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Assessment Cover Sheet

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Assessment Title Workshop Report

Bachelor of Engineering Technology


Programme Title:
ENB6990

Course No.:

Course Title:
Engineering Practice

Maryam Ali
Student Name:

201601301
Student ID:

Nikolaos Vasilikos, Iftikhar Ahmad


Tutors:

30/5/2019 3/6/2019 (extension)


Due Date: Date submitted:

Submit this assessment for marking onto Moodle.


I confirm the following:
This assignment is my own work
Any information used has been properly referenced.
I understand that a copy of my work may be used for moderation.
I have kept a copy of this assignment
Learning Outcomes 1,2,3,4
On successful completion of this course, students will be able to-
1. LO:1 Demonstrate detailed knowledge and understanding of workshop safety
including the identification and management of workshop hazards.
2. LO:2 Produce simple engineering reports in a well-structure manner.
3. LO:3 Interpret basic engineering drawings and use appropriate measuring
equipment to manufacture components to a specified tolerance.
4. LO:4 Demonstrate detailed knowledge and understanding of manufacturing
processes, materials and terminology.
Table of Contents
Introduction: ......................................................................................................................................................... 5
Theoretical background: ....................................................................................................................................... 7
Measure twice machine once:.......................................................................................................................... 7
Backlash: ........................................................................................................................................................... 7
Concentricity:.................................................................................................................................................... 7
Touching on: ..................................................................................................................................................... 7
Tolerance: ......................................................................................................................................................... 7
H7 tolerance: .................................................................................................................................................... 8
Tools/ Equipment: ................................................................................................................................................ 9
Measurement tools: ......................................................................................................................................... 9
Power machines: .............................................................................................................................................. 9
1.Milling machine: ........................................................................................................................................ 9
2.Vertical milling machine ............................................................................................................................ 9
3. Lathe machine: ....................................................................................................................................... 10
General tools: ............................................................................................................................................. 10
Machining procedure:......................................................................................................................................... 12
Safety procedure: ........................................................................................................................................... 12
a. main frame:................................................................................................................................................. 12
b. Fly wheel: .................................................................................................................................................... 14
c. Cylinder Block:............................................................................................................................................. 15
Other machining processes: ........................................................................................................................... 16
Spindle speed:................................................................................................................................................. 17
Conclusion and reflection: .................................................................................................................................. 18
Results: ........................................................................................................................................................... 18
Deviation:........................................................................................................................................................ 19
Difficulties: ...................................................................................................................................................... 19
bibliography: ....................................................................................................................................................... 20

Table 1 cutting material ...................................................................................................................................... 11


Table 2 Brass yellow spindle speed .................................................................................................................... 17
Table 3 Aluminium Spindle speed....................................................................................................................... 17
Table 4 Result table ............................................................................................................................................ 18
Figure 1 Steam engine .......................................................................................................................................... 5
Figure 2 Touching on............................................................................................................................................. 7
Figure 3 Milling machine....................................................................................................................................... 9
Figure 4 Vertical milling machine.......................................................................................................................... 9
Figure 5 lathe machine ....................................................................................................................................... 10
Figure 6 sandpaper ............................................................................................................................................. 10
Figure 7 Vernier Hight gauge .............................................................................................................................. 10
Figure 8 tapping drill ........................................................................................................................................... 10
Figure 9 cutting a hole – main frame / Figure 10 outside cut off - main frame/Figure 11 3mm drilling main
frame................................................................................................................................................................... 12
Figure 12 Fly wheel/Figure 13 cutting the Fly wheel .......................................................................................... 14
Figure 14 Cylinder block drilling/Figure 15 Cylinder block marking hole ........................................................... 15
Introduction:

Figure 1 Steam engine

Steam engine is an engine made of different types of materials such as aluminum, brass and
steel by using specific machines and tools. The purpose of the experiment is to apply and show
well understand of safety procedure that must be care off while using the machines in the
workshop. Also, it is required to learn the manufacture tools uses such us, lathes, milling
machine ...etc. In addition, this experiment is to learn how to explain or show the basic
engineering drawing, and how to use the measuring tools and finding the tolerance. However,
this report will indicate the components used during this experiment, the applications of the
impediment occur and the expanded skills during the experiment.

The components made while building the steam engine were made of brass, aluminum and
steel. In addition, steam engine consists eight different pieces which are: cylinder, crank wheel,
main shaft, Base plate, crank pin, flywheel, main frame and piston. All the parts were produced
using hand tools and power machine.

The main frame was joined using two screw on the base plate vertically. In addition, the crank
wheel and flywheel were fixed on the main frame with a main shaft to attach each piece with
the other. However, to avoid the interfering with the main frame; a glue was used while placing
the flywheel and crank wheel. In addition; the piston was placed in the cylindrical block hole,
and it was joint to the crank wheel hole with small pin. Furthermore, the main frame and the
cylinder were placed together using screw. Finally, to make the steam engine movement easier;
an oil was used while applying power. The steam engine parts dimension and tolerance were
given with drawing shows the dimension and the tolerance for every single piece.

Many skills gained while working on the steam engine. The most significant skill was learning
the safety procedure while using the machines in the workshop. For example, wearing the lap
coat, safety shoes, glasses and checking that there is nothing left on the machines. Also, one of
the skills gained was how to read and measure the steam engine pieces using the measurement
tools such as the Vernier clipper. In addition, other skill learnt was how to work on the
machines such as, milling machine and lathe machine, and how you set the speed if needed.

The most material used was Aluminum because of it properties such as,

1. Weight and density: aluminum has a low density and very light weight that allow him to
decrease the total energy used.
2. Machining: aluminum can be easily formed with the required measurement during the
different machining method. For example, facing, drilling and cutting.
3. Strong: aluminum is a strong material and it don’t brittle to low temperature and
decline at high temperature.
Theoretical background:
Measure twice machine once:
This statement means that while measuring; each workpiece must be double checked before
machining, so you can avoid taking wrong measurement, and save time later.

Backlash:
The distance that can any part of engine move through in a direction without moving the other
part or without adding force to other part. ((the motion lost when the axis of machine is linear,
reverse and rotational)). To minimize it, 2 nuts can be used either to stabilizing their angular
place or placing a spring with mechanical lock. Also, to crush them a force of radiation could be
applied.

Concentricity:
tolerance region for the middle point of a spherical or cylindrical part feature, it is the reverse
for high correctness part ((run-out)). To minimize it, using a tool such as Sinclair case neck
sorting tool to measure the thickness of the neck wall. Also, you can use high quality die with a
sliding sleeve.

Touching on:
Putting the cutting tools near to the piece, so the tool will touch
the piece to make turning and facing.

Figure 2 Touching on
Tolerance:
The amount of the actual value how could be changed or how the calculation could be changed
and acceptable. (limit of variation). (+) in range, (-) out of range. Because it is hard to get the
accurate measurement in the drawings. For example, the crank wheel outer diameter must be
27 but when we build it was in tolerance by 0.25. Also, the cylinder over height must be 56 but
it was out of tolerance by 0.35. in addition, the main shaft must be 50 but it was in tolerance by
0.1.

H7 tolerance:
H is the hole fundamental deviation (hole basis system of fit), and (7) is the tolerance grade for
hole or shaft. So, it is a tolerance with common standard which give a tight fit, and the base
dimension must be slightly smaller than the hole.
Tools/ Equipment:
Measurement tools:
1. Vernier height clipper.
2. Ruller.
3. Solid square.
4. Vernier clipper.
5. Digital Vernier clipper.

Power machines:
1.Milling machine:
− Lamp
− Drill handle
− Head elevation
− V-block
− Depth scale
− Drill chuck
− Chuck
− Drill bits
− Spindle Figure 3 Milling machine

2.Vertical milling machine


− Saddle
− Spindle
− Traverse handle wheel
− Vertex Hydraulic / Hydraulic vise
− Chuck
− Table
− Coolant supply
Figure 4 Vertical milling machine
3. Lathe machine:
− Tailstock.
− Saddle.
− Speed controls.
− Tailstock hand wheel.
− Tailstock.
− Workpiece holder.
− Coolant supply.
− Cross slide.
− Spindle.
− Drill chuck
− Live center.
Figure 5 lathe machine
− Drill chuck key.
− Three jaw chuck.
− Live center.

General tools:
− Mallet. − Tap holder.
− File. − Counter sink.
− Center punch. − Drill bit.
− Vise. − Oil.
− Tapping drill. − Manual Saw.
− Sandpaper. − Vernier Height Gauge

Figure 8 tapping drill Figure 6 sandpaper Figure 7 Vernier Hight gauge


Material Difference Advantages Disadvantages

Diamond – − hardest material. − High − Limit application.


crystalline − Sharp cutting edge. resistance/hardness/ − Can’t be used for
− Machining variety thermal conductivity. machining steel.
of hard material. − Low mechanical
shock resistance.
Carbon steel − Cheep. − Scrape resistance. Low range of
− Machining − Sharp cutting edge. temperature/ hardness.
materials with low
speed.
High speed − Expensive. − Superior resistance. − Poor wear
steel − Use in milling − High strength/ resistance.
machine, drilling, hardness. − Low cutting speed.
lathe machine. − Brittle when expand
to heat.
Coated − Hard tool. − High resistance/ − Low tensile
carbide − Use for cut. versatility/ strength.
performance at − Limited to moderate
moderate speed/ speeds.
hardness. − Few edges types can
− Used in variety of be used.
temperature.
Ceramic- − Hard tool. − High resistance. − Limited application.
Silicon
Nitride
Table 1 cutting material
Machining procedure:

Safety procedure:
before working on any piece of the seam engine, it was a must to follow the safety steps
mentioned in the classes. Firstly, wearing a lap coat and keeping the hijab (scarf) inside it.
Secondly, wearing the safety shoes, so we can avoid the injuries happened if any piece in the
workshop fall. Thirdly, wearing the eye protector (glasses) to avoid any flying chips of the
machines that could prevent injuries. Also, an oil was used, or the coolant was switches on wile
using any power machine.

a. main frame:

Figure 9 cutting a hole – main frame Figure 10 outside cut off - main frame Figure 11 3mm drilling main frame

firstly, the vertical milling machine was used to cut the extra piece by placing it in the Hydraulic
vise. After that, the measurement was taken to know the actual value of the piece and how
much it must be decreased. Later, the pieces sides were faced using 1200rpm speed, so we can
get smoother surface with a coolant switches on. Also, checking the measurement each time to
avoid the deviations and make sure that it has the same measurement as the drawing graph
(125mm length and 75mm width).
After that the Vernier gauge clipper was used to measure and mark the outside cut piece of
the main frame with a height of 25mm and 32mm length. After, the piece was placed in the
Hydraulic vise to cut it manually using a saw as showing in the figure. As it drown in the drowing
graph of the steam engine that it attached in the appendix below, the cut out has an arc shape.
So, the extra metal was cut, to shape an arc edge to the cut out of the main frame using the
milling machine.

Furthermore, the Vernier gauge measurement was used to mark the drilling holes in the piece
using the required measurement in the drawing graph. The intel hole had a 70.1mm length and
33.75 width, then the center hole was allocated using center punch. After that, the milling
machine was used to drill the piece using 3mm drill bit through hole. Later, to make threads in
the hole, an M5 tap holder was used.

The exhaust ports hole which had a 29.98 width and 67.9mm length was drilled sing 3mm drill
bit. After that, the cylinder block hole which had a height of 25mm and a length of 57, was
drilled firstly by using 3mm drill, then 5.5mm drill, and finally a 6mm reamer was used.

Later, the main shaft hole was marked with 25mm length and 81mm height, then it was drilled
using 3mm and 6mm drill bit. Then the bottom hole of the main frame was drilled using 3mm
and 5mm drill bits with specific depth, then tap m6 was used to make threads.

In the top of the main frame, a hole was drilled using 3mm drill bit to place the main shaft in it.
Also, using 3mm drill bit the center of the hole below the arc was drilled.
b. Fly wheel:

Figure 12 Fly wheel Figure 13 cutting the Fly wheel

using the Vernier clipper, the dimension was measured for the cylindrical shape given, to know
how much we must cut of the piece. The diameter for the shape is 50mm and contain a hole in
the middle of the center. Using the tailstock was used to check that the piece is in the center,
then the machine speed was changed to 1200 for facing. So, the facing was done to get red of
the roughness. Also, the coolant was applied so the piece will be smooth and avoids the line on
the surface. After that, the scale of the lathe machine was used to cut off the extra metal.

A hole was drilled in the center of the fly wheel as required using the lathe machine. Firstly,
using a speed of 500rpm a center drilling was done. Secondly, the drilling was done for the
required dimension using a speed of 800 rpm. Thirdly, to get rid of the chips a reamer of 6mm
was used.

The final stage of the flywheel was done using a milling machine contains rotating hydraulic
vise. The hole drills to a depth of 15mm with movement of 60 degree after each drill until it
reached 360 degree. NOTE: oil was used while drilling.
c. Cylinder Block:

Figure 14 Cylinder block drilling Figure 15 Cylinder block marking hole

the cylindrical block was set using milling machine and the drilling machine. The measurements
were done using the Vernier clipper, and height Vernier clipper. The width of the piece required
to be 25mm, and the length 56mm.

the cylinder block piece fixed on the hydraulic vise of the vertical milling machine and facing
was done to the both side of the part, to get rid of scratches, then the unwanted metal
removed by cutting 0.5 mm each time.

The drilling mailing machine was used to make the holes, first hole was done using 3mm drill,
and a height of 7.5mm. also, there was a through hole done by 6mm drill. The last hole had a
depth of 42 and 8mm drill.
Other machining processes:
1. Facing: using vertical mailing machine and lathe machine.
2. Main shaft: used a saw to cut it and a file to smooth the edge.
3. Piston: used a saw to cut it, and it was placed on the block to take the accurate place for
the hole using Vernier height clipper, then drilling a 3mm through hole on it.
4. The crank wheel and the cylindrical block were connected by putting a small pin inside
it.
5. Base plate: using the vertical machine facing was done, and a center punch to locate the
center of the hole after taking the measurement using Vernier height clipper. However,
the drilling was done using 3mm and 6.5 drill bits.
6. Crank wheel: used the lathe machine for facing and cutting the piece to the required
dimension. Additionally, the small hock was done using milling machine with the
required measurement using the Vernier clipper.
7. Sandpaper: To make the parts smother and remove the sharpness from the surface.
8. File: remove sharp edges.
Spindle speed:

Table 2 Brass yellow spindle speed

Table 3 Aluminium Spindle speed


Conclusion and reflection:
Results:

Table 4 Result table


Deviation:
Deviation between the nominal dimension and the measurement part:

• Human error in taking the accurate measurement while measuring the pieces using
the Vernier clipper.
• Facing the pieces sometimes were done after cutting the material so it will decrease
the size of the piece and cause a deviation between the piece and the drawing on
the drawing graph.
• While preparing the measuring in the machines a mistake occurs while moving the
piece to cut in specific dimension.

Difficulties:
• There were many machines to use, and each machine had a different rule and way to use it. Also,
each machine works for specific type of tools. So, the rules of each machine were road and followed.
Moreover, the technician and the tutor were always there if we had any question about the
machine, so the parts machining was done correctly.
• The most difficult part was taking the measurement of the main frame, because all the measurement
must be accurate. So, the measurement of the holes’ places was done twice. Also, the drawing was
read carefully, and pay attention to the tutors and technicians’ instructions.
• While wanted to fix the crank bill in the crank wheel, the piece stack and it was really hard to taking
it out, so after I take it out using hammer and other things, the crank bill was smoothed a lot to
decrease it width using sand paper.
bibliography:
-Bhandari, V. B. (2014). Machine design data book. New Delhi: McGRaw Hill Education (India).

-GD&T Concentricity Definition. (n.d.). Retrieved May 13, 2019, from

https://www.emachineshop.com/gdt-concentricity-definition/

-Jablons, J. (2015, July 15). 5 Things You Need to Know about OD/ID Concentricity. Retrieved

May 4, 2019, from https://metalcutting.com/5-things-you-need-to-know-about-odid-

concentricity/

-Lab Safety Instructions. (n.d.). Retrieved May 24, 2019, from

https://mie.njit.edu/students/lab_safety.php

-Measure twice, cut once. (n.d.). Retrieved May 4, 2019, from

https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=measure twice, cut once

-Simon, E., Maxfield, M., Mannering, C., Maxfield, M., Grubbs, J., Maxfield, M., . . . Maxfield, M.

(2017, October 19). Measure Twice, Cut Once. Retrieved June 2, 2019, from

https://www.eeweb.com/profile/max-maxfield/articles/measure-twice-cut-once

-TOLERANCE | meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary. (n.d.). Retrieved May 3, 2019, from

https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/tolerance

- Touching on. (n.d.). Retrieved May 10, 2019, from

https://www.thefreedictionary.com/touching on