method. The consequences of the subordinative way of thinking are easily visible. ie the secondary. In societies producing metals and metallic products there is no need for subordination. Interaction is generally not possible in this system. This does not express only an order. The coordinative way of thinking is however hiding and it is invisible in the sea of subordination in many times. given from mouth to mouth. ancestral lines are counted and recorded in legends.

This also valid for the boy (in the Greek legend his name is Melanion. ie less significant as well. when feudalism was the accepted social system everywhere. or better say a ‘being supposed to be superior’ was created without the real content of its essence. during his initiation by anointing with the fat of the sacred crocodile called messhiah9. The acceptance of other people as equals promotes the learning. poems are born there.: 152. none of the nation could bypass the ownership of the lands. Instead of heroic legends educating tales. Zöld Péter. They bear only the titles of princess or swineherd. but the dominating feudal system represented a subordinative one. who actually did not want to marry as an oracle had said that she would become an animal after her marriage – and her godly inheritance belongs to the essence of the story. stories. 10 5 . However. As it does not create born aristocrats.both were made to be equal members of the Crown.: 17. p. It can be done. In Hungary. They established a sacred object equipped with personal characteristics and the land was given into its possession.: 79. There is no importance of the self-identity or personality in the case of the coordinative way of thinking therefore they are not named. the efficiency of teaching. by establishing the Doctrine of the Sacred Crown10. the social memory is not filled with the legends and stories of aristocrats. The best example for this answer – which is known in the Hungarian culture as ‘brain over brawn’ – is the Doctrine of the Sacred Crown. which is a tale using the coordinative way of thinking. The Hungarians have not generally accepted the feudalism dominating the European societies until the age of Maria Theresa. pp. their inheritance lines or heroic deeds. or Aszódi (1962).: 104-110. The concept for Son of God can be derived from here.Pharaoh who is deemed the Son of God. songs. a ‘superior being’.: 343-5. 9 See eg Osman (1993). and Hippomenes in the story of Ovidius). See in more details in Cser (2000). The Hungarian society bypassed it.: 102. The girl has a definite name in the subordinative way of thinking – in our case it is Atalanta. p. The Doctrine of the Sacred Crown represented a coordinative way of thinking. they are less noble than Atalanta . Let us compare the Hungarian tale of The All-seeing Princess11. p. pp. 11 Kovács (1994). pp. In a society with mixed concepts eg that the God of the lord should be respected. as there is no fear of the punishment of his/her own ‘god’. a human being has not legally been owned by another until the age of Werbőczy when the Doctrine of the Sacred Crown was remastered according to the feudal concept. or Knight (1997). in the tale of Gál Istvánné. the coordinative way of thinking does not create superior personalities whom must be worshiped and feared.: 152. therefore.a story using the subordinative way of thinking. pp. 12 Grimal (1965). Formally. to whom inheritance and a heroic past are also very important. 181. it expresses the inner problems of the society. In Hungary. In contrary.: 155. see also as a story of Ovidius in Grant (1995). ie a demigod. to the Greek story of Wonderful Atalanta12 . The boys want to marry as well. they submit themselves to the announced test. This might be a matter of life and death.they are less valued. p. or Zétényi (1999). the men with a coordinative way of thinking can bow their knees or heads without the fear of punishment and do not aggravate the lord by denying it. The Doctrine subordinated the King to the Crown. the king did not own the country he was subordinated to the Crown as equal partner of the nation itself. 392. however. however. The essence of both stories is that a girl is looking for her pair and calls boys to complete a test. In the area. but the inhabitants of the country were also subordinated to the Crown and not to the King .

power or speed but he utilises the weakness of the other one: he throws the golden apple before her. he is humane to them and he is generally a good guy. It is impossible among natural conditions. must overcome the girl. The golden apples were obtained from the deity as a reward The success of the test is not humiliating in the coordinative way of thinking. a warm environment of the Caucasia (5). that of the Mousterian culture (2-4). Whether the test is completed successfully or not it is determined by the behaviour of the boy in the coordinative way of thinking. The closing line is you are mine and I am yours. as well as the cold climate Aurignacian culture (1) including the rest of the true cold climate men. In contrary. carvings. sculptures. In contrary. In contrary. Before the warming up of Würm most of Europe was under an ice cover. Which one is the original and which one is the derivative? – a question is put according to the subordinative way of thinking. He helps of his own accord. but he does not enhance his own skill. Recently we find subordination as ruling way of thinking in human relationships. The question arises: which one is the original way of human view? Where and when can we first recognise either a subordinative or a coordinative way of thinking or view during the history of humanity? Above we have already declared the coordinative story as the basis and the subordinative one as the derivative. The origin of the coordinative way of thinking Dia 2 When we compare the two stories. We can recognise the Pelages story in the Hungarian culture. Basically two cultures can be recognised in this period: the gravetti culture (8) being dispersed westwards from the idyllic Eden. ie how is he good. he must defeat her. A story with coordinative way of thinking might have served as the basis of the other one it might have been a primary one – if we want to handle the problem using subordinative way of thinking. she is Venus in Ovid) what can be achieved by some kinds of rite. Human cultures could be found only at the southern parts of the continent as well as the tundra. paintings. By this time the following objects have already appeared: grave supplements. Dia 3 Figure 1 represents the position and movement of human cultures in Europe at the end of the Würm ice age. the compactness and logical coherence of the tale of The All-seeing Princess makes it practically impossible to regard the Greek story as the primary and the Hungarian as the derivative. the boy conquers the girl in the Greek story and he gets to be her ruler and commander. human representations. Reversed origin is rather more probable. drawings. on the basis of which the way of thinking or creed can be concluded. The boy of the coordinative way of thinking gets his helpers by offering his own help to them during his trip to the princess. the boy with a subordinative way of thinking. and while she stops to pick up the apple the boy gets the advantage. how can he be cooperating. It is the final point of the Greek story that when they were married they provoked the anger of Zeus (or of Cybele in Ovidius) who turned them into animals and it was humiliating for both of them. The rest of the old Mousterian cultures can be found at three 6 . The moral teaching. it is obvious that they are related to each other. the boy of the subordinative way of thinking obtains the grace of a god (in the Greek story she is Aphrodite. It depends upon how is he skilful or ingenious. It is very hard to be hidden otherwise. The Greek culture having conquering the settled Pelages one might have taken the basic story from the conquered culture and transferred it according to its way of thinking. For a much further study. we should go back at least to the ice ages to be able to investigate the way of thinking of human cultures.The boys in both stories need help to complete the task. as the boy does not conquer the girl.

At the same time signs are found that the man of this age had had morals. It needs close human cooperation. There was no surplus of food to be stored for a longer time. photograph and p. spots: at the base of the Pyrenes and at the Middle Mountains there is the Chatelperony culture (2).: 38. Gods have not been found here. p. p. in the valley of Po we find the Uluzzi culture (3) and at the Bükk mountains (Carpathians) there is the Szeleta culture (4). the respect of fertility and not a personified concept are seen on the sculptures produced in this age (eg Venus of Villendorf or Dolni Vestonice14). The crippled man had been living after this operation for decades until a rock killed him. The graves are equal. At the end of the Würm the warm climate men lived also in a cold climate environment and the gravetti man has turned even in the CarpathianBasin to hunt the deer instead of the mammoth.. It does not matter which big animal was the prey of the man living at the end of the Würm. XXI. the people were ordained side by side by the strength of the climate. Rudgley (1999).Figure 1. that had been his main diet before and has died out just at this time.: 195-196. The cultures of Europe in the Middle Stone and in the Mesozoic ages13.: 131. which is assured by a cooperative way of thinking.: 153. pp. Social aid helped this man to survive being crippled from birth.: 216-217. it must have been the result of a collective activity. 15 Solecki (1971). There is no face on the sculptures representing a human being . The flowers are recently known as 13 14 Cser (2000). Very strong evidences are derived from the cave of Shanidar15 where the skeleton of a Neanderthal man showed a birth distortion on his right arm healed by amputation.they show the body of an exaggerated fat woman only. There were also signs of a funeral rite in the grave of another man of the same age: pollens of freshly collected flowers arranged in groups. the hunting of these animals could not have been the success of single men. Roux (1992). 7 . pp. Cooperation among these climatic conditions was a matter of life or death. there is no sign of subordination or distinction according to birth. Rudgley (1999).

: 219.: 63.: 39. The numbers in Figure have the following meaning: 1:. During the warming of the second Dryas the ice block in Canada had been broken and a huge amount of water streamed into the ocean resulting in an increase its level by 5 m. In a grave derived from the middle of the eighth millennium before present (BP) a dagger suitable for killing humans has been found besides the bones of a child. 53). This was the way of thinking of the ancestral man.: 114-115.: 258. Settlements on the shores at the mouths of the Tiger and Euphrates rivers were also flooded22. 13: Nemuna culture. The extent of the agriculture between 8700 and 8500 BP. Ritually buried Mousterian man is also mentioned by Gáboriné18 in the Subalyuk culture from the first cool period of Würm. Dia 4 Figure 2 summarises the European cultures at and after the closing scene of the Würm ice age. pp. as the buried humans were supplemented by objects serving his/her post-mortem life. pp.: 27-48. This is the oldest case where birthright can be detected. The Mousterian man had had morals21. p. 35. 10: Halaf culture. 7: Karanovo culture.:5. The grave belonged to people of the herding culture of the steppe near the Volga River. pp. It caused floods at the shallow shores as well as at the mouth of rivers.healing plants including Ephedra whose extract is known among the amphetamin drugs (ephedrin) 16. 19 Gábori (1974). pp. The origin of subordination The earliest appearance of a subordinative way of thinking can be observed in the times after the basin of the Black Sea was filled with saline water.: 16-17. The child had been buried with great ceremony that could not be explained by him having committed great deeds. 4: the edge of the culture with bound ceramics. 22 Oppenheimer (1999). the objects of the age definitely cite the same. x: Hacilar. p. 11: pastoral culture of the steppe. 12: Dniester-Bug culture. 5: Tisza culture. Gábori also refers to the social life of the Mousterian man describing the grave of a child decorated by the horns of goats. That these people had a sense of morality is also visible in a couple of graves of Mousterian man eg in the Teshik-Tas cave in Uzbekistan17. Godden (1997).: 21-23.: 194).. 20 Flood (1995).: 214-215. The life of the recent aboriginal inhabitant of Australia is a straight continuation of a cultural life extending over tens of millennia. which cannot be declared for the modern man without consent even in much later times. 2: Vinča culture. p. 6: Boian culture. The coordinative way of thinking of our ancient forefathers cannot only be logically concluded. 18 Gáboriné (1980). Rudgley (1999). p. 3: Lengyel culture. This was around the middle of the eighth millennium BP. 8: Bükk culture. and their traditional social life supports the statements compiled above20.. as he was too young. 8 . as well as the limit of the agriculture in 7500 BP. One thing is definitely visible from the graves of ancient people: the man of this age had had a belief of the immortality of the soul. (based on Gimbutas (1991). 16 17 Rudgley (1999). pp. + Çatal Hüyük. mentioning the morals of this man19. Cowan (1992). 14 and 15: Arrows indicate the dispersion of the population from the Basin of the Black Sea in around 7500 BP at the time of its fill up (based on Ryan (1999) p. 9: Cucuteny culture. 21 Clarke (1965).: 214-215. pp. See more details Rudgley (1999) pp.

When the level of the ocean increased by 5 m the gap of Bosporus broke – this may have been due to the very high differences in the level of water. European human cultures between 9th and 7th millennia BP23.Figure 2. Smelting of copper is also known at from this time. used the plough. eg in the Vinča culture. and their irrigation techniques had already been developed. At the beginning. but later on. It was developed in the steppe area of the continent where the yearly precipitation was less than 200 mm and grain could not be grown. a reasonable explanation for both the disappearance of the Middle-Eastern cultures in the last period of the ice age ie at the beginning of the second Dryas and their reappearance suddenly with more developed techniques after it. Vinča culture in Danube valley. 9 . Karanovo and Thessaloniky cultures in the Balkan appeared suddenly at this time. Two cultures different in their basics can be found in Europe after this age. The source of these cultures is unknown.: 141. however. The shore of the dried Black Sea gives. The other type of culture practiced animal herding. The people who had settled on the shore as well as far from the shore were either inundated or escaped to another parts of the continent. This culture can be found in places where the climate assured at least the 200 mm of rain per year necessary to harvest grain without irrigation. The Black Sea filled up very quickly with salt water. According to the yields there was a surplus in the food production here and this made it possible for other societies to settle above them and appropriate their food surplus without the extermination of the food producers. Anatolia became populated again. p. tripling its volume in a couple of months. One of them is a settled. All these cultures harvested domesticated wheat and barley. animal herding meant sheep. eg Çatal Hüyük or Halaf but now they were equipped with defensive measures. Not much later Samara cultures also appeared. when the hunting of the steppe 23 Cser (2000). food producing one where the main source of food was domesticated grain. Dia 5 The fresh water level of the Black Sea (that developed during the first melting of the Würm ice age) was over 100 m below sea level as the gap at Bosporus was closed at that that time.

Blood groups A and B are the early mutation of this original blood group. ie the territory of the ancient Band Ceramic.: 64. therefore this kind of mixing can not be accepted. The original Aurignacian gene is not characteristic to the people of old Anatolia who have invented the agriculture. but even. The godly respect of the weapon is seen in the graves. if they had had any at all. or better-known Bükk culture. We can conclude the same if we look at the data of blood-group analyses. 25 Nagy (2000). This society.horse was stopped and horse riding had started. We can however find such an area in the map of Europe where subordination did not appear even for transient periods. Cultural data also supports this conclusion eg. where the graves did not show separation to rich and to poor until the 7th – 8th century Before Christ (BC). The basic blood group of humanity is zero. This blood group is nearly exclusive in Africa. time-by-time a definite shortage in food could have appeared. this population then developed it with new ideas and methods. the bloodgroups strictly follow Mendel’s rules. Blood-group AB was thought to be formed as a mixture of A and B. The societies with a subordinative way of thinking can be well recognised after the filling up of the Black Sea. Having learnt the agricultural techniques. The originally Anatolian population can only be traced at the shore of the Mediterranean Sea using the genetic data. but recent genetic and blood group information has denied this concept. we can see a separation of graves to those of the poor and to those of the rich. The ancient population of Europe has remained intact. was able to travel large distances. the aborigines in America and in Australia. 10 . The original population of Middle Europe has learnt the agricultural techniques it has not been replaced by the man of Anatolia at that time24. This area is the Northern and eastern territories of the Carpathian Basin. It became general and determining only after a couple of millennia. blood group B is characteristic of the Chinese man. This gene remained intact in the middle of Europe after the proposed invasion. From these data it is evident that the recent men around the Carpathian Basin were in a vicinity of each others since ancient times and they do not have any close relationship to the man of Ural mountains. In parallel. Protection does not only mean defence but also the opposite: attack. The basic data see at Semino (2000). 24 Recently Gibbons (2000) summarised the concept of Cavalli-Sforza and Renfrew concerning the genetic test and declared that the Aurignacian man did not come here from Africa but rather from Middle-Asia. This kind of culture did not have a surplus in food. as antigen has already been developed against these blood groups in the original population25. Genetic and blood-group data Dia 6 Formerly it was believed that parallel with agriculture the man cultivating the land also spread. having the horse and the cart. at this time its extent was not as general as nowadays. p. The appearance of the dagger already suitable to kill human beings is a true indication of this change. due to the annual variation of the rain. after the Kurgan culture started to conquer its neighbours. however. This lead to the protection of the herding areas against other people and consequently it resulted in the development of a military force to protect itself. However. herding of horses and cattle was also practiced. personalised symbols did not appear in the area of Linear Band Ceramic culture. Blood group A is characteristic of the Caucasian man. Both are very old. the other population carrying the agricultural techniques did not replace the Aurignician population of Old Europe. It started to conquer the agricultural societies who had a surplus in their food production.

go on. death. dream. hal. The soul in their belief has detached itself from the human being. hűlt (shut. The words connected to life and to the soul are simple. life. The modern Hungarians are living on the same area and have similar cultural elements the Linear Band Ceramic culture had. ellik. there is no antigen against it in the original population. élet. ül. áll. it has become superior to the man and the personified soul has the man subordinated to him. soul. They are all built around the consonant l. nor vice versa. the human. Words meaning extinguishing life. like lő. hál. The cultures and nations in the environment of the Hungarians look at the soul with a completely different manner. lét. corpse. embrace. words with low vowels are generally expressing a distance. According to the Hungarian language. net. find. is cooling down. lel. alél. air. hulla. Lükő writes 26 Cser (2001). which is frequency 25% instead of 35%. 11 . éled. háló. it covers only 5% on average. bear. The soul is within the man. fall. the most important essence of the life of a man. We find here the same: life is already far away! Az ember kilehelte a lelkét. This is reasonable concept. lehel. öl. This culture can be regarded as the origin of the cooperative way of thinking in the Carpathian Basin26. they form a single unit. The man is subordinated neither to his soul. hűl. breathe. generally one-syllable words reflecting the most ancient time of the Hungarian language. One is characterised by high vowels. sleep. halál. lélegzik. The question arises: what might be the bases of the belief of the men with a cooperative way of thinking? My answer is belief in the soul. As it is not old enough. revive. lélek. lehelet. with the English meaning accordingly: live. fish. ölel. hall. listen. The man of the Bükk culture might be the source of the later man with Linear Band Ceramic of the same area as there is a cultural continuity here. halad. which carries the 0 blood group. ie the man is dead. álom. hull. The words with high vowels in the Hungarian language generally express concept with a characteristic of vicinity. cold) can also be reckoned here. it is distinctly higher (15% ) in the Hungarian population for the loss of blood-group 0. get to be unconscious.Blood group AB is relatively rare among the population. breathe. the other one with low vowels. We can consider that the AB mutation originated from the Carpathian Basin. sit. Some members of the other group are: ál. levegő. kill. breath. stand. holt. with their English meaning: false. It is particularly interesting to name the concept of life using the Hungarian vocabulary. therefore we can state that the Hungarian culture is a continuation of the much older Linear Band Ceramic culture of the same territory. The belief of men with the cooperative way of thinking Dia 7 Let us continue our study with the investigation of the world of belief of the cooperative way of thinking. existence. The connection is equal. The Hungarian language names the concept connected to the soul with a cooperative way of thinking. Some words with high vocals are as follows: él. in English: The man has breathed out his soul. forming a shrub of words. There are two basic branches of the shrub of words. The man of the Bükk culture can bear the AB mutation. azaz meghalt we say. The soul resides within the man and it forms the essence of a human being. These words express the concept of life connected to living ones. as there was a self-standing continuation of ancient population within Carpathian Basin since the ice age of Mindel.

: 30. particularly its seed. The role of the mother in the Christian religion has already been excluded. the Son. or simple a waving line. it breathes out a new plant indicating the way of creation of living beings. detached from its body at the moment of the death. She creates life. they did not receive personal characters in the Hungarian culture. the Soul. snake. the plants shooting from the hands of the mermaid represent the earth and the bird on the top of the picture means the air. water.Dia 8 „The ‘elements’ ie wind. the intellectual power. In order to eliminate any doubt about the symbol of the bird. Later on the system of concepts appeared in the philosophy of Plato. and even later in the gnostic doctrines. among colour photographs. Earth: It is the fertility. the soul alone. be very frequently found in the pictorial representations of Hungarian folk art. p. fire. the mermaid represents the water. the Father. The soul has interested the Hungarian people as well as their Ural-Altaian relatives always and only in its primitive reality. Its symbol is variable. Dömötör (1981). With us. but mainly the plant. she is the Holy Spirit.” 27 The elements can be regarded in reality as elements of the soul. 12 . 27 28 Lükő (1942). like fish. the elements are always the symbol of one unknown. tales or songs. however. Its symbols are very variable. Figure 3 represents the Figure 3 Symbolic elements of the soul on a back of a mirror derived from Transdanubia. Its most known symbol is the bird. Air: It is the life keeping power. The symbols can. the Mother. the soul remained only as a subordinate member of the Holly Trinity. earth are only personified by the abstract thinking Indo-German people. They are also present in our folk legends. The circular form. Its symbol and in many cases its source is the Sun. Water: It is the fertilising power. frog. They are the following: • • • • Fire: It is the light. Their role can be recognised in the clearest form in the old Egyptian belief. The personal characters mentioned above serve to identify them according to their role in the other cultures where these elements were personified. Dia 9 These elements did not become members of a personified ‘family’. its golden basic colour remirror from Transdanubia28 mind us of the Sun.

The bird represents the soul itself Figure 4 Symbols of life on furniture29 so the life is originated from her breathes in the form of a plant.Similar symbols can be seen as a decoration of some furniture (Figure 4). but in another representations they are already separated. or the fire. Dia 10 29 30 Domanovszky (1981). The tree of life is closely connected here to a deer. The animals are in a role to protect the Deer with antlers like the tree of tree of life as it can be seen in another piece of Figure 5 30 life baked clay digged out at Sipitsini. The plant represents the tree of life in its reality. Hungary. The central element here is a bird breathing out through her open beak a very complicated series of plants. A chain of different flowers attached to the same branch is very frequently present in the pictorial representation of Hungarian folk art. The picture represents a deer. 8. ie the light. on the cover of the book. The golden background of the picture reminds us also of the Sun. which we can expect of this animal. The fragment was excavated at Csépa. The plant has consecutively different flowers that are symbols of the seed of life. 13 . but its antlers represent more than those. The deer bears antlers like the tree of life on his head. picture. Kalicz (1970). With their complicated branch system it is rather the tree of life than simple antlers. which is a place of 6th millennium BP within the Cucuteny culture. from the age of 8th millennia BP ie it was produced in the Bükk culture. and the symbol of life can be found in this form even in the most ancient representations of the Linear Band Ceramic culture of Old Europe. The Tree of Life Figure 5 shows a piece of baked clay with a deer on it.

The this-world and the netherworld are present there. including fish. however. their antlers are highly branched. the earth and the underworld. Here the tree of life cuts the space into three zones. they are rather matters of distance in Hungarian folk art. The tree of Figure 7 Samoyed (Siberia) representation of tree of life life is surrounded here by many animals. The differences can immediately be seen. Let us compare. 31 32 Gimbutas (1982). and the underworld is not represented on the pictures. the ancient tree of life found in Linear Band Ceramic culture ie in the Carpathian Basin to those of Siberia. László (1967). These trees of life do not separate the space of life into three zones. which cannot be stated of the 32 previous ones. but it definitely divides the space in three zones. It is better said. therefore.All these symbols are characterised by the tree standing straight on the earth. A great many of the animals belong to the underworld.: 101. is not multiple branched as we could see above either as antlers of deer or as a tree like the Christmas tree. pared but also rather derived from there. they can mostly be compared to those found on the ancient representations. The tree. which can clearly be recognised on the picture. and therefore. but they are not matters of height. It also divides the space of life into the heavens. The elements of Hungarian folk art are generally compared with those of the Ural-Altai cultures or general with those of the Siberian cultures. p. p. although there are also a couple of similarities. This constitutes the basics of the recent historical science in Hungary. The animals belonging to the border of the earthly world are deer. The netherworld does not split into the rewarding good world (heaven) and the punishing bad world (hell) here. This kind of division is obstinately missing from the Hungarian folk art. Figure 7 shows such a representation. Figure 6 Tree of life with protecting animals dethe Hungarian culture is not only comrived from the Cucuteny culture31. therefore all other hypotheses or conceptions are regarded as heretic. 14 .: 171.

however. the graves report equality in the society. and villages with a couple of thousand inhabitants have been in existence for millennia indicating equalities in social life. They were divided in two regions in the beginning. the graves indicate then a society with a small number of rich aristocrats and a huge number of subordinated masses. The Kurgan invasion changed everything here as well. Their culture could be characterised by a cooperative way of thinking and signs of subordination have appeared in pictorial representations only parallel with the expansion of the Kurgan culture over them. p. Figure 8 Copper smelting and mining places of the Old European cultures33 The southern territories of the Old European Culture. 33 Cser (2000). There was no social division in these territories. 15 .Dia 11 The culture of Old Europe The cultures called ‘Old European’. these elements have not been personified. did have personified elements of the soul even in the earliest periods. were definitely settled ones and practiced agriculture. The whole character of the culture was changed when the Kurgan invasion reached the territory.: 145. but the church economy and the division of the graves so characteristic of the subordinative way of thinking have not been in existence here also for millennia. Those in the northern territories which were characterised by their linear decoration and called Linear Band Ceramic have kept the ancient elements of soul for a couple of millennia. developed in the New Stone Age. This phenomenon was not characteristic of the northern and eastern hilly and mountainous parts of the Carpathian basin.

Particularly as this writing originated here and is much older than the Sumerian writing. The baked clay tablets were prepared from the clay of the place. Following cultures can be found in the figure: (1): Lengyel culture. (5) Vinča culture. Three Figure 9 The tablets of Tatárlaka . (3) Petresti culture. p. tablets. (6) Tisza culture. (4) Boian culture. and parts of them holding written signs. The tab34 lets are shown in Figure 9. (09) Hanangia culture. Old European cultures. This is true. There are many hundreds of figures. dia 13 Tatárlaka can be found in the territory of the Petresti culture. (2) Cucuteny culture.: 84.49 Gimbutas (1982). (7) Karanovo culture. Copper smelting places are indicated by (11). forms of writing can be seen on the tablets. copper mines are marked by (12). from the Cucuteny The signs can therefore be regarded as elements of writing of the culture35. These written tablets are 1. The sculptures are also characterised without a face as it can be seen in Figure 10. The traces of the earliest copper smelting in human history together with copper mining activities could have been found here. Hilly. as neutron activation analyses have proved. therefore. many scholars do not accept it as true writing. 16 . it can not be regarded as true writing. The ancient elements of writing cannot be found on the Tatárlaka tablets alone. Tablet no 3 contains 13 linear signs. (8) Danilo-Hvar culture. This age and the cultures of Old Europe produced many more remnants holding written signs. the writing that cannot be connected to commercial activities. The tablet no 2 shows abstract signs of writing intermediate between the pictorial and sound writing.Dia 12 The Copper Age cultures of the Carpathian Basin The Carpathian Basin had had a particular position in this culture. Dia 14 34 35 Forrai (1994).: . p. 8 of these can be found among the character set of the ancient Hungarian runic writing called Székely writing. The copper smelting and mining places are shown in Figure 8.5 millennium BP) have been found. Tablets no 1 shows a pictorial representation.5 millennia older the oldest written tablets or tokens of the Sumerian culture. These figurines and fragments show nearly 300 different runic signs and half of them can also be found Figure 10 Clay sculpture among the runic signs of the Linear A writing of South Balkan. This is the place where written tablets from this age (7. mountainous places (10).

for the unification – depending on the actual religion to finish the everlasting Figure 12 The char. The soul and the tree of life are ordered side by side. p. 17 . the basic concept in the Chinese phiSimilarly.Dia 15 Coordinative way of thinking in eastern cultures The coordinative way of thinking can be also found in eastern cultures. p. none of them being subordinated to the other one. The idea is shown in Figure 11. p. however Yang represents the heavenly. it is represented in the Chinese philosophy as the concept of Yin and Yang37. Yin represents the earthy. The role of the individual persons in this concept is to prepare his/her soul for the return. 38 Ji (1989).: 16 39 Kiszely (1996). 36 37 Ji (1989). acter of life in eastern writing The soul and the life are also strongly related here and this is represented even by the most ancient societies. They together give wholeness.: 16.: 510. Both figurines have the same form. the positive and male properties. It appears as the description of the structure of the world and it represents the concept that the black and its substituting formally identical white figurines define totality only together. Dia 16 Figure 11 Yin and Yang. According to our recent knowledge this stroke should represent a bird symbolising the soul. They are ordered side by side and not under each other. Saso (1991).: 273. p. to unity or so.: 349. p. The soul belongs to the individual person and can appear in different forms during the changes and its final goal is to return to the world soul. Many of the characteristics of the Linear Band Ceramic culture of Old Europe. Remarkable is that the stroke at the upper left corner. There is definitely a bird at the top of the tree of life and it is not a flower.circulation. thinking can be found at the ancient forms of the eastern religion. All represent the cooperative way of thinking of these cultree of life with bird39. This sign shows the tree of life with three horizontal lines and with an additional stroke at the left top. Grimal (1965). as it is visible in a Nógrád representation from the beginning of the 20th century (see Figure 13). Life had also been represented here with the tree of life and this sign can be found as the written symbol of life both in the Chinese and Japanese writing (see Figure 12). The lower line represents the earth. In its purest form. which is regarded by scholars as a flower. so the lines do not divide the space into three zones. The soul is the essence of these religions and it is immortal ie has everlasting life. coordinative way of losophy36. the negative and the female ones38. they fill the space together and disregarding their colour are identical. those of the Hungarian culture and those of the Eastern cultures Figure 13 The are common.

The later effects of Christianity come through these myths. as the soul is everlasting . by eastern cultural elements since many eastern people 18 . therefore. Lack of predatory animals in the folk art. This is not unusual as they were compiled and written by Christian priests. is also present. Both the Hungarian and the far-eastern cultures exist in the higher region of the northern hemisphere. we find only a princess or shepherd in the tales. The human life does not have a definite aim. The lack of the elements of the zodiac. the production and preparation of food from plants stimulate a coordinative way of thinking. The soup is dominantly important in the Hungarian kitchen. The named gods in the subordinative way of thinking lead straight to the godly ancestors of the heroes or kings holding the name of the gods in their names as well. The human being is determined by the soul. conceptions. the symbol of the soul. The legends of the Árpád family are not true myths of creation. The settled societies are living according to a yearly cycle. Both the Hungarian and the eastern cultures have been settled agricultural societies. This is a logical consequence of the coordinative way of thinking. Janaism. which exists together with him/her. the eastern one based on rice. Plant producing economy. The lack of the elements of the zodiac in their philosophy also means the lack of heavenly commands. • • • • • • Dia 18 Although a lot of common characteristics. the yearly changes of climate and light are the dominant effects. who do not have name at all. It is not the zodiac important in their cosmology. The representation and use of predatory animals in the eastern cultures appeared much later under the influence of subordinating cultures. The lack of named gods. The lack of creation myths. Their appearance can be regarded as later settlement onto the old cultures.tures. They have appeared in the Hungarian culture only as rarities. however. only to be freed at the end from this world. Plant producing economy needs a cooking kitchen. The common characteristics are as follows: • Dia 17 Soul-belief. Therefore. the baking kitchen is subordinated there. All these are missing from the Hungarian cosmology. Cooking kitchen. Buddhism or Shintoism have symbols of subordination and consequently have also gods. This does not become as part of the philosophy of life. The recent forms of eastern religions like Hinduism. The eastern philosophy also does not create myths of creation. Both the Hungarian and the eastern kitchens are cooking ones. Both the Hungarian and the eastern folk arts represent mainly motifs of plants or peaceful scenic views where the bird.it is not a created thing. In the recent philosophy of the Fareast some predatory animals can already been found. The Hungarian society is based on grain. it does not mean origin. this does not mean that either of them is derived from the other one. but they are belief of the soul in their basics. parallelisms or even identities have been found in the Hungarian and the eastern cultures. but they can be interpreted within the 12-year cycle of Jupiter where nonpredatory animals are dominant. The Hungarian culture in the Carpathian Basin has been influenced. but in the shadow of Christianity it has remained as a wish to do good. The lack of the named gods also means the lack of the names of human beings. Any strong efforts of the ethnographers have failed to find creation myths in Hungarian folklore. They are also missing from the cosmology of the Australian aborigine people.

all the other incomers like Cimmerians. They mean the concept and way of thinking of the (Hungarian) culture of Old Europe. The subordinative way of thinking was diffused towards the east in a diluted form of the culture of the people from the Black Sea basin. We can see. This problem was created by the subordinative way of thinking. Subordination did not arrive into the Basin with them. Closing thoughts Dia 19 The opposition of materialism to idealism based also on the problem of subordination and coordination. as well as even much later Pechengs. The subordinative way of thinking arrived to the Far East only in the age of the first dynasties. however. This problem. and Sarmatans were steppe people. eg in the middle of the 4th millennium BP in India when the Harappa culture collapsed. they are two different sides of the same concept. as their whole power system was based accordingly. and arrived there much slower and later. The differences mean rather the reflection of the original culture to the effect of the other ones during the millennia. they belong to each other. not identical. Avars or the Magyars of Árpád. The subordinative way of thinking was the basis of their culture. These tribes. The two concepts are. that they arrived into the Carpathian Basin after they had lost their power and then their people was dissolved by the aborigines of the Basin.have arrived there and have settled among the aborigine people of the Basin. nor their system of symbols can be traced among the Carpathians. They mean the common ancient concept and way of thinking of the humanities. They mean the same in the far-eastern cultures and opinions as well. It has already been mentioned that the coordinative way of thinking can be related to the dialectic method of philosophy. Not counting the ancient gravetti people from the Caucasus. and its dominant presence in the folk culture and in the concepts. The Hungarian culture was hit straight and in a concentrated form at the early stage of the invasion. how they could have stood against the influences of the cultures with a subordinative way of thinking. that which one is the primary one does not arise in the coordinative way of thinking as it can be accepted that both things belong to the same phenomenon. Scythians. Quantum mechanics has already delivered this solution by handling the particle and wave nature of the matter (they correspond formally to the material and the consciousness in the philosophy) as inseparable characters of the matter where the two phenomena are the result of two different approach of the matter. This kind of thinking separates the two concepts from each other and stands them to be opposing and conducts endless debates on an artificial problem. The parallelism between the Hungarian and the eastern cultures mean therefore something different. people were settled in the steppe parts of the Basin and then were dissolved completely into the original population and culture of the Basin. The subordinative way of thinking was dominant in 19 . Dialectic can be employed within both ways of thinking. therefore it had taken only the cultural elements into its own but its way of thinking has not been included in the philosophy of the society. Neither the belief of the steppe. they are inseparable. ie which one is the original and which one is the derivative? Which one is the everlasting and which one is the created? Which one is valuable and which one is worthless? The problem could have not been solved. It is the question and it is the problem. which has been compiled mistakenly. Later on people definitely with Mongolian origin like the Huns. the symbols of their original culture have vanished forever. It could have kept its identity only with a complete closeness of the society. Kuns. arrived into the Basin who all brought the steppe way of life with them. Tatars. however. these did not turn to be dominant there. opinions of the recent Hungarians.

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