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AMBIENCE INTELLIGENCE IN HEALTH CARE

FOR ADULTS
SIT Project Architecture

SUBMITTED BY
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction

Problem Statement

Idea description

Value Addition

Architecture

Implementation

Recommendations

Challenges

Benefits

References
Introduction
The dictionary meaning of Ambient is “relating to immediate surroundings”. Thus, ambient
intelligence in simple terms means making our surroundings intelligent such that they
become sensitive to us and tend to our immediate needs.
Ambient Intelligence is based on three key technologies:
 Ubiquitous Computing
 Ubiquitous Communications
 Intelligent user interfaces

Ubiquitous computing means use of microprocessors in everyday items such as furniture,


clothes etc such that the people are not bothered by or aware of their presence. In other
words, these devices run in the background.
Ubiquitous communication means the ways in which we can enable these devices to interact
with each other and the user.
Intelligent user interfaces are meant to make the interaction between the devices and its
inhabitants in a more natural way. For e.g.- Voice recognition systems, gesture control or
perhaps personalized as per the user.

GENERAL ARCHITECTURE OF AmL:

Environment- Sensors and


Middleware
Interactions Actuators

Discovery and Knowledge


AI reasoning
Learning repository

Decision
Makers
Problem Statement

The world is evolving very fast. Most of the time of an average working individual is
spent in working in offices and travelling. Nuclear families are coming into picture as
one has to go out of their cities in search of jobs. As such one of the biggest dilemmas
that we are facing is how do we take care of our ageing parents in such hectic
lifestyles. As the parents age there is a constant need to be near them, get their check-
ups done regularly. So, an individual is constantly torn between building their careers
and full filing their duties as responsible children.

Moreover, the elderly people themselves want a system where they could live
peacefully their lifestyles without constant worry of their health. People are ready to
spend money in a system that brings about an assurance that even if they are alone
there is a process in the background to contact the hospital in case of emergency.

Another problem faced by the elderly population is that the required to go to the
hospitals on a regular basis takes a toll on their health. For e.g.: most of the elder
people suffer with weak knees which makes it difficult for them to walk. Hence going
all the way to the hospital in order to meet the doctor for a routine check up becomes
a big task for them.

Idea Description

The aim of this project is to create an environment for the adult population, which will help in
monitoring them remotely. That is creating a smart or intelligent environment using
Ambience Intelligence at its core that will remotely monitor both the elder population and
their environment keeping a check of the vital parameters and contact the hospital and the
family in case of any unusual recordings are noted or in case of an emergency.
The below picture depicts an example of such an environment-
Value Addition

 Providing mental stability to the elderly that they are connected and in case anything
happens there will be an immediate response from their connected physicians.
 The doctors will know be able to monitor their patients remotely even from their home,
this saves their time and they can cater to a larger group.
 The younger generation feel a sense of completion that in case anything goes wrong they
will know about it immediately and hence can focus on their careers.

Architecture

The below diagram depicts a simple architecture of how a system based on Ambience
intelligence for elderly people will work.

The simplest version of this can be stated as – In an ambient intelligent system created to
monitor an adult there is a constant flow of information from the patient to a common
node on the doctor’s end. In case if the peaks are observed at the common node an
automatic trigger is generated denoting the situation of emergency and the concerned
people are informed about the same thus an intervention takes place from doctor’s end to
aid the patient. Thus, providing immediate attention.
Implementation

 To create a system (above mentioned diagram) like this the first and foremost step will be
to create the Ambient Intelligence (AmL) environment. This requires to equip the
surrounding of the target group- elderly people with broadly 2 types of sensors.
o Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN)
o Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN)

 The Wireless Sensor networks primary task is to gather information about the user and its
environment and to transmit wirelessly this acquired data through different sensors in
diverse environments to the next point of contact or a node for the processing of this data.
Different technologies like Bluetooth or radio frequency identification (RFID) are used to
gather this kind of information which includes basic parameters like light, temperature and
others.
 The Wireless Body Area Networks work on similar technologies but are made available in
form of wrist bands or rings so that they can monitor the important vital signs of patient’s
body. These signs typically include blood pressure, pulse rate, ECG levels, respiratory
temperature readings etc and can be modified depending on the health problem faced by
the patient.
 This data collected at a node (typically a smart phone) through various sensors is
transmitted using the wireless communication systems technologies (over Wi-fi) to an
inaccessible centre on the receiver’s end.
 Here the data is cleansed and only the key information (in form of report) is passed
forward to the respective doctor and family members.
 The doctor can then interpret the report and advice the patient over video conference about
the next steps to be followed.
In case of emergency:
 In case of an emergency if the vitals of the patient fall below the required level, an alarm is
triggered to the doctor and the family members and a call goes to the nearest hospital for
emergency response(ambulance)

Recommendations

 Special attention to the combination of technology, the background processing and most
importantly human factors must be taken when using this in the relevant healthcare services.
 Robust foundation for the integrated systems is clearly required especially for the wearable
sensor technologies.
 Identifying the shortage in healthcare information management is considered as one of the
critical points to develop the AmL systems based on advanced AI technologies.

Challenges

 The sensor technology has very complicated interfaces, however, the old people have
limited experience in using and adopting these technologies.
 Data Sharing and Privacy has been a key issue in the implementation of ambience
intelligence systems, since the patients are been monitored 24x7 there might be private
information about them that may get recorded hence the system must be designed in such a
way that only the critical health vitals are sent ahead for observations and rest all are
discarded.
 It will still take some time for us to adapt to a technology that runs in the background
without we being subconsciously aware about it. Hence the human trust building on these
systems and processes is crucial.

Benefits

 Providing user friendly tools to cope with the surrounding environments.


 They will remind patients to take the right medicine at the right time of day and then vitals
can be monitored through the wearable devices like watches etc to make sure that the
medicines are working properly.
 These devices are capable of running through voice activated commands or simple touch
thus it makes them easier to be adopted by the senior people.
References

 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318778268_Ambient_I
ntelligence_in_Healthcare_A_State-of-the-_Art
 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S157411920
900025X
 https://www.slideshare.net/nikhilpatteri/ambient-
intelligence-28697238
 https://www.forbes.com/sites/insights-
intelai/2018/09/21/ambient-intelligence-the-power-of-always-
on-technology/1