Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 64

Memory

unit 8, modules 24-28

m24 Intro to Memory

MEMORY IS THE PERSISTENCE OF LEARNING OVER TIME, THROUGH THE STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL OF INFORMATION.

Can you remember: September 11, 2001? Your first kiss? A funeral you attended? An embarrassing moment
Can you remember:
September 11, 2001?
Your first kiss?
A funeral you attended?
An embarrassing moment in your life?
Can you remember: September 11, 2001? Your first kiss? A funeral you attended? An embarrassing moment
Can you remember:
September 11, 2001?
Your first kiss?
A funeral you attended?
An embarrassing moment in your life?
FLASHBULB
MEMORIES
CLEAR
AN EMOTIONALLY
MEMORY OF
- A EVENT
SIGNIFICANT
MOMENT
OR

A list apart ...

ATKINSON-SHIFFRIN THREE-STAGE MODEL OF MEMORY

ATKINSON-SHIFFRIN

THREE-STAGE MODEL OF MEMORY

Amnesia

Anterograde Amnesia: inability to form new memories Retrograde Amnesia: inability to recall events prior to brain damage Posthypnotic amnesia Lacunar Amnesia: inability to recall specific event Korsakoff syndrome: alcoholism-induced amnesia

m25 Encoding

Hijacking Leveling nondistinctive details are left out Sharpening distinctive elements retained
Hijacking
Leveling
nondistinctive details are left out
Sharpening
distinctive elements retained
Processing Automatic OR Processing Effortful
Processing
Processing
Automatic
Automatic

OR

Processing
Processing
Effortful
Effortful

Automatic Processing

Encode for Time, Space, and Frequency

Example of parallel processing

Cannot willingly be turned on or off

Effortful Processing

Rehearsal Next-in-Line Effect Spacing Effect or “distributed learning”

Effortful Processing

Rehearsal Next-in-Line Effect Spacing Effect or “distributed learning”
Rehearsal
Next-in-Line Effect
Spacing Effect or “distributed learning”

EBBINGHAUS: THE

AMOUNT

REMEMBERED

DEPENDS ON THE

TIME SPENT

LEARNING

Effortful Processing

Rehearsal Next-in-Line Effect Spacing Effect or “distributed learning”

Effortful Processing

Rehearsal Next-in-Line Effect Spacing Effect or “distributed learning” SERIAL POSITION EFFECT
Rehearsal
Next-in-Line Effect
Spacing Effect or “distributed learning”
SERIAL
POSITION
EFFECT

Effortful Processing

Rehearsal Next-in-Line Effect Spacing Effect or “distributed learning”

WHAT ARE YOU DOING? HOW WELL COULD YOU REMEMBER THIS?
WHAT ARE YOU DOING?
HOW WELL COULD YOU REMEMBER THIS?

WHAT DO WE ENCODE BEST?

WHAT DO WE ENCODE BEST?

WHAT DO WE ENCODE BEST?

WHAT DO WE ENCODE BEST? MEANING!

MEANING!

WHAT DO WE ENCODE BEST?

WHAT DO WE ENCODE BEST? MEANING! WHAT ARE THE MOST MEANINGFUL THINGS IN LIFE?

MEANING!

WHAT ARE THE MOST

MEANINGFUL THINGS IN

LIFE?

Pop Quiz 1. What was the flight attendant’s name? 2. Where was the flight headed to
Pop Quiz
1. What was the flight attendant’s name?
2.
Where was the flight headed to originally?
3.
What was the pilot’s name?
4.
What airlines was it?
5.
Where did the hijacker want to go?

Mnemonic devices

Acronyms

Roy G Big

HOMES

Rhyme

In 1492 Columbus sailed the ocean blue

Chunking

2024562461

Method of loci

...

Method of loci

Method of loci

Method of loci

Method of loci

Method of loci

Method of loci

Method of loci

Method of loci

Method of loci

Method of loci

Method of loci

Method of loci

m26 Storage

Sensory Memory

Iconic memory

Echoic memory

Working Memory

Working Memory

50% loss in 12 seconds

7 +/- 2 items

short-term explicit memories

short-term explicit memories

Long-term Memory

Increased serotonin sensitivity in cerebral cortex due to new receptor sites (created through CREB stimulation)

Long-term potentiation

Long-term Memory Increased serotonin sensitivity in cerebral cortex due to new receptor sites (created through CREB

Long-term memories

Long-term memories

Stronger emotional experiences make for more enduring memories ...

Stronger emotional experiences make for more enduring memories ... ... but prolonged stress degrades memories

...

but prolonged stress degrades memories

IMPLICIT VS EXPLICIT MEMORIES

IMPLICIT VS EXPLICIT MEMORIES

IMPLICIT VS EXPLICIT MEMORIES

IMPLICIT VS EXPLICIT MEMORIES

m27 Retrieval

RECOGNITION VS RECALL

RECOGNITION VS RECALL

Priming: the activation of “nearby” or associated memories.

Context and Retrieval

MOOD-CONGRUENT MEMORIES

MOOD-CONGRUENT MEMORIES

Deja Vu ...

m28 Forgetting

Encoding failures How many sides are on an average pencil? Which color is at the bottom
Encoding failures
How many sides are on an average pencil?
Which color is at the bottom of a stoplight?
George Washington is on the front; what’s on the
back of a $1 bill?
Name Santa’s reindeer.

Decay Theory

Time, and time alone, will end all of your memories Effectively explains sensory and STM loss Ineffectively explains forgetting from LTM

Disuse Theory

Use it or lose it

Not recalling memories leads the brain to pair down those synaptic connections

Interference/Inhibition

Theory

Inability to recall or difficulty in remembering caused by too many memories interfering

Proactive: PAST learning interferes Retroactive: PRESENT learning interferes

Amnesia

Loss of memories as a result of psychological or physiological trauma

Anterograde: no NEW memories Retrograde: loss of OLD memories

State Dependent Learning

Not in the same state as when the learning occurred? Then difficulty in recall

Motivated Forgetting

Some things, you WANT to forget According to Freud, “repression”

. .

.

Cue Dependent Forgetting

Retrieval failure due to missing cues that were present during encoding

misinformation effect source amnesia

SO WHAT ACCOUNTS FOR THE LOW ACCURACY OF POLICE SKETCHES?
SO WHAT ACCOUNTS FOR THE LOW ACCURACY OF POLICE SKETCHES?
SO WHAT ACCOUNTS FOR THE LOW ACCURACY OF POLICE SKETCHES?
SO WHAT ACCOUNTS FOR THE LOW ACCURACY OF POLICE SKETCHES?