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Muhammad.H.

Rashid Power Electronics Circuits, Devices & Applications

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1-1 ~~~11~(1110115 01 ~0~~( 81~~1(0111~5, 1
1-2 ~0~~( 5~1111~01100~10( 1)~~1~~5, 3
1-3 ~0111(01 ~113((1~1~(1511~5 01 ~0~~( 1)~~1~~5, 8
1-4 1~~~5 01 ~0~~( 81~~1(0111~ 0(~0115, 8
1-5 1)~51~11 01 ~0~~( 81~~1(0111~5 8().01~111~111, 12
1-6 ~~(1~11~(31 811~~15, 13
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2-1 101(0011~1100, 15
2-2 0100~5 ~1111~~ (100 ~1., 1.0(105, 15
2-3 0100~5 ~11111.,~ (100 ~1.,~ 1.0(105, 18
2-4 ~(~~~11~~110~ 0100~5, 23
2-5 ~~~0~~()1 011((11111~0 ~0~(~)1 ~1111(1 0100~, 25
2-6 510~1~-.,11(15~ 1-1(111-~(1~~ ~~~1111~(5, 29
2-7 .,~(10((0(10~~ .,(1((1(0~1~(5, 29
2-8 510~1~-.,11(15~ ~1111-~(1~~ ~~~1111~(5, 33
2-9 ~111111111(15~51(1( ~~~1111~(5, 38
2-10 111(~~-.,11(15~ 13(10~~ ~~~1111~(5, 41
2-11 ~~~1111~( 0(~1111 0~51~0, 44
2-12 ~11~~15 01 5011(~~ (100 1.0(10 10011~1(10~~5, 49
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~~~~,..~~ 3 56
3-1 101(0011~1100, 56
3-2 ~(1111((11 ~0(0(0111(11100, 57
3-3 ~0(~~0 ~0(0(0111(11100, 57
3-3.1 5~11-~0(0(0111(11100, 58
3-3.2 1(0111115~ ~0(0(0111(11100, 60
3-3.3 ~~500(101 .,1115~ ~0(0(0111(11100, 64
3-3.4 ~0(0111~(0~01(1()1 ~0(0(0111(11100, 67
3-3.5 ~)(1~(0(11 .,1115~ ~0(0(0111(11100, 69
3-3.6 1.0(10-510~ ~0(0(0111(11100, 69
3-3.7 1.10~-510~ ~0(0(0111(11100, 69
3-4 ~0(0(0111(11100 0(~1111 0~51~0, 71
3-5 ~0(0(0111(11100 ~(111(1~110(5, 74
511(0(0(1()1, 74
~~1~(~0~~5, 74
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4-1 101(0011~1100, 77
/4-2 .,(10~1111~ 01 .,11(15~-~001(011~0 ~00~~(1~( 011~((11100, 78
~4-3 510~1~- .,11(15~ 5~(01~00~~(1~(5, 80
~-4 510~1~-.,11(15~ ~1111 ~00~~(1~(5, 84
4-5 510~1~- .,11(15~ 011(11 ~00~~(1~(5, 87

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4-6 51(1~1~-~11(15~ 5~(1~5 ~0(1~~(1~(5, 90
4-7 111..~~-~11(15~ 1-1(11~-~(1~~ ~0(1~~..1~(5, 95
4-8 111(~~-~11(15~ 5~1111~0(1~~..1~(5, 99
4-9 111..~~-~11(15~ ~011 ~0(1~~..1~..5, 101
4-10 111..~~-~11(15~ 00(11 ~0(1~~..1~(5, 105
4-11 ~0~~( ~(1~10( 1111~..0~~111~(115, 107
4-11.1 8)(11(1~110(1 ~(1~1~ ~0(11..01, 108
4-11.2 5)1111111~1..1~(11
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4-11.3 ~015~- ~10111- ~0001(1110(1 ~0(11..01, 112
4-11.4 51(105010(11 ~015~- ~10111 ~0001(1110(1, 114
4-12 0~51~(1 0~ ~0(1~~..1~( 0..~0115, 115
4-13 8~~~~15 0~ 1.0(10 (1(10 500..~~ 1(100~1(1(1~~5, 117
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/5-1 1(11(000~110(1, 124


5-2 51(1~1~-~11(15~ ~~ 5~11~11~5, 125
5-3 111..~~-~11(15~ ~~ 5~11~11~5, 127
5-4 111..~~-~11(15~ ~~~~..51(1~ 5~11~11~5, 127
5-5 ~~ 5~11~11~5 ~0.. 1305 1((1(15~~(, 130
/5-6 0~ 5~11~11~5, 130
5-7 50110-51(11~ ~~1(1)15, 132
5-8 0~51~(1 0~ 51(111~ 5~11~11~5, 133
50111111(1..)1, 134
~~~~(~11~~5, 134
~~~1~~ 00~5110(15, 134
~..0~1~1115, 135

6-1 1111..000~110(1, 137


6-2 ~..111~1~1~ 0~ 0(1-0~~ ~0(11..01, 138
6-3 ~..1(1~1~1~ 0~ ~11(15~ ~0(11..01, 140
6-4 51(1~1~-~11(15~ 13101(~~11011(11 ~0(11(011~..5 ~1111 ~~51511~~ 1.0(105, 142
,/6-5 51(1~1~-~11(15~ ~0(11(011~..5 ~11111(100~11~~ 1.0(105, 145
6-6 111..~~ ~11(15~ 1-1(11~-~(1~~ ~0(11(011~(5, 148
6-7 111..~~-~11(15~ ~011-~(1~~ ~0(11..011~..5, 154
6-8 111..~~-~11(15~ 13101(~~110(1(11 0~11(1-~0(111~~1~0 ~0(11..011~..5, 157
6-9 51(1~1~-~11(15~ 1((1(15~0(111~.. 1(1~ ~11(1(1~~..5, 161
6-10 ~)1~10~0(1~~..1~..5, 166

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6-10.1 510~1~-~1138~ ~)1~10~00~~(1~(8, 166
6-10. 2 111(~~- ~1138~ ~)1~10~00~~(1~(8, 168
6-10.3 ~~011~1100 01 0111~1111-13((0001~8, 169
6-11 1)~81~0 01 ~~ ~ 0113~~-~001(011~( ~1(~11118,172
6-12 ~11~~18 01 5011(~~ 300 1-030 10011~130~~8, 175
511(0(03()1, 176
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7-1 101(0011~1100, 180


7-2 ~(10~1~1~ 01 51~~-1)0~0 0~~(31100, 180
7-3 51~~-1)0~0 ~110~~~(8 ~1111~1. 1-030, 183
7-4 ~(10~1~1~ 01 51~~-1)~ 0~~(31100, 186
7-5 ~~(10((030~~ ~3(3(0~1~(8, 189
7-6 5~11~1110~-~00~ ~~~111310(8, 189
7-6.1 1311~~~~~111310(8, 190
7-6.2 130081 ~~~111310(8, 193
7-6.3 1311~~-130081 ~~~111310(8, 196
7-6.4 ~11~ ~~~111310(8, 199
7-6.5 1-1(01131100801 510~1~-513~~ ~00~~(8100, 204
7-7 111)1(1810( ~110~~~( 0(~11118, 204
7-7.1 1(0~1118~-~0(0(011131~0 ~110~~~(8, 205
7-7.2 ~11~~18_015011(~~ 300 1-030 10011~130~~, 210
7-7.3 1(0~1118~-~0(0(011131~0 111(~~-111)1(1810( ~110~~~(8, 210
7-7.4 ~~800301 ~1118~~110~~~(8, 212
7-8 ~110~~~( ~1(~11111)~81~0, 215
7-9 ~3~0~11~ ~00810~(311008, 221
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8-1 101(0011~1100, 226


8-2 ~(10~1~1~ 01 0~~(31100, 227
8-3 ~~(10((030~~ ~3(3(0~1~(8, 228
8-4 510~1~-~1138~ 13(10~~ 10~~(1~(8, 230
8-5 111(~~-~1138~ 10~~(1~(8, 233
8-6 ~0113~~ ~001(01 01 510~1~-~1138~ 10~~(1~(8, 239
8-6.1 510~1~-~1118~-~10111 ~0011131100, 240

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8-6.2 ~11111~1~-111115~-~10111 ~00111(11100, 241
8-6.3 510115010(11111115~-~10111 ~00111(11100, 243
8-6.4 ~00111~0 510115010(11111115~-~10111 ~00111(11100, 245
8-6.5 1111(15~-015~1(1~~111~01 ~001(01, 246
8-7 ~011(1~~ ~001(01 01111(~~-1111(15~ 10~~(1~(5, 247
8-8 1-1(1(111001~~~011~11005, 248
8-9 5~(1~5 ~~500(10110~~(1~(5, 251
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8-9.2 5~(1~5 ~~500(101111~~(1~(5 ~111113101(~~1100(11 5~11~11~5, 259
8-10 ~0(~~0-~0111111111(11~0 111)1(1510( 10~~(1~(5, 264
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8-10.2 ~0111~1~111~111(1()1-~0111111111(11~010~~(1~(5, 266
8-11 ~11((~01-5011(~~ 10~~(1~(5, 273
8-12 ~ (1(1(101~ 0~ 1.,10~ 10~~(1~(, 276
8-13 10~~(1~( 0(~1111 0~51~0, 276
8-14 ~(1~0~11~ ~00510~((111005, 279
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~~1~(~11~~5, 279
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9-1 1111(0011~11011,284
9-2 0~ ~0~~( 511~~11~5,285
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9-3.3 13101(~~1100(11~~ 110~~( 511~~11~5,291
9-4 ~1111151(1~~~011~~(510115, 292
9-5 ~(1~0~11~ ~011510~((1110115,293
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11(001~1115, 295

~ 4~~~~ 10 ()~ ()~~~~5 296

10-1 1111(0011~1100,296
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10-3 5111~1~-1111(15~
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10-3.2 $111~1~-~1138~ $~1111~011~~(1~( 0(1~~8, 302
10-3.3 $111~1~-~1138~ ~1.111-~011~~(1~( 0(1~~8, 303
10-3.4 $111~1~-~1138~ 01.131-~00~~(1~( 0(1~~8, 304
10-4 111(~~-~1138~ 0(1~~8, 307
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10-4.2 111(~~-~1138~ $~1111~011~~(1~( 0(1~~8, 308
10-4.3 111(~~-~1138~ ~1.111-~011~~(1~( 0(1~~8, 308
10-4.4 111(~~-~1138~ 01.131-~011~~(1~( 0(1~~8, 309
10-5 ~110~~~( 0(1~~8, 313
10-5.1 ~(111~1~1~ 01 ~0~~( ~0111(01, 313
10-5.2 ~(111~1~1~ 01 ~~~~11~(311~~ )3(3~~ ~0111(01, 315
10-5.3 ~(111~1~1~ 01 ~11~081311~ )3(3~~ ~0111(01, 317
10-5.4 ~(111~1~1~ 01 ~01110111~0 ~~~~11~(311~~ 3110 ~11~081311~ )3(3~~
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10-5.6 ~1.1111~1138~~110~~~(8, 321
10-6 008~0-1.,00~ ~0111(01 01 0~ 0(1~~8, 323
10-6.1 0~~11-1.,00~ 1(31181~( ~1.111~11011,324
10-6.2 008~0-1.,00~ 1(31181~( ~1.111~11011,328
10-6.3 ~1138~-1.,0~~~0-1.,00~ ~0111(01, 330
10-6.4 ~1~(0~0111~1.11~( ~0111(01 01 0~ 0(1~~8, 332
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~...~~,.~~ 11 ~~ ()~~~~5 339


11-1 1111(001.1~11011, 339
11-2 11101.1~11011~010( 0(1~~8, 340
11-2.1 ~~(10(111311~~ ~113(3~1~(1811~8, 341
11-2.2 $1310( ~0113~~ ~0111(01, 347
11-2.3 ~010( ~0113~~ ~0111(01, 349
11-2.4 ~(~()1.1~11~)1 ~0111(01, 356
11-2.5 ~0113~~ 3110 ~(~()1.1~11~)1 ~0111(01, 358
11-2.6 ~1.1((~111 ~0111(01, 361
11-2.7 ~0113~~, ~1.1((~111, 3110 ~(~()1.1~11~)1 ~0111(01, 364
11-2.8 008~0-1.,00~ ~0111(01 0111101.1~11011 ~010(8, 365
11-3 $)111~11(01101.18~010( 0(1~~8, 369
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11-3.2 $311~111-~01~ ~010(8, 373
11-3.3 ~~11.1~1311~~ ~010(8, 374
11-3.4 ~~(111311~111-~3~11~1 ~010(8, 375
11-3.5 008~0-1.,00~ ~0111(01 01 $)111~11(01101.18~010(8, 376

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51.1111111(1()1, 377

~~1~(~0~~5, 378
~~..,1~~ 01.1~511005, 379
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12-1 1111(001.1~11011,
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12-3.2 ~(151-~~~0..,~1-)10100~5, 387
12-3.3 5~0.011~)1 0100~5, 387
12-4 ~~(10(111(111~~~(1((1111~1~(5,388
12-5 811~~15 01 ~0(~(1(0 (1110~~..,~(5~ ~~~0..,~()111111~, 402
12-6 5~(1~5-~0011~~1~0 0100~5, 406
12-7 ~(1((111~1-~0110~~1~00100~5, 408
51.1111111(1()1, 409
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13-1 1111(001.1~11011, 412


13-2 131~01(1( 11.111~110111((11151510(5, 413
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13-2.2 5~11~0.111~ ~0.(1((1~1~(1511~5, 418
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13-2.4 13(15~ 0(1..,~ ~0111(01, 436
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13-3.2 5~11~0.111~ ~0.(1((1~1~(1511~5, 444
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13-7.1 ~1.115~ 1((111510(111~(5, 462
13-7.2 0~10~01.1~1~(5, 462
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~~1~(~0~~5, 464
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14-1 1111(001.1~11011, 468
14-2 111)1(1510( ~11(1((1~1~(1511~5, 468
14-3 1~0-1((11151510( ~00~1 01111)1(1510(, 470
14-4 111)1(1510( 11.1(11-011, 472
14-5 (/// (/( ~(01~~11011, 474
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14-7 111)1(1510( 11.1(11-011, 478
14-8 111)1(1510( 1)1~~5, 479
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15-4 ~~~~(5~ ~~~0~~()11((11151~1115, 521
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13

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~00..,~(5100 01 ~1~~1(1~ ~0~~(. 10~ 0100~ ~1(~11115 1011111(~ ~0111111001)1115~0 10 ~0~~(
~1~~1(001~5 10( 51~0111 ~(0~~5510~ 11(~ (~..,1~~~0 10 1015 ~011~1~(. 10~ 11~~11~1111005 01
0100~5 10( ~00..,~(5100 01 ~0~~( 1(011111~-0~ 11(~ 101(0011~~0. 111~ 11~-0~ ~00..,~(1~(5
11(~ ~0111111001)1 /(00~0 115 ,.~~(///~,.5 1100 111~ 0100~ (~~1111~(5 ~(0..,10~ 1111)(~0 0~ 0111~111
..,01111~~. ~0( 111~ 511/(~ 01 51111~11~11)1 111~ 0100~5 11(~ ~00510~(~0 10 /)~ 10~111. 13)1
10~111, ~~ 111~110 10111 111~ (~..,~(5~ (~~0..,~()111111~ 1100 111~ 10(~11(0 ..,01111~~ 0(0~ 11(~
0~~11~1/)1~ .

~1~11(~ 2-111 5110~5 11 0100~ ~1(~1111 ~1111110 ~~ 10110. ~11~0 111~ 5~11~11 5) 15 ~105~0
111 ( = 0, 111~ ~011(~10~ ~11((~01 111111110~5 111(011~11111~ ~11~11~110( 15 101100 1(0111

~5 = 1)8. + 1)0 = 1)8. +


~ )/ ()(
+ 1)0
((
= 0) (2-1)

(2-2)

15

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0.368
*0
~. ------
0.632~.

-.

~1111111~ 10111(11 ~00011100 11~ (( = 0) = 0, 111~501111100018().. (2-1) (~111~11150~.-1~~0


10 ~~~~001)( 0.1) ~1~~5 111~ ~11(1.-~10~ ~11 ~01 (15

~5 ~~(/8.~
1(/) = (2-3)
~

(2-4)

~11~.-~ ~~ = ,. 15 111~ 11(0~ ~0051(101 01 (10 ~~ 10(10. 111~ .-(11~ 01 ~11(10~~ 01111~
~(1~(1~110.- ~011(1~~ 15

(2-5)

(100 111~ 10111(11 .-(11~ 01 ~11(10~~ 01 ~(1~(1~110.- ~011(1~~ ((11 ( = 0) 15 001(110~0 1.-0(0 8()..
(2-5) ~

011~~ ~5
= (2-6)
0( ~(~0 ~~
~ 0100~ ~1.-~1111~1111 (10 ~/..., 10(10 15 5110~0 10 ~1~. 2-2(1. ~11~0 5~11~11 51 15
(
~105~0 (11 = 0, 111~ ~11 ~01111.-011~11111~ 10011~10.- 10~.-~(15~5 (100 15 ~)(~.-~55~0 (15

01 .
~5 = 111- + 118. = /...,0( + ~1 (2-7)

~1111111~ 10111(11~00011100 1(( = 0) = 0, 111~50111110001 8().. (2-7) (~111~11150~.-1~~0


10 ~~~~001)( 0 .2) )11~105

(2-8)

16

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0.368 ~5

0 (

-
~5 -~ ~---
8
~
0.632,5. - - -
( ~=
~
(
~

111~ (31~ 01 ~1130~~ 0111115 ~11((~01 ~30 0~ 001310~0 1(001 ~~. (2-8) 35

0-/ 115~-(~/~
(2-9)
0-( 1--

300 111~ 1011131 (31~ 01 (15~ 01111~ ~11((~01 (31 ( =

0-/ ~

(2-10)
0-(~(~0

0-/
1)~(() = 1-- = 115~-(~/~ (2-11 )
0-(

~11~(~ 1--/~ = ,. 15 111~1101~ ~0051301 01 30 ~1-- 1030.


111~ ~3~~10(015 10( 111~~0113~~ 300 ~11((~01 3(~ 5110~0 10 ~1~. 2-20. 11 ( //
~,
1--/ 111~ ~0113~~ 3~(055 111~ 10011~10( 1~005 10 0~ 2~(0 300 115 ~11((~01 (~3~11~5 3
51~30~-5131~ ~3111~0115 = 11/~. 1130 311~01~115 111~00130~ 10 0~~0 5~11~1151, 111~
~0~(~~ 510(~0 10 111~10011~10( (= 0.51--(2) ~111 0~ 1(30510(01~0 1010 3 111~11(~~~(5~
~0113~~ 3~(055 111~5~11~11300 0100~. 11115~0~(~~ ~111 0~ 01551~31~0 10 111~10(01 01
5~3(~5 3~(055 111~5~11~11~300 111~0100~ 1)1 15 11~~1~ 10 0~ 03013~~0 10 11115~(0~~55.
10 0~~(~001~ 511~113 5111131100,3 0100~ ~00101001~ ~00~0 35 3 /,~~)1//2~~//11150-/00-~
15 ~000~~1~0 3~(055 30 10011~11~~1030 35 5110~0 10 ~1~. 2-83-.
~)(3111()1~2-1
~ 0100~ ~1(~111115 5110~11111 ~1~.2-33 ~11118. = 440 3110~ = 0.1 /1-~. 111~~3~3~110(
11353111111631~0113~~, 110 = 220~. 11111~ 5~11~1151 15 ~105~0 31 ( = 0, 0~1~1111111~111~
(3) ~~3/( 0100~ ~1111~111~(0) ~11~1~)101551~31~0 111111~ 1~515101, 8.~ 3110 (~) ~3))3~1101
(
~0113~~ 31 = 2 /1-5.
801111100 111~ ~3~~1011115 3(~ 5110~11111~1~. 2-30.
(3) ~~1136011 (2-3) ~311 0~ 115~0 ~1111115 = 1103110 111~))~3/( 0100~ ~1111~11115

220
/ ,, =-=5~
44

58~. 2-2 17

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(/)) 111~ ~11~1~)1 01551~31~0 15

)( )( 10~6 )( 2202
= 0.5~115 = 0.5
~ 0.1 = 0.00242 1
(() ~01 ~~ = 0.1 )( 44 (
= 4.4 ).1-53110 = (1 = 2 ).1-5,111~(3~3(1101 .,,0113~~ 15
1)0(( = 2 ).1-5)= 220 )( ~-2/44 = 139.64 ~

~ 0100~ ~1(~1.111~1111 ~0 /..,~ 10~0 15 5110~0 10 ~1~. 2-4~. ~11~0 5~11~11 51 15 ~105~0
( 0, 111~ ~11~(~10~ ~1.1((~01 0( 111~ ~~1=/~~110(
~1 = 15 ~)(1=/(~55~0 35

()1 1 . ()(
11. = /..,
()( +
~1 1 + 1)~
((
= 0) (2-12)

~111110111~1 ~000111005 1(( = 0) = 0 300 1)~(( = 0) = 0, ~(). (2-12) ~~0 0~ 501~~0


(0( 111~ ~~1=/~~110( ~1.1((~01 ~5 (10 ~1=/1=/~0(1)( 0.3)

1(() = 11 .~ ~. - 510
/..,
0)( (2-13)

0)( (2-14)
= /,, 510

1/~ ~00 111~ 1=/~~~ ~1.1((~01,

1, = ~.)~ (2-15)

111~ (~1~ 0( (15~ 0( 111~ ~1.1((~0115 001~10~0 ((001 ~(). (2-13) ~5

()1 11.
-()( = - ~05
0)( (2-16)
/..,

18

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0
- . ~4

300 ~(). (2-16) ~1~~5 111~ 1011131 (31~ 01 (15~ 01111~ ~1.1((~01 (31 ( 0) 35

= ~- (2-17)
~~~ (~0

((
1 (/( 0)()
1)0(() = ~ )0 / = ~5(1 - ~05 (2-18)

~1 3 11111~ ( = (1 10 ~, 111~ 0100~ ~1.1((~01, / 13115 10 2~(0 300 111~ ~3~3~110( 15


~113(~~0 10 2~5. 111~ ~3~~10(1115 10( 111~ ~0113~~ 300 ~1.1((~01 3(~ 5110~0 10 ~1~. 2-
40.
~,.3(11))1~ 2-2

~ 0100~ ~1(~1.111~1111 311 /...,~ 1030 18 5110~11 111~18. 2-53 ~1111 111~ ~3~3~110( 113~1118 311
11111131~01138~, 170 = 220 ~, ~3~3~11311~~, ~ = 20 ~~, 3110 11101.1~1311~~, /...,
= 80 ~1-1.
11111~ 5~11~11 51 15 ~105~0 31 ( = 0, 0~1~(111111~111~(3) ~~3/( ~1.1~~~111111~01.1811111~
0100~~
(0) ~01101.1~1101111111~01111~ 0100~ ~ 3110 (~) 51~(0)1-5131~ ~3~3~110~ ..01138~.

8011.11100 (3) 051118 /(/,.~/1/10/15 ~0/((18~ /(1 , (1(~1.,), ~~ ~311 ~~11~ 111~ ~()1.131101110~ 111~
~1.1~~~11135
(// 1 . (/(
/...,
~ ~1 / + + 11~(( = 0) = 0
((
3110 111~ ~1.1~~~111~111111111131~01101110115 01/(( = 0) = 0 311011~ = 0) = - 17015 501~~0
35

/(() ())(
= 1(0)~ 5111

())
= 106(~20
)(
~11~~~ = 1/~ 80 = 25,000 ~30/5. 111~ ~~3/( ~1.1~(~111,

/20
1,, = 170 /0/..., = 220 = 110 ~
80
~

58~. 2-3 19

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5,

0,

(0)~1, = ,1 = ,,. ~, 111~ 0100~ ~11~~~1110~~0111~5 2~~0 (1110 111~ ~011011~11011 11111~0(
0100~ 15

,1 = ,,.~ = ,,. -/20 )(


80 = 125.66 ~5

~0~ , = ,1 = 125.66 ~5, 1)~ (, = ,,) = 220 ~.

~ 0100~ ~1..~011~1111 311~1-~ 1030 15 5110~11111~1~. 2-6. 11111~ 5~11~1151 15


~105~0 31 1 = 0, ~~ ~31105~ 111~1(~1- 10 ~..11~ 111~~().036011 10.. 111~1030 ~0 ~11135
(// 1 (
1-(/1 + ~/ + (3) / (/1 + 1)~ (1 = 0) = ~5 (2-19)

~01101110115/ (1 = 0) 3110 1)~(1 = 0) = ~0.


~111111111131 0111~..~1163611~ ~().. (2-19)
3110 01 10111~ 00111 510~5 0~ 1- ~1 ~5

(2-20)

0110~.. 51~30~-5131~ ~01101110115, 111~ ~3))3~110.. 15 ~113..~~0 10 111~ 500..~~ 0113~~ ~5


3110 111~ 51~30~-5131~ ~0 ~111 ~111 0~ 2~..0. 111~ 10..~~0 ~0(11))011~111 01111~ ~0 ~111
111 ~().. (2-20) 15 3150 2~..0. 111~ ~0 ~11115 00~ 10 111~ 11310..31 ~0(11))011~111.

5,
+-- 0,

..)~11..~ 2-6 010~~ ~1~~111( ~1(/1 8.1.-~

-. 103~.

20

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(2-21)

300 111.~(0015 01 ()1.130(311~ ~(). (2-21) 3(~ ~1~~0 0~

/~ 2
1
~( )
~
51.2 = - =1= - (2-22)
21., 21., 1.,~

1-~1 1.150~110~ 1~0 1(0~0(1301 ~(0~~(11~5 01 3 5~~000-0(0~( ~1(~1.111~


/(1~(0, ,
~
~ =- (2-23)
21.,

1
0)0 = (2-24)
~
51.1051111.1110~ 111.~5~ 1010 ~(). (2-22) ~1~105

51,2 = -~ =1= ~~2 - 0)5 (2-25)

111.~ 5011.11100 10( 111.~ ~1.1((~01, ~11.1~11. ~111 0~~~00 00 111.~ ~311.1~5 01 ~ 300 0)0, ~01.110
10110~ 00~ 01111.~ 111.(~~ ~055101~ ~35~5.

~859 1. 11 ~ = 0)0 , 111.~ (0015 3(~ ~()1.131, 51 = 52, 300 111.~ ~1(~1.11115 ~311~0
~,/(/~(1//)1 0.(1111~~0.. 111.~ 5011.11100 ~111 0~ 01111.~ 10((0

(2-26)

~859 2. 11 ~ ~ 0)0, 111.~(0015 3(~ (~31300 111.~~1(~1.11115 5310 10 0~ 01)~,0.(1111~~0..


111.~ 5011.11100 13~~5 111.~ 10((0

(2-27)

~859 3. 11 ~ ~ 0)0, 111.~ (0015 3(~ ~0(0~1~)( 300 111.~ ~1(~1.111 15 5310 10 0~
/1110.~,0.(1111~~0.. 111.~ (0015 3(~

(2-28)

~11.~(~ 0)~ 15 ~311~0 111.~ ,/118/118 /,~()/1~119 (0( 03(0~~0 (~500301 1(~()1.1~0~~) 300
0)~ = ~ 0)5 - ~2. 111.~ 5011.11100 13~~5 111.~ 10((0

/(0 = ~-,.((~1 ~05 0)~( + ~2 510 0)~() (2-29)

300 111.~ ~1.1((~01 ~0051515 01 3 0.(1111~~0. 0, 0.~~(1)1/118 5/11/150/0.(1/.

1-/0(~. 111.~ ~00513015 ~1 300 ~2 ~30 0~ 0~1~((010~0 1(0(0 111.~ 1011131 ~000111005
01111.~ ~1(~1.111. 111.~ (3110 01 ~/0)0 15 ~0(0(0001~ ~00~0 35 0.(1111~/118 ,(1(/0, 8.

58~. 2-3 21

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~)(301()1~ 2-3

10 10~ 5~~000-0~0~~ ~1-~ ~1~~1111 0~ ~1~. 2-6, 10~ 5011~~~,,,0113~~, ~, = 220 ~, 10011~1-
30~~, 1- = 2 ~1-1, ~3~3~1130~~, ~ = 0.05 ~~, 300 ~~515130~~, ~ = 160 0. 10~ 1011131
,,,3111~0~ 10~ ~3~3~110~ ,,,0113~~ 15 ~0 = 0. 1~ 10~ 5~11~015 ~105~0 31 ( = 0, 0~1~~~10~
(3) 30 ~)(~~~55100 ~0~ 10~ ~11~~~01, /((), 300 (0) 10~ ~00011~1100 11~~ 0~ 0100~. (~)
1)~3~ 3 5/(~1~0 0~ /( ().

80111~)0)) (3) ~~0~ ~~. (2-23), ~ = 160 )( 103/(2 )( 2) = 40,000 ~30/5 300 ~~0~ ~~.
(2-24), (00 = 1/~ = 105 ~30/5.
(0~ = ~1010 )( 10~
- 16 = 91,652 ~30/5
510~~ ~ ~ (00, 1115 30 1100~~03~~~0 ~1~~1111300 10~ 501111100 15 0~ 10~ ~0~~

/(() = ~-~/(..41 ~05 (0~( + ..42 510 (0~()

(
~1 = 0, /(( = 0) = 0 300 1015 ~1,,,~5..41 = 0. 10~ 501111100 0~~0~~5

/(()
= ~-~/..42 510 (0~(

10~ 0~~1,,,311,,,~ 0~ /(() ~1,,,~5

0/ .
-0( = (0
~ ~05
(0
~
(..4
2
~-~/
- ~ 510 (0
~
(..4
2
~-~/

( 0, 10~ ~3~3~110~ 0~~~~5 3 10~ 1~~~030~~ 300 10~


~0~0 10~ 5~11~0 15 ~105~0 31 =
10011~10~ 0~~~~5 3 01~0 1~~~030~~. 10~ 1011131 ~31~ 0~ ~15~ 0~ 10~ ~11~~~01 15 11~11~0
(
001~ 0~ 10~ 10011~10~ 1-. 10115 31 = 0, 10~ ~1~~1111
0//0( 15

)(
220 1000
~ 2
~
=~
(0~1- = 91,652)( 2 =
1.2

10~ ~1031 ~)(~~~55100 ~0~ 10~ ~11~~~01 /(() 15

/(()
= 1.2 510 (91,652()~-40.000/ ..4

111~11..~ 2-7 ~11((~(1( ~3,,,~~0(111 ~0( ~)(-

3111111~2-3.

22

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,.
(1
= 91 ,652 = 34.27 ~8

11111~ $~11~11.51 10 ~1~. 2-23 18 ~10$~0 10( 11(0~ (1, 3 ~0((~011$ ~$13011$11~0 111(00~11
111~ 1030~ 300 111~0 11111~ $~11~111$ 0~~0~0, 3 ~3111 (00$1 0~ ~(0~10~0 16( 111~ ~0((~01
10 111~ 1000~11~~ 1030. 1111$ 1$ 00((0311)1 000~ 0)1 ~000~~110~ 3 0100~ /),,, 3$ $110~0
10 ~1~. 2-83, 300 1111$0100~ 1$ 0$0311)1 ~311~0 3 /,.~~111/1~~//~/5 (//0(/~. 111~ ~1(~011
0~~(31100 ~30 0~ 01~10~01010 1~0 (000~$. ~00~ 1 0~~10$ ~11~0 111~$~11~111$ ~10$~0
31 ( = 0, 300 (000~ 2 0~~10$ ~11~0 111~$~11~111$ 111~0 0~~0~0. 111~ ~()01~31~01
~1(~011$ 10( 111~ (000~$ 3(~ $110~0 10 ~1~. 2-80. /1 300 /2 3(~ 0~110~0 3$ 111~ 10$130-
130~00$ ~0((~01$ 10( (000~ 1 300 (000~ 2, (~$~~~11~~1)1. (1 300 (2 3(~ 111~ ~0((~-
$~00010~ 00(31100$ 01111~$~ (000~$.

~0~~ 1. 00(10~ 1111$ (000~, 111~ 0100~ ~0((~01, ~111~11 1$ $1(0113( 10


~(). (2-8), 1$

(2-30)

0,
+- ...

1...

,
~

~
~
~, _ _ _ _ __ __ __ ~ ~2

0
(~) ~8~910~,,,5

..1~ ~ 2-8 ~1~~..11 ~11/11~~~~/1~~11(1~ 0100~.

58~. 2-4 23

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~11~0 111~ 8~11~1118 0~~0~0 31 1 = 11 (31 111~ ~00 0111118 0100~), 111~ ~1.1((~01 31 11131
1101~ 0~~001~8

(2-31)

11111~ 1101~ 11 18 81.1111~1~011)1 100~, 111~ ~1.1((~01 (~3~11~8 3 81~(0)1-8131~ ~311.1~ 300 3
81~(0)1-8131~ ~1.1((~01 0115 = ~5/~ 110~8 111(01.1~11111~1030.

~0~~ 2. 11118 0100~ 0~~108 ~11~0 111~ 8~11~1118 0~~0~0 300 111~ 1030 ~1.1((~01
813(18 10 110~ 111(01.1~11111~ 1(~~~11~~110~ 0100~ 1),,,. ~~0~11010~ 111~ 1101~ 0(1~10 31
111~ 0~~10010~ 0111118 0100~, 111~ ~1.1((~01 111(01.1~11111~ 1(~~~11~~110~ 0100~ 18 101.100
1(001

0.12
0 = 1.~ + ~12 (2-32)

~11111011131~00011100 12 (1 = 0) = 11. 111~ 8011.1110001 8().. (2-32) ~1~~8 111~1(~~-


~11~~110~ ~1.1((~01 38

12(1) = 11~-(~/1- (2-33)

300 11118~1.1((~01 0~~3)18 ~)(~00~011311)110 2~(0 31 1 12 ~(0~10~0 11131 12 ~ ~ 1./ ~.


111~ ~3~~10(018 10( 111~ ~1.1((~018 3(~ 8110~0 10 ~1~. 2-8~.
~,.301())~ 2-4
111~1~. 2-83, 111~(~8181311~~18 11~~11~101~(~ = 0), 8011(~~ __0113~~, ~5 = 220 ~, 3110
1030 111011~1311~~,1- = 220 ~1-1. (3) 0(3~ 111~~3__~10(01 10( 111~1030 ~11((~11111111~
8~11~1118 ~108~0 10( 3 11(11~ (1 = 100~8 3110 18111~11011~11~0. (0) 0~1~((11111~111~~11~(~)1
810(~0 111111~1030 111011~10(.

+-

0.,,

24

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/(() ~5(
= 1,

(1110 (11 ( = (1, /0 = ~5(/1, = 220


)(
100/220 = 100~.
(0) ~0~11 10~ 5~11~0 51 15 0~~11~0 (11 (1 11111~ (
= (1, 10~ 10(10 ~11((~111 51(1(15 10
110~ 10(011~0 10~ 0100~ 1),,,. 5111~~ 10~(~ 15 110 01551~(111,,,~ ((~51511,,,~) ~1~111~111111 10~
~1(~1111, 10~ 10(10 ~11((~111 (~111(11115~01151(1111(11 /0 = 100 ~ (111010~ ~11~(~)1510(~0 11110~
111011~10( 15 0.51,/6 = 1.11. 10~ ~11((~111 ~(1,,,~~0(1115 (1(~ 500~11111 ~1~. 2-90.

10 10~ 10~(1110551~55 ~1(~1111 01 ~1~. 2-9(1, 10~ ~0~(~)1 510(~0 10 10~ 10011~10( 15 1((1~~~0
10~(~, 0~~(1115~ 10~(~ 15 00 (~5151(10~~ 10 10~ ~1(~1111. 10 (1 ~((1~11~(11 ~1(~1111 11 15
0~51((101~ 10 1(0~(0~~ 10~ ~///(/~11()1 0)1 (~111(010~ 10~ 510(~0 ~0~(~)11010 10~ 511~~1)1
5011(~~. 10/5 ~(10 0~ (1~01~~~0 0)1 (10010~ (1 5~~000 ~10010~ 10 10~ 10011~10( (100
~000~~1111~ (1 0100~ 1)1 (15 500~0 10 ~1~. 2-10(1. 10~ 10011~10( 0~0(1~~5 (15 (1 1((105-
10((0~(. 10~ 1((10510((0~( 5~~000(1()115 ~000~~1~0 511~0 10(11 111)1 15 ~05111,,,~, 10~0
1)2 15 0~~(111~~, (100 ~1~~ ~~(5(1, 10~ 5~~000(1()1 ~10010~ 10(111(1~11111(11~5 (~111(010~ 10~
510(~0 ~0~(~)11010~ 5011(~~ ~1(10100~ 1)1/5 ~00~0 (15 (1/~~0-0(1(/( 11//110-/1115. ~5511(010~
(1 1((10510((0~( ~110 (1 (0(1~0~11210~ 10011~1(10~~ 01 1.,~, 10~ ~().111~(11~01 ~1(~1111 15 (15
500~0 10 ~1~. 2-100.
1110~ 0100~ (100 5~~000(1()1 ~011(1~~ (5011(~~ ~011(1~~) (1(~ (~1~((~0 10 10~ ~(1(0(1()1
510~ 0110~ 1((10510((0~(, 10~ ~().111~(11~01 ~1(~111115 10(11 500~0 10 ~1~. 2-10~. /1 (100
/2 0~110~ 10~ ~(1(0(1()1 (100 5~~000(1()1 ~11((~015 0110~ 1((10510((0~(, (~5~~~11~~1)1.
10~ (/1,115 ,(1(/0 01 (10 10~(11 1((10510((0~( 15 0~110~0 (15

/+-/2
(1
= /+-/1
(2-34 )

10~ ~1(~1111 0~~((11100 ~(10 0~ 01~10~0 1010 1~0 (000~5. ~00~ 1 0~~105 ~0~0 10~
5~11~0 51 15 ~105~0 (11 ( = 0 (100 (000~ 2 0~~105 ~0~0 10~ 5~11~0 15 0~~0~0. 10~
~().111~(11~01~1(~1111510( 10~ (000~5 (1(~ 500~0 10 ~1~. 2-11(1. (1 (100 (2 (1(~ 011((111005
01 (000~ 1 (100 (000~ 2, (~5~~~11~~1)1.

~0~9 1. 011(10~ 10/5 (1100~ 10~ 5~11~015 ~105~0 (11 ( = 0. 10~ 0100~ 1)1 15
(~~~(5~ 01(15~0 (100 10~ ~11((~0110(011~010~ 0100~ (5~~000(1()1 ~11((~01) 15 (1 /2 = 0
0( /2 = 0. 0510~ 10~ 1(~1- 10 ~1~. 2-11(1, 115 = (1)0 - 1(5)/(1 (100 1015 ~1~~5 10~
(~~~(5~ 0100~ ~011(1~~ (15

1)0 = 11,(1 + (1) (2-35)


~5511(010~ 10(11 10~(~ 15 00 10111(11 ~11((~01 10 10~ ~1(~1111, 10~ ~(1(0(1()1 ~11((~01 15 10~
5(1(0~ (15 10~ 5~11~0 ~11((~01 /5 (100 15 ~)(~(~55~0 (15

(2-36)

58~. 2-5 25

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01 ~2
+
5, ~1
.
+
~2
~~~, .+
~.

+
+
.
~,
.
+
,098~
1~8~510~,,,9~
(0) (0~~1~8~9~1 ~~~~~11

..)~0~~ 2-10 ~1(~01( ~1(/1 ~0~(~~ (~~0~-


~(~ 0100~_

(2-37)

( ~ (
1015 11100~ 15 .,,3110 10( 0 ~ (1 3110 ~1105 ~0~11 10~ 5~11~0 15 0~~11~0 31 = (1-

~1 10~ ~110 011015 11100~ 10~ ~(11113()1 ~11((~111 0~~0111~5

~5
10 = -(1 (2-38)
1-,,,

~0~8 2. 011(1118 1015 11100~ 10~ 5~11~0 15 0~~11~0, 10~ .,,01138~ 3~(055 10~
111011~10( 15 (~.,,~(5~0 3110 10~ 0100~ /)1 15 10(~3(0 0135~0. ~ ~11((~111110~5 10(01180
10~ 1(311510(111~( 5~~01103()1 3110 10~ ~11~(8)1 510(~0 11110~ 111011~10( 15 (~111(11~0 10 10~

26

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8~2 =0
+
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., ...1 1. ~~+
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~5 - - - - - - - - - -
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27
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500(~~. 1)510~ 111~ 1(~1- (100 (~0~11010~ 111~ 11(0~ 0(1~10 (11 111~ 0~~10010~ 0111115
(000~, 111~ ~(1(0(1()1 ~0((~0115 ~)(~(~55~0 (15

~11 ~5
1--~ ~( + (1 = 0 (2-39)

~111110111(11 ~00011100 11 (( = 0) = 10, (100 ~~ ~(10 501~~ 111~ ~0((~01 (15

~5
11(() = - (+ 10 (2-40)
(11.~

111~ ~0000~1100 11(0~ 01 0100~ 1)1 15 10000 1(0(0 111~ ~00011100 11 (( (2) = 001
~(). (2-40) (100 15

(2 = -(11.~10 = (1(1 (2-41 )


~5
~00~ 2 15 ~(1110 10( 0 ~ ( ~ (2. ~1111~ ~00 0111115 (000~ (11 (
= (2, (111111~ ~0~(~)1
510(~0 10 111~ 1000~10( 1.~ 15 (~10(0~0 10 111~ 500(~~. 111~ ~(1(1005 ~(1~~10((05 10(
111~ ~0((~015 (100 ~011(1~~ (1(~ 5110~0 10 ~1~. 2-110 10( (1 = 10/6.

~~301))1~ 2-5

~0( 10~ ~11~(~~ (~~0,,,~(~ ~1(~1111 01 ~1~. 2-10~, 10~ 111~~11~112111~111011~1~11~~ 01 10~
1(~11810(111~( 181.,,,
= 250 /1-1-1,1-/1 = 10, ~110 1-/2 = 100. 10~ 1~~)(~~~ 111011~1~11~~8~110
(~8181~11~~8 0110~ 1(~11810(111~( ~(~ 11~~11~101~. 10~ 8011(~~ ,,,011~~~ 18 ~5 = 220 ~ ~110
10~(~ 18 110 111111~1~11((~111111 10~ ~1(~1111. 1110~ 8~11~0 18 ~108~0 10( ~ 11111~(1
= 50 /1-8
~110 18 10~11 0~~11~0~ (~) 0~1~(111111~ 10~ (~,,,~(8~ ,,,011~~~ 01 0100~ 1)1 (0) ~~1~111~1~ 10~
~
~~~)( ,,,~111~ 01 ~(1111~(~ ~11((~111~ (~) ~~1~111~1~ 10~ ~~~)( ,,,~111~ 018~~0110~(~ ~11((~111~ (0)
0~1~(111111~ 10~ ~011011~11011 11111~01 0100~ 1)1 ~ ~110 (~) 0~1~(111111~ 10~ ~11~(~~ 811~~11~0
0~ 10~ 8011(~~.

80101)00 10~ 1111118(~110 18 (1


= 1-/2/1-/1 = 100/10 = 10.
(~) ~(0111 ~(),. (2-35) 10~ (~,,,~(8~ ,,,011~~~ 0110~ 0100~,

1)0 = 220 )( (1 + 10) = 2420 ~


(0) ~(0111 ~(),. (2-38) 10~ ~~~)( ,,,~111~0110~ ~(1111~(~ ~11((~111,

)( 50
10 = 220 44 ~
250 =
(~) 10~ ~~~)( ,,,~111~ 0110~ 8~~0110~(~ ~11((~111, 16
= 1()/(1 = 44/10 = 4.4 ~.
(0) ~(0111 ~(),. (2-41) 10~ ~011011~11011 11111~0110~ 0100~,

10
(2 = 250 )( 44 )( = 500 /1-8
220
(~) 10~ ~11~(~~ 811~~11~00~ 10~ 8011(~~,

08111~ ~(),. (2-38) ~1~108

~ )( )( 10-6 )( 442
= 0.51.,,,15 = 0.5 250 = 0.2421

28

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..,.,,

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(~51511~~ 10(10 15 5110~0 10 ~1~. 2-12(1. 011(10~ 111~ ~05111~~ 11(111-~~~1~ 01111~ 10~111
~011(1~~, 0100~ 1)1 ~00011~15 (100 111~ 10~111 ~011(1~~ (1~~~(1(5 (1~(055 111~ 10(10. 011(10~
(1 6/0(/(111(5 (0110-1(1011
111~ 0~~(111~~ 11(111-~~~1~ 01111~ 10~111 ~011(1~~, 111~ 0100~ 15 10
(100 111~ 0111~111 ~011(1~~ 15 2~(0. 111~ ~(1~~10((05 10( 111~ 10~111 (100 0111~111 ~011(1~~5
(1(~ 5110~0 10 ~1~. 2-120.

~1111011~11 111~ 0111~111 ~011(1~~ (15 5110~0 10 ~1~. 2-120 15 0~, 11 15 015~0060110115 (100
~001(1105 11(1((0001~5. 111~(~ (1(~ 0111~(~01 1~~~5 01 (~~611~( ~1(~11115 (100 111~ ~~(-
10((0(10~~5 01 (1 (~~1111~( (1(~ 00((0(111~ ~~(1111(11~010 1~((05 01111~ 10110~10~ ~(1((1(0~1~(5~

111~ (11)€,(1(5€ ~(1111~ 01111~ 0111~111 (10(10) ~011(1~~, 1100


111~ (1~~((1~~ ~(1111~ 01111~ 0111~111 (10(10) ~11((~01, 100
111~ 0111~111 0-( /10~€,,

~ 00 = 110-100
(2-42)

111~ ,1115 ~(1111~ 01111~ 0111~111 ~011(1~~, 11~,,..5


111~ ,1115 ~(1111~ 01111~ 0111~111 ~11((~01, 1~,,..5

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111~ €111(1€11()1 (0( 7€((111((1(1011 7(1(10) 01 (1 (~~1111~(, ~111~1115 (1 11~1.1(~ 01 01~(11
(100 ~~(01115 1.15 10 ~001~(1(~ 111~ ~11~~11.,,~0~88, 18 0~110~0 (18

~00
11 =- (2-44)
~30

111~ 01.11~1.11 .,,011(1~~ ~(10 0~ ~00810~(~0 (18 0~10~ ~001~08~0 011~0 ~001~00~018~
(1) 111~ 0~ .,,(111.1~, (100 (2) 111~ (1~ ~001~00~01 0( (1~~1~.
111~ €11€((1))€ ((015) .,,(111.1~01111~ (1~ ~001~00~01 01 01.11~1.11 .,,011(1~~ 18

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111~ 7//1/1/€ 1(1((07, ~111~1118 (1 01~(181.1(~ 01111~ (1~~1~ ~001~01, 18 0~110~0 (18

1130
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1100
51.1081111.1110~ 8().. (2-45) 10 8().. (2-47), 111~ (1~~1~ 1(1~10( ~(10 0~ ~)(~(~88~0 (15

~~ = ) (~=.), - 1= ,,~ - 1 (2-48)

111~ (7(1115107111€7 1-/(1111.(1(10111(1((07 18 0~110~0 (18

~00
10~ = (2-49)
11/5

~11~(~ 115 (100 /5 (1(~ 111~ (018 .,,011(1~~ (100 (018 ~1.1((~01 01111~ 1((10810(01~( 8~~000(1(~,
(~5~~~11.,,~1~ .
11 ~ 15 111~ (10~1~ 0~1~~~0 111~ 11.100(101~01(11 ~001~00~015 01111~ 10~1.11 ~1.1((~01
(100 .,,011(1~~, ~
15 ~(111~0 111~ 0-15/1/(1(€111€11((111/5/€. 111~ 0-15/1/(1(€111€11(1(1((07 15 0~110~0
(15

0 ~ = ~05 ~ (2-50)
111~ /1(17111011/( 1(1((07 01111~ 10~1.11 ~1.1((~01 15 0~110~0 (15

2 _ /21
1/2
/
2 1/2

1-1~ = ( /5
/1 ) = ( ()
.2.
/1
- 1) (2-51)

~11~(~ /1 15 111~ 11.100(101~01(11 (015 ~001~00~01 01111~ 10~1.11 ~1.1((~01. 111~ 10~1.11/10~€7
1(1((07 15 0~110~0 (15

(2-52)

30

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,..,01~. 1110~ 111~01 (0((~11115 ~0(~1~ 51110501031, 11 = 1, 3110 10~ ~0~~( 13(10(,
~~, ~().0315 10~ 015~13(~(/1~111 13(10(, 0~. ~11 10~31 (~(1111~( 500010 03~~~ 11 =
100%, ~30 = 0, ~~ = 0, ~~ = 0, 10~ = 1, 1-1~ = 0, 3110~~ = 1.
~)(301()1~ 2-6

111~ (~~1111~( 111 ~1~. 2-123 1135 3 ~11(~1~ (~51511,,,~ 103~ 011(. 0~1~.01111~ 111~ (3) ~16-
~1~11~~~ (1-1) 10.111 13~10.~ (~) .1~~1~ 13~10.~ (~) 1.311510.111~. 111111231101113~10.~ 311~ (~)
~~3/( 111,,,~.5~ ,,,0113~~ (~1~) 01 ~10~~ ()1.

801111100 111~ 3,,,~(3~~ 0111~111 ,,,01138~ ~~0 15 ~~1111~~ 35

(2-53)

~~ ~31111011~~ 1(0111 ~1~. 2-121-1 111(11)~(() = 010( 7/2 ~ ( ~ 7. 1-1~11~~ ~~ 113,,,~

),),/2 ~,,, 5111 (1)( (/( - ~,,, (1)27


~~0 = = (~05 - 1)
~

~,,,
~~0 = ,. = 0.318~,,,
(2-54)

(2-55)

~0. 3 511111501~31 ,,,0113~~ 011) /.(() = ~,,, 5111 (1)( 10. 0 ~ ( ~ 7/2, 111~ .1115 ,,,3111~ 01111~
0111~111 ,,,0113~~ 15

(= (~,,, 5111(1)1)2(/(
~
~~,,
~,,,,, =
( ~)0 ) = = 0.5~,,,
(2-56)
_ ~,0,, _ 0.5~,,,
/,,,,, - -
~ ~

~.0111 ~().. (2-42), ~~0 = (0.318~,,,)2/~, 311~ 1.0111 ~().. (2-43), ~00 = (0.5~,,,)2/~.
(3) ~.0111 ~().. (2-44), 111~~111~1~11~~,11 = (0.318~,,,)2/(0.5~,,,)2 = 40.5%.
(1-1)~.0111 ~().. (2-46), 111~10.11113~10., ~~ = 0.5~,,,/0.318~,,, = 1.570.157%.
(~) ~.0111 ~().. (2-48), 111~.1~~1~ 13~10., 1(~ = --/1.572 - 1 = 1.210.121%.
(~) 111~ .1115 ,,,0113~~ 01111~ 1.311510.111~. 5~~011~3.~ 15

(2-57)

0.5~,,,
/=-
5
~

58~. 2-7 31

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)(
111~ 1)0/(-(1111~~,~(3611~ (~~) 011(311510(111~(, ~ ~ = ~5/5 = 0.707~~, 0.5~~/~.
~(0111 ~().. (2-49) 10~ = 0.3182/(0.707 )( 0.5) = 0.286.
(~) 111~ ~~3~ (~..,~(5~ (0( 111..,~(5~)010~~111~..,0113~~, 101~ = ~,,,.

~0(~. 1/10~ = 1/0.286 = 3.496 51~11111~5 1113110~ 1(3115~0(111~( 11111510~ 3.496


11111~513(~~( 10311 1031 ~0~111115 0~111~ 115~0 10 0~11..,~( ~0~~( ~(0111 3 ~11(~ 3~ ..,0113~~.
1015 (~~11~1~( 035 301~0 (1~~1~ ~3~10(, 121 %~ 310~ ~~~1~1~11~~, 40.5%~ 3110 3 ~00(
10~, 0.286. 111300111011, 10~ 1(3115~0(111~( 035 10 ~3((~ 3 0~ ~11((~111, 3110 1015 (~511115
1113 0~ 53111(311011 ~(001~111 0~ 10~ 1(3115~0(111~( ~0(~.

~~1115 ~011510~( 10~ ~1(~11110~ ~1~. 2-123 ~110 311 8.1. 1030 35 500~11 111~1~. 2-
133. 011~ 10 111011~11..,~1030, 10~ ~011011~11011 ~~(100 0~ 10~ 0100~ 1)1 ~111 ~~1~110
0~~0110 1800 111111110~ ~11((~111 0~~0111~5 2~(0. 10~ ~3..,~~0(1115 ~0( 10~ ~11((~111 3110

32

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(2-58)
17/11
(1 - ~05(10 + 8))
210
~/1~(~ 8 = 130-1 ((1)0~) 300 (1)
= 210/. 1/1~ 3..,~(3~~ 1030 ~1.1((~0115 /00 = 1700/~.
11 ~30 0~ 001~0 1(001 ~~. (2-58) 1/131 1/1~ 3..,~(3~~ ..,0113~~ (300 ~1.1((~01) ~30
0~ 10~(~35~0 0)1 013/(10~ 8 = 0, ~/11~/115 11055101~0)1 30010~ 3 1(~~~/1~~110~ 0100~
(),,, 35 500~010 ~1~. 2-133 ~110 0350~0110~5. 10~ ~11~~1011015 0100~ 15 1011(~..,~01
3 0~~311..,~ ..,0113~~ 31111~3(10~ 3~(055 10~ 1030~ 300 35 3 (~51.111, 1/1~ 013~0~11~ 510(~0
~0~(~)115 10~(~35~0. ~1 ( = (1 = 10/(1),1/1~ ~1.1((~011(001 ()1 15 1(3051~((~0 10 (),,,
300 1015 11(0~~55 15 ~311~0 ~0,11111/1((1(/01101 0100~5 300 10~ ~3..,~10(015 3(~ 500~0 10
~1~. 2-13~. 0~11~0010~ 00 1/1~ 1030 1101~ ~0051301, 10~ 1030 ~1.1((~01 013)1 0~ 015-
~001101.101.15.

~ 11.111-~3..,~ (~~1111~( ~1(~1.111~11/1 3 ~~01~(-131111~0 1(30510(01~( 15 5/10~0 10 ~1~.


2-143. ~3~/1 /1311 0110~ 1(30510(01~( ~11/1115 3550~131~0 0100~ 3~15 35 3 /1311-~3..,~
(~~1111~( 300 1/1~ 01.11111.11
01311.111-~3..,~ (~~1111~( 15 5/10~010 ~1~. 2-140. 510~~ 10~(~
15 00 0~ ~1.1((~01110~10~ 1/1(01.1~010~ 1(30510(01~(, 1/1~(~ 15 00 0~ 5311.1(31100 11(001~01
011(30510(01~( ~0(~. 1/1~ 3..,~(3~~ 01.11111.11
..,0113~~ 15

2 (//2 217/11
1700 = 7)0 17/11510
(1)( 0(
= = 0.636617/11 (2-59)
10

1051~30 011.1510~ 3 ~~01~(-131111~0 1(30510(01~(, ~~ ~01.110 1.15~ 101.1( 0100~5, 35


500~0 10 ~1~. 2-153. 01.1(10~
10~ 1105111..,~ /1311-~)1~1~ 011/1~ /0111.11 ..,0113~~, 1/1~ ~1.1((~01
110~5 10 10~ 1030 1/1(01.1~/1 0100~5 ()1 300 ()2. 01.1(10~ 1/1~ 0~~311..,~ ~)1~1~, 0100~5
()3 300 ()4 ~0001.1~1. 10~ ~3..,~10(0110( 10~ 01.11111.11..,0113~~ 15 500~0 10 ~1~. 2-150
300 15 5101113( 10 1031 01 ~1~. 2-140. 10~ 11~3/(-10..,~(5~ ..,0113~~ 01 3 0100~ 15 001)1
17/11. 1015 ~1(~1.11115 /(00~0 35 3 6,/08€ ,€~(///€,.

~)(301~1~ 2-7

1110~ (~(1111~( 111~1~. 2-143035 3 ~1.1(~1~ (~51511..,~ 1030 01 ~, 0~1~(111111~ 10~ (3) ~111(1~11(~ ~
(0) 10(111 13(10(~ (() (1~~1~ 13(10(~ (0) 1(311510(111~( 1.11111~31101113(10(~ 3110 (~) ~~3/(
111..,~(5~ ..,0113~~ (~1~) 01 0100~ /)1.

80/01100 ~(0111 8().. (2-59), 10~ 3..,~(3~~ 01.11~1.11..,0113~~ 15

217,,,
17
~ ~0 = - ,,. = 0.636617,,,

17~0 0.636617,,,
/ ~0 = = (2-60)
8. 8.

58~. 2-8 33

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(2-61)

~10111 6().. (2-42), ,,00 = (0.6366~,,,)2/~ 31101101116().. (2-43), ,,0_ = (0.707~,,,)2/~.


~ = (0.6366~,,,)2/(0.707~,,,)2
(3) ~10111 6().. (2-44), 10.~ ~111~1~11~)1, = 81 %.
(0) ~10111 6().. (2-46), 10.~ 10111113~101, ~~ = 0.707~,,,/0.6366~,,, = 1.11.
(~) ~10111 6().. (2-48), 10.~ 11~~1~ 13~101, 1(~ = ~1.112 - 1 = 0.4820148.2%.
(0) 10.~ 11115~0113~~ 0110.~ 113115101111~1 5~~0110(1)1, ~, = ~,,,/0 = 0.707~,,,.
10.~ 11115~3111~ 01113115101111~15~~0110(1)1 ~1111~111,/, = 0.5~,,/~. 10.~ ~011-3111~~1~
)( 0.707~,,, )( 0.5~,,/~.
131111~(~~) 0110.~ 113115101111~1,~ ~ = 2~,/, = 2 ~10111 6()..
(2-49) ,

0.63662
10~ = 0.5732 = 57.32%
2 )(
0.707 )(
0.5 =
(~) 10.~ ~~3/( 1~~~15~ 010~/(111~ ~0113~~, ~1~ = 2~,,,.

~0(€. 10~ ()~1101111311~~ 01 3 11111-~3~~ 1~~1111~115 51811111~(1111)11111()10~~0 ~0111-


()31~0 10 1031 01 3 0311-~3~~ 1~~1111~1,

~
+
0

34

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+
+
- +
01 03
-
~.
~---1
04 02
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~,.301()1~ 2-8

10.~ (~~611~( 111~1~. 2-1430.38311 8./..., 1030. (3) 08~ 10.~ 111~10.00 01 ~011(1~( 8~(1~8 10
0013111 ~)(~(~8810118 10( 0111~111 ~0113~~ 1)1.(1) 3110 1030 ~11((~111 /1.(/). (0) 11 ~,,, = 170
~, / = 60 1-1~, 3110 8. = 500 0, 0~1~(111111~ 10.~ ~3111~ 018~(1~8 111011~1311~~ /..., 10 1111111
(1~~1~ ~11((~11110 5% 01/00.

8011111011 (3) 10.~ (~~611~( 0111~111 ~0113~~ (113)10~ 0~8~(10~0 0)13 ~011(1~( 8~(1~8 (~0.1~0.
18 (~~1~~~0 111~~~~11(1)( ~) 38
~

1)1.(/) = ~00 + ~
11=1,2,...
(/7~ ~08 ,,(,)/ + 0~ 8111 ,,(,)/) (2-62)

1 (2.. 2 (.. 2~,,,


~00 = 1)1.(/) (/((,)/) = ~~, 8111 (,)/ (/((,)/) =
270)0 270)0 70

(2.. (..
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= ~ )0 ~,,, 8111(,)/ ~08 ,,(,)/ (/( (,)/)
70 )0 70

4~,,, 1
= ~ (,, - 1)(,, + 1)
70 ~~2.4

58~. 2-8 35

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(2-63)

(2-64)

/70)~
8 0
= 1(111-1- (2-65)
8.

(2-66)

(0) 8().11(111011 (2-66) ~1~~8 10.~ 11118~(1111~ 0110.~ 11~~1~ ~1111~111 (18
2 2

2
/30
_ (411,,,)2
() ~ +
(411,,,)2 ~
() +
- 2,,-2(8.2 + (20)~ )2) 3 2,,-2(8.2 + (40)~ )2) 15

~011810~1111~ 0111)110.~ 10~~81-010~1 = 2), ~~


0.(111110111~ (/7 0.(1~~

411,,, )(
0.34
/ 30 =
0,,-~8.2 + (20)~)2

/30 0.481
1(~ = = = 0.05
/~0 ~1 + (20)08.)2
~01 8. = 500 0 (1110/ = 60 1-12, 10.~ 111011~1(111~~~(1111~ 18 001(1111~0 (18 0.4812 = 0.052
(1 + (4 )( 60 )( ,,-0500)2) (111010.18~1~~8 ~ = 6.341-1.
1-/0(~. 111.~ 01111101 0~ (1 ~011-~(1,,,~ 1~~11~1~1 ~001(1108 001)1 ~,,,~0 11.(1101001~8 (100

111.~ 8~~000 11.(1101001~ 18 111.~ 01081 000110(101 00~ (100 118 ~1~()0~0~)118 2/ (= 1201(12).
111.~ 0011101 ,,,011(1~~ 10 8(). (2-63) ~(10 0~ 0~11,,,~0 0)1 811~~11001 0101111111~(11100 0~
8~11~11.10~ ~00~1100, (100 111.1818 ~)(111(110~0 10 ~1111~001)( ~.

~ ~ ~(10 0011~~ ~1001 8(). (2-66) 111.(11(10 1000~1(10~~ 10 111.~ 10(10 0~~~18 (1 11.1~11.

10111~0(10~~ ~01111.~ 11.(1101001~ ~011~018 (100 (1~1811~~ (11111~110 1~00~10~ 111.~11.(1101001~8.


1-10~~,,,~1, 111.181000~1(10~~ 1011000~~8 (1 1101~ 0~1(1)1 01111.~ 10(10 ~011~01 ~1111. 1~811~~1

10 111.~ 101101 ,,,011(1~~~ (100 10 111.~ ~(18~ 01111.~ 810~1~-1111.(18~ 11.(111-~3,,,~ 1~~1111~1, 3
11~~~11.~~110~ 0100~ 18 1~()011~0 10 1110,,,10~ 311(1111. 101111.18 1000~11,,,~ ~011~01.

~)(301()1~ 2.9

/1-..8111~1~-~0.38~ 0110~~ 1~~1111~1 10.31 811~~11~8 (1 0~ 1110101 18 80.0~11 111~1~. 2-16(1. 10.~
11111181(1110 0110.~ 11(1118101111~118 111111)1. 10.~ 10(1018 811~0. 10.(1110.~ 1110101 01(1~8 (111~~1~-

36

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0

+
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1(~~ 3(1113111(~ ~11((~11101 /~. 0~1~(111111~ 10.~ (3) 0.3(1110111~ 13~10( 01111()111 ~11((~111, (-1~~
3110 (0) 111()111()0~~( 13~10( 0110.~ (~~116~(, ~~.

80)01100 ~0(111311~, 3 0~ 111010( 15 0.1~0.1~ 111011~11~~ 3110 3~15 11/(~ 3 1111~( 111 (~011~111~
10.~ (1()()1~ ~11((~111 0110.~ 1030.
(3) 10.~ ~3~~10(1115 10( 10.~ 111()111~11((~111 3110 111()01 ~0113~~ 0110.~ (~~116~( 3(~
50.0~11111 ~1~. 2-160. 10.~ 111()111~11((~111 ~311 0~ ~)(()(~55~0 1113 ~011(1~( 5~(1~5 35

/1(1) = /~0 + ~
11=1
(00 ~05 /1(0)( + 00 5111 /1(0)1) (2-67)

12,-, 12,-,
1~0 = /1(() (/((0)() = /~ (/((0)() = 0
2~ 2~
(2,-, (,-,
30 =
~ /1
(() ~05 /1(0)( (/( (0)()
=
~ 1~ ~05 /1(0)( (/( (0)()
= 0
~)0 ~)0

(2-68)

2 2 2 2 1/2

15 =
4
~~
1~ 1
1 1 1 1
( + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9() () () ()
+...
)

58~.2-8 37

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~(0111 ~(). (2-51),
2
11/2 48.43%
11~ =
((0.~0) - = 0.4843 0(

(/)) 111~ 0151113~~111~111311~1~, ~ = 0 3110 0151113~~111~11113~10~, ))~ = ~05 ~ = 1.


~(0111 ~(). (2-52), 111~ 110~~( 13~10(, ~~ = 0.90 (13~~111~).

~~ 03~~ 8~~11111 ~~. (2-59) 103110~ 3~~(3~~ 01.11~1.11~0113~~ ~01~0 ~01.110 0~ 0013111~0
~(0111 8111~1~-~038~ ~1.111-~3~~ (~~1111~(8 18 0.6366~,,, 3110 10~8~ (~~11~1~(8 3(~ 1.18~0 111
3~~11~3110118 1.1~ 10 10~ 15-/(~ ~0~~( 1~~~1. ~0( 13(~~( ~0~~( 01.11~1.11, (/1,.~~-~/1(15~
3110 111/1/(/~/1(15~ (~~11~1~(8 3(~ 1.18~0. 10~ ~01.1(1~( 8~(1~8 0~ 10~ 01.11~1.11 ~0113~~ ~1~~11
0)1 ~~. (2-63) 11101~31~8 1031 10~ 01.11~1.11 ~011131118 03(1110111~8 3110 10~ ~(~~1.1~11~)1 0~
10~ 1/1110-(1111~11((1/ ~0111~011~11( 18 1~0 11111~8 10~ 801.1(~~ ~(~~1.1~11~)1 (21). 111 ~(3~11~~,
3 ~111~( 18 110(111311)11.18~0 10 (~01.1~~ 10~ 1~~~1 0~ 03(1110111~8 111 10~ 1030~ 3110 10~ 812~
0~ 10~ 1111~( 0~~(~38~8 ~110 10~ ~(~~1.1~11~)1 0~ 10~ 03(1110111~8. 111 300111011 10 10~
13(~~( ~0~~( 01.11~1.11 0~ 1111.1111~038~ (~~1111~(8, 10~ ~1.11103111~11131 ~(~~1.1~11~)1 0~ 10~
03(1110111~8 18 3180 111~(~38~0 3110 18 () 11111~8 10~ 801.1(~~ ~(~~1.1~11~)1 (()1).
10~ (~~1111~( ~1(~1.111 0~ ~1~. 2-14(3) ~311 0~ ~)(1~110~0 10 1111.1111~1~ ~038~8 0)1
03~111~ 1111.1111~038~ ~1110111~8 011 10~ 1(3118~0(111~( 8~~01103()1 38 800~11 111 ~1~. 2-173.
1018 ~1(~1.111 1113)1 0~ ~011810~(~0 38 () 8111~1~-~038~ 031~-~3~~ (~~1111~(8 3110 ~311 0~
~011810~(~0 38 3 031~-~3~~ 1)1~~. 10~ /(10 0100~ ~111 ~01101.1~1 01.1(111~ 10~ ~~(100
~0~11 10~ ~0113~~ 0~ /(10 ~038~ 18 01~0~( 10311 1031 0~ 010~( ~038~8. 10~ ~3~~~0(1118
~0( 10~ ~0113~~8 3110 ~1.1((~1118 3(~ 800~11 111 ~1~. 2-170. 10~ ~01101.1~11011 ~~(100 0~
~3~0 0100~ 18 270/().
11 ~311 0~ 11011~~0 ~(0111 ~1~. 2-170 1031 10~ ~1.1((~111 50~111~ 10(01.1~0 10~ 8~~-
01103()1 ~1110111~ 18 1.111101(~~11011313110 ~011131118 3 0~ ~0111~011~111. 0111)1011~ 8~~01103()1
~1110111~ ~3((1~8 ~1.1((~111 31 3 ~3(11~1.113( 11111~, 3110 38 3 (~81.111 10~ ~(11113()1 1111.1810~
~01111~~1~0 111 0~113 111 0(0~( 10 ~1111111131~ 10~ 0~ ~0111~011~111111 10~ 111~1.11810~ 0~ 10~
1(3118~0(111~( .
10~ 3~~(3~~ 01.11~1.11 ~0113~~ ~0( 3 ()-~038~ (~~11~1~( 18 ~1~~11 0)1

(2-69)

1/2
()
~,,,
( 270 (~ +
70 1.

2 ~ 8111
270

)) (2-70)

1~ 10~ 1030 18 ~1.1(~1)1 (~81811~~, 10~ ~~3/( ~1.1((~11110(01.1~0 3 0100~ 18 1,,, = ~ ,,,/~ 3110
~~ ~311 ~1110 10~ (1118 ~311.1~ 0~ 3 0100~ ~1.1((~111 (0( 1(3118~0(111~( 8~~01103()1 ~1.1((~111)

38

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+

/
~
*-

(2-71)
1/2
1
1,,,
( 210 (~ + 2
10 1.
510
~ ))
210

~~3(1))1~ 2-10

~ 10(~~-~035~ 513( (~~611~( 035 3 ~11(~1~ (~5156~~ 1030 ~110 ~ 00015. 0~1~(01111~ 10~
(3) ~111~1~11~~~ (0) 10(01 13~10(~ (~) (1~~1~ 13~10(~ (0) 1(311510(01~( 116112.31101113~10(~ (~)
~~3/( 111~~(5~ ~0113~~ (~1~) 01 ~3~0 0100~~ 3110 (1) ~~3/( ~11((~11110(011~0 3 0100~ 1110~
(~~611~( 0~11~~(5 /~0 = 30 ~ 31 3 0111~111 ~0113~~ 01 ~~0 = 140~.

58~. 2-9 39

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8010~)0() ~0( 3 111(~~-~1135~ (~~1111~( (). = 3 111~().5. (2-69), (2-70), 3110 (2-71).
(3) ~(0(11 ~().. (2-69), ~00 = 0.827~,,, 3110100 = 0.827~,,,/~. ~(0(11 ~().. (2-70),
~,,,,, = 0.84068~,,, 3110 1,,,,, = 0.84068~,,,/~. ~(0(11 ~().. (2-42), ~00 = (0.827~~,)2/~,
1(0(11 5().. (2-43), ~30 = (0.8406811,,,)2/~, 31101(0(11 5().. (2-44), 111~ ~111~1~11~)1,

(0.827~ ,,,)2
11 =
(0.84068~,,,)2 = 96.77%
(0) ~(0(115().. (2-46), 111~10((1113~10(,~~ = 0.84068/0.827 = 1.0165 0( 101.65%.
(~) ~(0(11 5().. (2-48), 111~ (1~~1~ 13~10(, ~~ = ~1.01652 - 1 = 0.1824 =
18.24%.
(0) ~(0(11 ~().. (2-57), 111~((115 ~0113/1,~ 01111~ 1(311510((11~( 5~~01103()1, ~, = 0. 707~,,,.
~(0(11 ~().. (2-71), 111~ ((115 ~11((~111 01111~ 1(311510((11~( 5~~01103()1,

)( )( 0.4854~,,,
~~ = 3~/5 = 3 0.707~,,,
~
~(0(11 5().. (2-49),
0.8272
0 664
0.4854 - . 3
10~ -- )( )(
3 0.707
(~) 111~ ~~3/( 111~~(5~ ~0113/1,~ 01 ~3~11 0100~ 15 ~().1131 10 111~ ~~3/( ~3111~ 01111~
5~~01103()1 1111~-10-1111~ ~0113/1,~. 111(~~-~1135~ ~1(~11115 3(~ (~~1~~~0
111 ~~~~11(1)( ~.
111~ 1111~-10-1111~~0113/1,~ 15 -0 11(11~5 111~ ~1135~ ~0113/1,~ 3110 111115.,1~ = -0~,,,.
(1) 111~ 3~~(3/1,~ ~11((~111111(011/1,11 ~3~11 0100~ 15

_ -./4 1 70
1,)= 2 1,,, ~05 (1)( (/((1)()
= 1,,, - 5111- (2-72)
27001 70 ().

~0( (). = 3, 1,) = 0.27571,,,. 111~ 3~~(3/1,~ ~11((~111111(011/1,11


~3~11 0100~ 15 1,) = 30/3 =
10 ~ 3110 11115/1,1~~5 111~ ~~3/( ~11((~111 35 1,,, = 10/0.2757 = 36.27 ~.

~)(301()1~ 2-11

(3) 5)(~(~55 111~ 0111~111 ~0113/1,~ 01 3 ().-~1135~ (~~1111~( 111 ~1/1,. 2-173 111~011(1~( 5~(1~5.
(0) 11 (). = 6, ~,,, = 170 ~ 3110 111~ 511~~1)11(~().11~11~)115 / = 60 1-12, 0~1~((11111~ 111~ ((115
~3111~ 01111~ 00(111113111113((110111~ 3110 115 1(~().11~11~)1.

8010~)0() (3) 111~ ~3~~10((115 10( ().-~1115~5 3(~ 5110~11 111~1/1,. 2-170 3110 111~ 1(~().11~11~)1
01111~ 0111~111 15 (). 11(11~5 111~ 1111103(11~11131~0(11~011~111 (()./). 10 1/110 111~ ~0115131115 01
111~ ~011(1~( 5~(1~5, ~~ 1111~/1,(31~ 1(0(11 -70/(). 10 70/(). 3110 111~ ~0115131115 3(~

0~ = 0
1 -./4
(1~ = - ~,,, ~05 (1)( ~05 (/(1)( (/( (1)()
70/ (). 1 --./.

().~~, ) 5111 (((/ - 1)70/().) 5111 (((/ + 1)70/().)1


= (/-1 + (/+1
70 1 5
().~,,, ((/ + 1) 5111(((/ - 1)70/().) + ((/
- 1) 5111 (((/ + 1)70/().)
= (/2 -
70 1

40

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~11~. 81111~)111((111011 (1110 111~11 118111~ 1.1~0110111~1.1( .~)(1110118111~8

8111(..4 + 8) = 8111..4(08 8 + (08..4 81118

2(/~,,,
00 =
70(112
_ 1) ( .
11 8111
1170
-
(/
(08
70
-(/ - (08
(/
. 70
-1170 8111 -
(/ ) (2-73)

~0. (1 .~(1111~. ~1111 (/ ~11)8~8 ~~. (~()~, 111~ 11(1.1110111(801111~ 0111~111 ,,,0)1(1~~ (1.~~ (/111,
2(/111,3(/111,4(/111 (1110 ~~. (2-73) 18 ,,,(1)10 10.11 = 0,1(/,2(/, 3(/. 111~ 1~.111 8111 (1170/(/)
811170 = 0 (1110~~. (2-73) 0~(0111~8

00 = 700~(/~ ((08 11(/708111


~) ~)

(2-74)

~111(,31118111~ 8(1111~(18 ~~. (2-69). 111~ ~011.1~. 8~.1~8 01111~ 0111~111 ,,,0)1(1~~ 18 ~)(~.~88~0
(18

1)1-(()
00
+
~
= 2 0~~~.
00 (08 11().)(

51108111111111~111~ ,,,(1)11~ 01 00, ~~ 001(1111

1)1-=~,,,18111~
70 (/ ( 1- ~
0~~.2~...
~
.11-1
2
(08
1170
-
(/
(08 11().)(
) (2-75)

. . .) (2-76)

111~ 81)(111 11(1.1110111( 18 111~ 00111111(1111 011~. 111~ .1118 ,,,(1)11~ 01 (1 8111118010(1) ,,,0)1(1~~ 18
1/~ 11111~8118 ~~(1)( 111(1~1111110~,(1110 111~ .1118 01111~ 81)(11111(1.1110111( 18 ~6 = ~~, )(
2
)( )(
0.9549/(35 ~) = 6.56 ~ (11101181.~~11~11(~18/6 = 6/ = 360 1-12.

10~ 10.~~-~0(18~ 0.10~~ .~(1111~. 18 ~~1)1 ~0111111011 111 01~0-~0~~1 (1~~)1~(1110118 (1110 18
800~11 111 ~1~. 2-18. 101818 (1 //4//-)1/(1~~ ,~~1///~,. 11 ~(111 0~~.(11~ ~110 01 ~1100111
(1 1.(1118101111~1 (1110 ~1~~8 81)(-~1118~ 11~~1~8 011 10~ 0111~111 ~011(1~~. 10~ 0100~8 (11~
11111110~1~0 111 0.0~1 01 ~011011~11011 8~()11~11~~8 (1110 ~(1~0 011~ ~011011~18 101 1200. 10~
~011011~11011
8~~11~11~~101 0100~8 18 12, 23, 34, 45, 56, (111061. 10~ ~(11101 0100~8
~01~0 (11~ ~01111~~1~0 0~1~~~11 10(11 ~(111 01 811~~1)11111~8 0(1~111~ 10~ 01~0~81 (1111011111
0111181(1111(111~0118 1111~-10-1111~ ~011(1~~ ~111 ~011011~1. 10~ 1111~-10-1111~ ~011(1~~ 18 0
58~. 2-10 41

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~01 1~
+
10
03 05

~1. 8

06 02
1~

~-~

1101~5 111~ ~1135~ ~01138~ 013 111(~~-~1135~ ~ -~01111~~1~0 5011(~~.


~011011~11011 1101~5 01 0100~5 3(~ 5110~11 111~18. 2-19.
111~ 3~~(38~ 0111~111 ~01138~ 15 1011110 1(001

2 (70/6
~00 = 2,,,/6)0 0 ~,,, ~05
())( (/( ())/)
(2-77)
30
= -~,,,
,,, = 1.6542~,,,

(2-78)

(2-79)

(2-78)

42

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0~0(195
/-56-~-61-~-12-~-23--~_34_~_45_~
0~
~~~ ~8~ ~3~ ~~ ~08 ~~8

- -.(3~,,.,

-.(3~,,.,

0 ,, 2,, ,, 4,, 5,,


3 3 3 3
~~~8
/
~-.(3~,,.,
~~8 /

0
~ ~
,, %
3 3 ~ 3
0
~
- - - ,..- - - -/-~ - - - -+- - - - --
~

~01 ~ ~
~ ~
~ ~
,
~

0 ,,
3

~)(301().~ 2-12

~ 111(~~-))113$~ 0(10~~ (~~1111~( 113$ 3 ))11(~1)1 (~$1$11~~ 1030 0( ~. ))~1~(01111~ 111~ (3)
~((1~1~11~)1~ (0) (0(01 (3~10(~ (~) (1))))1~ (3~10(~ (0) 1(311$(0(01~( 1111/12311011 (3~10(~ (~)
))~3/( 111~~($~ (0( (~~~($~) ~0113~~ (~1~) 0( ~3~11 0100~ ~ 3110 (() ))~3/( ~11((~111 111(011~11
3 0100~. 111~ (~~11(1~( 0~11~~($ /00 = 60 ~ 31 311 0111))111 ~0113~~ 0( 1/00 = 280.7 ~ 3110
111~ ((~()11~11~)1 0( 111~ $011(~~ 1$ 60 1-12.

80.01100 (3) ~(001 ~(). (2-77), 1/00 = 1.65421/~. 3110 /00 = 1.65421/,,/~. ~(001 ~().
(2-78),1/,,,-,, = 1.65541/,,, 3110/,,,-,, = 1.65541/,,,/~. ~(001~(). (2-42), ~00 = (1.65421/,,,)2/
~, ((001 ~(). (2-43), ~.0 = (1.65541/,,,)2/~, 3110 ((001 ~(). (2-44) 111~ ~((1~1~11~)1,

(1.65421/,,,)2
11 =
(1.65541/,,,)2 = 99.86%

(0) ~(001 ~(). (2-46), 111~(0(01 (3~10(, ~~


= 1.6554/1.6542 = 1.0007 = 100.07%.
(~) ~(001 ~(). (2-48), 111~ 0))))1~ (3~10(, ~~
= ~1.00072 - 1 = 0.0374 =
3.74%.
(0) ~(001 ~(). (2-57), 111~(01$ ~0113~~ 0(111~ 1(311$(0(01~( $~~01103()1, 1/,
= 0. 7071/,~.

58~. 2-10 43

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/5 = 0.7804/,,, = 0.7804
)(
~ ~
111~ ,,,011-3111~~1~ 131111~ 01111~ 113115110111~1,

)( 0.707~,,, )( 0.7804 )(
~~ = 3~/)5 = 3 ~ ~~

~10111 5().. (2-49),


1.65422
10~ = .95
3 )(
~ )(
0.707 )(
0.7804 = 0 45
(~) ~10111 5().. (2-77), 111~ ~~3)( 1111~-11~111131,,,0113~~ 15 ~... = 280.7/1.6542 =
169. 7 ~. 111~ ~~3)( 111,,,~15~ ,,,0113~~ 01 ~3~11 0100~ 15 ~().113110 111~ ~~3)( ,,,3111~ 01111~
)(
5~~011031~ 1111~-10-1111~
,,,0113~~, ~1~ = ~ ~,,, = ~ 169.7 = 293.9~.
(1) 111~ 3,,,~13~~ ~1111~1111111011~11 ~3~11 0100~ 15

4 (~/6 2 71
= /,,, ~05 ().)( ~(().)() = /,,, 0.3184/,,,
/~
271)0 ~ 5111
6=
111~ 3,,,~13~~ ~1111~1111111011~11 ~3~11 0100~ 15 /~ = 60/3 = 20 ~ 3110 111~ ~~3/( ~1111~11115
/,,, = 20/0.3184 = 62.81 ~.

1-/0(~. 11115 1~~1111~1 11115 1111~10,,,~() ~~1101111110~~5 ~0051()~11101)1 ~0111~111~() 10


51)( ~015~5.
11111101111~ 1110111~11115~ 1~~1111~1 10 ~1~. 2-17 ~1111

111~ ()~51~0 01111~~1111~110,,,01,,,~5 ()~1~11111010~ 111~ 111110~5 015~1111~00()0~101 ()10()~5.


111~ 111110~5 01 ()10()~5 111~ 00(1111111)1 5~~~111~() 10 1~11115 01111~ 11,,,~111~~ ~011~01, 11115
~011~01, ~~11/( ~011~01, 110() ~~11/( 10,,,~15~ ,,,01111~~. 111~1~ 111~ 00 51110()111() ~10~~()01~5
()10()~ ~011~015 110()
101111~ ()~51~0, 001/115 1~().011~() 10 ()~1~111110~ 111~ 51111~~5 01111~
,,,01111~~5.
~~ 1111,,,~ 0011~~() 10 ~().5. (2-63), (2-66), 110() (2-76) 111111 111~ 001~01 01111~
1~~1111~15 ~0011110 11111111001~5. 10 11()()11100, ~().. (2-66) 10()1~111~5 111111 111~ 11~~1~
~011~01 ~110 0~ 1~()0~~() 0)1 ~000~~110~ 110 10()0~101 10 5~11~5 ~1111111~ 1011(). ~111~15
()~ 001~01 ,,,01111~~ 01 111~ 1~~1111~1 110() 111~5~ 111~
~110 0~ 05~() 10 511100111 001 111~
/(00~0 115 0.~ ///(~,.5. 111~ ()~ 1111~15 111~ 0501111)1 01 1.., ~, 110() 1.. ~ 1)1~~, 115 5110~0 10
~1~. 2-20. 011~ 10 111~ 1~~1111~111100 11~1100, 111~ 10~01 ~011~01 01111~ 1~~1111~1 11150

+
~.
- 4

8.=~
).0 ~1~
8.=·
~1~
1~ 1~ 1~
~(8)
(~) (~)

~1~11..~2-20 1)( (11(~15.

44 01008 (1~~0115 8/10 88~111(8~5 ((,8~. 2

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~011131115 113(1110111~5 3110 311 (1~ /1/(€7 15 1.15~0 10 ~111~( 01.11 50111~ 01111~ 113(1110111~5 1(0111
111~ 51.111111~5~51~111. 111~ 3~ 1111~( 15 110(111311~ 011..~ 1~11~, 35 5110~11 111 ~1~. 2-21.
~0(111311~, 111~ 1111~( 0~51~11 (~()1.11(~5 0~1~(111111111~ 111~ 1113~11111.10~5 3110 ~(~()1.1~11~1~5
01111~ 113(1110111~5. 111~ 51~115111~01~~0111 0~51~11111~ (~~1111~(5 31101111~(5 3(~ ~)(1113111~0
0~ ~)(3111111~5.
~)(301())~ 2-13

~ 111(~~-~1135~ 0(10~~ (~~1111~( 511~~11~5 3 111~111~111011~11,,,~1030 511~1111131 111~ 3,,,~(3~~


1030 ~11((~11115 /00 = 60 ~ 3110 111~ (1~~1~ ~0111~11115 11~~11~101~. 0~1~(111111~ 111~ (31111~5
01111~ 0100~5 11111~ 1111~-10-11~111(31 ,,,0113~~ 01111~ 511~~1~ 15 120 ~ 31 60 (-(2.

80)01100 111~ ~11((~1115 111(011~11 111~ 0100~5 3(~ 5110~11 111 ~1~. 2-22. 111~ 3,,,~(3~~
~11((~111 01 3 0100~, /,) = 60/3
= 20~. 111~ (015 ~11((~11115
1/2
5-./6 /
/~ =
(2~ 1-./6 )
/~0 ()(())() = -0 = 46.19 ~
111~ ~~3)( 111,,,~(5~,,,0113~~, ()1~ = ~ 1/,,,= ~ )(
-0 )(
120 = 294 ~.
~0(€. 111~ 13~10( 01 ~ 15 1.15~0 10 ~011~~(1 (1115 10 11~3~ ~311.1~.

~8 ---

0 ,.,1
. 11

.
211 ~411
~02 3 511 211
3 3 3
~---~- ~
0 ,.,1
~
,03__
,. 1_
~
~
0
,04 ~ ~
__1-
~
~-----
~
0
~05
~8

0
106
~8

58~. 2-11 45

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~,.301~1~ 2-14
10~ ~11((~11110(011~0 3 0100~ 15 500~11 111~1~. 2-23. 1)~1~((11111~10~ (3) ((115 ~11((~111,
3110 (0) 3,,,~(3~~ 0100~ ~11((~11111(1 = 100 ~5, (2 = 350 ~5, (3 = 500 ~5, / = 25011~,
~ = 5 /(11~, 1,,, = 450 ~, 311010 = 150~.
801111100 (3) 10~ ((115 ,,,3111~ 15 0~1111~0 35
1/2
1 = 1~) (1,,, 5111(05()2 (/( + 1~3 1~ (/() (2-81 )
~~ ~
(2-82)
~0~(~ (05
= 270/5= 31,415.93 (30/5, (1 = 70/(05 = 100 ~5, 31101 = 1//.

(/()1/2
1~1 = 1~1 (1,,, 5111 (05()2 = 1,,, ~/~1 (2-83 )
~~

= 50.31 ~

(3 2

1~2 =
(7 1
1(2 10
(/(
) = 10 //((3 - (2) (2-84 )

= 29.05 ..4
51105111111111~ ~().5. (2-83) 3110 (2-84) 111 ~().. (2-82), 10~ ((115 ,,,3111~ 15

1/2
/~(1 _
1 = + /~/((3 (2))
~ (2-85)
= (50.312 + 29.052)1/2 = 58.09 ~
(0) 10~ 3,,,~(3~~ ~11((~11115 1011110 1(0(11

(1 13
1 1 (/(
/~0 = - (/,,, 5111(05() (/( + - /0 (2-86)
~1 10 1 1,(2 )
(2-87)

(2-88)

(2-89)

46

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12.79 ~

~,.801()1~ 2-15

~ 1-~ ~111~~ 88 8110~11 111~1~. 2-20~ 18 118~0 10 ~~011~~ 111~ ~1~~1~ ~0111~111 0~ 111~ 0111~111
~0118~~ ~0~ 8 8111~1~-~1188~ ~1111-~8~~ ~~~611~~. 111~ 1080 ~~8181811~~, 8.
= 40 0, 1080
111011~1811~~, 1- = 10 11111, 8110 8011~~~ ~~~()11~11~~ 18 60 112 (0~ 377 ~80/8). 0~1~~111111~
111~ ~8111~8 0~ 1-_ 8110 ~_ 80 11181111~ ~1~~1~ ~8~10~ 0~ 111~ 0111~111 ~0118~~ 18 10%.

801111100 111~ ~()111~81~111 ~1~~1111~0~ 111~ 118~1110111~818 8110~11 111~1~. 2-24. 10 1118/(~
11 ~881~~ ~0~ 111~ 11111118~1110111~~1~~1~ ~11~~~11110 ~888 111~011~11111~ ~111~~ ~8~8~110~, 111~
1080 1111~~0811~~ 11111810~ ~~~81~~ 11181111181 0~ 111~ ~8~8~110~~

(2-90)

8110 11110~~ 11118~011016011, 111~ ~~~~~1 0~ 111~ 1080 ~111 0~ 11~~11~101~. 111~ ~1118~8111~ 0~
111~ 11111118~1110111~~0111~011~111 8~~~8~111~ 011 111~ 0111~111 ~811 0~ ~011110 0~ 118111~ 111~
~0118~~-01~10~~ ~111~ 8110 18 ~)(~~~88~0 88

(2-91 )

(2-92)

~0~ 8 8~~~1~1~0 ~8111~ 0~ ~30 8110 ~1111111~ ~8111~ 0~ ~_ ~~0111 ~(). (2-90), 111~ ~8111~ 0~ 1-_
~811 0~ ~0111~111~0. ~~ ~811 81111~11~~111~ ~0111~11186011 0~ ~011810~~111~ 0111~ 111~ 001111118111
118~1110111~. ~~0111 ~(). (2-63) ~~ ~1110 11181 111~ 8~~0110 118~1110111~18 111~ 001111118111011~
8110118 ~1118~8111~ 18 ~2 = 4~,,,/(3 070) 8110 111~0~ ~8111~, ~00 = 2~,~/70.
~0~ 11 = 2 ~()8. (2-91) 8110 (2-92) ~1~~

..)~0..~ 2-24 ~()01~31~(11 (1~(011 (0~ 113~-


~0(11(5.

88~. 2-11 47

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10
~. = 470)-/~2 + (470/~)2 = 326 ~~

~~0111 ~().. (2-47) 10~ ~111111~ ~3~10~ 18 0~~111~0 38

~.0 ~02 ~2 1 0 1
= 0 .1
~~ = = = = 3 ((470/)2~.~. - 1)
~00 ~00 ~00 (470/)2~.~. - 1

0~ (470/)2~.~. - 1 = 4.714 3110~. = 30.831111-1.


~,.3111()1~ 2-16

~11 ~~ 11111111~111~~ 38 800~11 111 ~18. 2-2118 118~0 10 ~~011~~ 10~ 11111111~11~~~111 03~1110111~8
111 3 811181~-11038~ ~1111-~3~~ ~~~1111~~ 0~ ~18. 2-163. 10~ 1030 ~11~~~111 18 ~1111~ ~~~~ 3110
118 3~~~38~ ~3111~ 18 /.. 1~ 10~ 81111111~ ~~~().11~11~~ 18/ = 60 1-12 (0~ 377 ~30/8), 0~1~~111111~
10~ ~~80113111 ~~~().11~11~~ 0~ 10~ ~111~~ 80 103110~ 1013111111111 03~1110111~ ~11~~~11118 ~~011~~0
10 1 % 0~ 10~ ~111103111~11131 ~011111011~111.

801111100 10~ ~().111~31~111 ~1~~1111 ~0~ 10~ /110 03~1110111~ ~011111011~111 18 800~11 111 ~18.
2-25. 10~ ~1118 ~3111~ 0~ 10~ /110 03~1110111~ ~11~~~111 31111~3~1118111 10~ 81111111~ 18 0013111~0

0~ 1181118 10~ ~11~~~111-01~10~~ ~111~,

(2-93 )

~0~~~ /~ 18 10~ ~1118~3111~ 0~ 10~ /110 030110111~ ~11~~~111. 10~ 10131 31110111110~ 03~1110111~
~11~~~111 18

~
1/2

/~ =
(~~~.
/~~
) (2-94)

(2-95)

~~0111 ~().. (2-68), /1 = 4/)0 70 3110 /~ = 4/)(0 /170) ~0~ /1 3,5,7, ~~0111
~().8. (2-93) 3110 (2-95) ~~ 8~1

,2
=
~~3~7.
(~~)2 =
~~3~7. /12((/1()))2~/(/
_ 1)2

..1~11..~ 2-25 ~~1.11.,,31~(1( ~1(~1.11( 10( 03(-


((10(11~ ~1.1((~(1(.

48

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11115~3110~ 501~~0 ~0~ 111~~3111~0~ ~/~/. 10 51111~11~,,
111~~31~1113110115,
1~~~ ~011510~~
3((3 )( 2 )( 10 )( 60)2~/~, - 1)
0111,,111~1111~0113~1110111~,
= 1/0.01= 100 0~ ~/~/ =
26.84 )( 10~6 3110 111~~111~~~~~().11~11~,,
15 1/~ = 193.02 ~30/5.

1-/0(~. 10~ 3~ 1111~~ 15 ~~11~~311~ 11111~0 10 10~ 03~1110111~1~~((11~11~~ 111~01~~0,


011111 ~~((111(~5 3 ~3(~1111 0~51~11 10 3~010 10~ 11055101111~01 (~5011311~~ ~110 10~ 110~~(
5~51~111. 10~ (~501131111(~((11~11~~ 0110~ 10/(0 03(1110111~ ~11((~11115 377 )( 3 = 1131
(30/5.

111 10~ 0~(1~3110115 0110~ 011111111 ~0113~~5 3110 10~ 11~(10(111311~~ ~(11~(13 01 (~~1111~(5,
11 ~35 35511111~0 103110~ 5011(~~ 035110111011~1311~~5 3110 (~5151311~~5. 8111111 311(3~11~31
1(311510(111~( 3110 51111111~, 10~5~ 3(~ 31~3~5 11(~5~111 3110 10~ 11~(10(111311~~5 01 (~~1111~(5
3~~ 511~011~ ~0311~~0. 10~ ~11~~1 0110~ 5011(~~ 111011~1311~~, ~01~015 1110(~ 51~11111~3111
10311 1031 01 (~5151311~~, ~311 0~ ~)(1113111~0 ~110 (~1~(~11~~ 10 ~1~. 2-263.
10~ 0100~ ~110 10~ 111051 1105111~~ ~0113~~ ~111 ~011011~1. 1.,~1 115 ~011510~( 10~
())(
1101111 = 10 ~0~(~ ~0113~~5 1)(1~ 3110 1)0~ 3(~ ~((1131 35 500~11 111 ~1~. 2-260. 10~
~11((~111 100 15 51111 60~111~ 10(011~0 10~ 0100~ /)1. 011~ 10 10~ 111011~1311~~ ~1, 10~
~11((~01 ~3111101 1311 10 2~(0 1111111~0131~1~ 300 10~ 1(3051~( 01 ~11((~111 ~311001 0~ 00
30 11151311130~0115 03515. 10~ ~11((~1111(/1 0~~(~35~5, (~5111110~ 111 30 111011~~0 ~0113~~
3~(055 ~1 01 + 1) 1..1 3110 10~ 011111111 ~0113~~ 0~~0111~5 1)1.. 1)
(1~ +
1)
1..1. ~1 10~ 53111~ =
11111~ 10~ ~11((~01 10(011~0 /)3, 1(/3 111~(~35~5 1(0111 2~(0, 111011~111~ 30 ~((1131 ~0113~~
3~(055 ~2 01 -1)1..2 3110 10~ 011111111 ~0113~~ 0~~0111~5 1)1.. = 1)0~ -1)1..2. 10~ (~5111115
1031 10~ 31100~ ~0113~~5 01 0100~5 /)1 3110 /)3 3(~ ~((1131~ 300 0010 0100~5 ~00011~1
10( 3 ~~(131011~(100 ~01~015 ~311~0 ~0111111/).((1(1011
(0, 01)~,/(1/1) (1118/~, (1. 10151(31151~(
01 ~11((~011(0111 00~ 0100~ 10 30010~( 15 ~311~0 ~0111111/).((1(1011. 10~ (~3~130~~ ~0(-
(~51100010~ 10 10~ 111011~1311~~15 /(110~11 35 ~0111111/).((1(1118
,~(1~((111~~.
10~ ~11~~1 011015 0~~(131115 10 (~011~~ 10~ 3~~(3~~ 011111111~0113~~ 01 ~011~~(1~(5.
10~ ~0113~~ 3~(055 ~2 15

(2-96)

~5511111111~ 3 110~3( (15~ 0110~ ~11((~1111(0111 0 10 100 (0( 3 ~00513111 ()1/()(), ~~ ~30
~(11~ 8((. (2-96) 35
1)
1..2 6.( = ~2 6.1 (2-97)
31101015 15 (~11~31~0 51)( 11111~510( 3 10(~~-11035~ 0(10~~ (~~1111~(. 0510~ 8((. (2-97),
10~ 3~~(3~~ ~0113~~ (~011~1100 011~ 10 10~ ~011111111131111~ 10011~1311~~5 15

1
~.. = 72(1)1..1 + 1)1..2 + 1)/..3) 6.( = 2/(~1 + ~2 + ~3) 6.1
(2-98)
= 2/(~1 + ~2 + ~3)100
11 31110~ 111011~1311~~5 3(~ ~((1131 3110 ~~ = ~1 = ~2 ~3, 8((. (2-98) 0~~0111~5

~.. = 6/~~100 (2-99)

$8~. 2-12 49

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~3
~-..,~3+ ~01
03 05

~1
~03 ~05
8 -..,~1+
06 02
~2
~-..,~+
(8) ~1~~(,)~(
0~89~8~

.., ..,~

~,.301()1~ 2-17

~ (0.~~~-~0.~5~ 0~10~~ ~~~1111~~ 15 511~~11~0 1~0111 ~ ~-~01111~~(~0 208-~ 60-1.1.~ 511~~1~.


10.~ ~.,,~~~~~ 0111~11( .,,011~~~ 15 170~. 10.~ 10~0 ~11~~~11( 15 60 ~ ~110 0.~5 11~~11~101~
~1~~1~. ~~1~111~(~ 10.~ ~~~~~111~~~ ~~011~11011 01 011(~11( .,,011~~~ 011~ 10 ~011111111(~1101111
(0.~ 1111~111011~(~11~~ ~~~ ~0.~5~ 15 0.5 11111.

8010(100 1-0 = 0.5 11111,1/, = 208/0 = 120 ~, / = 60 112, 100 = 60 ~, ~1101/,,, =


-0)( 120 = 169.7~. ~~0111~~.(2-77), 1/00= 1.6542)( 169.7 = 280.7~. ~~11~11011
(2-99) ~1.,,~5 (0.~ 011(~11( .,,01(~~~ ~~011~11011,

)( )( )( 10-3 )( _ 100
1/~ = 6 60 0.5 = 10.8 ~ 0~ 10.8
28 0.7 = 3.85%

111 (1115 ~113()1~( ~~ 113.,,~ 5~~11 111~ 3()()11~3110115 01 ()0~~( 5~1111~011011~10( 0100~5 111
1(~~~11~~1111~ 3~11011, (~~0.,,~(111~ ~11~(~)11(0111 111011~11.,,~ 10305 3110 111 ~011.,,~(51011 01
51~1131 1(0111 3~ 10 0~. 111~(~ 3(~ 0111~(~111 1)1()~5 01 (~~1111~(5 0~()~110111~ 011 111~

50

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(01111~(60115 01 0100~5 (1110 111~01 1((111510(111~(. 111~ ~~(10(111(111(~ ~(1((1111~1~(5 01
(~(611~(5 (1(~ 0~1111~0 (1110 1111(15 0~~11 5110~11 111(11111~ ~~(10(111(111(~5 01 (~(611~(5 .,,(1(~
~1111 111~1( 1~~~5. 111~ (~(611~(5 ~~11~((11~ 11(1(1110111(5 11110 111~ 10(10 (1110 111~ 50~~1~
1111~~ (1110 111~5~ 11(1(1110111(5 ((111 0~ (~00(~0 0~ 1111~(5. 111~ ~~(10(111(111(~5 01 111~
(~(611~(5 (1(~ (1150 111110~11(~0 0~ 111~ 500((~ (1110 10(10 11100(1(111(~5.

1. 1. 5(03~1~., ~~~(/1/~,. 0,.~/1/(.~-1/1~0,.)/ (1/10. 1)~5/15/1, ~~~ ~0.)(~ 10011 ~11~~ 8.. 5011$, 111(.,
1975.
2. ~.~. 1,~~, ~0~~,. ~0/1,,,~,.(~,.1/(1/10.000/(-1/1~0,.)/ 1)~5/15/1 (1/10./11111//~(1(/0/1, ~~1~.00.011~0,
0111. ~ ~311301311 0~11~.31 81~(1.1(, 1979.

2-1. ~031 15 10~ 11111~(011513111 01 311 ~~ (1.(11117


2-2. ~031 15 10~ 11111~(011513111 01 311 ~~ (1.(11117
2-3. ~031 15 10~ .~$0113111 1.~()11~11(~ 01 311 ~~ (1.(11117
2-4. ~031 15 10~ 03111()111~ 13(10. 01 311 ~~~ (1.(11117
2-5. ~031 15 10~ 0111~.~11(~ 0~1~~~11 10~ .~50113111 1.~()11~11(~ 3110 10~ .111~111~ 1.~()11~11(~ 01
311 ~~~ (1.(11117
2-6. ~03115 3 1.~~~0~~1111~ 0100~, 3110 ~03115 115 ()11.()05~7
2-7. ~031 15 10~ 1.3()()~0 ~11~.~~ 01 311 111011(10.7
2-8. 110~ 15 10~ 1.3()()~0 ~11~.~~ .~(0,,,~.~0 0~ 3 0100~7
2-9. ~031 15 10~ 111.115 .3110 01 3 1.311510.111~.7
2-10. ~031 15 3 .~(1111~.7 ~031 15 10~ 0111~.~11(~ 0~1~~~11 3 .~(1111~. 3110 3 (011,,,~.1~.7
2-11. ~03115 10~ 010()(111~ (0110111011 01 3 0100~7
2-12. ~031 3.~ 10~ ()~.10.111311(~ ()3.3111~1~.5 01 3 .~(1111~.7
2-13. ~031 15 10~ 51~11111(311(~ 0110~ 10.111 13(10. 01 3 .~(1111~.7
2-14. ~031 15 10~ 51~11111(311(~ 0110~ .1()()1~ 13(10. 01 3 .~(1111~.7
2-15. ~031 15 10~ ~111(1~11(~ 01.~(1111(3110117
2-16. ~031 15 10~ 51~11111(311(~ 0110~ 1.311510.111~. 111111231101113(10.7
2-17. ~031 15 10~ 015()13(~111~111 13(10.7
2-18. ~031 15 10~ 111()111()0~~. 13(10.7
2-19. ~031 15 10~ 03.1110111( 13(10.7
2-20. ~031 1$ 10~ 0111~.~11(~ 0~1~~~11 3 0311-~3,,,~ 3110 3 11111-~3,,,~ .~(1111~.7
2-21. ~031 1$ 10~ 0( 0111()111 ,,,0113~~ 01 3 5111~1~-()035~ 0311-~3,,,~ .~(1111~.-)

2-22. ~031 15 10~ 0( 0111()111,,,0113~~ 01 3 5111~1~-()035~ 11111-~3,,,~ .~(1111~.7


2-23. ~031 15 10~ 1111103111~111311.~()11~11(~ 0110~ 0111()111 ,,,0113~~ 01 3 5111~1~-()03$~ 1.1111-~3,,,~
.~(1111~.7

51

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(1 ~11(~~-~11(15~ (~~1111~( 0~~( (1 5111~1~-~11(15~ (~~~111~(7
2-24. ~11(1~ (1(~ ~11~ (10~(111~(1~~5 01

2-25. ~11(1~ (1(~ ~11~ 015(10~(111~(1~~5 01 (1 (1111111~11(15~ 11(111-~(1~~ (~~1111~(7

2-26. ~11(1~ (1(~ ~11~ (10~(111~(1~~5 01 (1 ~11(~~-~11(15~ 0(10~~ (~~~111~( 0~~( (1 51)(-~11(15~ 5~(1( (~~~111~(7

2-27. ~11(1~ (1(~ ~11~ ~11(~05~5 01111~~(5 111 (~~~111~( ~1(~111~57

2-28. ~11(1~ (1(~ ~11~ 0111~(~11~~5 0~~~~~11 (1~ (1110 0~ 111~~(57


(1 (~~1111~(7
2-29. ~11(1~ (1(~ ~11~ ~11~~~5 01 5011(~~ 111011~~(111~~5 011 ~11~ 011~~11~ ~01~(1~~ 01

2-30. ~11(1~ (1(~ ~11~ ~11~~~5 0110(10 111011~~(111~~5 011 ~11~ (~~~111~( 011~~11~7

2-31. ~11(1~ 15 (1 ~0(11(1111~(1110117

2-32. ~11(1~ 15 ~11~ ~0(11(1111~(111011 (111~1~ 01 (1 (~~~111~(7

(1~(1~(1~1~0( (1(~ 5110~11111 ~1~. ~2-1. 0~~~((11111~ ~11~ 3~~((1~~,


2-1. 111~ ~11((~11~ ~(1~~10((115 01
(1115, (1110 ~~(1/( ~11((~11~ ((11111~5 01 ~11~ ~(1~(1~1~0(.

11 = 100,..5 / = 250~2
12 = 300,..5
13 = 500,..5
1, 12

-200 - - - -

(1 (1(~ 5110~11 111~1~. ~2-2. 0~-


2-2. 111~ ~(1~~10((115 01 ~11~ ~11((~11~ 110~111~ ~11(011~11 0100~
~~((11111~ ~11~ (1~~((1~~, ((115, (1110 ~~(1/( ~11((~111 ((11111~5 01 ~11~ 0100~.

~,,4.
300---- 11 = 100,..5, 12 200,..5,
=
13 = 400,..5, 14 800,..5, 15 = 1 (115
=
/ = 200~2
150
100

0 1
1= 1

2-3. ~ 0100~ ~1(~111115 5110~11 111~1~. ~2-3 (1110 ~ = 22 0 3110 ~ = 10 /-1~. 11111~ 5~11~11
(
51 15 ~105~0 (1~ = 0, 0~1~(111111~ ~11~ ~)(~(~551011 10( ~11~ ~011(1~~ (1~(055 111~ ~(1~(1~1~0(
3110 111~ ~11~(~~ 105~ 111~11~ ~1(~1111.

52

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2-4. ~ 0100~ ~1(~1.11115 ~1~. ~2-4 ~1111~ = 10 0, ~ = 5 (111-1,3110 ~5 = 220 ~.
5110~11111
113 1030 ~1.1((~111 0110 ~ 15110~111~ 111(01.1~11111~ 1(~~~11~~1111~ 0100~ 1),,. 3110 111~ 5~11~11
51 15 ~105~0 31 / = 0, 0~1~((11111~ 111~ ~)(()(~551011 10( 111~ ~1.1((~111111(01.1~11111~ 5~11~11.

+ 81
~0,,,

1..
(.. ~10~
~~..2-4

2-5. 11111~ 11101.1~10(01111~ ~1(~1.111111~1~. 2-4 1135 311 1111631~1.1((~11101 10, 0~1~((11111~ 111~
~)(()(~551011 10( 111~.,,0113~~ 3~(055 111~~3()3~110(.

2-6. 11111~ 5~11~1151 01 ~1~. ~2-615 ~105~0 31 / = 0, 0~1~((11111~111~~)(()(~55101110( (3) ~1.1((~111


())) 111~ (31~ 01 (15~ 01111~ ~1.1((~111, (///(//. (~)
110~111~ 111(01.1~11111~5~11~11, /(/)~ 3110
()(3~ 5/(~1~11~5 01/(1) 3110 (///(//. ((1) ~113115 111~.,,311.1~01/111631 (///(//7 ~0( ~1~. ~2-
60, 11110111~1111631(///(// 0111~.

8, 8,
+
~0----0 0---0
(.. ~+ (..
1.. 1. 0(. 1.
0
(0) (~),.....
(9.)

~ = 0.52

(6)

2-7. 111111~ 5~~0110-0(0~( ~1(~1.11101 ~1~. 2-6, 111~501.1(~~ .,,0113~~, ~5 = 220 ~, 11101.1~1311~~,
~ = 5 (111-1,~3()3~11311~~, ~ = 10 (.1.~, 3110 (~5151311~~, ~ = 22 0. 111~ 1111631.,,0113~~
01111~ ~3()3~110( 15 ~0 = 50~. 11111~ 5~11~11 15 ~105~0 31 / = 0, 0~1~((11111~ (3) 311
~)(()(~551011 10( 111~ ~1.1((~111~3110 ())) 111~ ~01101.1~11011
11(11~01111~ 0100~. (~) ()(3~ 3
5/(~1~11 01 /(/).
2-8. ~0( 111~ ~11~(~~ (~~0.,,~(~ ~1(~1.11101 ~1~. 2-103, 111~ (113~11~62111~11101.1~1311~~ 01 111~
1(311510((11~( 15~,,. = 150 (.1.1-1,/0/1 = 10, 3110/0/2 = 200. 111~ 1~3/(3~~ 11101.1~1311~~5 3110
(~5151311~~5 01111~ 1(311510((11~( 3(~ 11~~11~101~. 111~ 501.1(~~ .,,0113~~ 15 ~5 = 200 ~ 3110
111~(~ 15 110 1111631~1.1((~111111111~~1(~1.111. 11 5~11~11 51 15 ~105~0 10( 3 11(11~/1 = 100 (.1.5
())) ~31~1.1131~111~
3110 15 111~110()~11~0, (3) 0~1~((11111~ 111~ (~.,,~(5~ .,,0113~~ 01 0100~ 1)1 ~
()~3/( .,,311.1~01111~ ()(1(113(~ ~1.1((~111~(~) ~31~1.1131~111~()~3/( .,,311.1~015~~01103(~ ~1.1((~111~

53

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((1) 0~1~~111111~ 111~ 11111~(0~ ~111~11 0100~ 1)1 ~011011~15~ (1110 (~) 0~1~~111111~ 111~ ~11~~~~
511~~11~0 0~ 111~ 5011~~~.
2-9. ~ 5111~1~-~11(15~ 0~10~~ ~~~11(1~~ 11(15(1 ~11~~1~ ~~51511~~ 10(10, ~ = 10 0, 111~ ~~(1(( ~(1111~
0( 111~ 51111111~ ~0113~~, ~,,, = 170 ~, 3110 111~ 51111111~ 1~~~11~11~~, 1= 60 1-1~. 0~1~~~111~
111~ (1~~~(1~~ 0111~111 ~011(1~~ 0( 111~ ~~~11(1~~ 1( 111~ 5011~~~ 111011~1(111~~15 11~~11~101~.
2-10. ~~~~(11 ~~00. 2-9 1( 111~ 5011~~~ 111011~1(111~~~~~ ~11(15~ (111~1110111~1~(1115(0~111~~ 1~(1(((1~~
111011~1(111~~)15 1-0 = 0.5 1111-1.
2-11. ~ 51)(-~11(15~ 51(1~ ~~~11(1~~ 11(15(1 ~11~~1~ ~~51511~~ 10(10 0( ~ = 10 0, 111~ ~~(1(( ~(1111~ 0(
111~ 511~~1~ ~011(1~~, ~,,, = 170 ~, (1110 111~ 51111~1~ (~~((11~11~~ / = 60 1-12. 1)~1~~111111~
111~ (1~~~(1~~ 0111~111 ~011(1~~ 0( 111~ ~~~11(1~~ 1( 111~ 5011~~~ 111011~1(111~~15 11~~)1011~.
2-12. ~~~~(11 ~~00. 2-11 1( 111~ 5011~~~ 111011~1(111~~~~~ ~11(15~ (111~1110111~111~ 1~(1115(0~111~~
1~(1(((1~~ 111011~1(111~~)15 1-0 = 0.51111-1.

2-13. ~ 111~~~-~11(15~ 0~10~~ ~~~11(1~~ 11(15(1 ~11~~1~ ~~51511~~ 10(10 0( ~ = 1000 (111015511~~11~0
(~0111 (1 280-~ 60-1-12 511~~1~. 111~ ~~1111(1~~(1110 5~~0110(1~~ 0( 111~ 111~1111~(1115(0~111~~(1~~
~01111~~1~0111 ~~~. 1)~1~~111111~ 111~ (1~~~(1~~ 0111~111 ~0)1(1~~ 0( 111~ ~~~11(1~~ 1( 111~ 5011~~~
111011~1(111~~5(1~~ 11~~11~101~.
2-14. ~~~~(11 .,~00. 2-13 1( 111~ 5011~~~ 111011~1(111~~~~~ ~11(15~ (111~)110111~1~(1115(0~111~~1~(1(((1~~
111011~1(111~~)15 1-0 = 0.5 1111-1.
2-15. 111~ 5111~1~-~11(15~ 0~10~~ ~~~11(1~~ 0( ~1~. 2-15 15 ~~((111~~0 10 511~~)~ (111(1~~~(1~~ ~0)1(1~~
0( ~00 = 400 ~ 10 (1 ~~51511~~ 10(10 0( ~
= 10 0. 1)~1~~111111~ 111~ ~011(1~~ (1110 ~11~~~111
~(11111~50( 0100~5 (1110 1~(1115(0~111~~.
2-16. ~ 111~~~-~11(15~ 0~10~~ ~~~11(1~~ 15 ~~((111~~0 10 511~~)~ (111(1~~~(1~~ ~011(1~~ 0( ~00 = 750
~ (11 (1 ~1~~1~-(~~~ ~11~~~111 0( 9000~. 111~ ~~1111(1~~ (1110 5~~0110(1~~ 0( 111~
100 =
1~(1115(0~111~~ (1~~ ~01111~~1~0 111 ~~~. 1)~1~~111111~ 111~ ~011(1~~ (1110 ~11~~~111 ~(11111~5 0(
0100~5 (1110 1~(1115(0~111~~.
2-17. 111~ 5111~1~-~11(15~ ~~~11(1~~ 0( ~1~. 2-14(111(15 (111~1- 10(10. 1( 111~ ~~(1(( ~(1)11~ 0( 111~ 111~111
~011(1~~ 15 ~,,, = 170~, 111~ 511~~)~ (~~((11~11~~, /
= 60 1-12, (1110 111~ 10(10 ~~5151(111~~,
~ = 15 0, 0~1~~111111~111~~(1111~0( 10(10111011~1(111~~, 1-, 101111111111~)0(10 ~11~~~11111(1~1110111~
10 4% 0( 111~ (1~~~(1~~ ~(1)11~, 100.
2-18. 111~ 111~~~-~11(15~ 51(1~ ~~~11(1~~ 0( ~1~. 2-17(111(15 (111~1- )0(10. 1( 111~ 5~~0110(1~~ ~~(1((
~011(1~~ ~~~ ~11(15~ 15 ~,,, = 170 ~ (11 60 1-12, (1110 111~ )0(10 ~~5151(111~~ 15 ~ = 15 0.
0~1~~111111~ 111~ ~(1111~ 0( )0(10 111011~1(111~~,1-, 10 1111111111~10(10 ~11~~~11111(1~1110111~510 2%
0( 111~ (1~~~(1~~ ~(1111~, 100.

2-19. 111~ 5111~1~-~11(15~ ~~~11(1~~ 0( ~1~. 2-14(111(15 (1 ~~51511~~ 10(10 0( ~, (1110 (1 ~(1~(1~110~ ~ 15
~01111~~1~0 (1~~055 111~ )0(10. 111~ (1~~~(1~~ ~(1)11~ 0( 111~ )0(10 ~11~~~11115 100. ~5511111111~
111(11111~~11(1~~111~11111~0( 111~ ~(1~(1~110~ 15 11~~11~10)~ ~0111~(1~~0 10 111~ 015~11(1~~111~11111~,
0~1~~111111~ 111~ ~1115~(1111~ 0( 111~ 0111~111 ~011(1~~ 11(1~1110111~5,~~0.
2-20. 111~ 1-~ 1111~~ 5110~11 111~1~. 2-20~ 15 115~0 10 ~~011~~ 111~ ~1~~)~ ~0111~111 0( 111~ 0111~111
~011(1~~ (0~ (151)(-~11(15~ 51(1~ ~~~11(1~~. 111~ 10(10 ~~5151(111~~, ~ = 20 0, 10(10111011~1(111~~,
1- = 5 1111-1, (1110 5011~~~ (~~((11~11~~ 15 60 1-12. 1)~1~~111111~ 111~ ~(1111~5 0( 111~ (111~~
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(.. 0,,,
...~0..~ 3-8 111111()15~-~0111111()(3.(~0 ~1~~()1(
~1(11 3.~~~1~~3.(~0 ~~~113.~~10~.

~)(3111()1~ 3-2

~111111~015~-~01111110131~01/1~~1510~ ~1~~01115 5/10~11111 ~1~. 3-9. 0~1~~111111~ 1/1~ 3,,,311301~


10~11-0116111~
011/1~ ~1~~011111/, = 200 ~, ~ = 10 0, ~ = 5 ~~, 31101/()= 1/,.
8010(100 1/1~ ~().1.11,,,31~111~1~~1.11101.1~111~1/1~ ~01111110136011 ~~~100 15 5/10~11 111 ~1~. 3-
10. 1/1~ ,,,0113~~ 3~~055 1/1~ ~01111111.1136011~3~3~110~ 15 ~1,,,~11 0~

7)~ = / (/( + 7)~(( = 0)


~1

1/1~ 5011.111011011/1~5~ ~().1.1360115 ~11/11111631 ,,,0113~~ 7)~ (( 0) -1/()


1/1~ ~3~3~110~ ,,,0113~~ 35
2~-(',,~)
7)~(1) = 1/,(1 -

1/1~ 11.1~11-01111111~,(4, ~/11~/1 ~311 0~ 101.1110 111/1~ ~011016011 7), (( = (4) = 0 15 536511~0,
15 501,,,~0 35

(4
= ~~ 111(2)
100 3110~ = 5 ~~, (4 = 34.7 ~5.

...~0..~ 3-9 111111()15~-~0111111()(3.(~0 ~1~~()1(

~1111 ~~515(1,,,~ )03.0.

+
~0 = ~5-
+

...~0..~ 3-10 ~()()1,,,3.1~0( ~1~~()1( (0~ ~)(-

3.111111~3-2.

62

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~,.301))1~ 3-3

111~ ~0011111.1136011 ~1~~1.111111 ~1~. 3-8 1135 3 ~3~3~11311~~ ~ = 20 /1.~ 3110 ~~~113~~111~
11101.1~10~1-1 = 25 /1.1-1. 111~ 1111631 ~3~3~110~ ~0113~~ 15 ~()1.13110 111~ 111~1.11~0113~~, ~0
= ~5 = 200~. 11111~ 1030 ~1.1~~~111,/,,,, ~3~~1~5 0~1~~~11 50 3110 200 ~, 0~1~~111111~
111~ ~3~1360115 01111~ ~1~~1.11111.1~11-0116111~, (4.

8011.11100 111~ ~()1.11~31~111 ~1~~1.11101.1~111~ 111~ ~01111111.11311011~~~100 15 5110~11 111 ~1~.


3-11. 111~ 0~1111111~ ~()1.1360115 3~~

111~ 1111631~011016011510 (( = 0) = /,,, (1101)0 (( = 0) = - ~0 = - ~5. 111~ 5011.160115


01111~5~ ~()1.1360115)11~10111~~3~3~110~ ~1.1~~~111(1~0111~~~~1101)( 1)) 35

~/
~
10(0 = ~0 5111(01( + /,,, ~05 (01(
1-1

111~ ~0113~~ 3~~055 111~ ~3~3~110~ 15 ~)(~~~55~0 35

1)0(0 = /,,,
)~ 5111(01( - ~0 ~05 (01(

~11~~~ (01 = 1(-../1-1~. 111~ 3~311301~ 11.1~11-0116111~ 0~ ~1~~1.11111.1~11-01111111~


15 0013111~0
1~0111 111~ ~0110111011 1)0 (( = (4) = 0 3110 15 501~~0 35

(3-9)

~0~ ~ = 20 /1.~, 1-1 = 25 /1.1-1,~0 = 200 ~, 3110/,,, = 50 ~, (4 = 29.0 /1.5. ~0~ ~ =


20 /1.~, 1-1 = 25 /1.1-1,~0 = 200~, 3110/,,, = 100~, (4 = 23.7. /1.5. ~0~ ~ = 20 /1.~,
1-1 = 25 /1.11,~0 = 200~, 3110/,,, = 200 ~, (4 = 16.3 /1.5.

01

.,1~ ~ 3-11 ~()01~3)~11( ~1(~01( ~0( ~)(-


~1 3((1111~ 3-3.

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/-/01~. ~8 111~ 1030 ~1.1((~01 10~(~38~8 1(000 50 ~ 10 200 ~, 111~ 11.1(0-0111100~
0~~(~38~8 1(000 29 /-1-810 16.3 /-1-8. 111~ 1.18~01 30 ~)(1(3 0100~ 003~~8 111~ 11.1(0-011
1100~ 1~88 0~~~00~01 00 111~ 1030.

111~ (~800301 ~1.118~~000001.1131100 ~30 0~ ~)(~1310~0 ~1111 ~1~. 3-123. ~1~1.1(~ 3-120
8110~8 111~ ~3..,~10(008 10( 111~ ~3~3~110( ~1.1((~01 300 ..,0113~~. 111~ ~3~3~110( 18
10111(11)1~113(~~0 ~1111 111~ ~013(11)1 38 8110~0 300 111)1(1810( 11 18 10 111~ ~0001.1~1100
0000~ ~3(()110~ 3 1030 ~1.1((~01 011,,,.
~11~0 ~000001.1131100 111)1(1810( 12 18 11(~0, 3 (~800301 ~1(~1.11118 10(00~0 0)11.,
~, 11 300 12. 111~ (~800301 ~1.1((~01 ~30 0~ 0~(1..,~0 38

.(() ~ ~0
~
= 1,, 810 0) ,,,1
.,0 .,~(
(3-10)

(3-12)
~11~(~ 1,, 18 111~ ~~3~ ~~(00188101~ ..,311.1~ 01 (~800301 ~1.1((~01.
01.1~ 10 111~ (~800301 ~1.1((~01, 111~ 10(~3(0 ~1.1((~01 01111)1(1810( 11 18 (~01.1~~0
10 2~(0 311 = 11, ~11~0 111~ (~800301 ~1.1((~01 ~().1.1318111~ 1030 ~1.1((~01, 1,,,. 111~ 1100~
11 001.181 8(1181)1111~ ~00011100 / (1 = (1)
= 1,,, 300 18 101.100 38

(, ~ ~8.0-,
(~~) (3-13)

111~ ~0((~8~00010~ ..,311.1~ 01111~ ~3~3~110( ..,0113~~ 18

1)0 (1 = (1)
= - ~1 = - ~0 ~08 0),,,11 (3-14 )

0,,,

64

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111~ (1.1((~111 111(01.1~11 111)1(1810( 1) ~111 (~(18~ 10 110~ (1110 111~ ((1~(1(110( ~111
(~(11(1(~~ (11 (1 ((11~ 0~1~(111111~0 0)1111~ 10(10 (1.1((~111 /,,,. 111~ ((1~(1(110( ~111 018(11(1(~~
1(0111 ~~) 10 2~(0 (1110 118 ~011(1~~ ~111 111~11 (18~ 10 111~ 0( 801.1((~ ~011(1~~ ~5, 111
~111(11 ((18~ 0100~ /),,, 81(1(18 (01101.1(1111~ (1110 (1 8111.1(1110118111111(1( 10 111~ (1((1.111 111 ~1~.
3-4 ~)(1818 ~1111 (1 11111~ 01.1((111011 01 (0. 11118 18 8110~11 111 ~1~. 3-120. 111~ ~11~(~)1
810(~0 111 11101.1(10(
1- 01.1~ 10 111~ 10(10 (1.1((~111 /,,, 18 1((11181~((~0 10 111~ ((1~(1(110(,
((11.18111~ 11 10 0~ 0~~((11(1(~~0, (1110 111~ ((1~(1(110( ~011(1~~ ~() ((111 0~ ((11(1.11(11~0 1(0111
~~. (3-7). 111~ ((1~(1(110( ~011(1~~ 18 (~~~(8~0 1(0111 ~~ (= ~0) 10 - ~0 0)111(111~ 13.
13 18 8~11-(01111111.11(11~0 8111111(1( 10 111~ 6((1.111111 ~1~. 3-3.
111~ ~~1.11~(11~111 (1((1.111 10( 111~ (11(1(~111~ ~~(100 18 8111111(1( 10 111~ 011~ 111 ~1~. 3-
7(1. ~(0111 ~~. (3-8), 111~ (1((1.11111.1(11-01111111~ 18

(,,
~~)
= - /,,, (3-15)

1-~1 1.18 0~1111~ (1 ~(1((1111~1~( ~ ~111(1118 111~ ((1110 01111~ ~~(1~ (~8011(1111 (1.1((~111 10 111~
10(10 (1.1((~111. 111~11

(3-16)
~~~~~~~
10 (~01.1(~ 111~ 10(~(1(0 (1.1((~111 011) 10 2~(0, 111~ ~(111.1~ 01 ~ 1111.1810~ ~(~(11~( 111(111
1.0. 111 ~((1(11(~, 111~ ~(111.1~ 011- (1110 ~ (1(~ (1108~11 81.1(11111(11 ~ = 1.5. 111~ ~(111.1~
01 () 111 ~~. (3-13) 18 110(111(111)1 8111(111(1110 ~) = ~0. 111~ ~(111.1~ 01 (,, 001(1111~0 1(0111
~~. (3-15) 81101.110 0~ (1~~(0)(1111(11~1)1 ~~1.1(11 10 111(11 001(1111~0 1(0111 ~~. (3-8).
01.1~ 10 111~ 1(1(1111(11 (1 (~8011(1111 ~1.118~ 01 (1.1((~11118 1.18~0 10 (~01.1(~ 111~ 10(~(1(0
(1.1((~111 01111)1(1810( 1) 10 2~(0, 11118 1)1~~ 01 (01111111.11(111011 18 (1180 ~110~11 (18 ~11,,~11(
~0/11/1111((1(/011. 11 ((111 0~ 11011(~0 1(0111 ~~. (3-15) 111(11 111~ (1((1.111 11.1(11-01111111~ 18
(1180 0~~~110~111 011 111~ 10(10 (1.1((~111. 111~ 018(11(1(~111~ 01111~ ((1~(1(110( ~011(1~~ ((111
0~ (1((~1~((11~0 0)1 (01111~(1111~ (1 0100~ /)2 (18 8110~11 111 ~1~. 3-13(1. 1-10~~~~(, 011(~
111~ (1.1((~111 01111)1(1810( 1) 18 (~01.1(~0 10 2~(0, 111~ (~~~(8~ ~011(1~~ (1~~~(1(111~ (1((088
1) 18 111~ 10(~(1(0 ~011(1~~ 0(0~ 01 0100~ /)2, ~111(11 18 8111(111. 11118 ~111 111(1~~ 111~

~0
02

.1

+ ~~., -,,0

+ ~0
-,,0
-,,.
0., 0
.3
-,,1
-,,0
(8) ~~~~~~/ (0) ~8~810~015

58~. 3-3 65

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111)1(1510(,5 (~~0~~()1 ~(0~~55 510~ (10011 ~01110 0~ 0~~~55(1()110 ~(0~10~ 100~~( (~~~(5~
01(15 11(0~ 111(10 111(1111111~ 0100~ /)2 ~~(~ 001 ~(~5~01. 111~ ~(1~(1~110( ~11((~01, /0((),
(100 111~ ~(1~(1~110( ~011(1~~, 1)0((), (1(~ 5110~0 10 ~1~. 3-130.

~~301))1~ 3-4

1/1~ (~50113111111115~ ~0111111111311011~1(~1111111~1~. 3-123 /135 ~3113~11311~~, ~ = 30 ~~ 3110


111011~1311~~, 1. = 4 ~1-1. 1/1~ 11111131~3113~110( ~0113~~ 15 1/0 = 200~. 0~1~(111111~ 1/1~
~1(~1111111(11-01111111~, (~, 111/1~ 1030 ~11((~111, /~, 15 (3) 250~, 3110 (0) 50~.

801111100 (3) /~ = 250~. ~(0111 ~-=1. (3-13),

(1
= ~ 5111-1
( ~/~)
250
200 30
= 5.192 ~5

1
(0~ = = 91,287.1 (30/5 3110 (0~(1 = 0.474 (30
~
~(0111 ~-=1. (3-14), 1/1 = 200 ~05 (0.474) = 177.95 ~ 3110 1(0111 ~-=1. (3-15),

)( 30
(~
= 177.95 250 = 21.35 ~5
(0)/~ = 50~.

(1
= ~ 5111-1
(~ ~/ )
200
4
30 = 1.0095 ~5

1
(0~ = = 91,287.1 (30/5 (0~(1 = 0.0914 (30
~
1/1 = 200 ~05 (0.0914) = 199.16 ~

)( 30
(~ = 199.16 - = 119.5 ~5
250

~~3111))1~ 3-5

~~11~31 ~)(3111111~ 3-4 11 311 31111113(311~1 0100~ /)2 15 ~01111~~1~0 3~(055 1/1~(1510( 11 35
5/10~11 111~1~. 3-133.

801111100 (3) /~ = 250~. ~/1~11 1/1~(1510( 12 15 11(~0, 3 (~50113111 111115~01 ~11((~111


110~5 1/1(011~/11/1~ ~3113~110( 3110 1/1~ 10(~3(0 ~11((~111 011/1~(1510( 11 15 (~011~~0 10 2~(0
(
3111111~ = (1 = 5.192 ~5. 1/1~ ~3113~110( ~11((~111 /~(1) 311/115 11111~15 ~-=1113110 1/1~ 1030
~11((~111 /~ = 250~. ~11~( 1/1~ ~11((~1110111 15 (~011~~0 10 2~(0, 1/1~ (~5011311105~111311011
~011111111~51/1(011~/1 0100~ /)2 11111111/1~ (~50113111 ~11((~111 13115 03~/( 10 1/1~ 1030 (11((~111
1~~~1 31 11111~(2. 1/115 15 5/10~11 111~1~. 3-130.

(2
=
,,.
~ - (1
=
,,.
~ - 5.192 = 29.22 ~5

(
~(0111 ~-=1. (3-14) 1/1~ (3113~110( ~0113~~ 31 = (215

1/2 = -200 (05 (2.667) = -177.9 ~

66

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(~ = (2 - (1 = 29.22 - 5.192 = 24.03 ~5
(0)1,,, = 50,6..
(1
= 1.0095~5
(2 = 10 ~ - (1
= 10 ~ - 1.0095 = 33.41 ~5
(0,,, = 91,287.1 ~30/5

172= 200 ~05 (3.05) = -199.1 ~

(4 = (2 - (1
= 33.41 - 1.0095 = 32.41 ~5

1-/0(~. 11 ~311 0~ 11011~~~ 0)1 ~0111~3(111~ 111~ (~~~(5~ 0135 11111~5 ~1111 11105~ 01
~)(3111~1~ 3-4 11131 111~ 3~~111011 01 3 ~10~~ 1113/(~5 /,, 1~55 ~~~~11~~111 011 111~ 103~
~1.1((~111 ~3(13110115. 110~~~~(, 10( 3 111~11~( 103~ ~1.1((~111 (~.~., 1171 = 250 ~), (,, 111
~)(3111~1~ 3-4 15 1~55 11131 01 ~)(3111~1~ 3-5.

~ ~0111~1~111~1113()1 ~01111111.11311011 15 1.15~~ 10 1(31151~( ~1.1((~111 0~1~~~11 1~0 103~5 311~


51.1~11311 3((311~~111~11115 5110~11111 ~1~. 3-14. 111~ 11(111~ 01011~ 111)1(1510( ~01111111.1131~5
111~ 0111~( 011~.
~11~11111)1(1510( 11 1511(~~, 111~ 103~ ~1111 ~115 ~01111~~1~~ 10 111~ 51.1~~1)1 ~0113~~,
175, 311~ 31 111~ 53111~ 11111~ 111~ ~3~3~110( ~ 15 ~113(~~~ 10 175 111(01.1~11111~ 0111~( 103~
~1111 ~2. 111~ ~013(11)101 ~3~3~110( ~ 15 35 5110~11111 ~1~. 3-14. ~11~11111)1(1510(
12
15 11(~~, 111~ ~3~3~110( 15 111~11 ~13~~~ 3~(055 111)1(1510( 11 311~ 111~ 103~ ~1111 ~2 15
~01111~~1~~ 10 111~ 51.1~~1)1 ~0113~~, 175. 11 15 (~~~(5~ 0135~~ 311~ 15 11.1(11~~ 011 0)1
1111~1.115~ ~01111111.11311011. 011~~ 111)1(1510(
11 15 5~11~11~~ 011, 111~ ~3~3~110( ~0113~~ 15
(~~~(5~~ 10 -175 111(01.1~11 ~1, 12, 311~ 111~ 51.1~~1)1. 11111)1(1510(
11 15 11(~~ 3~3111,
111)1(1510( 12 15 11.1(11~~ 011 311~ 111~ ~)1~1~ 15 (~~~31~~. ~0(111311)1, 111~ 1~0 111()1(1510(5
~011~1.1~1 ~1111 ~().1.13111111~ 1111~(~315. 111~ ~3~~10(1115 10( ~0113~~5 311~ ~1.1((~1115 3(~
5110~11 111 ~1~. 3-15 10( ~1 = ~2 = ~. 5111~~ ~3~11111)1(1510( 15 5~11~11~~ 011 ~1.1~ 10
1111~1.115~ ~01111111.11311011, 11115 1)1~~ 01 ~01111111.11311011 15 50111~11111~5 /(110~11 35 (0111))/~-
111~11((1,)) /(11))~/5~ (0111111~((1(/011.

8,
~5
~5 - + ~0
8
~1,
-..,0
..)~0..~ 3-14 ~0(1))1~01~1113~)/ ~00101013-
.). ),
11011 ~1~~011.

58~. 3-3 67

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~,.301))1~ 3-6

10.~ ~11~1111111 ~1~. 3-14, 0.(15 10(10 1~5151(111~~5 01 ~1 = ~2 = ~ = 5 0, ~(1~(1~11(111~~,


~ = 10 /-1~, (1110511~~1~ ,,,011(1~~, 11$ = 100 ,. ))~1~1111111~ 10.~ ~11~1111111111-011 6111~,

(..
801111100 ~5511111111~10.(1110.~ ~(1~(1~110115 ~0.(11~~0 10 511~~1~ ,,,011(1~~ 11, 11110.~ ~1~,,,10115
~0111111111(1601101 (1 ~0111~1~111~111(11~10.~115101, 10.~ ~()111,,,(11~111~11~1111 0111111~ 10.~ ~0111-
111111(16011~~1100 15 5111111(1110 ~1~. 3-10. 10.~ ~1111~111 10.1011~0. 10.~ ~(1~(1~1101 15 ~1,,,~11
0~

()(
11, =
~1
/ + 1)0
((
= 0) + ~/

~110. 1)0(( = 0) = - 110 = 11$, 10.~ 501116011 0110.15 ~()11(16011 ~1,,,~5 10.~ ~(1~(1~1101 ~1111~111
(15

1)0(/) = 11$(1 - 2~-(/~~~)

10.~ 111111-0116111~ (. ~(1110~ 10111101110.~ ~011016011 1), (( = (.)


501,,,~0 (15

(. = ~~ 111(2)

~01 ~ = 50 (1110~ = 10 /-1~,(. = 34.7/-15.

68

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~ ~1.118~ 01 ~1.1((~01 18 001(110~0 1(0111 (10 ~)(1~(0(11 ~011(1~~ 10 11.1(0 011 (1 ~0001.1~110~
111)1(1810(. ~1~1.1(~ 3-16 8110~8 (1111)1(1810( ~1(~1.1111.1810~ (10 ~)(1~(0(11 ~1.118~ ~01111111.11(11100
(100 1~0 81.1~~1)1 801.1(~~8. 17$ 18 111~ ~011(1~~ 01111~ 111(110 81.1~~1)1 (100 1718 111~ ~011(1~~
01111~ (11.1)(111(1()1801.1(~~.
11111)1(1810( 13 18 11(~0, 111~ ~(1~(1~110( ~111 ~11(1(~~ 1(0111 111~ (11.1)(111(1()1801.1(~~.
~881.111110~ 111(11111~ ~(1~(1~110( 18 10111(111)11.10~11(1(~~0, (1 (~800(101 ~1.1((~01 ~1.118~ 01 ~~(1/(
17~, ~111~1118 8111111(1( 10 111~ ~1(~1.111 10 ~1~. 3-2, ~111110~ 111(01.1~11 13 (100 111~
~(1~(1~110( 18 ~11(1(~~0 10 2~. 11111)1(1810( 11 18 ~0001.1~110~ (100 (1 10(10 ~1.1((~01 18
81.1~~11~0 1(0111 111~ 111(110 801.1(~~ 17$, 11(10~ 01111)1(1810( 12 ~111 (1~~1)1 (1 (~~~(8~ ~011(1~~
01 17$ - 2~ (1~(088 111)1(1810( 11 (100 11 ~111 0~ 11.1(0~0 011. 00~~ 111)1(1810( 11 18
11.1(0~0 011, 111~ ~(1~(1~110( ~111 018~11(1(~~ 111(01.1~11 111~ 10(10 (11 (1 ((11~ 0~1~(11110~0 0)1
111~ 111(1~0111.10~ 01111~ 10(10 ~1.1((~01.

+
2~ 8

1~

10 10(10-810~ ~01111111.11(11100, 111~ 10(10 10(1118 (1 8~(1~8 ~1(~1.111 ~1111111~ ~(1~(1~110(~ (100
111~ 018~11(1(~10~ (100 (~~11(1(~10~ 01111~ ~(1~(1~110( (1(~ 000~ 111(01.1~11111~ 10(10. 111~
~~(10(111(10~~ 0110(10-810~ ~01111111.11(11100 ~1(~1.1118 0~~~008 00 111~ 10(10 (100 10 (10011100
111~ ~01111111.11(11100 ~1(~1.1118 ~(10001 0~ 1~81~0 ~111101.11 ~000~~110~ 111~ 10(10. ~1~1.1(~8
3-6, 3-8, 3-12, (100 3-13 (1(~ ~)((1111~1~8 0110(10-810~ ~01111111.11(11100.

10 11118 1)1~~ 01 ~01111111.11(11100, 111~ 018~11(1(~10~ (100 (~~11(1(~10~ 01111~ ~(1~(1~110( (1(~
001 (1~~0111~11811~0 111(01.1~11 111~ 10(10 (100
111~ ~01111111.11(11100 ~1(~1.111 ~(10 0~ 1~81~0
~111101.11 ~000~~110~ 111~ 10(10. ~1~1.1(~ 3-17(1 8110~8 81.1~11 (1 ~1(~1.111.
~11~0 111)1(1810( 12 18 11(~0, ~(1~(1~110( ~ 18 ~11(1(~~0 10 217$ (100 12 18 8~11-
~01111111.11(11~0 8111111(1( 10 111~ ~1(~1.111 10 ~1~. 3-2. 111)1(1810( 13 18 11(~0 10 (~~~(8~ 111~
~011(1~~ 01 ~(1~(1~110( 10 - 217$ (100 13 18 (1180 8~11-~01111111.11(11~0. ~881.111110~ 111(11
111)1(1810( 11 18 ~0001.1~110~ (100 ~(1((1~8 (1 10(10 ~1.1((~01 01 /,,,, 111)1(1810( 12 18 11(~0 10
11.1(0 011 11. 111~ 11(10~ 01111)1(1810( 12 ~111 10(~(1(0 01(18 111~ 0100~ /),,, (100 (1~~1)1
(1 (~~~(8~ ~011(1~~ 01 217$ (1~(088 11 ~ (100 11 ~111 0~ 11.1(0~0 011. 111~ 018~11(1(~10~ (100
(~~11(1(~10~ 01111~ ~(1~(1~110( ~111 0~ 000~ 111(01.1~11 111~ 81.1~~1)1. 111~ ~000~~1100 01
111~ 10(10 18 001 (~~1.11(~0 10 1~81111~ ~01111111.11(11100 ~1(~1.111.

58~. 3-3 69

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+ (.. ~,,,

1/. 0,,,

(8)

+ . ~,,,
. +01
~~~(1)
1/. 01 0,,,

..)~0..~ 3-17 1.-1(1~-510~ ~01111111.1131~0 ~1(-


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111~ 11100~10( ~ ~3((1~5 111~ 1030 ~0((~111 1,,, 3110 111~ ~()01.,,,31~111 ~1(~011 01.1(111~
111~ ~011111101311011~~(100 15 5110~11111 ~1~. 3-18. 111~ ~3~3~110( ~0((~11115 ~)(~(~55~0
(1(0111 ~~~~1101)( 0) 35

~/ 1 ( .
115 = ~
~( + ~) / ~( + 1)0
((
= 0) (3-17)

~01101110115/ (( = 0) = 1,,, 3110 1)0 (( = 0) = - 2115. 111~ 5011.111011


~111111111131 01
~(). (3-17) ~1.,,,~5 111~ ~3~3~110( ~0((~111 3110 .,,,0113~~ 35

.(,) = 1~ 005 ..~, + 3~.


~ 5.0 ..~, (3-18)

(3-19)

...~11..~ 3-18 ~()01~31~(1( ~1(~01( 00(1(1~


~01111110(3(10(1~~(100.

70

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0),,, = 1/~
10.~ ~1(~01110(0-01111(0~, (,,, 15 001310~0 1(0(0 10.~ ~00011100 11(.(( = (,,) = 0 01 8().
(3-19) 300 501~~0 311~( 51(0~1111~31100 35

(,, = ~ (130-1 3~ - 510-1 ~+ (3-20)


9~2 1)

(3-21 )

10.~ ~0000~1100 11(0~ 0110.)1(1510( 12, ~0.1~0. ~30 0~ 10000 1(0(0 10.~ ~00011100 1 ((
= (1)
= 0 018(). (3-18),
-1
(1 = ~ 130-1 - (3-22)
3~

000~( 00-1030 ~0001110115, 1,,, = 0 300 ~ 15 1011011~. (,, 0~~0(0~5

(,, = ~ (70 - 510-11) = 1.231 ~


(3-23)
(1 = 70 ~
1-/0(~. 111,,, = 03110 (1 = 70~, 10.~ ~3~3~110( ~0113~~ 10 8(). (3-19) 0~~0(0~5
,/)( ((
= (1)
= 110 = 411, 300 111~(~ ~111 0~ ~001100005 001100~ 0110.~ ~3~3~110(
~0113~~. 10 11(011 10.~ 0~~(~0.3(~10~ 0110.~ ~3~3~110(, 10.~ 1000~10( 1-- 15 00((0311)1
(~~13~~0 0)1 3 ~0~(~)1 (~~0~~()11(30510((0~( 300 0100~ 35 50.0~0 10 ~1~. 3-170.

10.~ 0~51~0 01 ~0(0(00131100 ~1(~0115 (~()01(~5 0~1~((01010~ 111~ ~310~5 01 ~3~3~110( ~


300 1000~10( 1--. ~0( 10.~ 1(0~015~ ~0(0(00131100 ~1(~011 10 ~1~. 3-6, 10.~ ~310~ 01
~3~3~110( ~ 15 ~31~0131~0 1(0(0 8(). (3-8) 300 10.~ (~~~(53111100~10( 1--~15 0~1~((010~0
1(0(0 10.~ ~~3/( ~~((0155101~ (~~~(531 ~0((~111 01 8(). (3-5). ~0( 10.~ ~1(~011 10 ~1~.
3-8, 10.~ 10(0-011-11(0~ (~()01(~(0~01 (,, 018(). (3-9) ~311 0~ 5311511~0 0)1 ~0.00510~ ~110.~(
~0(1--1.
~0( 10.~ (~500301 ~015~ ~0(0(00131100 ~1(~01110 ~1~. 3-12, 10.~ ~310~5 011-- 300
~ ~30 0~ ~31~0131~01(0(0 8()5. (3-15) 300 (3-16). 10 8()5. (3-14) 3110 (3-15) 110300
111 3150 0~~~00 00 1-- 300 ~ 35 10 8(). (3-17).

58~. 3-4 71

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~)(301())~ 3-7
~0( 111~~1(~1111111 ~1~. 3-6, 0~1~(01111~111~~3111~801 ~3))3~110( ~ 3110 (~~~(8111~ 111011~10(
1-, 11111~ 811))))1~~0113~~, ~5 = 200 ~, 1030 ~11((~111,/,,, = 100 ~, 111~111(11-0111101~,
(~ = 20 ~8, 3110 111~))~3/( (~~~(831 ~11((~11118110111~010 140% 01 /~,.
)( 20/200
50)111100 ~0 = ~5 = 200~. ~(001 8(). (3-8), ~ = 100 = 10 ~~. ~(001
)(
8(). (3-5), 111~ ))~3/( (~80113111 ~11((~11118 1.4 100 = 140 = 200 -/10/1-, 31101-, =
20.4 ~1-1.

~)(301())~ 3-8
~0( 111~ (~80113111 ~00101111311011 ~1(~1111111 ~1~. 3-13, 0~1~(01111~ 111~ 0))11011101 ~3111~8 01
~ 3110 1- 80 11131 111~ 011111011101 ~11~(~~ 1088~8 ~01110 0~~11( 011(111~ 111~ ~00101111311011
))~(100 11/,,, = 350~, ~0 = 200~, 3110 /~ = 20 ~8.

50)111100 51108111111111~8(). (3-16) 11110 8(). (3-13), 111~ 1101~ (~()111(~0 10( 111~ ~3))3~110(
~11((~111 10 (18~ 10 111~ 1~~~1 01 ))~3/( 1030 ~11((~111 /,,, 18 ~1~~11 0~

(1 = ~ 8111~1 ~
~

~11~(~ ~ = /,//,,, = (~0//,,,) -/01-. ~(001 ~1~. 3-130, 111~3~311301~(~~~(8~ 0138 1101~
0( 111(11-0111101~ 18

(~ = (2 - (1
= 70 ~ - 2(1 = ~ (70 - 2 8111- 1
~)
(3-25)

/~ = ~0)~ (3-26)

1..~1 118 0~1111~ 3 11111~11011 ~1 (~) 811~1111131

(3-27)

~ = 0.5~~6 = 0.51-/~ (3-28)

51108111111111~111~ ~3111~ 01 /~ 1(001 8(). (3-26), ~1~~8 118

~ = 0.5 ~ ~0/~

51108111111111~111~ ~3111~ 01 ~ 1(001 8(). (3-27), ~~ 113~~

(3-29)

(3-30)

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11 (0111 0~ 50.0~11 1110110.~1110111(0111~ 0( 0~ ~1011111~ ~2(~) 01~0111151 ~ 10.011 ~2(~) 15 11111111111.1111
~0.~11 ~ = 1.5. 10101~ 3-1 50.0~5 10.~ ~0111.1~501 ~2(~) 01~0111151~. ~0( ~ = 1.5, 10101~
3-1 ~1~~5 ~1(~) = 1.68214 01110~2(~) = 0.44586.

~~8~~ 3-, 102()()


~()~~~5~ )(

~~2(~)
1.2 0.5122202
1.3 0.4688672
1.4 0.4515002
1.5 0.4458613
1.6 0.4465956
1.7 0.4512053
1.8 0.4583579

51.1051111.11111~ ~ = 1.5 111~().5. (3-25) 01110 (3-16), ~~ 00101111

(~ = 1.682 ~

1.5 =
~0 0.
/,,, ~~
501~111~ 10.~5~, 10.~ 0~111111.1111
~0111.1~501 1- 01110 ~ 01(~
( 1/
~ (3-31)
1- = 0 . 398 /,,,

( /
~ = 0.8917 (3-32)
~~
~0( /,,, = 350~, ~0 = 200~, 01110(4 = 20 ~5,

)( 20 )( 200
1- = 0.398
350 = 4.6 ~1-1

~ = 0.8917 )(
20 )( _350
200 = 31.2 ~~
1-/0(~. 01.1~ 10 10~ ~(~~~0~~1111~ 0100~ 3~(055 10~ 1030 35 500~11111 ~1~5. 3-123
3110 3.133, 10~ ~3~3~110( ~111 ~~1 0~~(~03(~~0 0~ 10~ ~11~(~~ 510(~0 11111101.1~10( 1...
10~ ~3~3~110( ~0113~~ ~0 (= ~~), ~01~0 ~111 0~~~110 011 10~ ~311.1~50~ 1.. 3110 ~, ~311
0~ 0~1~((11111~0 ~(0(11 ~(). (3-7). 111 1015 ~35~, ~()5. (3-31) 3110 (3-32) 5001.110 0~
501~~0 ~0( 10~ ~311.1~5 0~ 1.. 3110 ~.

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~)(301()1~ 3-9

~ 0100~ 15 ~01111~~1~0 3~(055 111~ 0011101 35 5110~11 111~1~. 3-123 3110 111~ ~3113~110( ~~15
0~~(~113(~~0 00~ 10 111~ ~11~(~~ 510(~0 11111100~10( 1-. 1)~1~((11111~ 111~ ~310~5 011- 3110
~. 3(~~ 11, = 200 ,, 1,,, = 350 ~, (~ = 20 ~5, 3110~ = 1.5.
111~113(11~013(5
501(1~100 500511~01111~ ~(). (3-7) 111~0~(). (3-16), ~ = (11)1,,,) --.,,/01- + 1. 500511101111~
~()5. (3-7), (3-13), 3110 (3-14), 11110 ~(). (3-15),

(~
= (~,,,~ + ~ ~05 (5111-1~)
~

111~ ~310~5 01 ~ 3110 1- ~311 0~ 100110 1(0(11 111~5~ 1~0 ~()03110115. 111~ (~50115 3(~
1- = 20.4 ~1-1 3110 ~ = 15.65 ~~.
~)(301()1~ 3-10

~~11~31 ~)(3(11111~ 3-9 10( 111~ ~1(~011111 ~1~. 3-13.

501(1~100 ~(0(11 ~(). (3-25), (~ = ~ (70- 2 5111-1(1/~)). ~(0(11~()5. (3-7) 3110(3-


16), ~ = (11)1,,,) --.,,/01- + 1. 111~ ~310~5 011- 3110 ~ 3(~ 100110 35 ~ = 10.4 ~~ 3110
1- = 13.59 ~1-1.

1110~ 8~11~010~ 1..~~0~0~1~8 3..~ 0~10~ 1 ~1-12, 10~ 10)1..1810.. ~01111110131100 11111~ ~30
0~ ~00810~..~0 800..1 ~0111.,3..~0 ~110 10~ 8~11~010~ .,~..100. ~11001.1~0 10~ .,~3~
~0 ~0110..00~010~ ~3.,3~110.. 18 01~0, 10~ 3~~..3~~ ~0 ~01 ~0010 0~ ..~1311~~1)110~.
1110~ 8~11~010~ 1..~~0~0~1~8 3..~ 300~~ 5 ~1-12, 10~ ~3.,3~110.. ~3 1~8 10.. 3 81~0111~301
.,3..1 01 10~ 8~11~010~ .,~..100 300 10~ ~3.,3~110.. 111081 10~..~10..~ 0~ ~008~0 10.. 3
~001100008 ~0 ~01 ..3110~.
10 8~1~~110~ 3 ~01111110131100 ~3.,3~110.., 10~ 8.,~~111~311008 01 .,~3~, ..1118, 300
3~~..3~~ ~0 ~01 300 .,~3~-10-.,~3~ ~0113~~ 111081 0~ 8311811~0.

~~ 03~~ 8~~0 10 1018 ~03.,1~.. 1031 3 ~0000~110~ 10)1..1810.. ~30 0~ 10..0~0 011 0)1 3
0310..31 0..10..~~0 ~01111110131100. 10 10~ 0310..31 ~01111110131100, 10~ 10)1..1810.. ~0 ~01
18 ..~00~~0 10 2~..0 00~ 10 10~ 0310..31 ~03..3~1~..1811~8 0110~ 10.,01 ~0113~~. 10 10~
10..~~0 ~01111110131100, 10~ 10)1..1810.. ~0 ~01 18 ..~00~~0 10 2~..0 0)1 30 3001110031
~1..~011..)1~311~0 3 ~01111110131100 ~1..~011, 300 10~ 10..0-011.,..0~~88 0~.,~008 00 10~ 1030
~0 ~01. 10 ~03..301~~ 10~ 10..0-011 01 3 10)1..1810.., 10~ ~1..~011 (0.. 3~311301~) 10..0-
011111081 0~ ~..~31~.. 1030 10~ 10..0-01111111~ 013 10)1..1810.., ~01~018 00..111311)18.,~~111~0
0)110~ 10)1..1810.. 11130013~10..~...

1. ~. 1-1. ~351110, ..~0(11(110131101111(11115 010~ ~1101111~(0110011101 ~0113~~ ~0111(01.,, ~/~~(,.0/11~


~/181/1~~,.1/18, ,01. 51, ~0. 620 (~11..11) 1979, 1111. 103-105.

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..
2. ~. 1-1. ~1150.10, ~ 10.~(1510( ~0.0))))~( ~110. 11111111111111111111115
011 ..,01111~~ ~0111(01010~ 0(1..,~5.,,
111(~,11(1(1011(1/10/)111(1/ 0/ ~/~~(,0111~5, ~01. 53, ~0. 1 (1111~) 1982, )))).71-89.
3. ~. ~~~11((~, ..10.~(1510( ~01111111111111011
111 0~ ~0.0))))~(-11 ~0111))11(1111..,~51110~.,, 1~~~
111()/-/5(,)1.4()()/1~(1(10115 50(/~1)1 ~011/~,~11~~ ~~~0,(), 0~100~( 2-6, 1977, )))). 385-397.

3-1. ~0.111 11(~ 10.~ 1~0 ~~11~(1111~))~5 01 ~011111111111110117

3-2. ~0.11111(~ 10.~ 1~))~5 0110(~~0 ~011111111111110117

3-3. ~0.11115 10.~ 0111~(~11~~ 0~1~~~11 5~11- 11110 1111111(111~011111111111110117

3-4. ~0.11115 10.~ ))(111~1))1~ 015~11-~011111111111110117

3-5. ~0.11115 10.~ ))(111~1))1~ 011111))1115~ ~011111111111110117

3-6. ~0.111 15 10.~ ))(111~1))1~ 01 (~501111111 ))1115~ ~011111111111110117

3-7. ~0.11115 10.~ ))(111~1))1~ 01 ~0111))1~111~11111(~ ~011111111111110117

3-8. ~0.111 15 10.~ ))(111~1))1~ 01 ~)(1~(11111 ))1115~ ~011111111111110117

3-9. ~0.11111(~ 10.~ 0111~(~11~~5 0~1~~~11 10110-510~ 11110 1111~-510~ ~011111111111110117

3-10. ~0.11111(~ 10.~ 0111~(~11~~5 0~1~~~11 ..,01111~~ 11110 ~11((~111 ~011111111111110117

3-11. ~0.111 11(~ 10.~ ))11())05~5 0111 ~01111111111111011 ~1(~11117

3-12. ~0.~ 80.01110 10.~ 11..,11111101~ (~..,~(8~ 01118 11111~ 0~ ~(~111~( 10.1111 10.~ 111(11-01111111~ 0111
10.~(1810(7

3-13. ~0.11118 10.~ ))11())08~ 01 ~01111~~1111~ 1111111111))11(1111~1 0100~ 11~(088 10.~ 1111111110.~(1810( ~110.
0( ~110.0111 11 5~(1~8 111011~10(7

3-14. ~0.111 18 10.~ (11110 01 ))~11/( (~801111111 10 10110 ~11((~111 10( (~501111111 ))1115~ ~01111111111111011
10.111 ~01110 111111111112~ 10.~ ~01111111111111011 1088~87

3-15. ~0.11111(~ 10.~ ~)())(~581011510( 10.~ 0))1111111111 ..,11111~ 01 ~01111111111111011 ~11))11~110( 11110111011~10(
111 11 (~801111111 ))1118~ ~011111111111110117

3-16. ~0.~ 00~5 10.~ ~01111111111111011 ~11))11~110( 111 11 (~801111111 ))1115~ ~01111111111111011 ~~1 0..,~(-
~0.11(~~0 7

3-17. 1-10~ 15 10.~ ..,01111~~ 0110.~ ~01111111111111011 ~11))11~110( (~..,~(8~0 111 11 ~01111111111111011 ~1(~11117

3-18. ~0.111 1~))~ 01 ~11))11~110( 18 110(1111111~ 118~0 111 0.1~0. 5~11~0.111~ 1(~~11~11~1~87

3-1. 111 ~1~. 3-311, 10.~ 111111111~11))11~110( ..,01111~~, ~0 = 600 ~, ~11))11~111111~~, ~ = 40 , ~, 11110
111011~11111~~,1- = 10 , 1-1. 0~1~(111111~ 10.~ ))~11/( ..,11111~ 01 (~801111111 ~11((~111 11110 10.~
~011011~11011 11111~ 0110.~(1510( 11.

3-2. ~~))~111 ~(00. 3-1 1110.~ 111011~10( 111 10.~ (~801111111 (~..,~(8111 ~1(~1111 0.118 11 (~81511111~~, ~

= 0.015 0. (11111(.. 0~1~(111111~ 10.~ (0018 0111 8~~0110-0(0~( 8~81~111 11110 10.~11 1/110 10.~
5011111011. )
3-3. 10.~ ~1(~1111111
~1~. 3-4 0.118~, 600 ~, ~0 = 0 ~, 1- = 20 ,1-1,~ = 50 ,~, 111101,,,
75

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= 350~. 0~1~(11110.~ (8) 111~ ~~3~ ~3~3~110( ~01138~ 30.0 ~11((~0.1~ 30.0 (~) 111~ ~00.-
011~1100. 11111~0(111)1(1510( 11.
3-4. 10. 111~ ~011111111131100.~1(~111110. ~18. 3-6, ~3~3~1130.~~, ~ = 20 ,..,..~, 10.~111 ~01138~, ~5,
~3(1~5 ~~1~~~0. 180 30.0 220 ,,, 30.0 1030 ~11((~111, 1,,,, ~3(1~5 ~~1~~~11 50 3110 200 ~.
0~1~(11110.~ 111~ 11110.111111111
30.0 1113)(111111111
~3111~5 01 3~3113~1~ 111(11-01111111~, (~.
3-5. ~0( 111~ ~1(~111110. ~18. 3-6, 0~1~(11110.~ 111~ ~3111~5 01 ~3~3~110( ~ 30.0 (~~~(510.8 10.011~10(
,,, 1030 ~11((~0.1, /,,,
1., 11 111~ 811~~1)1 ~01138~, ~5 = 220 = 150 ~, 111(0.-011 11111~,
(~ = 15 ,..,..5,30.0 111~ (~~~(531
~11((~0.118 1111111~010 150% 01/,,,.
,,, ~
3-6. 111~ ~1(~111110. ~18. 3.8 1135 ~5 = 220 = 20 ,..,..~, 30.0/,,, = 150~. 0~1~(11110.~
111~ ~3111~ 01 (~~113(810.8 10.011~130.~~, 1.1, ~111~11 ~111 ~(0~10~ 111(0.-01111111~, (~ = 15 ,..,..5.
3-7. ~0( 111~ ~1(~111110. ~18. 3-8, 0~1~(11110.~ 111~ ~3111~5 011.1 30.0~. 111~ 511~~1)1 ~01138~,
~5 = 200 ,,, 1030 ~11((~0.1, /,,, 350~, 111(0.-01111111~, (~ = 20,..,..5, 30.0 111~ ~~3~ ~11((~0.1
=
111(011811 0100~ 1)1 15 1111111~010 2.5 11111~5/,,,.
,,,
3-8. ~0( 111~ 1111~1115~~011111111131100.~1(~1111 10. ~18. 3-9, 111~ 511~~1)1 ~01138~, ~5 = 220
~3~3~1130.~~, ~ = 20 ,..,..~, 30.0 1030 ~11((~0.1, ~ = 10 0. 0~1~(11110.~ 111~ 111(0.-01111111~,
(~.
3-9. 10. 111~ (~500.30.1 ~1115~ ~1(~111110. ~18. 3-123, 511~~1)1 ~01138~, ~5 = 200 ,,, 1030 ~11((~0.1,
/,,, = 150~, ~011111111131100.10.011~130.~~, 1. = 4 ,..,..11,30.0 ~011111111131100.~3~3~1130.~~, ~
= 20 ,..,..~. 0~1~(11110.~ 111~ ~~3~ (~500.30.1 (~~~(510.8 ~11((~0.101111)1(1510( 13, /~, 30.0 111~
111(0.-01111111~, (~.
3-10. ~~~~31 ~(0~. 3-9 11 30. 30.11~3(311~1 0100~ 15 ~00.0.~~1~0 3~(055 111)1(1510( 11 35 5110~0. 10.
~18. 3-133.
3-11. 11 3 0100~ 15 ~00.0.~~1~0 3~(055 111)1(1510( 11 10. ~18. 3-123 30.0 111~ ~3~3~110( 8~15 0~~(-
~113(8~0, 0~1~(11110.~ 111~ ~3111~5 011. 30.0~. 111~ 511~~1)1 ~01138~, ~5 = 200 ,,, 1030
~11((~0.1, /,,, = 350 ~, 111(0.-01111111~, (~ = 20 ,..,..5,30.0 111~ (3110 01 ~~3~ (~500.30.1 10
1030 ~11((~0.1, ~ = 1.5.
3-12. ~~~~31 ~(0~. 3-1110( 111~ ~1(~111110. ~18. 3-133.
3-13. 10. 111~ ~1(~111110. ~18. 3-133, 1030 ~11((~0.1, /,,, = 200 ~, ~3~3~110( ~01138~, ~() = 220
,,, 30.0 111(0.-01111111~, (~
= 15 ,..,..8. 0~1~(11110.~ 111~ 0~1111111111~3111~5 01 ~ 30.01. 80 11131
111~ 11110.111111111
~0.~(8)11055~5 ~01110 0~~11( 011(10.8 111~ ~011111111131100.~~(100.
3-14. 10. 111~ ~1(~111110. ~18. 3-18, 111~ 511~~1)1 ~01138~, ~5 = 220 ,,, ~3~3~1130.~~. ~ = 30 ,..,..~,
~011111111131100.10.011~130.~~, 1. = 10 ,..,..11, 30.0 1030 ~11((~0.1. /,,, = 100~. 0~1~(11110.~
111~ 111(0.-01111111~, (~, 01111~ ~1(~1111.
3-15. ~)(~1310. 111~ 0~~(31100. 01111~ ~1(~111110. ~18. 3-173 30.0 10~0.111)1111~ 1)1~~8 01 ~011111111131100.
10.~01~~0 10. 11115~1(~1111.

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4

~~ 113~~ 5~~0 10 ~113))1~( 2 11131 0100~ (~~1111~(5 ))(0~10~ 3 11)(~0 0111))111 ~0113~~
001)1. 10 001310 ~001(011~0 0111))111 ~0113~~5, ))1135~ ~001(01 111)1(1510(5 3(~ 115~0
1051~30 01 0100~5. 111~ 0111))111 ~0113~~ 01111)1(1510( (~~1111~(5 15 ~3(1~0 0)1 ~001(01110~
111~ 0~13)1 0( 11(10~ 30~1~ 01111)1(1510(5. ~ ))1135~-~001(01111)1(1510( 15 111(0~0 00 0)1
3))))1)110~ 3 5110(1 ))1115~ 10 115 ~31~ 300 111(0~0 011 011~ 10 11(1(/17(1/ 07 //11~ ~0111111/1((1(/011 ~
300 10 ~35~ 01 3 111~111)110011~11~~ 1030, 11 15 111(0~0 011 0)111(10~ 300111~( 111)1(1510(
01111~ (~~1111~( 011(10~ 111~ 0~~311~~ 11311-~)1~1~ 0110))111 ~0113~~.
111~5~ ))1135~-~001(011~0 (~~1111~(5 3(~ 51(0))1~ 300 1~55 ~)())~051~~~ 300 111~ ~1-
11~1~0~)1 01111~5~ (~~1111~(5 3(~, 10 ~~0~(31, 300~~ 95 % . 510~~ 111~5~ (~~1111~(5 ~00~~(1
1(0(0 3~ 10 0~, 111~5~ ~001(011~0 (~~1111~(5 3(~ 3150 ~311~0 (1~-()~ ~0111)~7(~75 300 3(~
115~0 ~)(1~051~~1)1101001151(131 3))))11~311005, ~5))~~1311)110 ~3(1301~-5))~~0 0(1~~5, (30~-
10~ 1(0(0 1(3~110031110(5~))0~~( 10 (0~~3~311 ))0~~( 1~~~1.
111~ ))1135~-~001(01 ~00~~(1~(5 ~30 0~ ~1355111~0 1010 1~0 1)1))~5 0~))~0010~ 00
111~ 10))111511))))1)1~ (1) 510~1~-))1135~ ~00~~(1~(5, 300 (2) 111(~~-))1135~ ~00~~(1~(5. 83~11
1)1))~ ~30 0~ 511001~10~0 1010 (3) 5~(01~00~~(1~(, (0) 11111 ~00~~(1~(, 300 (~) 01131
~00~~(1~(. ~ 5~111/~0111)~7(~7 15 3 00~-~1130(301 ~00~~(1~( 300 11 1135 00~ ))013(11)1
01 0111))111 ~0113~~ 300 ~11((~01. ~ //1// ~0111)~7(~7 15 3 1~0-~1130(301 ~00~~(1~( 300
111~ ))013(11)1 01115 0111))111 ~0113~~ ~30 0~ ~1111~( ))05111~~ 0( 0~~311~~. 1-10~~~~(, 111~

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001~01 ~0((~01 011011 ~00~~(1~( 11(1800~ ~01(1(11~ 001~. ~ (/(1(1/ ~0/111~,(~, ~(10 0~~((11~
10 100( ().0(10((1018~ (100 00111111~ 001~01 ~011(1~~ (100 ~0((~01 ~(10 0~ ~1111~( ~08111~~
0( 0~~(111~~. 10 80(0~ (1~~11~(111008, ~00~~(1~(8 (1(~ ~000~~1~0 10 8~(1~8 10 0~~((11~
(11 111~11~( ~011(1~~8 (100 10 1(0~(0~~ 111~ 111~01 ~0~~( 1(1~10(.
111~ (0~11100 01 ~00(1~( 8~(1~8 81(011(1( 10 111(11 01 0100~ (~~1111~(8 ~(111 0~ (1~~11~0
10 (111(11~2~ 111~ ~~(10((0(111~~8 01 ~11(18~-~0111(011~0 ~011~~(1~(8 ~1111 ~1. 10(108. 1-10~-
~~~(, 10 81(0~111~ 111~ (111(11~818, 1118 (1880(0~0 111 11118 ~11(1~1~( 111(11111~ 10(10 11100~1(10~~
18 80111~1~1111~ 111~11~ (1110 111~ 10(10 ~0((~111 18 ~01111110008 (1110 11(18 11~~11~101~ (1~~1~.

1.~1 08 ~011810~( 111~ ~1(~011 111 ~1~. 4-1(1 ~1111 (1 (~81811~~ 10(10. 00(10~ 111~ ~08111~~
11(111-~~~1~ 01111~01 ~011(1~~, 111~ 111~(1810( (11100~ 18 ~08111~~ ~1111 (~8~~~110 118 ~(111100~
(1110 111~ 111~(1810( 18 8(110 10 0~ /0,~(1,(/ 0/(15~(/. ~11~11 111~(1810( 11 18 11(~0 (11 0)( =
(1, 111~(1810( 11 ~01100~18 (100 111~ 10~01 ~011(1~~ (1~~~(1(8 (1~(088 111~ 10(10. ~11~0 111~
10~01 ~011(1~~ 81(1(18 10 0~ 11~~(111~~ (11 0)( = 10, 111~ 111~(1810( (1000~ 18 0~~(111~~ ~1111
(~8~~~110 118 ~(111100~ (100 111~(1810( 11 18 8(110 10 0~ ,~11~,5~ 0/(15~(/~ (100 1118 10(0~0

. ,,,.,
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011. 10~ 11111~ (111~( 10~ 111()1.11~011(1~~ 51(1(15 10 ~0 ()05111~~ 1.11111110~ 10)1(1510( 15 11(~0
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01.11()1.11~011(1~~, 10(10 ~1.1((~111, (1110 ~011(1~~
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1.15~0 111 11101.151(1(11 (1()()11~(1110115 0~~(11.15~ 11 0(15 01~0 (1()()1~ ~0111~111 (1110 10~ (1()()1~
1(~()1.1~11~)1. 11/5 15 10~ 1(~()1.1~11~)1 01111()1.11 51.1()()1)1, 10~ 10~~511(~()1.1~11~)1 01 01.11()1.11
(1()()1~ ~011(1~~ 1515.
11 ~ ,,, 15 10~ ()~(1~ 111()1.11~011(1~~, 10~ (1~~((1~~ 01.11()1.11~011(1~~ ~(111 0~ 101.1110 1(0111

~00 = 1,,,70
~,,, 51110)( (/(0)()
= ~~ (-~05 0)()~
2~ (4-1)

= ~~ (1 + ~08 ~)

(1110 ~00 ~(111 0~ ~(1(1~0 1(0111 ~ ,,,/10 10 0 0)1 ~(1()1111~ ~ 1(0111 0 10 10. 10~ (1~~((1~~
01.11()1.11 ~011(1~~ 0~~01118 111(1)(11111.1111
~0~11 ~ = 0 (111010~ 111(1)(11111.1111
~011(1~~, ~,,,,,, ~8

17
_ ~,,,
.-,,,,, - (4-2)
10
~0(111(1112111~ 10~ 01.11()1.11~011(1~~ ~110 (~8()~~110 ~,,,,,, 10~ 110(111(1112~0 ~011(1~~,

~,, = -~00 = 0.5 ( 1 + ~08 ~) (4-3)


~,,,,,
10~ (1118 01.11()1.11 ~011(1~~ 18 ~1~~11 0)1

1/2 1/2

~~1115 = ( 2~1,,,70 ~~811120)((/(0)/) ) = 1,,,70


_
(1 ~0520)()(/(0)()
( ~~ ) (4-4)
1/2
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= ~,,,(~( 10 ~ + 51~2~) )
~,.3(1)))~ 4-1

1110~ ~011~~(1~( 01 ~1~0(~ 4-1(1 0(15 (1 ~1.1(~1)1 (~51511~~ 10(10 01 ~ (1110 10~ 0~1(1)1 (111~1~ 15
~ = -../2, 0~1~(111111~ 10~ ((1) (~~1111~(111011 ~111~1~11~)1~(0) 10(111 1(1~10(, ~~~ (~) (1~~1~
1(1~10(, ~~~ (0) 1((111510(111~( 011112(111011 1(1~10(, 10~~ (1110 (~) ~~(1)( 111.,,~(5~ .,,011(1~~,
~1~, 0110)1(1510( 11.

80)01100 10~ 0~1(1)1 (111~1~, ~


= -../2. ~(0111 ~().. (4-1), ~00 = 0.1592~,,, (1110 /00 =
0.1592~,,,/~. ~(0111 ~().. (4-3),
~~ = 0.5 ~1.1. ~(0111 ~().. (4-4), ~,111, = 0.3536~,,, (1110
1,111, = 0.3536~,,,/~. ~(0111 ~().. (2-42),1100
= ~00/00 = (0.1592~,,,)2/~ (1110 1(0111 ~()..
(2-43),1130 = ~,1115/,1115= (0.3536~,,,)2/~.
((1) ~(0111 ~().. (2-44) 10~ (~~1111~(111011 ~111~1~11~)1,

(0.1592~,,,)2
11 = .
= 2027% 0
(0.3536~,,,)2
(0) ~(0111 ~().. (2-46), 10~ 10(1111(1~10(

0.3536~,,,
~~ =
0.1592~,,, = 2.221 0( 222.1 %

79

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(~) ~~0111~().. (2-48), 10~ ~1~~1~13~10~, ~~ = (2.2212 - 1)1/2 = 1.983 0~ 198.3%.
(0) 10~ ~1115~0113~~ 011~311510~111~~5~~01103~~, ~$ = ~ ~/0 = 0.707~,~. 10~
~1115~3111~ 0110~ 1~311510~111~~ 5~~01103~~ ~11~~~1111510~ 53111~35 1031 0110~ 1030, 1$ =
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)( 0.3536~~/~. ~~0111 ~().. (2-49),
0.15922 1
10~ = 0.1014 = 9.86
0.707
)(
0.3536 = 10~

(~) 10~ ~~3/( 111~~~5~~0113~~, .,1~ = ~~.

~0(~. 111~ .,~~10(111311~~ 01111~ ~011~~~1~~ 15 0~~~30~0 31 111~ 10~~~ ~311~~ 01


0~13)1 311~1~, ~.

111~ ~1~~1.111 3((311~~~~111 01 3 8111~1~-.,1138~ 8~~1~011~~(1~( 18 8110~11111 ~1~. 4-23 ~1111


3 111~111)1 11101.1~11~~ 1030. 111~ 1030 ~1.1((~111 18 3881.1~~0 ~01111111.101.18. 01.1(111~ 111~
())(
.,08111~~ 11311-~)1~1~, 111)1(1810( 11 18 10(~3(0 0138~0. ~11~11 111)1(1810( 11 18 11(~0 31
= ~, 111~ 1030 18 ~01111~~1~0 10 111~ 111.,1.11 81.1.,.,1)1111(01.1~1111
())( ~
3110 /)2 01.1(111~ 111~ .,~(100
())( ~ 10. 01.1(111~ 111~ .,~(100 1(0~ 10 ~ (10 + ~), 111~ 111.,1.11 ~0113~~ 18
~ ~
11~~311~~ 3110 111~ 1(~~~11~~1111~ 0100~ /),,, 1810(~3(0 0138~0. /),,, ~01101.1~1810 .,(0~10~
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1(0~ 11 3110 /)2 10 /),,,~ 3110 111)1(1810( 1) 3110 0100~ /)2 3(~ 11.1(11~0 011. 01.1(111~ 111~
11~~311~~ 11311-~)1~1~ 01111.,1.11 ~0113~~, 111)1(1810( 12 18 10(~3(0 0138~0, 3110 11(111~ 01
())( 10 + ~ ~111 (~~~(8~ 0138 /),,,.
111)1(1810( 1231 = 111~ 0100~ /),,, 18 11.1(11~0011 3110
111~ 1030 18 ~01111~~1~0 10 111~ 81.1.,.,1)1111(01.1~11 12 3110 /)1.
~1~1.1(~ 4-20 8110~8 111~ (~~1011 01 ~011~~(1~( 0.,~(311011, ~11~(~ 111~ 01.11.,1.11 ~0113~~
3110 ~1.1((~111113~~ .,08111~~ .,013(11)1. ~1~1.1(~ 4-2~ 8110~8 111~ ~3~~10(~8 10( 111~ 111.,1.11
~0113~~, 01.11.,1.11 ~0113~~, 111.,1.11 ~1.1((~111, 3110 ~1.1((~1118 111(01.1~11 1), 12, /)1, 3110 /)2.
11118 ~011~~(1~( 1138 3 0~11~( .,0~~( 13~10( 01.1~ 10 111~ 1(~~~11~~1111~ 0100~ 3110 18
~0~~0(11)1 1.18~0 111 3.,.,11~3110118 1.1., 10 15 /(~, ~11~(~ 011~-~1.130(3111 0.,~(311011 18
3~~~.,1301~.
111~ 3~~(3~~ 01.11.,1.11 ~0113~~ ~311 0~ 101.1110 1(0~

2 (70 2~,,,
~00 = ~,,, 8111 ())( (/(())() (- ~08
())( )~
210)0. 210 (4-5)
~,,,
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10

3110 ~00 ~311 0~ ~3(1~0 1(0~ 2~ ,,,/10 10 0 0)1 ~3()1111~ ~ 1(0~ 0 10 10. 111~ ~3)(1~1.1~
3~~(3~~ 01.11.,1.11~0113~~ 18 ~11,,, = 2~ ,,,/10 3110 111~110(~3112~0 3~~(3~~ 01.11.,1.11
~0113~~
18

0.5(1 + ~08 ~) (4-6)

80

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,,
~0= (.
+)
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0
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~)(301()1~ 4-2

111~ 8~1111~0(1~~(1~( 1(1 ~1~. 4-23. 18 ~0(1(1~~1~0 10 3. 120- ~ 60-1-1~ 8~~~1~. 111~ 103.0
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1~((18 (3.60 01111~ 1(3.(1810(111~( 18 ~(111~. (3.) )3,)(~(~88 111~ 1(1~~1 ~~((~(11 1(1 3. ~011(1~(
8~(1~8~ 0~1~(1111(1~ 111~ 113.(1110(11~13.~10( 011(1~~1 ~~((~(11, 1-1~ ~ 018~13.~~111~(1113.~10(, 0~ ~
3.(10 1(1~~1 ~0~~( 13.~10(, ~~. (0) 11 0~13.~ 3.(1~1~ 18 ~ = -../2, ~3.1~1113.1~ ~00 ~0, ~,,,..,,
1-1~, 0~, 3.(10 ~~.

80101100 (3.) 111~ ~3.~~10(111 10( 1(1~111 ~11((~(11 18 8110~(1 1(1 ~1~. 4- 2~ 3.(10 111~ /(1813.(1-
13.(1~0~8 1(1~~1 ~~((~(11 ~3.(1 0~ ~)(~(~88~0 1(1 3. ~0~(1~( 8~(1~8 3.8
~

/(() = /00 + ~
11=1.2....
(00 ~08 /1(1)( + 00 81(1 /1(1)() (4-8)

= 0

2/~ .
= - -/1-.. 81(1 /1~ 10( /1 = 1, 3, 5, ...

= 0 10( /1 = 2, 4, 6, . . .

2/~ ( ...
= /1-..
- 1 + ~08 /1~) 10( /1 = 1, 3, 5,

= 0 10( /1 = 2, 4, 6, . . .
81(1~~ /00 = 0, )3,~. (4-8) ~3.(1 0~ ~(111~(1 3.8
~

81(1(/1(1)(
/(() ~
11=1,2....
0/0 + ~0) (4-9)

/1~
(4-10)
2

111~ (1118~3.1~~ 01111~ /1111113.(1110(11~


~0111~0(1~(1101111~ 1(1~~1 ~~((~(11 18 0~(1~~0 3.8

1 20 /~ /1~
10 = ...,~2 (0~
,-,,, + 02)1/2
0 =- ~08 -2 (4-11)
/1-..

82

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(4-12)

1/2 1/2

1, = ~

~ 2~
1,,
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) = /~ ( )
1 -
~
(4-13)

(4-14 )

~~0111 ~~5. (2-50) ~110 (4-10),

~
0~ = (05 ~1 = (05 - 2 (4-15)

/1 ~ 0 (1 + (05 ~)
~~ = _ (4-16)
2=
(05
(,,.(,,.
~ ~))1/2

(0) ~ = ,,./2 ~11011,,,= )(


120 = 169.83~.0 ~~0111~~. (4-5), 11~0=
(11,~/,,.)(1 + (05~) = 51.57~, 1~0111~~. (4-6), 11~ = 0.5 ..,1.1,~1101~0111~~. (4-7),
1/2

11,,,,, =
11,,, ~
0~,,.
~
( ,,. _ ~ +
51112~
2 )) = 81 ~

20/0 ,,.
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~ 4= 0.6366/0
1/2
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_
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2 1/2

1-.(~
= ~ /
~
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) = 0.4835 0~ 48.35%

0~ = (05 ~
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4 -
4 = 0 .7071

/1 ~ .
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/, 2

1-/0(~. 10~ 11~(10(111(111~~ 11(1((1111~1~(5 01 10~ ~011~~(1~( 0~11~110 011 10~ 0~1(1~
(111~1~, ~.

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10~ ~1(~11113((30~~01~01 01 3 510~1~-~035~ 11111~00~~(1~( 15 500~0 10 ~1~. 4-33 ~110
3 01~01)110011~11~~ 1030. 011(10~ 10~ ~05111~~ 0311-~)1~1~, 10)1(1510(5 1) 300 12 3(~
10(~3(0 0135~0~ 300 ~0~0 10~5~ 1~0 10)1(1510(5 3(~ 11(~0 5101111130~01151)131 0)( = ~,
10~ 1030 15 ~000~~1~0 10 10~ 10~111 511~~1)110(011~0 1) 300 12. 011~ 10 10~ 10011~11~~
1030, 10)1(1510(5 1) 300 12 ~111 ~0011011~ 10 ~00011~1 0~)1000 0)( = 10, ~~~0 10011~0
10~ 10~111 ~0113~~ 15 31(~30)1 0~~311~~. 011(10~ 10~ 0~~311~~ 0311-~)1~1~ 0110~ 10~111
~0113~~, 10)1(1510(5 13 300 14 3(~ 10(~3(0 0135~0~ 300 11(10~ 0110)1(1510(5 13 300 14
~1113~~1)110~ 511~~1)1~0113~~ 3~(055 10)1(1510(5 1) 300 12 35 (~~~(5~ 010~/(10~ ~0113~~.
1) 300 12 ~111 0~ 111(0~0 011 011~ 10 //11€ 0( 11(1(/11(1/~0111111((((1(/011300 10~ 1030 ~11 ~01
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01 ~00~~(1~( 0~~(31100 300 ~1~. 4-3~ 500~5 10~ ~3~~10..01510( 10~111 ~0113~~, 0111~111
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011(10~ 10~ ~~(100 1(001 ~ 10 10, 10~ 10~111 ~0113~~, 1), 300 10~111 ~11((~01, /, 3(~
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10 0~ 0~~(31~0 10 ,.€~(///~(1(/011 0100~. 011(10~ 10~ ~~(100 1(001 10 10 10 + ~, 10~

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111~1.11 ~011(1~~, 11, 15 11~~(111~~ (1110 111~ 111~1.11 ~1.1((~111 15 ~05111~~~ (1110 111~(~ ~111 0~
(~~~(5~ ~0~~( 110~ ~(0(11 111~ 10(10 10 111~ 51.1~~1)1. 111~ ~011~~(1~( 15 0~~((11~0 111
/11~~,.5/011 11100,~. 11115 ~011~~(1~( 15 ~)(1~1151~~1)11.15~0 111 11101.151(1(11 (1~~11~(1110115 1.1~ 10
15 /(~. 0~~~110111~ 011 111~ ~(111.1~ 0~ ~, 111~ (1~~((1~~ 01.11~1.11 ~011(1~~ ~01.110 0~ ~1111~(
~05111~~ 0( 11~~(111~~ (1110 11 ~(0~10~5 1~0-()1.1(10((1111 0~~((111011.
111~ (1~~((1~~ 01.11~1.11 ~011(1~~ ~(111 0~ ~01.1110 ~(0(11

+
2 (10 0

~00 = ~,,,5111().)(0,(().)()
210)0 (4-17)
2~,,,
- ~05 ~
10

(1110 ~00 ~(111 0~ ~(16~0 ~(0(11 2~ ,,,/10 10 - 2~ ,,,/10 0)1 ~(1()1111~ ~ ~(0(11 0 10 10. 111~
(11(1)(1(111.1(11
(1~~((1~~ 01.11~1.11~011(1~~ 15 ~.1,,, = 2~ ,,,/10 (1110 111~ 110((11(1112~0 (1~~((1~~
01.11~1.11~011(1~~ 15

(4-18)

(4-19)

~)(301().~ 4-3

~0( 3 0~13)1 311~1~ 01 ~


= 71/3, (~~~31 8)(3111~1~ 4-2 10( 01~ 5111~1~-~1135~ 11111~011~~(1~(
111~1~. 4-33.

8010~100 (3) 111~ ~3~~10(111 10( 111~111~11((~11115 5110~11 111 ~1~. 4-3~ 3110 111~ 11151311-
1311~0115 111~111~11((~111 ~311 0~ ~)(~(~55~0 1113 ~011(1~( 5~(1~5 35
~

/(1) = /00 + ~
11=1.2....
(~~ ~05 /1001 + 0~ 5111/1(01) (4-20)

4/. .
= - -/171 5111/1~ 10( /1 = 1, 3, 5, . . .

= 0 10( /1 = 2, 4, . . .

58~. 4-4 85

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(4-22)
41~
= - ~05 /1~
/170
10~ /1 =
1, 3, 5, . . .

0 10~ /1 = 2, 4, . . .
=

5111~~ 100 = 0, ~()..(4-20) ~(1110~ ~~111~11 (15

=
~
=
~ 1,2,...
0 1~
5111(0)(+ ~~) (4-23)

(1~
1(111-1 -/1~ (
4- 24
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/)~

(1110~~ 15 ,,,(1111~01111~
111~ 015~1(1~~111~111 (111~1~ 01111~ /111111(1~1110111~ ~11~~~111. 111~ ~1115

/111111(1~1110111~ 111~111 ~11~~~111 15

1 41 20 1~
(4-25)
1 = - ((12
+ /)2)1/2
= ~0 = -
~
0 ~ ~
/170 /170

(4-26)

(4-27)

(4-28)

~~0111 ~~. (2-51) 111~ 11(1~1110111~ 1(1~10~ 15 1011110 (15

2 1/2
_
= = 0.4834 0~ 48.24%
1-1~
((1,) 1)

~~0111 ~().5. (2-50) (1110 (4-24), 111~ 015~1(1~~111~1111(1~10~,

0~ = ~05~1 = ~05-~ (4-29)

~~0111 ~()..(2-52) 111~ ~0~~~ 1(1~10~ 15 1011110 (15

11 20
~~ = - ~05 - ~ = - (4-30)
1, 70 ~05 ~

86

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(0) ()- = 71/3.

2~~
~00 = ~05 ()- = 54.02 ~ ~~ = 0.5 ~11
71

~,015 = ~ = ~5 = 120 ~

/1 = (2 0 ~) = 0.90032/. ~110 /, = /.
2 1/2
/
11~ =
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-71
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= ~05 = 0.5
3
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(1~~~111~
1,
~05 = 0.45

1-/0(~. 10.~ 1000(1111~01(11 ~0111~00~01 0110~01 ~0((~01 15 (11~(1~5 90.03% 0110


(100 10.~ 0.(1(111001~ 1(1~10( (~111(1105 ~0051(101 (11 48.34%.

~~ 0.(1~~ 5~~0 10 5~~600 4-4 10.(11 510~1~-~0.(15~ 1011 ~00~~(1~(5 (1110~ 001~ 1~0-
()0(10((101 0~~((1600. 111~0 0110.~5~ 1011 ~00~~(1~(5 (1(~ ~000~~1~0 0(1~/( 10 0(1~/(
(15 50.0~0 10 ~1~. 4-4(1, 0010. 10.~ 001~01 ~011(1~~ (100 10.~ 10(10 ~0((~01 ~(10 0~ (~~~(5~0.
10.~ 5~51~111 ~111 ~(0~10~ 100(-()0(10((101 0~~((1600 (100 15 ~(111~0 (1 0./1(1/ ~0,,1)~,.(~,..
00(11 ~00~~(1~(5 (1(~ 00(111(111~ 05~0 10 0.1~0.-~0~~( ~(1(1(101~-5~~~0 0(1~~5. 11 ~1 (100
~2 (1(~
10.~ 0~1(1~ (10~1~5 01 ~00~~(1~(5 1 (100 2, (~5~~~11~~1~, 10.~ ~0((~5~00010~
(1~~((1~~ 001~01 ~011(1~~5 (1(~ ~001 (100 11002. 10.~ 0~1(1~ (10~1~5 (1(~ ~001(011~0 50~0.
10.(11 00~ ~00~~(1~( 0~~((11~5 (15 (1 (~~1111~( (100 10.~ 010.~( ~00~~(1~( 0~~((11~5 (15 (10
10~~(1~(~ 001 0010. ~00~~(1~(5 ~(000~~ 10.~ 5(1111~ (1~~((1~~ 001~01 ~011(1~~. ~1~0(~
4-40 50.0~5 10.~ 001~01 ~(1~~10(111510( 1~0 ~00~~(1~(5, ~0.~(~ 10.~ 1~0 001~01 ~011(1~~5
(1(~ 10.~ 5(1111~. ~1~0(~ 4-4~ 50.0~5 10.~ 1)-/ ~0.(1((1~1~(156~5 01 (1 00(11 ~00~~(1~(.
~(0111 ~(). (4-17) 10.~ (1~~((1~~ 001~01 ~011(1~~5 (1(~

211,,,
11001 = - ~05 ~1 (4-31 )
11

(4-32)

58~.4-5 87

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~~2 2
+ +
~0
.3 -+ .2. .4.
8. 8.

1/01 ~08.~ 1/02


~11/
1~
0 0
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(8.) ()~,~~~1
1/

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~2 = 10 - ~1 (4-33)
5111~~ 111~ 11151111111111~01150111~111 ~01111~~5 01111~ 1~0 ~011~~(1~(5 11(~ 0111 01 ~11115~,
111~(~ ~111 0~ 111111151111111111~0115~01111~~ 0111~(~11~~ 11110 11115 ~111 (~51111 111 ~1(~111111111~
~11((~111 0~1~~~11 111~ 1~0 ~011~~(1~(5. 11115 ~1(~111111111~ ~11((~111 ~1111101110~ 111(011~11
111~ 10110 11110 15 110((111111~ 11(1111~0 0~ 11 ~/,~/1/(1(/~~ ~/1,,~~( ,~(1~(0, 1-~ 115 5110~11 111 ~1~.
4-411.
111)01 11110 1)02 11(~ 111~ 11151111111111~01150111~111 ~01111~~5 01 ~011~~(1~(5 1 11110 2,
(~5~~~11~~1~, 111~ ~1(~111111111~ ~11((~111 ~1111 0~ 1011110 0~ 1111~~(111111~ 111~ 11151111111111~0115
())(
~01111~~ 0111~(~11~~ 5111(1111~ 1(0(11 = 210 - ~1. 5111~~ 111~ 1~0 0111~111 ~01111~~5
())(
011(111~ 111~ 1111~(~111 10 + ~1 10 210 - ~1 11(~ ~~11111, 111~1( ~0111(1011110115 10 111~
=
11151111111111~0115~1(~111111111~ ~11((~111 /~ 15 2~(0.

(4-34 )

111~ ~1(~111111111~ ~11((~111 0~~~1105 011 111~ 0~111~ 1111~1~ 11110 0~~0(11~5 (1111)(1(1111(11~11~11
~1 = 10,
())(
= ~10, ~ = 0,2,4, . . .,11110 (111111(1111(11111
~1 = 0, ())(
= ~10, ~ = 1,
3, . . .. 11111~ ~~11~ 10110 ~11((~111 15 1,,, 011~ 01111~ ~011~~(1~(5 111111 ~0111(015 111~
~0~~( 110~ (1111~ ~11((~ 11 ~~11~ ~11((~111 01 (1,, + 4 ~ 111/())1-~).
111~ 011111 ~011~~(1~(5 ~1111 0~ 0~~(111~0 ~1111 0( ~11110111 11 ~1(~111111111~ ~11((~111.
111 ~115~ 01 0~~(1111011 ~11110111 ~1(~111111111~ ~11((~111, 0111~ 011~ ~011~~(1~( 0~~(111~5 111 11
11(11~ 11110 ~11((1~5 111~ 10110 ~11((~111~ 11110 111~ 0111~( ~011~~(1~( 15 ~0(11~1~1~1~ 010~~~0
0~ 111111011~0 ~111~ ~1115~5. 1-10~~~~(, 111~ 0~~(1111011 ~1111 ~1(~111111111~ ~11((~11111115 111~
10110~111~ 110~1111111~~5~

1. 111~ ~1(~111111111~~11((~111 (11111111111115


~0111111110115 ~011011~110110100111 ~011~~(1~(5
0~~( 111~ ~1101~ ~0111(01 (1111~~, 1110~~~110~111 01111~ 10110.
2. 5111~~ 011~ ~011~~(1~( 111~11~5 0~~(111~5 115 11 (~~1111~( 11110 111~ 0111~( ~011~~(1~(
0~~(111~5 115 1111111~~(1~(, 111~ ~0~~( 110~ 111 ~1111~( 01(~~11011 1111111~ 11(11~ 15 ~055101~.
3. 5111~~ 00111 ~011~~(1~(5 11(~ 111 ~0111111110115 ~011011~11011, 111~ 11(11~ (~5~0115~ 10(
~111111~111~ 1(0(11 011~ ~11110(11111 0~~(1111011 10 11110111~( 15 11151~(.

~)(3111())~ 4-4

111~ 51111))~-111135~01131 (011~~(1~, 111~18. 4-43 15 011~,31~0 1,0111 3 120- ~ 60-1-12 51111111)1
3110 111~ 1030 ,~5151311(~ 15 ~ = 10 0. 111~ (1,(111311118111011(1311(~15 ~0 = 40 1111-1~
0~13)1 31181~5 3,~ ~1 = 600 3110 ~2 = 1200. ~31(11131~ 111~11~3)((1,(111311118(11,,~111 3110
111~ 11~3)( (11,,~111 01 (011~~,1~, 1.
)(
80)011011 (1)
= 21/ 60 = 377 ,30/5, ~1 = 600, ~,,, = 0
)(
120 = 169.7~, / =
60 1-12, 3110 ~, = 40 1111-1. ~0, (1)( = 21/ 3110 ~1 = 1//3, ~(). (4-34) 81~~5 111~ 11~3)(

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2~,,, 169.7
/~(111(1)()= ( 1 - ~05 ~1) = )( = 11.25/1..
(1)~~ 377 0.04

111~ ~~(1/( 10(10 ~11((~111,/,, = 169.71/10 = 16.97 /1... 111~ ~~(1/( ~11((~11101 ~011~~(1~( 1
15(16.97 + 11.25) = 28.22/1...

~0( 111.~11-~0113~~ 3~~11~3110115, 1~0 0( (110(~ ~011~~(1~(5 ~311 0~ ~01111~~1~0 111 5~(1~5
10 5113(~ 111~ ~0113~~ 3110 3150 10 1(11~(0~~ 111~ ~0~~( ~3~10(. ~1~0(~ 4-53 5110~5 1~0
5~(111~011~~(1~(5 11131 3(~ ~01111~~1~0 1115~(1~5. )33~11 5~~01103()11135 111~ 53(11~ 110(110~(
0~ 10(115, 3110 111~ 10(115 (3110 0~1~~~11 111~ ~(1(113()1 3110 5~~01103()115 ~(,/~, = 2. 1~
~1 3110 ~2 3(~ 111~ 0~13)1 311~1~5 0~ ~011~~(1~( 1 3110 ~011~~(1~( 2, (~5~~~11~~1)1, 111~
(113)(1(110(11 001~01 ~0113~~ 1-7.111115 0013111~0 ~11~11 ~1 = ~2 = 0.
111 1~0-~011~~(1~( 5)151~(115, 011~ ~011~~(1~( 15 0~~(31~0 10 0013111 001~01 ~0113~~
1(0(11 010 1-7.1111/23110 111~ 0111~( ~011~~(1~( 15 0)1~355~0 111(00~111151(~~~11~~1111~ 0100~.
10 0013111 001~01 ~0113~~ 1(0(11 1-7.1111/210 1-7.1111,
011~ ~011~~(1~( 1511111)110(11~0 011 (0~13)1
30~1~, ~1 = 0) 3110 111~ 0~13)1 30~1~ 010111~( ~011~~(1~(, ~2, 15 ~3(1~0. ~1~0(~ 4-50
5110~5 111~ 001~01 ~0113~~, 111~01 ~0((~015 10 ~011~~(1~(5, 3110 111~ 111~01 ~0((~011(0(11
111~ 50~~1)1 ~11~11 00111 111~ ~011~~(1~(5 3(~ 0~~(31111~.
~(0(11 )3~. (4-5), 111~ 3~~(3~~ 001~01 ~0113~~5 011~0 5~(111~011~~(1~(5 3(~

1-7111
1-7001 = (1 + ~05 ~1)
10

(4-35)

111~ (113)(1(110(11 3~~(3~~ 001~01 ~0113~~ 10( ~1 = ~2 = 0 15 1-7.1111


~011~~(1~( 1 15 0~~(31111~~0 ~ ~1 ~ 10 3110 ~2 = 10, 111~11

(4-36)

3110 111~ 110((113112~0 3~~(3~~ 001~01 ~0113~~ 15

1-700
1-7~/= = 0.25 ( 1 + ) (4-37)
~ 0111
~05 ~1

11 00111 ~011~~(1~(5 3(~ 0~~(31111~~ ~1 = 0 3110 0 ~ ~2 ~ 10, 111~11

1-7/1/
1-700 = 1-7001 + 1-7002 = (3 + ~05 ~2) (4-38)
10

90

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(1110 111~ 1101111(1112~0 (1~~1(1~~ 0111~111 ~011(1~~ 15

11()0
11,, = + ( 4-39)
= 0.25(3 ~05 ~2)
11(/111

~1~111~ 4-6(1 5110~5 1~0 1111/ ~011~~11~15 111(11 (11~ ~01111~~1~0 111 5~11~5 (1110 111~ 1111115
1(1110 0~1~~~11 111~ ~11111(11~ (1110 5~~0110(11~ 15 1--/,,/1--/5 = 2. 011~ 10 111~ 1(1~1111(11111~1~
(11~ 110 11~~~11~~1111~ 0100~5, 011~ 01111~ ~011~~11~15 ~(1111101 0~ 0~~(155~0 (1110 00111
~011~~11~15 1111151 0~~1(11~ (11 111~ 5(1111~ 11111~.
111 1~~1111~(111011 11100~, 011~ ~011~~11~115 11111~ (10~(111~~0 (~1 = 0) (1110111~ 0~1(1~
(111~1~ 01 111~ 0111~1 ~011~~11~1, ~2, 15 ~(111~0 110111 0 10 11 10 ~0111101 111~ 0~ 0111~111

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~0
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.,,011(1~~. ~1~1.1(~ 4-60 5110~5 111~ 111()1.11.,,011(1~~, 01.11()1.11 .,,011(1~~5, 111()1.11~1.1((~1115 10
111~ ~011.,,~(1~(5, (1110 111()1.1151.1()()1)1 ~1.1((~111. ~0111()(1(111~ ~1~. 4-60 ~1111 ~1~. 4-20, ~~
~(11111011~~ 111(11111~ 111()1.11~1.1((~1111(0111 111~ 51.1()()1)115 5111111(1(10 111(11015~1111~011.,,~(1~(,
(1110 (15 (1 (~51.111111~ ()0~~( 1(1~10( 0111115 ~011.,,~(1~( 15 1111()(0.,,~0, 01.11111~ ()0~~( 1(1~10(
15 1~55 111(111111(11 01 5~(1~5 5~1111~011.,,~(1~(5.
111 111.,,~(51011 11100~, 011~ ~011.,,~(1~( 15 11.111)1(~1(1(0~0, ~2 = 70, (1110 111~ 0~1(1)1
(111~1~ 01111~ 0111~( ~011.,,~(1~(, ~1, 15 .,,(1(1~0 1(0111 0 10 70 10 ~0111(01111~ (1.,,~((1~~ 01.11()1.11
.,,011(1~~. ~1~1.1(~ 4-60 5110~5 111~ 1)-1 ~11(1((1~1~(1511~5 01 5~(1~5 11.111~011.,,~(1~(5.
~(0111 ~(). (4-17), 111~ (1.,,~((1~~ 01.11()1.11 .,,011(1~~5 011~0 11.111~011.,,~(1~(5 (1(~

(4-40)

(1.,,~((1~~ 01.11()1.11.,,011(1~~ 10( ~1 = ~2 = 0 15 ~,/,,, = 4~ ,,,/70.


111~ 111(1)(11111.1111 111 111~
(~~1111~(11101111100~, ~1 = 0 (11100 ~ ~2 ~ 70~111~11

(4-41 )

~,, = -~00 = 0.5 ( 1 + ~05 ~2 ) (4-42)


~,/,,,

(4-43)

~00 (4-44 )
~,, = ~ = 0.5 ( ~05 ~1 - 1)
,/,,,

~,.301()1~ 4-5

10~ 10~0 ~1.1 ~111 (~110 ~11 ~..~..~~~ ..~11.1~ 01 1.) 018~..1~8 11.111~011..~..1~..8 111~1~. 4-6~ 18
~0116111.101.18~110 10~ ..1~~1~ ~0111~111 18 11~~11~101~. 10~ 11.1..118..~60 0110~ 1..~11810..(11~..
18,..,,,/,..,5 = 2. 10~ ~011..~..1~..8 0~~..~1~ 111..~~611~~11011 (1100~ 81.1~0 10~1 ~1 = 0 ~110~2
..~..1~81..0(11 0 10,,.. (~) ~)(~..~88 10~ 111~1.1181.1~~1)1~1.1 ~111111 ~01.1..1~.. 8~..1~8, 0~1~..(11111~
10~ 0~..(110111~ 1~~10.. 01111~1.11 ~1.1 ~111, 11~~ 018~1~~~(11~1111~~10.., 1)~~ ~110 111~1.11~0~~..
1~~10.., ~~. (0) 1110~ 0~1~)1 ~11~1~ 18 ~2 =
,,./2 ~110 10~ ~~~/( 111~1.11..011~~~ 18 ~,,,
162 ~, ~~1~1.11~1~ ~00 ~~, ~,,,,0, 11~, 1)~, ~110 ~~.

58~. 4-6 93

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80)01100 (3) 111~ ~3.,,~~0~111 ~0~ 111~111~11~~~11118 8110~11 111 ~1~. 4-60 311() 111~ 11181311-
1311~0118 111~111811~~1~ ~11~~~111~311 0~ ~)(~~~88~() 1113 ~011~1~~ 8~~1~8 38
%

1(() = ~ 0 1~ 8111 (11(.0( + ~~)


/1= 1,2....

~11~~~ ~~ = -11~2/2. 8()11311011 (4.11) ~1.,,~8 111~ ~1118.,,3111~ 0~ 111~ 11111113~1110111~111~111


~11~~~111

(4-45)

(4-46)

111~ ~1118 111~111 ~11~~~111 18 ~01111() 38

1/2
_ 0.2 (4-47)
1$ = 1~ (1
11)
~~0111 8(). (2-51),
1/2
11(11 - ~2) _
1-1~= 1 (4-48)
~ 4(1 + ~08 ~2) )
~~0111 8()8. (2-50),

~0
1)~ = ~08 ~1 = ~08 - --= (4-49)
2
~~0111 8(). (2-52),

11 ~ 0 (1 + ~08 ~2)
~~ = - ~08 - = (4-50)
1$ 2 (11(11 - ~2))1/2
(0) ~1 = 0311()~2
= 11/2. ~~01118(). (4-41),

~00 = (2 ~ 1~2) (1 + ~08~) 103.13 ~

~~0111 8(). (4-42), ~~ = 0.5 ~11 311()

2 ~
~~,,,, = (2~ ,,,)2 8111 (.0( ((((.01)
2 11 102

20 11
11 = /~~ ~08 = 0.6366/~ 311() 1~ = 0.7071/~
4

1-1~=
2
_ 1) 1/2

= 0.4835 0~ 48.35%
~ (~)

94

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1)~ = (05 -
~ = 0.7071
4

11 .
~~ = ~(05 ( - ~1) = 0.6366 ( 1(1~~111~)

1-10(€. 111~ ~~(10(111(111(~ 01 5~(1~5 1011 (011~~(1~(5 15 51(1111(1(10 111(1101 5111~1~-


~0(15~ 5~(111(011~~(1~(5.

10(~~-~11(15~ (011~~(1~(5 ~(0~10~ 01~0~( (1~~((1~~ 001~01 ~011(1~~, (1110 111 (10011101110~
1(~()0~11(~ 0110~ (1~~1~5
011 10~ 001~01 ~011(1~~ 15 01~0~( (0(11~(1(~0 10 10(11 01 5111~1~-
(1 (~5011, 10~ 1111~611~ (~()01(~(11~1115 10( 5(110010111~ 001 10~
~11(15~ (011~~(1~(5. ~5
~)(-
10(10 (0((~111 15 51(11~1~(. ~0( 111~5~ (~(150115, 10(~~-~0(15~ (011~~(1~(5 (1(~ 05~0
1~1151~~1~ 111 01~0-~0~~( ~(1(1(101~-5~~~0 0(1~~5. 10(~~ 5111~1~-~0(15~ 11(111-~(1~~ (011-
~~(1~(5 111 ~1~. 4-1(1 ((111 0~ (01111~(1~0 10 10((11 (1 10(~~-~0(15~ 11(111-~(1~~ (011~~(1~(,
(15 500~11 111 ~1~. 4-7(1.
~0~11 10~(1510( 11 15 11(~0 (11 0)( = -../6 + ~, 10~ ~11(15~ ~011(1~~ 1)011 (1~~~(1(5
(1((055 111~ 10(10 0116110~(1510( 12 15 11(~0 (11 0)( = 5-../6 +~. ~0~11 10~(1510( 12 15
11(~0, 10~(1510( 11 15 (~~~(5~ 01(15~0, 0~((105~ 10~ 1111~-10-1111~ ~011(1~~, 1),,6 (= 1)011 -
1)611), 15 11~~(16~~ (1110 11 15 10(11~0 011. 10~ ~0(15~ ~011(1~~ 1)611 (1~~~(1(5 (1((055 10~
10(10 01161 10~(1510( 13 15 11(~0 (11 0)( = 3-../2 +~. ~0~11 111~(1510( 13 15 11(~0, 12
15 10(11~0 011 (1110 1)011(1~~~(1(5 (1((055 10~ 10(10 01111111 1511(~0 (1~(1111 (1110~ 0~~11111111~
(0(1((1(1~(1511(5 0110~ 10(10 (1110 1015 15
0111~)(1 (~(1~. ~1~0(~ 4-70 500~5 10~ 1) - 1
(1 011~-()0(10((1111 (011~~(1~(. ~1~0(~ 4-7( 500~5 10~ 111~01 ~011(1~~5, 001~01 ~011(1~~,
(1110 10~ (0((~111 10(00~0 10~(1510( 11 10( (1 01~01~ 11100(6~~ 10(10. ~0( (1 (~51511~~
10(10 (1110 ~ ~ -../6, 10~ 10(10 (0((~111 ~0010 0~ 015(0116110005 (1110 ~(1(0 10~(1510( 15
5~11-(0(11(1101(11~0 ~0~11 10~ ~01(1(11~ 01115 ~11(15~ ~011(1~~ 15 (~~~(5~0. 10~ 1(~()0~11(~
~((1(6((11
01 001~01 (1~~1~ ~011(1~~ 15 3/5. 1015 (011~~(1~( 15 1101 110((11(111~ 05~0 111
5~51~(115, 0~((105~ 10~ 50~~1~ (0((~1115 (0111(1111 0( (0(11~011~1115.
0)(, 111~ (1~~((1~~ 001~01 ~011(1~~ 10( (1
1110~ ~0(15~ ~011(1~~ 15 1),,11 = ~ 1/1 5111
(0116110005 10(10 (0((~111 15

(4-51 )

(11(1)(1(110(11 (1~~((1~~ 001~01 ~011(1~~ 10(11


~0~(~ 1/1/1 15 10~ ~~(1/( ~0(15~ ~011(1~~. 10~
0((0(5 (11 0~1(1~ (111~1~, ~ = 0 15

(4-52)

95
58~. 4-7

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9.

~. = ~,.1 ,..,

0
,, ,..2 ~~1/0
10 +
~.

10
~~1/0
(0
,..3 0
....1

1/0

~+..
6
~0
~~.
~~0

~,.1
~~.. ~2..
~.
~1

0
6 ~+.. 6
~+.. 2..
(~) ~0, ,,,0~01,1/9 ~09.0
~)~11..~ 4-7 111(~~-()113.5~ 113.)(-~3.1/~ ~011.,,~((~(.

(4-53)

96

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,,.
_3 311,,,
1100 =
210 1,,./6+()(
.
11,,/51110)( (/ (0)( ) = -210 (1+ ~05 ( ) 10
-6 + ~
(4-51(1)

(4-52(1)

(4-53(1)

~)(301~1~ 4-6
(1 1/1~~~-11/1(15~ ~-
~ 1/1~~~-11/1(15~ /1(111-~3.,~ ~011.,~~1~~ 111 ~1~. 4-7(1 15 011~~(11~0 1~0111
~01111~~1~0 208-~ 60-1-12 51111111~(1110 1/1~ 10(10 1~5151(111~~ 15 ~ = 1011. /11115 1~~111~~0
10 001(1111 (111(1.,~~(1~~ 011111111.,011(1~~ 01 50% 011/1~ 111(1)(111111111
11055101~ 011111111.,011(1~~,
~(11~111(11~1/1~ ((1) 0~1(1~ (111~1~~~ (0) ~1115(1110 (1.,~~(1~~ 011111111~11~~~1115~(~) (1.,~~(1~~ (1110
~1115 1/1~~1510~ ~11~~~1115~ (0) ~~~1111~(111011~111~1~11~~~ (~) 1~(111510~111~~1111112(1110111(1~10~,
10~~ (1110 (1) 11111111110~~~ 1(1~10~, ~~.

120.1 ~, 11,,, = 0 11_ = 169 .83 ~,


801011011 1/1~ 11/1(15~ .,011(1~~ 15 11, = 208/~ =
11~ = 0.5, (1110 ~ = 10 11. 1/1~ 111(1)(111111111011111111 .,011(1~~ 15

3 ~ 11,,,
)(
169.83
11,,,,, = = 3 ~ - = 140.45 ~
276 276
)(
1/1~ (1.,~~(1~~ 011111111.,011(1~~, 1100 = 0.5 140.45 = 70.23 ~.
((1) ~0~ (1 ~~51511.,~ 10(10, 1/1~ 10(10 ~11~~~11115 ~0111111110115/1 ~ ~ 76/6 (1110 6~. (4-
52) ~1.,~5 11~ ~ ~05 (76/6) = 86.6%. ~11/1 (1 ~~51511.,~ 10(10 (1110 50% 011111111,1/1~ 10(10
~11~~~11115 015~0111111110115. ~~0111 6~. (4-52(1),0.5 = (1/~) (1 + ~05 (76/6 + ~)) (1110
1/1~ 0~1(1~ (111~1~ 15 ~ = 67.70.
110)~ = 70.23/10
(0) 1/1~ (1.,~~(1~~ 011111111~111~~111, 100 = = 7.02~. ~~0111 6~.
(4-53(1), ~,,,.,, = 94.74 ~ (1110 1/1~ ~111510(10 ~11~~~111, 1,,,.,, = 94.74/10 = 9.47 ~.
(~) 1/1~ 3.,~~(1~~ ~11~~~11101 (1 1/1~~1510~, 1/), = 10)3 = 7.02/3 = 2.34 ~ (1110 1/1~
~1115~11~~~11101 (1 1/1~~1510~, 18., = 1,,,.,/~ = 9.47/~ = 5.47 ~.
)( )(
(0) ~~0111 6~. (2-44) 1/1~ ~~~1111~(111011
~111~1~11~~15 = 70.23 7.02/(94.74
9.47) = 54.95%.
(~) 1/1~ ~1115 111111111111~ ~11~~~11115 1/1~ 5(1111~ (15 1/1~ 1/1~~1510~ ~1115 ~11~~~111, (1110 1/1~
~1 = 311), = 3)(
11111111.,011-(111111~~~~(11111~, 120.1)( 5.47
= 1970.84~. ~~01116~.
)( 7.02/1970.84 = 0.25 0~ 25%.
(2-49), 10~ = 70.23
110~~~, ~0 = 1~,,.,,~ =
(1) 1/1~ 011111111 9.472 )( 10 = 896.81~. 1/1~ 11111111
110~~~ 1(1~10~, ~~ = 896.81/1970.84 = 0.455 (1(1~~111~).

~0(~. 01.1~ 10 111~ 0~1(1)1 (11181~, ~, 111~ 11.1110(1~~111(11~0~()011~111 01111()1.11 1111~


~1.111~11115(1150 0~1(1)1~0 ~11111~5()~~110 111~ 111()1.11
()11(15~ .,,011(18~.

97
58~. 4-7

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1,.1

~1 ~2
= ~.
~0
8 ~. ~3

~,.2 1,.3
~~1/.0 (0
0 0,,, ~~90,~
~0~~~1(1/6 1/0
~11/00 ~08~
(0

1(),,,
02 03 01
~()2 ~()3 ~()
1

(8) 8~~~~~1

00

1/
~3.03 ~1.01 ~2.02
. ~~~. ~3,03

0 001

__ ~__ 1/.0 - --
1/00 1/00
.......- ~....--..,.-- .... ------ ,.-
....
--
/
0 001
/ /
-- .-
......
......

~1/0 1/80 - 1/00 = 1/.0

~/

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0 6
001
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0 001
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0 001
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6
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2
6

0 001
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0
00/
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~(~) (1
~81/610~01510~
= 900
..1~~..~ 4-8 1/1(~~-()/135~ 5~1111(011..,~(/~(.

98 ~0,,1~0//80 88~1~~~8~5 ~~0~.4

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10..~~-~035~ 5~1111~011~~..1~..5 3..~ 1.15~0 111 11101.151..131 3~~11~3110115 1.1~ 10 10~ 120-/(~
1~~~1, ~0~..~ 011~-~1.130..3111 0~~..311011 15 ..~~1.11..~0. 10~ ~0~~.. 13~10.. 011015 ~011-
~~..1~.. 0~~..~35~5 35 10~ 0~13)1 31181~ 111~..~35~5, 01.11 11 15 0~11~.. 10311 1031 0110..~~-
~035~ 0311-~3~~ ~011~~..1~... ~181.1..~ 4-83 500~5 3 10..~~-~035~ 5~1111~011~~..1~.. ~110
3 01801)111101.1~11~~ 1030 3110 10~ 1030 ~1.1 ~111 035 3 11~8118101~ .-1~~1~ ~0111~111.
~181.1..~ 4-80 500~5 10~ ~3~~10..1115 10.. 111~1.11 ~01138~5, 01.11~1.11 ~01138~, 111~1.11
~1.1 ~111, 3110 10~ ~1.1 ~11110..01.18010)1..1510..5 3110 0100~5. 10~ 1..~~1.1~11~)1 01 01.11~1.11
~01138~ 15 3/5. 10~ 0~13)1 31181~, (1, ~311 0~ ~3..1~0 1..0111 0 10 01.1..1118 10~ ~~..100
())( ~ 7.../6, ())( (.../6 + (1),
.../6 ~ 10)1..1510.. 11 15 10..~3..0 0135~0. 1111 15 11..~0 31 =
11 3110 1)1 ~01101.1~1 3110 10~ 1111~-10-1111~ ~01138~ 1130 3~~~3..5 3~..055 10~ 1030. ~1
())(
= 7.../6,1130513..15 10 0~ 11~8311~~ 3110 10~ 1..~~~0~~11118 0100~ 1)/11~01101.1~15. 10~
1030 ~1.1 ~111 ~01111111.1~5 10 110~ 10..01.1801)/11~ 3110 11 3110 1)1 3..~ 11.1..11~0 011.
1110~..~ ~35
110 1..~~~0~~11118 0100~, 11 ~01.110 ~01111111.1~ 10 ~01101.1~11.11111110)1-
())( + (1 3110 10~ 1..~~~0~~11118 3~11011 ~01.110 0~ 3~~0111-
..1510.. 12 15 11..~0 31 = 5.../6
(1 ~ .../3, ~3~010)1..1510.. ~01101.1~15 10.. 2.../3 3110 10~
~1150~0 10..01.180 11 3110 1)2. 11
1..~~~0~~11118 0100~ 1)/11 00~5 1101 ~01101.1~1.
11 ~~ 0~1111~ 10~ 10..~~ 1111~-11~1.11..31 ~01138~5 35 10110~5~

110~ ~ /115111 (())( _ 2~)

110~ = ~/115111(())( + 2~),

10~ ~0 ~5~01101118 1111~-10-1111~~01138~5 3..~

1100 = 110~ - 110~ = 0 ~ /11 5111 ( ())(


-
~)

1100 = 110~ - 110~ =0 ~ /11 5111 ( ())( _ 5~)

1100 = 110~ - 110~ =0 ~ /11 5111 ( ())(


+
~)
~0~..~ ~ /11 15 10~ ~~3/( ~035~ ~01138~ 01 3 ~)1~-~01111~~1~0 501.1..~~.
~0.. (1 ~ .../3, 3110 015~01111111.101.15 01.11~1.11 ~01138~~ 10~ 3~~..38~ 01.11~1.11 ~01138~
15 101.1110 1..0111

(4-54)

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111~ 111(1)(111111111
(1~~((1~~ 0111~111 ~011(1~~ 111(11 0~~11(8 (11 (1 0~1(1)1 (10~1~ 01 ~ = 0 18~(/,,1
30 ~ ,,/10 (100 111~ 00(111(1112~0 (1~~((1~~ 0111~111 ~011(1~~ 18

~0(
~ ,, = (4-55)
~(/,,, = 0.5(1 + ~08 ~)

(4-56)

(4-54(1)

~,, = ~~00 = 0.5 ( 1 + ~08 ~) (4-55(1)


.. (/,,,

1/2
~(~5 1~/~/~~~ 3~~ 8102 (0)(
_ (/(0)())
(2~ ~)
))
1/2

0 ~,,,
(4~ ( 10 - ~ +
~
810 2~

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~~~~31 ~)(3111~1~ 4-6 10( 111~ 111~~~-~1135~ 5~1111~01101.1~10~111~1~. 4-83.

80111.100 111~ ~1135~ ~0113~~ 15 ~, = 208/~ 169.83,


= 120.1 ~, 11,,, = 0 11,
11~ = 0.5, 3110 ~ = 10 0. 111~ 1113)(111111111
0111~1.11~0113~~ 15

3 ~ 11,,, )( 169 83
11,/,,,= = 3 ~ ~
= 280.9 ~
10 10

111~ 3~~~3~~ 0111~111 ~0113~~, 1/~0 = 0.5 )(


280.9 = 140.45 ~.
(3) ~0~ 0. ~ 10/3 3110 ~~. (4-55) ~1~~5 11~ ~ (1 + ~05 10/3)/2
= 75%. ~1111 3
~~51511~~ 1030 3110 50% 01.11~1.11, 111~ 01.11~1.11~0113~~ 15 015~01111111.101.15. ~~0111 ~~.
(4-55), 0.5 = 0.5(1 + ~05 0.), ~111~11 ~1~~5 111~ 0~13)1 311~1~, 0. = 900.
(/)) 111~ 3~~~3~~ 01.11~1.11~1.1~~~111,/~0 = 1/~0/~ 140.45/10
= = 14.05~. ~~0111
~~. (4-56),

11,1115
= ~ )( 169.83 )( )1/2
(10 - + 0.55111 2 900) = 180.13 ~
(4~ ~
3110 111~~11151030 ~1.1~~~111,
/,1115= 180.13/10
= 18.01 ~.
(~) 111~ 3~~~3~~ ~1.1~~~111 013 111)1~1510~,
/0, = /~0/3 = 14.05/3
= 4.68 ~ 3110 111~
~1115~1.1~(~111
01 3 111)1~1510~,
/8., = /,111,/~ = 18.01 ~ = 10.4~.

100

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(0) ~(0111 5().. (2-44) 111~(~~611~311011~111~1~11~~18
)( 14.05
140.45 0( 68.8% 0.688
18.01 =
0)
= 180.13 )(

~1.1((~11118/, = /,,.,,, ~(2/3)


(~) 111~ (1118111~1.111111~ = 14.71~. 111~ 111~1.11.-011-
)( 120.1 )( 14.71 = 5300. ~(0111 5().. (2-49),
3111~~(~ (3611~, ~1 = 3~,/, = 3
10~ = 140.45
)(
14.05/5300= 0.372. )(
~0~~(, ~0 = /~,.,,,~ = 18.012
(1) 111~ 01.11~1.11 10 = 3243.6~. 111~ ~0~~(
13~10( 18 ~~ = 3243.6/5300 = 0.612 (13~~111~).

1-/0(~. 10.~ ~0~~( 13~10( 18 0~11~( 10.311 10.31 01 10.(~~-~0.38~ 0.311-~3..~ ~011-
..~(1~(8 .

10.(~~-~0.38~ ~011..~(1~(8 3(~ ~)(1~1181..~1)1 118~0 111 11101181(131 3~~11~3110118 11~ 10 10.~
(~~111(~0. ~1~11(~ 4-% 80.0~8 311111-
120-~~ 1~..~1, ~0.~(~ 1~0-~1130(31110~~(31101118
~011..~(1~( ~1(~1111 ~110.30.1~0.1)1111011~11..~ 1030. 10.~ 10.)1(1810(8 3(~ 11(~0 31 3111111~(..31
3110 10.~ 1111~(111~ (~~111(~(11~111
01 ~/3. 10.~ 1(~~11~11~)1 01 0111~111 (1~~1~ ..0113~~ 18 6./5 0)(
18 1~88 10.311 10.31 0110.(~~-~0.38~ 8~(111- 3110 0.311-~3..~ ~011..~(1~(8. ~1
= ~/6 +
~, 10.)1(1810( 1618 31(~30)1 ~011011~1111~ 3110 10.)1(1810( 11 18 111(11~0 011. 011(111~ 1111~(..31
(~/6 + ~) ~ 0)( ~ (~/2 + ~), 10.)1(1810(8 11 3110 16 ~011011~1 300 10.~ 1111~-10-1111~
0)(
..0113~~, 1)~/) (= 1)~,, - 1)/),,) 3~~~3(8 3~(088 10.~ 1030. ~1 = ~/2 + ~, 10.)1(1810(
12 18 11(~0 3110 10.)1(1810( 16 18 (~..~(8~0 0138~0 1(11(11~0131~1)1. 16 18 111(11~0 011 011~
~) ~ 0)( ~ (5~/6 + ~), 10.)1(1810(8
10 113111(31 ~0(11(11111311011. 011(111~ 1111~(..31 (~/2 +
11 3110 12 ~011011~1 3110 10.~ 1111~-10-1111~ ..0113~~, 1)3.0 3~~~3(8 3~(088 10.~ 1030. 1110.~
10.)1(1810(8 3(~ 1111(110~(~0 38 80.0~11 111 ~1~. 4-93, 10.~ 11(111~ 8~~11~11~~ 18 12, 23, 34,
45,56,3110 61. ~1~11(~ 4-90 80.0~810.~ ~3..~10((11810( 111~111..0113~~,0111~111..0113~~,
111~111 ~11((~111, 3110 ~11((~1118 10.(011~0.10.)1(1810(8.
1110.~ 1111~-11~111(31 ..0113~~8 3(~ 0~1111~0 38

1)/),, ~111 8111 (0)(


_ 2~)

1)0,, = ~1118111 (0)( + 2~),

10.~ ~0((~8~0110111~ 1111~-10-1111~..0113~~8 3(~

1) ~/) = 1)~,, - 1)/),, = 0 ~ 111 8111(0)( + ~)

1)/)~ = 1)/),, - 1)~,, = 0 ~ 111


8111 (0)( -
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0 8111 0)(+
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+

15
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8 ~. = ~,

,, ~~~~9/1~~
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10
12

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0
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0
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1(0((1
111~ 3~~(3~~ 0111~111 ~0113~~ 15 1011110

,,,-12+0. ,,,-12+0.

1100 =~
,,. 1,,,-16+0.
1)(10 0(0)0 =
~,,.
1,,,-16+0.
011111 5111
(0)( + ~ 0(0)0
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111~ ((13)(1((111((13~~(3~~ 0111~111 ~0113~~ 10( 0~13~ 311~1~, ~ 0 15

11,)111
= 3 0 ~ 111/,,..

3110 111~ 110(((13112~0 3~~(3~~ 0111~111 ~0113~~ 15

(4-58)

(4-59)

~)(301()1~ 4-8
~~~~31 ~)(3111~1~ 4-6 10( 10.~ 10.(~~-~0.35~ 11111~011.,,~(1~( 111~1~. 4-93.

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.,,0113~~,~0,,, = )(3 ~
~,,,/,,. = 3 ~
= 0.5,31108. = 10 0. 111~ 1113)(1111111110111~111
280.9 = 140.45~.
)( 169.83/,,. 0.5
= 280.9~. 111~3.,,~(3~~ 0111~111.,,0113~~,
~00 =
600.
(3) ~(0111 ~~. (4-58), 0.5 = ~05 0., 3110 111~0~13~ 311~1~, 0. =
(0) 111~ 3.,,~(3~~ 0111~111~11((~111,/00 = ~0)8. = 140.45/10 = 14.05~. ~(0111
~~. (4-59),
1/2
3 ~
~,,,,, = ~ )(
169.83 (~
+
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) = 159.29~,

3110 111~(1115~11((~111,/,,,,, = 159.29/10 = 15.93 ~.


(~) 10.~ 3.,,~(3~~ ~11((~11101 3 111~(1510(, /0, = /00/3 = 14.05/3 = 4.68 ~, 3110
111~ (1115 ~11((~111 01 3 111~(1510(, /~, =
/,,,,, /216 = 15.93 /216 = 9.2 ~.
(0) ~(0111 ~~. (2-44) 111~ (~~1111~311011 ~111~1~11~~ 15

)(
140.45 14.05
0( 77.8%
11 = 159.29 )(
15.93 = 0.778
(~) 111~ (1115111~1111111~~11(1~111, /, = /,,,,, ~ = 13 ~ 3110 111~ 111~111.,,011-3111~~(~
)( 120.1 )( 13 = 4683.9~. ~(0111 ~~. (2-49), 10~ = 140.45
(31111~,~1 = 3~,/, = 3
)(
14.05/4683.9 = 0.421. )( 10 = 2537.6~.
(1) 111~ 0111~111~0~~(, ~0 = /~,,,,8. = 15.932 111~ ~0~~(
13~10(, ~~ = 2537.6/4683.9 = 0.542 (13~~111~).
5~((11~011~~(1~(5, 0111
1-10(€. 111~ ~0~~( 13~10( 15 1~55 111311 11131 01111(~~-~1135~
111~11~( 111311 11131 01111(~~-~1135~ 11311-~3~~ ~011~~(1~(5.

103
58~. 4-9

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~~301..)~ 4-9

1/1~ 1030 ~11~~~111 01 3 1/1~~~-~/138~ 11111~011~~~1~~ 111 ~1~. 4-93 18 ~0111111110118~11/1 3


11~~11~101~ ~1~~1~ ~0111~111. (3) ~)(~~~88 1/1~ 111~111~11~~~111111~011~1~~ 8~~1~8, 3110 0~1~~-
111111~1/1~ /13~1110111~ 13~10~ 01111~111 ~11~~~111, 1-1~~ 018~13~~111~111 13~10~, 0~~ 3110 1/1~
111~111~0~~~ 13~10~, ~~. (0) 111/1~ 0~13~ 311~1~, ~
= 71/3 3110 1/1~ ~~3/( 111~111~/138~
~0113~~, ~,,, = 169.83~, ~31~11131~ ~~, 1-1~, 0~, 3110 ~~.

80)0~)00 (3) 1/1~ ~3~~10~111 10~ 111~111~11~~~11118 8/10~11 111 ~1~. 4-90 3110 1/1~ 11181311-
1311~0118 111~111~11~~~11101 3 ~/138~ ~311 0~ ~)(~~~88~0 1113 ~011~1~~ 8~~1~8 38

11(() = 1~0 + ~
11=1,2,..
((1~ ~08 /10)( + /)~ 8111 /10)() (4-60)

41. . /171 .
- -
/171
8111 -3 8111 /1~ 10~ /1 = 1,3,5, ...

= 0 10~ /1 = 2, 4, 6, ...

/)~ = ~ )0(2~ 11(() 8111/10)( (/( 0)()


71

41. . /171
=
/171
8111 ~08 /1~ 1,3,5, ...
3

= 0 10~ /1 = 2, 4, 6, ...

11(() ~ 0
11=1,2,..
1~ 8111 (/10)( + ~~)

(1 .
~
~~ = 1311 - 1 = - /1~ (4-61)
/)
~

(4-62)

104

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~
11 = -1.
71
= 0.77971.
111~ 0115 111~111 ~11,,~111,
1/2
(5,,/6+~

1, =
(
2-
271 ),,/6+~
1~ 0(())()
) = 1. ~/~3 = 0.81651.
_ 1)1/2 _ 1)1/2
11~ = ((~)2 = ((~)2 = 0.3108 0, 31.08%

0~ = ~05 ~1 = ~05 -0.

11 3 = 0.95490~
~~ = -~05 -0. = -~050.
1, 71
~05 600 =
(0) ~0, 0. = 71/3, 1/~ = ~05 (71/3) = 0.5 ~11,11~ = 31.08%, 0~ =
0.5, (1110~~ = 0.478 (1(1~~111~).

,..,0(~. 11..,.,~ ~001()3(~ 10~ ()0..,.,~( 13~10( ..,.,1101031 01 ~~301()1~ 4-8, ..,.,0~(~ 10~

1030 15 ()0(~1)1 (~51511~~, ..,.,~ ~311 11011~~ 1031 10~ 111()01 ()0..,.,~( 13~10( 0~()~1105 011 10~
()0..,.,~( 13~10( 0110~ 1030.

(~()01(~0 3110 10(~~-


111 013(1)1 ~3(1301~-5()~~0 0(1~~5, 10~ 100(-()030(3111 0()~(311011 15
()035~ 0031 ~011~~(1~(5 3(~ ~~1~1151~~1)105~0 111 3()()11~3110115 0() 10 10~ 2000-~~ 1~~~1.
~1~0(~ 4-103 500..,.,5 10(~~-()035~ 0031 ~011~~(1~(5 ..,.,0~(~ 1..,.,0 10(~~-()035~ ~011~~(1~(5
3(~ ~01111~~1~0 03~~ 10 03~~. ~~ 03~~ 5~~11 111 5~~11011 4-5 1031 00~ 10 10~ 11151311-
1311~005 ~0113~~ 0111~(~11~~5 0~1..,.,~~1110~ 001()01 ~0113~~5 01 ~011~~(1~(5, 3 ~1(~0131111~
~0((~111110..,.,5 10(00~010~ ~011~~(1~(5. 10~ ~1(~0131111~ ~0((~11115 110(01311)1110111~0
1..,.,0 ~011~~(1~(5 3(~ ~0111(011~0
0)1 ~1(~0131111~ (~3~10(, 1.~ 35 500..,.,11111 ~1~. 4-103. 10~

11150~0 3..,.,3)11031110.1 15 10~ 0~13)1 311~1~ 01 ~011~~(1~( 1, 10~ 0~13)1 311~1~ 01 ~011~~(1~(
2 15 0.2 = 71 - 0.1. ~1~0(~ 4-100 500..,.,5 10~ ..,.,3~~10(015 10( 111()01 ~0113~~5, 001()01
~0113~~5, 3110 10~ ~0113~~ 3~(055 11100~10( 1.~. 10~ 0()~(311011 01 ~3~0 ~011~~(1~( 15
~)(3~11)1 5101113( 10 1031 0110(~~-()035~ 1011 ~011~~(1~(. 00(111~ 10~ 1111~(~31 (71/6 +
1)(1/) 3()()~3(5 3~(055 10~ 001()01 01
0.1) ~ 0)( ~ (71/2 + 0.1), 10~ 1111~-10-1111~ ~0113~~
~011~~(1~( 1 3110 1)/)0 3()()~3(5 3~(055 ~011~~(1~( 2.
3(~ 0~1111~0 35
1110~ 1111~-11~01(31 ~0113~~5

_
1)/)(/ ~,,, 5111 (0)( 2~)

1)0(/ ~,,, 5111 (0)( + 2~)

105
58~. 4-10

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~~~0 2 2

+ +
-~-
.., - + .., - +
..-3 ..-5
2 -~-
(. ~0 ..-2. .6. ..-4.
8 ~8,
8
0 ..,01 ~~~0,
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.,,01138~5 3(~
111~ ~0((~5()000108 110~-10-110~

1),,/1 = 1),,11 - 1)/111 = 0 ~ 111


510 (0)( +
~)

1)/10 1)
/111 - 1)011 0 ~ 111 510 (0)( - ~)

1) 0,, = 1)011- 1),,11= 0 ~ 111


510 ( 0)( +
~)
1(1)01 300 1)02 3(~ 111~ 0111()111 .,,01138~5 01 ~00.,,~(1~(5 1 300 2, 111~ 105130130~0115
0)( =5 (,,./2 + ~1) 15
.,,01138~ 3~(055 111~ 10011~10( 011(108 101~(.,,31 (,,./6 + ~1) =5

(4-63)

(4-64)

111~ ~1(~11131108 ~11((~010~()~005 00 0~13~ 3081~ 300 0010011~130~~, 1._. 11115 ~11((~01
0~~0((1~5 ((13)(1((111((1 ~11~0 0)(
= 2,,./3 300 ~1 = 0. ~.,,~0 ~11110111 30~ ~)(1~(0311030,
111~ ~00.,,~(1~(5 ~01110 0~ ~001101101151~ (1100108 011~ 10 111~ ~1(~11131108 ~11((~01 35 3
(~51111 01 (1()()1~ .,,01138~ 3~(055 111~ 10011~10(. 11115 3110~5 5((100111 (~.,,~(531 011030
~11((~01 011(108 111~ ~11308~ 0.,,~( 1(0((1 00~ ().1130(301 0()~(31100 10 300111~( 300 ()(0-
((1010( 0(1.,,~5.
.,,10~5 1351 0~03((11~ (~5()005~5, ~5()~~1311~ 10( ~1~~1(1~31

~00.,,~(1~(5 0~()~005 00 0~13~ 3081~ ~, 30015


111~ ()0~~( 13~10( 01 ()1135~-~001(011~0
~00.,,~(1~(5
10 8~0~(31 10~, ~5()~~1311~ 31 111~ 10~ 0111()111 .,,01138~ (308~. 111~5~
1((1()(0.,,~ 111~ 10()111
8~0~(31~ 113(((1001~5 1010 111~ 511()()1~. )=10(~~0 ~0((1((1111311005 ~30
()0~~( 13~10( 300 (~011~~ 111~ 113(((1001~5 1~.,,~15. 111~5~ 10(~~0-~0((1((111131100 1~~11-
~00.,,~(5100. ~1111 111~ 30.,,30~~((1~01 01
01().11~5 3(~ 0~~0((1108 311(3~11.,,~ 10 3~-0~
()0~~( 5~((11~00011~10( 0~.,,1~~5 (~.8., 831~-111(0-011111~(1510(5), 111~ 10(~~0 ~0((1((111-
131100 ~30 0~ 1((1()1~((1~01~010 ()(3~11~315~51~((15. 10 11115 5~~1100 111~ 0351~ 1~~1101().11~5
0110(~~0 ~0((1((111131100 10( 3~-0~ ~00.,,~(1~(5 3(~ 015~1155~0 300 ~30 0~ ~1355111~0 35

10110~5~

1. ~)(110~1100 3081~ ~001(01

107
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2. 5~111111~1(1~(1) (11181~ ~0111(01

3. ~1115~-~10101110(11)(111011
4. 5111115010(11))1115~-~101011100111(111011

~1811(~ 4-11(1 500~5 (1 511181~-))0(15~ 5~1111~011~~(1~(, ~0~(~ 10~(1510(5


/1 (1110 /2 (1(~
(~))1(1~~0 0~ 5~11~0~5 51 (1110 52. 10~ 5~11~01118 (1~110115 0~ 51 (1110
52 ~(111 0~ ))~(~0(111~0
0~ 8(11~-111(11-0~~ 10~(1510(5 (0105). 10~ ~0(1((1~1~(1511~5 0~ 0105 (1(~ 511~0 10(11
0105 ~(111 0~ 111(11~0 011 0~ (1))))1~1118 (1 500(1 ))05111~~ ))11)5~ 10 115 8(11~ (15 111 10~ ~(15~
0~ 110(111(1) 10~(1510(5 (1110 111(11~0 0~~ 0~ (1))))1~1118 (1 500(1 11~8(111~~ ))11)5~ 10 115 8(11~.
111 (111 ~)(1111~11011 (11181~ ~0111(01, 10~ 5~11~0 51 15 111(11~0 011 (11 0)(
= 0 (111015
111(11~0 0~~ 0~ ~0(~~0 ~0111111111(111011
(11 0)(
0)(
= 10 - (3. 10~ 5~11~0 52 15 111(11~0 011 (11
= 10 (1110 15 111(11~0 0~~ (11 0)(
= (210 - (3). 10~ 0111))111~011(18~ 15 ~0111(011~0 0~
~(1(~1118 10~ ~)(1111~11011 (11181~, (3. ~1811(~ 4-110 500~5 10~ ~(1~~~0(1115 ~0( 111))111
~011(18~, 0111))111 ~011(18~, 111))111 ~11((~111, (1110 10~ ~11((~11110(0118010~(1510( 5~11(0~5.
10~ ~11110(1111~111(11 ~0111))011~111 0~ 111))111 (11((~111 1~(105 10~ 111))111 ~011(18~, (1110 10~
(15))1(1~~111~111 ~(1~10( ((1110 ))0~~( ~(1(10() 15 )~(101118. 111 50111~ (1))))11~(1110115, 1015
~~(1111(~ 111(1~ 0~ 0~51((10)~ 10 51111111(11~(1 ~(1))(1~111~~ 10(10 (1110 10 (0111))~115(11~ ~0( )111~
~0)1(18~ 0(0))5.

,.,1

~51
~.

0 ,.,1
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,.,1

211
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0
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,.,1
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(4-65)

(100 ~00 ~(10 0~ ~(1(1~0 1(0111 2~ /,/,,. 10 0 0)1 ~(1()110~ ~ 1(0111 0 10 ,,.. 10~ (1115 001~01
~011(1~~ 15 ~1~~0 0)1

(4-66)

~1~0(~ 4-12(1 500~5 (1 510~1~-~0(15~ 101/ ~00~~(1~(, ~0~(~ 10)1(1510(511, 12, 13,
(100 14 (1(~ (~~1(1~~0 0)110(~~0-~011111101(11~0 5~11~0~5 51,52,53, (100 54. 10~ 5~11~0~5
())( ())( ,,.
51 (100 52 (1(~ 10(0~0 00 51111011(10~0051)1 (11 = 0 (100 (1(~ 10(0~0 011 (11 - =
(1(~ 10(0~0 00 (11())( ,,. (100 (1(~ 10(0~0 011 (11 ())(
~. 10~ 5~11~0~5 53 (100 54 = =
2,,. -~. ~0( (101000~11~~ 10(10, 10~ 1(~~~0~~110~ ~(1101110510~~(0~10~0 0)15~11~0~5
5154 0( 5352. 10~ 11(10~ 5~().0~0~~ ~0010 0~ 12, 14, 43, (100 32. ~1~0(~ 4-120

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8110~8 111~ ~3~~10(1118 10( 1111=/1.11
~0113~~, 01.111=/1.11~0113~~, 1111=/1.11~1.1((~111, 3110 111~
~1.1((~111 111(01.1~11 8~11~11~8. 83~11 8~11~11 ~01101.1~18 10( 1800 3110 11118 ~011~~(1~( 18
01=/~(31~0 38 3 8~1111~011~~(1~(. 111~ 1(~~~11~~1111~ 3~6011 18 3~~01111=/11811~0 111(01.1~11
1~0 8~11~11~8 01111~ 83111~ 3(111. 111~ 3~~(32~ 3110 (1118 01.111=/1.11
~01132~ 3(~ ~)(~(~88~0
0~ 8(). (4-65) 3110 8(). (4-66), (~81=/~~6~~1~.
111~ 1=/~(10(111311~~ 01 8~1111- 3110 11.111~011~~(1~(8 ~1111 ~)(611~6011 311~1~ ~0111(01
3(~ 81111113( 10 11131 ~1111 1=/1138~-31121~ ~0111(01, ~)(~~1=/1 111~ 1=/0~~( 13~10( 18 1~30111~.
~11111=/1138~-311~1~ ~0111(01, 111~ 1=/0~~( 13~10( 18 13~~111~.

111~ 8~111111~1(1~31 311~1~ ~0111(01 3110~8 011~-()1.130(3111 01=/~(311011 3110 ~1~. 4-113 8110~8
3 8111~1~-1=/1138~ 8~1111~011~~(1~( ~1111 10(~~0-~01111111.1131~0 8~11~11~8 51 3110 52. 111~
())( ())( + ~)/2.
8~11~11 51 18 11.1(11~0 011 31 = (10 = ~)/2 3110 18 11.1(11~0 011 31 = (10
111~ 8~11~11 52 18 11.1(11~0 011 31 ())( = (310 - ~)/2 3110 01131
())(
= (310 + ~)/2. 111~
01.111=/1.11~0113~~ 18 ~0111(011~0 0~ ~3(~111~ ~01101.1~11011 311~1~,~. ~1~1.1(~ 4-13 8110~8
111~ ~3~~10(1118 10( 1111=/1.11
~01132~, 01.111=/1.11~0113~~, 1111=/1.11
~1.1((~111, 3110 111~ ~1.1((~111
111(01.1~11 8~11~11~8. 111~ 11.11103111~11131 ~01111=/011~111 011111=/1.11 ~1.1((~111 18 )11 1=/1138~ ~1111
111~ 1111=/1.11
~0113~~ 3110 111~ 0181=/13~~111~11113~10( 18 1.11111~. 111~(~10(~, 111~ 1=/0~~( 13~10(
18 11111=/(0~~0.

,.,(
2.. ~3..

~2..
,.,(

,.,(

110

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2~,,, . ~
- 10 8111 -
2
(4-67)

3110 ~00 ~311 0~ ~3(1~0 1(0111 2~ ,,,/10 10 0 0~ ~3(~111~ ~ 1(0111 0 10 10. 111~ (1118 001~01

~0113~~ 18 ~1~~11 0~

(4-68)

~)(301())~ 4-10

111~ 5111151~-~1135~11111~011~~(1~( 111~115. 4-12315 0~~(31~0 ~11115~(11(11~1(1~31311151~ ~0111(01.


111~ 1030 ~11((~111 ~1111 311 3~~(315~ ~3111~ 01/0, 15 ~011611110115, ~11~(~ 111~ (1~~1~ ~0111~111
15 11~151115101~. (3) ~)(~(~55 111~ 111~111~11((~111 01 ~011~~(1~( 111~011(1~( 5~(1~5, 0~1~((11111~
111~ 113((110111~ 13~10( 01111~111 ~11((~111, 11~~ 015~13~~(11~11113~10(, ))~~ 3110 111~111~0~~(
13~10(, ~~. (0) 11111~ ~011011~11011 311151~ 15 (3 = -../3 3110 111~ ~~3)( 111~111 ~011315~ 15 ~,,,
169.83...,, ~31~11131~ ~~0 ~(,,.,,, 11~, ))~, 3110 ~~.
=

80)01100 (3) 111~ ~3~~10((11 10( 111~01 ~11((~11115 5110~11 111 ~115. 4-13 3110 111~ /1151311-
1311~005 111~111~11((~111 ~311 0~ ~)(~(~55~0 111~011(1~( 5~(1~5 35
~

1(() = /~0 + 2
11=1,2,..
((./~ ~05 11())(
+ /)~ 5111 11())() (4-69)

= 0

2-,, 4/0. 11(3


.. 1 ( . 11())(..-1( ())() = 1, 3, . . .
1( ) 5111
10( 11
~ = - 1 = - 5111-
-.. 0 11-.. 2

= 0 10( 11 = 2, 4, . . .
5111~~ /~0 = 0, ~(). (4-69) ~311 0~ ~(111~11 35
~

(4-70)
1(() 2
,.,= 1,2,..
-0 /~ 5111
(11())( + ~~)

(4-71 )

111~ ((115 ~3111~ 01111~ 11111113((110111~ 111~01 ~11((~111 15 151~~11 35

/ =
_1
( (./2 + /)2 ) 1/2 =
2
-5111-
-0 /0 11(3
(4-72 )
~
-0 ~ ~
11-.. 2

111
5€~. 4-11

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(4-73)

. .~~
1=1
10
(4-74)
2 1/2 1/2

((~)
11~ --
12
- 1
) --
( 4(1
10~

- ~08 ~)
- 1
) (4-75)

0~ = ~08 ~1 = 1 (4-76)

2 -0
~~ =
(~)
1$
0~ =
~ 8111~
2
(4-77)

(0) ~= 10/3 (11100~ = 1.0. ~(0111 ~~. (4-67),

)( 16~83)
~00 = (2 8111
~ = 54.06 ~
~(0111 ~~. (4-68),

1. = 1.
~_ 2
= 0.57741.
1/2

11~ =
((~) 1) = 0.803 0( 80.3%

~~ = ~= 0.7797 (1(1~~111~)
1.

1-101~. 111~ ~0~~( 1(1~10( 18 1111~(0~~0 81~11111~(1111)1, ~~~11 111~11~( 111311 11131 01
111~ 8111~1~-~1138~ 8~(1~8 11.111~011~~(1~( 111 ~1~. 4-63. 1-(0~~~~(, 111~ 113(1110111~ 13~10(
18 111~(~38~0.

11111~ 01.11~1.11~0113~~ 018111~1~-~1138~ 8~1111- 0( 11.111~011~~(1~(818 ~0111(011~0 0)1 ~3()1111~


111~ 0~13)1 311~1~, ~)(1111~11011 311~1~, 0( 8)1111111~1(1~31 311~1~, 111~(~ 18 0111)1 011~ ~1.118~ ~~(
11311-~)1~1~ 111 111~ 111~1.11 ~1.1((~111 01111~ ~011~~(1~(, 3110 38 3 (~81.111 111~ 10~~81-0(0~(
113(1110111~ 18 111~ 1111(0. 11 18 01111~1.111 10 1111~( 01.11 111~ 10~~(-0(0~( 113(1110111~8. 111
~1.118~-~10111-111001.11311011 (~~~) ~0111(01, 111~ ~011~~(1~( 8~11~11~8 3(~ 11.1(11~0 011 3110
0118~~~(3111111~8 01.1(111~ 3 11311-~)1~1~ 3110 111~ 01.11~1.11 ~0113~~ 18 ~0111(011~0 0)1 ~(1()1111~

112

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..,1
3..

..,1
3..

..,1
3..

..,1 ..1~11..~ 4-14 .,1115~-~101/1-111001113.11011


0 ~0111(01.

111~ ~10111 01 ~1118~8. ~1~11(~ 4-14 8110~8 111~ 111~111 ~0113~~, 0111~111 ~0113~~, 3110
0( (~011~~0 0~ 8~-
111~111 ~11((~111. 111~ 10~~(-0(0~( 113((110111~8 ~311 0~ ~11(1111131~0
1~~1111~ 111~ 1111(110~( 01 ~1118~8 ~~( 11311-~~~1~. 110~~~~( 111~(~38111~ 111~ 1111(110~( 01
~1118~8 ~01110 111~(~38~ 111~ (113~1111110~ 01111~11~(-0(0~( 113((110111~8, ~111~11 ~01110 ~3811~
0~ 1111~(~0 0111.
111~ 0111~111 ~0113~~ 3110 111~ ~~(10((11311~~ ~3(3(11~1~(8 01111~ ~011~~(1~( ~311 0~
0~1~((11111~0 111 1~0 81~~8~ (1) 0~ ~011810~(111~ 0111~ 011~ ~31( 01 ~1118~8 811~111113111011~
())(
~1118~ 813(18 31
())(
= ~1 3110 ~1108 31
())(
= ~1 + 81, 111~ 0111~( ~1118~ 813(18 31 =
10 + ~1 3110 ~1108 31
())(
= (10 + ~1 + 81), 3110 (2) 0~ ~0(110111111~111~ ~11~~18 01 311
())(
~31(8. 11111111~1118~ 813(18 31 = ~,,, 3110 118~1011118 8,,,, 111~3~~(3~~ 0111~111~0113~~
011~ 10 ~ 1111(110~( 01 ~1118~8 18 1011110 1(0(11

(4-78)

11111~ 1030 ~11((~111 ~1111 311 3~~(3~~ ~3111~ 01 /~ 18 ~0111111110118 3110 1138 11~~11~101~
(1~~1~, 111~ 111813111311~0118 111~111 ~11((~111 ~311 0~ ~)(~(~88~0 111 3 ~011(1~( 8~(1~8 38

(0,, ~08 11())( + 0,, 811111())() (4-79)


/(() = /00 ~
+ ,,~1.3. .

113
58~. 4-11

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(4-80)

1(() = ~
,,= 1,3,..
-01,, 510 (110)( + ~,,) (4-81 )

111~ ~101115 01 ~1.115~5 3(~ ~3(1~0 10 ~001(01111~ 01.11~1.11 ~0113~~. 11111~(~ 3(~
/1 ~1.115~5
~~( 11311-~~~1~ 01111~ 5301~ ~10111, 111~ 013)(1011.101 ~1011101 3 ~1.115~ 15 70//1. 111~ ~101115
01 ~1.115~5 ~01.110 0~ 0111~(~01. 1115 ~055101~ 10 ~11005~ 111~ ~101115 01 ~1.115~5 10 51.1~11
3 ~3~ 11131 ~~(1310 113(01001~5 ~01.110 0~ ~11011031~0. 111~(~ 3(~ 0111~(~01 01~111005
01 ~3(~10~ 111~ ~101115 01 ~1.115~5 300 111~ 01051 ~0010100 00~ 15 111~ 5101.1501031 ~1.115~-
~10111 01001.113600 ($~~~). 10 5101.1501031 ~~~ ~001(01 35 5110~0 10 ~1~. 4-15,
111~ ~1.115~ ~101115 3(~ ~~0~(31~0 0~ ~001~3(10~ 3 1(130~1.113( ~0113~~ 1). 01 301~1111.10~
,,4. 300 1(~()1.1~0~~ ,. ~1111 3 11311-5101.1501031 ~0113~~ 1)~ 01 ~3(1301~ 301~1111.10~ ,,4~ 300
1(~()1.1~0~~ 2/.. 111~ 5101.1501031 ~0113~~, 1)~, 15 10 ~1135~ ~1111111~ 10~1.11 ~1135~ ~0113~~
300 1135 1~1~~ 111~ 51.1~~1~ 1(~()1.1~0~~, ,5. 111~ ~101115 01111~ ~1.115~5 (300 111~ 01.11~1.11
~0113~~) 3(~ ~3(1~0 0~ ~1130~10~ 111~ 301~1111.10~,,4~ 0( 111~ 01001.1131100 100~)(, 1.11(001
0 10 1. 111~ 1110(/1-//(/(1011 111(/~~ 15 0~110~0 35

,,4~
1.1 = (4-82 )
,,4.
10 3 5101.1501031 ~~~ ~001(01, 111~ 015~13~~01~0113~10( 15 1.1011~300 111~ ~0~~(
13~10( 15 101~(0~~0. 111~ 10~~(-0(0~( 113(01001~5 3(~ ~11011031~0 0( (~01.1~~0. ~0(
~)(301~1~, ~1111101.1( ~1.115~5~~( 11311-~~~1~ 111~ 10~~51-0(0~( 113(010111~ 15 111~ 111111~3110
~111151)( ~1.115~5~~( 11311-~~~1~, 111~10~~51-0(0~( 113(01001~ 15 111~5~~~0111. ~001~1.11~(
~(0~(3015, 11301~0 ~~00-1 3110 ~~00-2, ~111~11 3(~ 1151~0 10 ~~~~1101)( ~, ~30 0~
1.15~0 10 ~~311.131~ 111~ ~~(10(01311~~5 011.10110(01 ~~~ 300 5101.1501031 ~~~ ~001(01,
(~5~~~11~~1~.

114

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,.,(

+ ~.
~52
,.,(
0 ,, 2,, 3,,
~6,,,

,.,(
3,,

111~ 0~51~0 01 ~00~~(1~( ~1(~0115 (~~01(~5 0~1~(1111010~ 111~ (3110~5 01111~(1510(5 300
0100~5. 111~ 111~(1510(5 300 0100~5 3(~ 5~~~111~0 0~ 111~ 3~~(3~~ ~0((~01, (1115 ~0((~01,
~~3~ ~0((~01, 300 ~~3~ 10~~(5~ ~0113~~. 10 111~ ~35~ 01 ~001(011~0 (~~1111~(5, 111~
~0((~01 (3110~5 010~~1~~5 0~~~00 00 111~ 0~13~ (0( ~001(01) 30~1~. 111~ (3110~5 01

~0~~( 0~~1~~5 111051 0~ 0~51~0~0 000~( 111~ ~0(51-~35~ ~00011100 300 11115 0~~0(5
~11~0 111~ ~00~~(1~( 0~11~~(5 111~ 1113~11110111 3~~(3~~ 001~01 ~0113~~ 11,,,,,.
111~ 001~01 01 ~00~~(1~(5 ~0013105 113(111001~5 11131 0~~~00 00 111~ ~001(01 (0(
0~13~) 30~1~ 300 111~ ~0(51-~35~ ~00011100 ~(~~3115 000~( 111~ 1111011110111 001~01
~0113~~. 111~ 10~01 300 001~011111~(5 111051 0~ 0~51~0~0 000~( 111~ 1111011110111001~01
~0113~~ ~00011100. 111~ 51~~5 10~01~~0 10 0~51~010~ 111~ ~00~~(1~(5 300 1111~(5 3(~
51111113( 10 11131 01 (~~1111~( ~1(~011 0~51~0 10 5~~1100 2-11.

~)(301))1~ 4-11

~ 111~~~-~11(15~ 11111~011,,,~~1~~ 15 0~~~(11~0 1~0111 (1111~~~-~11(15~ 230- ~ 60-112 511~~1~. 111~


10(10 15 111~111~111011~11,,,~(1110 111~ (1,,,~~(1~~ ~11~~~11115 10 = 150 ~ ~111111~~11~101~ ~1~~1~
~0111~111. 11111~ 0~1(1~ (111~1~ 15 ~ = 7//3, 0~1~~111111~ 111~ ~(11111~501111~~1510~5.

80101100 111~ ~(1,,,~10~1115 10~ 111~~1510~ ~11~~~1115 (1~~ 5110~11 111 ~1~. 4-90. 11, =
230/~ = 132.79 ~, 11~ = 187.79 ~, (1110 ~ = 7//3. ~~0111 ~().. (4-57), 1100 =
)( 150
3(~/7/) )(
187.79
)(
~05 (7//3) = 155.3~. ~0~~~, ,,0 = 155.3
111~ 0111~111
= 23 ,295 ~. 111~ (1,,,~~(1~~ ~11~~~111111~011~11(1 111~~1510~, 107 = 150/3 = 50 ~. 111~
~1115 ~11~~~111111~011~11 (1111~~1510~, 1~7 = 150 ~ = 86.6~. 111~ ~~(11-. ~11~~~11( 111~011/1,11

58~. 4-12 115

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3 111~0810~, /,,, = 150 1-.. 111~ ~~3/( 111~~~8~ ~0113~~ 18 111~ ~~3/( 3~~111110~ 0~ 1111~-10-
1111~ ~0113~~, ~1~ = -0~,,, = -0
)(
187.79 = 325.27~.

~~301))1~ 4-12

1-. 8111~1~-~1138~ ~1111~011~~~1~~ 38 8110~11 111 ~1~. 4-16 118~8 0~13~-311~1~ ~0111~01 3110 18
811~~11~0 ~~0~ 3 120-~ 60-1-12 811~~1~. (3) 08~ 111~ ~~11100 0~ ~011~1~~ 8~~1~8 10 0013111
~)(~~~8810118 ~0~ 0111~111 ~0113~~, 111.((), 3110 1030 ~11~~~111, /1.((), 38 3 ~1111~6011 0~ 0~~3~
311~1~,~. 1~ ~ = 70/3, ~ = 10~,
(0) /., = 20 ~1-1, 3110 ~ = 10 11, 0~1~~~111~ 111~
~~8 ~3111~ 0~ 10~~81-0~0~~ 113~~0111~ ~11~~~111111 111~ 1030. (~) 1~ 111 ~3~1 (0), 3 ~111~~
~3~3~110~ 18 ~01111~~1~0 3~~088 111~ 1030, 0~1~~~111~ 111~ ~3~3~110~ ~3111~ 10 ~~011~~ 111~
10~~81-0~0~~ 113~~0111~ 10 10%.

801111100 (3) 111~ ~3~~~0~~ ~0~ 0111~111 ~0113~~ 18 8110~11111 ~1~. 4-3~. 111~ ~~~~11~11~~
0~ 0111~111 ~0113~~ 18 1~1~~ 11131 0~ 111~ ~3111 811~~1~. 111~ 111813111311~01180111~111 ~0113~~
~311 0~ ~)(~~~88~0 1113 ~011~1~~ 8~~1~8 38
~

111.(() = ~00 + ~
~=2,4,..
((10 ~08 11(()( + 00811111(()() (4-83)

7, = ~ + 1(11(()/.,)= (~2 + (11(()/.,)2)1/2


~
3110 60 = 1311~1(11(()/.,/~). 01~10111~ 111.(() 0~ ~~. (4-83) 0~ 1030 1~~~0311~~ 7, 3110
81~~11~~111~ 111~ 8111~ 3110 ~08111~ 1~~~8 ~1~~ 111~ 111813111311~01181030 ~11~~~11135
~

/1.(() = /00 + ~
11=2,4...
0/0 8111
(11(()( + ~0 - (0) (4-84)

1 ((1~+ 0~)1/2
/0 =
0-../~2 + (11(()/.,)2
(0) 1~ ~ = 70/3, ~ = 10~, /., = 20 ~1-1, ~ = 1011, (()
~30/5, ~,,, = 0 )( 120 = 169.71 ~, 3110~00 = 54.04 ~.
54.04 - 10
/00 = = 4.40 1-.
10
(11 = -0.833, 01 = -0.866, ~1 = 223.90, 81 = 56.450

(12 = 0.433, 02 = -0.173, ~2 = 111.790, 82 = 71.650

(13 = -0.029, 03 = 0.297, ~3 = -5.50, 83 = 77.530

116

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+

~0
~1
~0.)~
~0.)(..

~1~0..~ 4-17 ~~01...31~(11 ~1(~011


10( 113(((10(11~5.

11-(() = 4.4 + (1.2 5111(2(1)( + 223.90 - 56.450)


70(~2 +2~~(1)1-)2)1/2

+ 0.35111(6(1)( - 5.50 - 77.530) + . . .)


+ 0.475111(4(1)( + 111.790 - 71.650)
)(
2 169.71 .
( 2(1)(+ 167. 47 0 )
(
= 4.4 + 70(102 + (7.5411)2)1/2 1.25111

. . .) (4-85)
+ 0.475111(4(1)( + 40.140) + 0.35111(6(1)( - 80.030) +

2 )( 169.71
12 = 70(102 + (7.54 )( 2)2)1/2 ( )
0
1.2
= 5.07 ~

(~) ~1~1.1~~ 4-17 50.0~5 10.~ ~~1.11...~1~111 ~1~~1.11110~ 10.~ 0.3~~0111~5. 05111~ 10.~
~1.1~~~111-01...10~~ ~1.11~,10.~ 0.3~~0111~ ~1.1~~~11110.~01.1~0.10.~ 1030 15 ~1...~11 0~

~ _- 1/(11(1)~)

10 ~~2 + (11(1)1- - 1/(11(1)~))2~1/2

~0~ 11 = 23110 (1)= 377,

~ 1/(2 )( 377~)
.
10 = ~102+ (2
)(
7.54 - 1/(2 )( 377~))2~1/2 = 0 1
3110 10.15~1...~5 ~ = - 670 ~~ 0~ 793 ~~. 10.1.15~ = 793 ~~.

~ ~ ~~11 11011~~ ~~0111 ~~. (4-85) 10~1 10~ 10~0 ~1.1~(~111 0~(1110111~5 0~~~110 011 10~0
11101.1~1~11~~5. 10~ 111~1.11 ~0~~( ~~~10( 15 ~~1~1.11~1~0 111 ~)(~111~1~ 4-8 ~0( ~ ~1.1(~1~
~51511.,,~ 10~0 ~110 111 10~ ~)(~111~1~ 4-9 ~0( ~ 01801~ 11101.1~11.,,~ 10~0. ~~ ~~11 ~150
,1011~~ 10~1 10~ 111~1.11~0~~( ~~~10( 0~~~1105 011 10~ 10~0 ~0~~( ~~~10(.
111 10~ 0~(1.,,~110115 0~ 01.11~1.11 .,,011~8~5 ~110 10~ ~~(~0(111~11~~ ~(11~(1~ 0~ ~011-
...~(1~(5, ~~ 0~.,,~ ~551.1111~0 10~1 10~ 501.1(~~ 0~5 110 11101.1~1~11~~5 ~110 (~5151~11~~5.
~0(111~11~, 10~ .,,~11.1~5 0~ 1111~ (~5151~11~~5 ~(~ 5111~11 ~110 ~~11 0~ 11~81~~1~0. 10~
~11101.1111 0~ .,,011~8~ 0(0~ 01.1~ 10 501.1(~~ 11101.1~1~11~~5 15 10~ 5~111~ ~5 10~1 0~ (~~11~1~(5

58~. 4-13 117

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~1~11~~ 4-18 ~~1~110115111~ 0~1~~~11 111~
0~1~~ ~1181~ ~110 0.,,~(1~~ ~1181~.

300 00~5 001 ~1130~~ 011~ 10 111~ ~11(15~ ~001(01. 8~11(11100 (2-96) ~(10 0~ (1~~11~0 10
~(11~111(11~ 111~ ~011(1~~ 0(0~ 011~ 10 111~ ~0(0(0111(1110~ (~(1~1(10~~ 1.0. 11 (111 111~ 110~
10011~1(10~~5 (1(~ ~~1131, 8~. (2-99) ~1~~5 111~ ~011(1~~ 0(0~ (15 ~.. = 6/1.)00 10( (1
111(~~-~11(15~ 11111 ~00~~(1~(.
111~ ~011(1~~ 0(0~ 15 0010~~~00~0100 0~1(1~ (10~1~, ~1, 1100~( 00((0(110~~((11100.
1-10~~~~(, 111~ ~0(0(0111(11100 (0( 0~~(1(1~) (10~1~, ,.,., ~111 ~(1(~ ~1111111~ 0~1(1~ (10~1~.
~5 111~ 0~1(1~ (10~1~ 15 10~(~(15~0, 111~ 0~~(1(1~ (10~1~ 0~~0(0~5 5(0(111~(. 11115 15 111115-
1((11~0 10 ~1~. 4-18. 111~ ~011-11(0~ 101~~((11 (15 5110~0 0~ ~(05511(11~11~0 (1(~(15 15 ~~11(11
10 1001.0 (100 15 100~~~00~01 01 ~011(1~~5. ~5 111~ ~0(0(0111(1110~ ~0(15~ ~011(1~~ 10-
~(~(15~5, 10~ 11(0~ (~~111(~0 10 ~0(0(0111(11~ ~~15 5(0(111~(, 011110~ ..~011-5~~0005,, (~(0(110
10~ 5(1(0~.
11 ~.. 15 10~ (1~~((1~~ ~011(1~~ 0(0~ ~~( ~0(0(0111(11100 011~ 10 0~~(1(1~ (100 ~~ 15
10~ (1~~((1~~ ~011(1~~ (~011~1100 011~ 10 ~0(15~-(10~1~ ~001(01, 111~ (1~~((1~~ 0111~111 ~011-
(1~~ 10( (1 0~1(1~ (10~1~ 01 ~ 15

(4-86)

~~ = ~€111/ - ~00(~) (4-87)


10~ (1~~((1~~ 0111~111 ~011(1~~ ~110 0~~(1(1~ (10~1~ ,.,. (100 1~0 ~0(0(0111(111005 15

~00(~ + ,.,.) = ~00(~ = 0) - 2~.. - ~~ = ~€111/ - 2~.. - ~~ (4-88)

5110511111110~ ~~ 1(0(0 8~. (4-87) 1010 8~. (4-88) ~~ ~(10 ~(11~ 10~ ~011(1~~ 0(0~ 011~
10 0~~(1(1~ (15

(4-89)

10~ 0~~(1(1~ (10~1~, ,.,., ~(10 0~ 0~1~((010~01(0(0 8~. (4-89) 10( ~00~0 ~(1111~5011030
~11((~01, 100~ ~0(0(0111(1110~ 10011~1(10~~, 1.0~ 300 0~1(1~ 30~1~,~. 11 5001110 0~ 001~0
10(11 8~. (4-89) 15 (1~~11~301~ 10 510~1~-~035~ 11111~00~~(1~(.

~~301))1~ 4-13
~ 111(~~-()1135~(1111~011,,,~(1~( 18811()()11~0((001 3 111(~~-()1138~230- ~ 60-1-12 811()()1)1. 111~
1030 ~11((~11118~011611110118 3110 113811~~11~101~..1()()1~. 1( 111~3,,,~..3~~ 1030 ~11..(~111,/00

118

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0.11111-1, 0~~~1111111~ ~11~ 0,,,~11(1~ (111~1~
= 150 ~ (1110 ~11~ ~011111111~(1~111~ 111011~~(111~~, 1-0 =
~11~11 ((1) ~ = 100,(0) ~ = 300, (1110(~) ~ = 600.

80101100 11,,, = ~
)(
230/~ = 187.79 ~ (111011,/,,,= 310.6~. ~10111~~. (4-57),
1100(~)= 310.6 ~08 ~ (1110

1100(~ + ~) = 310.6 ~08 (~ + ~)

~01 (1 ~111~~-~11(18~~011,,,~1~~1,~~. (4-89) ~(1110~ 111001~1~0~0


611~ = 6/1001-0= 1100(~) - 1100(~+ ~) (4-90)
6 )(
60 )(
150 )(
0.1 )(
10-3 = 310.6(~08 ~ - ~08 (~ + ~))
((1) ~01 ~ = 100, ~ = 4.660.
(0) ~01 ~ = 300, ~ = 1.940.
(~) ~01 ~ = 600, ~ = 1.140. ~-(~

(~~
~ ,.,~..~

10 1018 ~0(1~1~( ...,~ 0(1~~ 8~~0


10(11 (1~~((1~~ 01.11~1.11 ~011(1~~ ((100 01.11~1.11 ~0...,~() 01
(1~-0~ ~00~~(1~(8 ~(10 0~0~ ~(1(~10~ 10~ ~0001.1~1100
~001(011~0 11(0~ 0110~(1810(8.
0( 10(~~-
1)~~~0010~ 00 10~ 1~~~8 01 81.1~~1~, 10~ ~00~~(1~(8 ~01.110 0~ 810~1~-~0(18~
~(10 0~ 0(111 ,(1~~, 8~(01-, 0( 11.111~00~~(1~(8.
~0(18~. ~0( ~(1~01~~~ 0181.1~~1~, 10~~
10~ 8~1111- (100 11.111~00~~(1~(8 (1(~ 1.18~0 ~)(1~081~~1~ 10 ~((1~11~(11 (1~~11~(111008. ~1-
1001.1~0 8~1111~00~~(1~(8 ~(0~10~ 0~11~( 10~1.11 ~0...,~( 1(1~10( 10(10 10(11 01 11.111~00-
~~(1~(8, 10~8~ ~00~~(1~(8 (1(~ 001~ 81.111(101~ 10( 00~-().1.1(10((101 0~~((11100. ~1.111 ~00-
~~(1~(8 (100 01.1(11 ~00~~(1~(8 (1110..., 1...,0-().1.1(10((101 (100 101.1(-().1.1(10((101 0~~((111008,
(~8~~~11~~1~. 10(~~-~0(18~ ~00~~(1~(8 (1(~ 00((0(111~ 1.18~01001~0-~0...,~( (1~~11~(111008
(100 10~ 1(~().1.1~0~~ 01 01.11~1.11 (1~~1~8 18 01~0~(.
10~ 10~1.11 ~0...,~( 1(1~10(, ...,01~0 18 0~~~00~01 00 10~ 10(10, ~(10 0~ 1(0~(0~~0
(100 10~ ~011(1~~ ((1110~ ~(10 0~ 10~(~(18~0 0~ 8~(1~8 ~000~~1100 01 ~00~~(1~(8. ~110

10(~~0 ~0(0(01.11(111008, 10~ ~0~~( 1(1~10( ~(10 0~ 11.1(10~( 1(0~(0~~0 (100 ~~(1(110 10...,~(-
0(0~( 0(1((0001~8 ~(10 0~ (~01.1~~0 0( ~11(010(11~0.
0( 018~001101.101.18 0~~~0010~ 00 10~ 10(10-
10~ 10(10 ~1.1((~01 ~01.110 0~ ~001101.101.18
11(0~ ~0081(101 (100 0~1(1~ (10~1~. ~0( 10~ (10(11~818 01 ~00~~(1~(8, 10~ (0~1000 01
~01.1(1~( 8~(1~818 1.18~0. 1-10...,~~~(, 010~( 1~~001().1.1~8 (~.~., 1((1081~( 11.10~1100 (1~~(0(1~0
0( 8~~~1(1.1(0 (01.1111~11~(11100 01 8...,11~010~ 11.10~1100) ~(10 0~ 1.18~0 10( 10~ (10(11~818 01
~0...,~( 8...,11~010~ ~1(~1.1118. 10~ 0~1(1~-(10~1~ ~001(01 00~8 001 (111~~110~ ~011(1~~ 0(0~
01.1~ 10 ~0(0(01.11(1110~ 1001.1~1(10~~8, (100 1018 0(0~ 18 10~ 8(1(0~ (18 10(11 01 00((0(11 0100~
(~~1111~(8.

1. ~. ~. 5~11, 71/)1,./.5(0,.1)~ 1),.1))~5. ~~~ ~01/(= ~11~~-10.~~18~1~11~~, 1981.


2. ~. ~., 8~0. (1110 5. ~. 001(101(1, ..~,,,(110(1~1011 0~ ~00.~101 8~11~111~8 ~01 ~11~118~01 ~00.~1011~0
0~ 1110~018.,, 1~~~ 7,.(111)0((10115 011 1110./15(,.10/ ~/~((,.0111(5 0110. ~011(,.0/ 1115(,./1/11~11(0(1011,
~01. 1~025, ~0. 3 (~11~1181) 1978, ~~. 247-255.

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3. ~. 0. ~10~35, ..0~11(111.1(11 0113~~ 3110 /13((110111( (0111(01 ~~~ 1~(/1111().1.1~510( 3-~/135~
5136( 0~8 5)151~(115.,, /~~~ 1,.~115~~(10115 011 /110.~5(,.~ .4~~/1~~(10115, ~01. 1~16, ~0. 4.
(11.11)1) 1980, ~~. 542-546.
4. ~. 1-1. ~35/110, 3110 ~. ~001.101113, ..~1131~515 0110~~~0-~0111111111(11~0 1~(11111().11~5101 (1(-0(
(011 ~(1~(5.,, 15( ~~,.0~~~11 ~0111~,.~11~~011 )10~~,. ~/~~(,.0111~5 ~110..4~~/1~~(10115, 13(1.155~15,
0(100~( 16-18, 1985, ~~. 2.263-2.266.
5. ~. 0. ~10~35, 3110 ~. ~/1063015, ..~11 ~)(3(1 01.11~1.11 (1.1((~111311(1)15150110~31 5136( ~~~
111~(1~(5.,, /~~~ 1,.~115~~(10115011 /110.~(,.~ .4~~/1~~(10115, ~01. 1~119, ~0. 2 (~3((/1-
~~(11) 1983, ~~. 281-295.
6. ~. 1-1. ~35/110 3110 ~. 1. ~35~000, ..~11(1)1515 01 3-~/135~ 3(-0( (011 ~(1~(5 1.1110~( 1.111031-
311(~0 51.1~~1)1(01101110115.,, /~~~ /110.~(,-~ .4~~/1~~(10115 ~0111~,.~11~~ ~~~0,.0., 1985,
~~. 1190-
1194.

4-1. ~/131 15 3 11311.1(310( 1111~(0(11(111.11360117


4-2. ~/131 15 3 (0111(011~0 (~(66~(7
4-3. ~/131 15 3 (011 ~(1~(7
4-4. ~/13115 0~13)1-311~1~ (0111(01 01 (011 ~(1~(57
4-5. ~/13115 3 5~(111(011 ~(1~(7 0(3~ 1~0 5~(111(011 ~(1~( (1((1.1115.
4-6. ~/131 15 3 11.111(011 ~(1~(7 0(3~ 1~0 11.111-(011 ~(1~( (1((1.1115.
4-7. ~/13115 3 01.131 (011 ~(1~(7 0(3~ 1~0 01.131-(011 ~(1~( (1((1.1115.
4-8. ~/131 15 1/1~ ~(111(1~1~ 01 ~/135~ (0111(017
4-9. ~/131 3(~ 1/1~ ~11~(15 01 (~(110 111~ 1/1~ 1(~~~/1~~1111~ 0100~ 111 5111~1~-~/135~ 5~(111(011-
~(1~(57
4-10. ~/1)115 1/1~ ~0~~( 13(10( 01 5~(111(011 ~(1~(5 0~11~( 1/1311 1/131 0111.111 (011 ~(1~(57
4-11. ~/13115 1/1~ (31.15~ 01 (1((1.113611~ (1.1((~111111 01.131 (011 ~(1~(57
4-12. ~/1)115 3 (1((1.113611~ (1.1((~11111101.1(10( (~().1.11(~0 11101.131 (011 ~(1~(57
4-13. ~/131 3(~ 1/1~ 30 31113~~5 3110 01530 31113~~5 01 5~(1~5 (011 ~(1~(57
4-14. 1-10~ 15 1/1~ 0~13)1311~1~ 01011~ (011 ~(1~( (~131~0 10 1/1~ 0~13)1311~1~ 011/1~ 01/1~( (011 ~(1~(
1113 01.131-(011 ~(1~( 5)151~(117
4-15. ~/13115 1/1~ 111 ~(51011 (1100~ 01 (011 ~(1~(57
4-16. ~/13115 1/1~ (~(611(36011 (1100~ 01 (011 ~(1~(57
4-17. ~/13115 1/1~ 1(~().1.1~11()1011/1~ 10~~51-0(0~( /13((110111( 1111/1(~~-~/135~ 5~(111(011 ~(1~(57
4-18. %3115 1/1~ 1(~().1.1~11()1011/1~ 10~~51-0(0~( /13((110111( 1111/1(~~-~/135~ 11.111(011 ~(1~(57
4-19. ~/13115 1/1~ 1(~().1.1~11()1011/1~ 10~~51-0(0~( /13((110111( 1113 5111~1~-~/135~ 5~(111(011 ~(1~(7
4-20. 1-10~ 3(~ ~31~-11.1(11-0111/1)1(1510(5 11.1(11~0 011 3110 0117
4-21. 1-10~ 15 3 ~/135~-(0111(011/1)1(1510( 11.1(11~0 011 3110 0117
4-22. ~/13115 310((~0 (0(11(111.11360117 ~/131 3(~ 1/1~ 30 31113~~5 0110((~0 (0(11(111.113601110(
3(-0( (011 ~(1~(57

4-23. ~/13115 ~)(611(6011-311~1~ (0111(01 01 (011 ~(1~(57


4-24. ~/13115 5)1(11(11~1(1(31-311~1~ (0111(01 01 (011 ~(1~(57
4-25. ~/13115 ~1.115~-~101/1-(11001.1136011 (0111(01 01 (011 ~(1~(5 7

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4-26. ~113115 511111501031 ~1115~-~10111-11100111311011 ~0111(01 01 3 ~011..,~(1~(7
4-27. ~1131 15 111~ 11100111311011 1110~)(7
4-28. 110~ 15 111~ 0111~111 ..,0113~~ 01 3 ~1135~-~0111(01 ~011..,~(1~( ..,3(1~0 7
4-29. 110~ 15 111~ 0111~111 ..,0113~~ 01 3 511111501031 ~~~ ~0111(01 ~011..,~(1~( ..,3(1~07
4-30. ))0~5 111~ ~0111111111311011311~1~ 0~~~110 011 111~ 0~13~ 311~1~ 01 ~011..,~(1~(57

4-31. ))0~5 111~ ..,0113~~ 0(0~ 011~ 10 ~011111111131111~


111011~1311~~5 0~~~110 011 111~ 0~13~ 311~1~ 01
~011..,~(1~(57

4-32. ))0~5 111~ 111~111~0~~( 13~10( 01 ~011..,~(1~(5 0~~~110 011 111~ 1030 ~0~~( 13~10(7

4-33. ))0 111~ 0111~111 (1~~1~ ..,0113~~5 01 ~011..,~(1~(5 0~~~110 011 111~ 0~13~ 311~1~7

4-1. ~ 5111~1~-~1135~ 11311-~3..,~ ~011..,~(1~( 111~1~. 4-1315 0~~(31~01(0111 3120- ~ 60-112 511~~1~.
11111~ 1030 (~51511..,~ 1030 15 ~ = 10 0 3110 111~ 0~13~ 311~1~ 15 0. = 70/3, 0~1~(111111~ 111~
(3) ~111~1~11~~~ (()) 10(11113~10(~ (~) (1~~1~ 13~10(~ (~) 1(311510(111~( 111111231101113~10(~ 3110
(~) ~~3(( 111..,~(5~ ..,0113~~ (~1~) 01111~(1510( 11.

4-2. ~ 5111~1~-~1135~ 11311-~3..,~ ~011..,~(1~( 111~1~. 4-1315 0~~(31~01(0111 3 120- ~ 60-112 511~~1~
3110 111~ 1030 (~51511..,~ 1030 15 ~ = 10 0. 11111~ 3..,~(3~~ 0111~111 ..,0113~~ 15 25% 01111~
(()) (1115 3110
1113)(111111111
~055101~ 3..,~(3~~ 0111~111 ..,0113~~, ~31~11131~ 111~ (3) 0~13~ 311~1~~
3..,~(3~~ 0111~111 ~11((~1115~ (~) 3..,~(3~~ 3110 (1115 111~(1510( ~11((~1115~ 3110 (~) 111~111~0~~(
13~10( .

4-3. ~ 5111~1~-~1135~ 11311-~011..,~(1~( 111~1~. 4-1315 511~~11~0 1(0111 3 120-~ 60-112 511~~1~ 3110
3 1(~~~11~~1111~ 0100~ 15 ~01111~~1~0 3~(055 111~ 1030. 111~ 1030 ~01151515 01 5~(1~5-~011-
20
11~~1~0 (~5151311~~, ~ = 10 0, 111011~1311~~, 1- = 5 11111, 3110 0311~(~ ..,0113~~, ~ =
(()) 0~1~(111111~
~. (3) ~)(~(~55111~ 111513111311~01150111~111..,0113~~ 1113 ~011(1~( 5~(1~5, 3110
111~ (1115 ..,3111~ 01111~ 10~~51-0(0~( 0111~111113(1110111~ ~11((~111.
4-4. ~ 5111~1~-~1135~ 5~1111~011..,~(1~( 111 ~1~. 4-23 15 0~~(31~0 1(0111 3 120-~ 60-112 511~~1~.
111~ 1030 ~11((~111 ~1111 311 3..,~(3~~ ..,3111~ 01 1. 15 ~0111111110115~1111 11~~11~101~ (1~~1~
~0111~111. 111~ 111(115 (3110 01111~ 1(311510(111~( 15 111111~. 11111~ 0~13~ 311~1~ 15 0. = 70/3,
(()) 015~13~~111~11113~10(~ 3110 (~)
~31~11131~ 111~ (3) 113(1110111~ 13~10( 01111~111 ~11((~111~
111~111~0~~( 13~10(.
5~1111~011..,~(1~( 111~1~. 4-23.
4-5. ~~~~31 ~(00.
4-2 10( 111~ 5111~1~-~1135~
4-6. 111~ 5111~1~-~1135~ 5~1111~011..,~(1~( 111~1~. 4-23 15 0~~(31~0 1(0111 3 120- ~ 60-112 511~~1~.
5 11111,
111~ 1030 ~01151515 01 5~(1~5-~01111~~1~0 (~5151311~~, ~ = 10 0, 111011~1311~~, 1- =
3110 0311~(~ ..,0113~~, ~ = 20~. (3) ~)(~(~55 111~ 0111~111 ..,0113~~ 1113 ~011(1~( 5~(1~5,
3110 (()) 0~1~(111111~ 111~ (1115 ..,3111~ 01111~ 10~~51-0(0~( 0111~111113(1110111~ ~11((~111.

4-7. ~~~~31 ~(00. 4-4 10( 111~ 5111~1~-~1135~ 11111~011..,~(1~( 111~1~. 4-33.
4-8. ~~~~31 ~(00. 4-2 10( 111~ 5111~1~-~1135~ 11111~011..,~(1~( 111~1~. 4-33.
4-9. ~~~~31 ~(00. 4-6 10( 111~ 5111~1~-~1135~ 11111~011..,~(1~( 111~1~. 4-33.
4-10. 111~ 01131 ~011..,~(1~( 111~1~. 4-4315 0~~(31~0 1(0111 3 120-~ 60-112 511~~1~ 3110 0~11..,~(5
= 20~.
(1~~1~-1(~~ 3..,~(3~~ ~11((~111 01100 111~ ~1(~11131111~ 1-, = 5 11111,
111011~1311~~,
3110 111~ 0~13~ 311~1~5 3(~ 0.1 = 300 3110 0.2 = 1500. ~31~11131~ 111~~~3(( ~1(~11131111~
~11((~111 3110 111~ ~~3(( ~11((~111 01 ~011..,~(1~( 1.

4-11. ~ 5111~1~-~1135~ 5~(1~5 5~1111~011..,~(1~( 111~1~. 4-5315 0~~(31~01(0111 3120-~ 60-112 511~~1~

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~110 10.~ 10~0 ~~5151~11~~, 1(. = 10 0. 1( 10.~ ~..,~~~~~ 0(11))111..,011~~~ 15 75% 0( 10.~
111~)(111111111
))055101~ ~..,~~~~~ 0(11))111..,011~~~, ~~1~111~1~ 10~ (3) 0~1~~ ~11~1~5 0( ~011..,~~1~~5,
(.,) ~1115~110 ~..,~~~~~ 0(11))111 ~11~~~1115, (~) ~..,~~~~~ ~110 ~111510.~~1510~ ~11~~~1115, ~110 (())
111))111))0~~~ (3~10~.
4-12. ,.1. 5111~1~-))0.~5~ 5~~1~5 5~1111~011..,~~1~~111~1~. 4- 5~ 15 0))~~~1~0 (~0111 ~ 120- ~ 60-1-12 5(1))))1~.
10~ 10~0 ~11~~~111~110. ~11 ~..,~~~~~ ..,~111~ 0( 10 15 ~0111111110115~110 10~ ~1))))1~ ~0111~111 15
11~~11~101~. 10~ 111~115~3110 0( 10~ 1~~115(0~111~~ 15 1-1,)1-1, = 2. 1( 0~1~~ ~11~1~5 ~1~ ~1
= 0 ~110 ~2 = 7//3, ~~1~111~1~ 10~ (3) 0.~~1110111~(~~10~ 0( 111))111~11~~~111~(.,) 015()1~~~111~111
(~~10~~ ~110 (~) 111))111))0~~~ (~~10~.
4-13. ~~))~~1 ~~00. 4-11 (0~ 10.~ 5111~1~-))0.~5~ 5~~1~5 (1111~011..,~~1~~ 111~1~. 4-6~.
4-14. ~~))~~1 ~~00. 4-12 (0~ 10.~ 5111~1~-))0.~5~ 5~~1~5 (1111~011..,~~1~~ 111~1~. 4-6~.
4-15. 10~ 10.~~~-))0.~5~ 0.~1(-~~..,~ ~011..,~~1~~ 111 ~1~. 4-73 15 0))~~~1~0 (~0111 ~ 10~~~-))0.~5~
~ -~01111~~1~0 220- ~ 60-1-12 5(1))))1~ ~110 ~ (~~~~0.~~1111~ 0100~ 15 ~01111~~1~0 ~~~055 10.~
10~0. 10.~ 10~0 ~11~~~111~110. ~11 ~..,~~~~~ ..,~111~0( 1015 ~0111111110115~110 10~ ~1()))1~ ~0111~111
15 11~~11~101~. 1( 10.~ 0~1~~ ~11~1~, ~ = 7//3, ~~1~111~1~ 10.~ (3) 0.~~1110111~(~~10~ 0( 111()111
~11~~~111~ (.,) (15))1~~~111~111 (~~10~~ ~110 (~) 111))111))0~~~ (~~10~.
4-16. 10.~ 10.~~~-))035~ 0~1(-~~..,~ ~011..,~~1~~ 111 ~1~. 4-7~ 15 0))~~31~0 (~0111 ~ 10~~~-))0.~5~
~-~01111~~1~0 220- ~ 60-1-12 5(1))))1~ ~110 10~ 10~0 ~~5151~11~~ 15 1(.
= 100. 1( 10~ ~..,~~~~~
0(11))111 ..,011~~~ 15 25% 0( 10.~ 111~)(111111111
))055101~ ~..,~~~~~ 0(11))111 ..,011~~~, ~~1~(1)~1~ 10.~
(3) 0~1~~ ~11~1~~ (.,) ~1115~110 ~..,~~~~~ 0(11))111 ~11~~~1115~ (~) ~..,~~~~~ ~110 ~1115 10.~~1510~
~11~~~1115~ (()) ~~~11(1~~11011 ~((1~1~11~~~ (~) 1~3115(0~111~~ 1111112~11011(~~10~~ ~110 (1) 111))111
))0~~~ (~~10~.
4-17. 10.~ 10.~~~-))0.~5~ 0.~1(-~~..,~ ~011..,~~1~~ 111 ~1~. 4-7~ 15 0))~~~1~0 (~0111 ~ 10~~~-))0~5~
~ -~01111~~1~0 220- ~ 60-1-12 5(1))))1~ ~110 ~ (~~~~0.~~1111~ 0100~ 15 ~01111~~1~0 ~~~055 10~
10~0. 10.~ 10~0 ~01151515 0( 5~~1~5-~01111~~1~0 ~~5151~11~~, 1(.
= 10 0, 111011~1~11~~, ~ =
5 1111-1,~110 0~11~~~ ..,011~~~, ~ = 20~. (3) ~)())~~55 10.~ 11151~111~11~01150(11))111 ..,011~~~
111~ ~011~1~~ 5~~1~5, ~110 (.,) 0~1~~111111~ 10.~ ~1115..,~111~ 0( 10.~ 10~~51-0~0~~ 0.~~1110111~011
10.~ 0(11))111 ~11~~~111.
4-18. 10.~ 10.~~~-))0.~5~ 5~1111~011..,~~1~~111~1~. 4-8~ 15 0))~~~1~0 (~0111 ~ 10.~~~-()0.~5~ ~ -~01111~~1~0
220-~ 60-1-12 5(1))))1~.
10.~ 10~0 ~11~~~111~110. ~11 ~..,~~~~~ ..,~111~ 0( 1015 ~0111111110115~110
11~~11~101~ ~1))))1~ ~0111~111. 10.~ 111~115~~110 0( 10.~ 1~~115(0~111~~ 15 111111~. 1( 10.~ 0~1~~
~11~1~ 15 ~ = 27//3, ~~1~111~1~ 10.~ (3) 0.~~1110111~(~~10~ 0( 111))111~11~~~111~(.,) (15))1~~~111~111
(~~10~~ ~110 (~) 111))111))0~~~ (~~10~.
4-19. ~~))~~1 ~~00. 4-16 (0~ 10.~ 10.~~~-))0.35~ 5~1111~011..,~~1~~ 111~1~. 4-8~.
4-20. ~~))~~1 ~~00. 4-19 1( 10.~ ~..,~~~~~ 0(11))111 ..,011~~~ 15 90% 0( 10.~ 111~)(111111111
))055101~
0(11))111 ..,011~~~.
4-21. ~~))~~1 ~~00. 4-17 (0~ 10.~ 10~~~-))0.~5~ 5~1111~011..,~~1~~ 111~1~. 4-83.
4-22. ~~))~~1 ~~00. 4-18 (0~ 10.~ 10.~~~-))0.~5~ (1111~011..,~~1~~ 111~1~. 4-93.
4-23. ~~))~~1 ~~00. 4-16 (0~ 10.~ 10.~~~-))0.~5~ (1111~011..,~~1~~ 111~1~. 4-9~.
4-24. ~~))~~1 ~~00. 4-17 (0~ 10.~ 10~~~-))0.~5~ (1111~011..,~~1~~ 111~1~. 4-%.
4-25. 10~ 10~~~-))0~5~ 011~1 ~011..,~~1~~ 111~1~. 4-10~ 15 0))~~~1~0 (~0111 ~ 10.~~~-()0~5~ ~ -~011-
11~~1~0 220-~ 60-1-12 5(1))))1~ ~110 10~ 10~0 ~~5151~11~~, 1(. 10 11. 10~ ~1~~111~1111~
=
111011~1~11~~, ~~ = 5 1111-1, ~110 10.~ 0~)~~ ~11~1~5 3~~ ~1 = 600 ~110 ~2 = 1200. ~~1~111~1~
10.~ ))~~)( ~1~~111~1111~~11~~~111~110 10.~ ))~~)( ~11~~~1110( ~011..,~~1~~5.
4-26. 10.~ 5111~1~-))0.35~ 5~1111~011..,~~1~~ 111~1~. 4-11~ 15 0))~~~1~0 (~0111 3 120- ~ 60-1-12 5(1))))1~
~110 115~5 ~11 ~)(1111~11011~11~1~ ~0111~01. 10.~ 10~0 ~11~~~111~110. ~11 3..,~~~~~ ..,~111~ 0(
10
15 ~0111111110115 3110 0.~5 11~~11~101~ ~1))))1~ 1(
~0111~111. 10.~ ~)(1111~11011 ~11~1~ 15 (3
= 7//3,

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(.,) 113(1110111~ 13~10( 01111~111 ~11((~111~ (~) 015-
~31~11131~ 111~ (3) 0111~111 ~~0 3110 ~,01$~
~13~~111~11113~10(~ 3110 ((1) 111~111~0~~( 13~10(.

4-27. ~~~~31 ~(00. 4-26 10( 111~ 5111~1~-~1135~ 11111~011~~(1~( 111~1~. 4-123.

4-28. ~~~~31 ~(00. 4-18 115~111111~1(1~31-311~1~ ~0111(0115 115~0.


4-29. ~~~~31 ~(00. 4-18 11 ~)(1111~~6011-311~1~ ~0111(0115 115~0.
4-30. 111~ 5111~1~-~1135~ 5~1111~011~~(1~( 111~1~. 4-11315 0~~(31~0 ~11113 511111501031~~~ ~0111(01
3110 15 511~~11~0 1(0111 3 120- ~ 60-1-1~ 511~~1~. 111~ 1030 ~11((~111 ~1111 311 3~~(3~~ ~3111~
01/. 15 ~011611110115 ~111111~~11~101~ (1~~1~ ~0111~111. 111~(~ 3(~ 11~~ ~1115~5 ~~( 11311-~~~1~
3110 111~ ~1115~5 3(~ ~1 = 7.930,01 = 5.820~ ~2 = 300,02 = 16.250~ ~3 = 52.070,03 =
127.930~ ~4 = 133.750,04 = 16.250~ = 5.820.
3110 ~5 = 166.250,05 ~31~11131~ 111~ (3)
((1)
(.,) 113(1110111~13~10( 01111~111 ~11((~111~ (~) 015~13~~111~111 13~10(~ 3110
~~0 3110 ~,01$~
111~111~0~~( 13~10(.
0.8.
4-31. ~~~~31 ~(00. 4-30 10( 11~~ ~1115~5 ~~( 11311-~~~1~ ~1111 ~~1131 ~1115~ ~10111, 1-.1 =
4-32. /0.. 111(~~-~1135~ 5~1111~011~~(1~( 15 0~~(31~0 1(0111 3 111(~~-~1135~ -~01111~~1~0 220- ~ 60-
1-1~ 511~~1~. 111~ 1030 ~11((~111 15 ~01111111101153110 1135 11~~11~101~ (1~~1~. 111~ 3~~(3~~
0.5 1111-1.
1030 ~11((~11115 /~0 = 150 /0.. 3110 ~011111111131111~111011~1311~~ ~~( ~1135~ 15 1-,. =
0~1~(111111~ 111~ 0~~(13~ 311~1~ 11 (3) ~ = -../6, 3110(.,) ~ = -../3.

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~~. 1176-1181.

5-1. ~113118 3 81311~ 8~11~117


5-2. ~1131 3~~ 111~ 0111~~~11~~8 0~1~~~11 3~ 3110 0~ 8~11~11~87

134

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5-3. ~1131 3~~ 111~ 30..,31113~~5 01 51311~ 5~11~11~5 0..,~~ 111~~113111~310~ ~1~~1~0111~~113111~31
5~11~11~57
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5-5. ~1131 3~~ 111~ 30..,31113~~5 3110 01530..,31113~~5 011~1,4.~ 3~ 5~11~11~57
5-6. ~1131 3~~ 111~ 30..,31113~~5 3110 01530..,31113~~5 01 0100~ 3110 111~~1510~ 3~ 5~11~11~5 7
5-7. ~1131 3~~ 111~ 30..,31113~~5 3110 01530..,31113~~5 01000~~ ~~~1111~~3110 111~0510~ 3~ 5~11~11~57
5-8. ~1131 3~~ 111~ ~11~~15 011030 111011~1311~~ 011 111~ ~31111~ ~~~111~~111~111501 3~ 5~11~11~57
5-9. ~113115 111~ ~~111~1~1~ 01 0~~~311011 01 55~57
5-10. ~1131 3~~ 111~ 111~111005 01150131111~ 111~ ~0111~01 ~1~~11111~0111 111~ 1030 ~1~~111101 55~57
5-11. ~1131 3~~ 111~ 13~10~5 111..,01..,~0 111111~ 0~51~11 01 0~ 5~11~11~57
5-12. ~1131 3~~ 111~ 13~10~5 111..,01..,~0 111111~ 0~51~11 01 3~ 5~11~11~57
5-13. ~11311~~~ 01 ~011111111131101115 ~~~111~~0 10~ 0~ 5~11~11~57
5-14. ~11311~~~ 01 ~011111111131101115 ~~~111~~0 10~ 3~ 5~11~11~57

5-1. ,4. 5111~1~-~1135~ 3~ 5~11~11 ~1111 ~01111~11~311011111 ~1~. 5-13 15 115~0 0~1~~~11 3 120-~ 60-
1-12 1113111511~~1~ 3110 311 111011~11..,~1030. 111~ 1030 ~0~~~ 15 15 /(~ 31 3 ~0~~~ 13~10~
01 0. 90 13~~111~. 0~1~~111111~ 111~ ..,0113~~ 3110 ~11~~~111~31111~5 01111~ 111~~1510~5.
5-2. 0~1~~111111~ 111~ 11~111~311~1~5 01111~~1510~5 11 3110 12 111~~00. 5-1.
5-3. ,4. 5111~1~-~1135~ 3~ 5~11~11 ~1111 ~01111~11~311011 111~1~. 5-33 15 115~0 0~1~~~11 3 120- ~ 60-
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01 0. 90 13~~111~. 0~1~~111111~ 111~ ..,0113~~ 3110 ~11~~~111~31111~5 01 0100~5 3110 111~~1510~5.
5-4. ,4. 5111~1~-~1135~ 3~ 5~11~11 ~1111 ~01111~11~311011 111~1~. 5-43 15 115~0 0~1~~~11 3 120- ~ 60-
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010.9013~~111~. 0~1~~111111~ 111~ ..,0113~~ 3110 ~11~~~111~31111~5 01111~ 111~~1510~ 3110 0100~5
111111~ 0~10~~ ~~~1111~~.
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5-6. ,4. 111~~~-~1135~ 3~ 5~11~11 ~1111 ~01111~11~311011111~1~. 5-53 15 115~0 0~1~~~11 3 111~~~-~1135~
440-~ 60-1-12 511~~1~ 3110 3 111~~~-~1135~ ~~~-~01111~~1~0 1030. 111~ 1030 ~0~~~ 15 20
/(~ 31 3 ~0~~~ 13~10~ 010.86 13~~111~. 0~1~~111111~ 111~ ..,0113~~ 3110 ~11~~~111~31111~5 01
111~~1510~5.
5-7. 0~1~~111111~ 111~ 11~111~311~1~5 01111~~1510~5 111~~00. 5-6.
5-8. ~~~~31 ~~00. 5-6 10~ 3 0~113-~01111~~1~0 1030.
5-9. ,4. 111~~~-~1135~ 3~ 5~11~11 ~1111 ~01111~11~311011111~1~. 5-61135 3 111~~~-~1135~ 440-~ 60-1-12
111~1113110 3 111~~~-~1135~ ~~~-~01111~~1~0 1030. 111~ 1030 ~0~~~ 15 20 /(~ 31 3 ~0~~~
13~10~ 01 0.86 13~~111~. 0~1~~111111~ 111~ ..,0113~~ 3110 ~11~~~111 ~31111~5 01 0100~5 3110
111~~1510~5.
..,0113~~,
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(7 40 ,.,..~. 0~1~~111111~ 111~
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3110 ~3~3~11311~~, =
(3) ~~3/( ~11~~~111111~011~11111~~1510~ 13, 3110 (~) 11111~~~~111~~0 10 ~~011~~ 111~ ~11~~~11101
111~~1510~ 11 1~0111 111~ 51~30~-5131~ ..,3111~ 10 2~~0.

135

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10 2~(0 (111~( 111~ 11011~ 01111~(1510( 12.
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136

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~0111(011~(5 3110 (2) 10(~~-~035~ ~0111(011~(5. ~3~0 1)1~~ ~311 0~ 511001.,,10~0 11110 (3)
~0111(01 3110 (0) 0101(~~1101131 0( 11111-~3.,,~ ~0111(01. 10~(~
1111101(~~1101131 0( 0311-~3.,,~

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(1(~ ~(1(101.18 ~001181.1((111008 0~ 111(~~-~11(18~ ~001(011~(8
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(1(~ 00(((1(111)1 1.18~0. ~0( (1~~11~(111008 1.1~ 10 400 1-12, 1~ 1~1~~8 (1(~ (1~(111(101~ 10
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81081~-~11(18~ ~1.111-~(1~~
~001(011~( (18 8110~0 10 ~18. 6-1(1. 111~ 111)1(1810( 8~11~11 ~000~~18 111~ (1~ 81.1~~1)110
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~0( 111)1(1810(8 11 (100 12 (100 111~ ~(1~~~0(((18 ~0( 10~1.11 (100 01.11~1.11 ~011(18~8 (1(~ 8110~0
10 ~18. 6-10.
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10~(11(1 (100 111811111~(((1(1111((1~ ~0081(101 (~.8., 1001.181(1(1111~(11108 (100 8~~~0 ~001(01
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10 11108~ 0~ ~11(18~ ~001(01
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11 ~ 15 ~~(1~0 1(0111 0 10 70, ~ 0 ~~(1~5 1(0111 ~$ 10 ~/0 ~110 ~ 00 ~~(1~0 1(0111 0 10

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(/)) 111~111~0~~( 13~10(, ~11~ 311()
0~1~(111111~10.~ ((1) (1115.,,3111~010111~111 .,,0113~~, ~0~
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80101100 ~ = 10 0., ~5 = 120 ,, ~ = 70/2, 311()~,,, = 0 120 = 169.7 ,.
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11 30() 12 3(~ ~~~11800 3~3(1. 111~ ~3 ~~0((08 ~0( 111~10~111 0113~~, 0111~111 0113~~,
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147
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10~ ~(1110~ ~1115~5 0110~(1510(5 5001110 0~ ~00110110115, (100 10( ~)((1111~1~, 10~
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1500, 10~ 5~~000 ~1115~, ~01~0 ~(10 51(1(1 (11 0)(
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~~~99
~0,,~~~1~,,9 ~9~~~98

~ =0

(6-30)

10 111~ ~(18~ 0( ()~11(1-~000~~1~() 10(1(), 111~ 0111~111 ~11(18~ ~011(1~~ ~0111() 0~ 111~
8(1111~ (18 111~ 110~-10-110~ ~011(1~~. 110~~~~(, 111~ 110~ ~11((~01 0(
111~ 10(1() ~0111()
()~~~0() 00 111~ 0111110~( 0( ()~~1~~8 ~00()11~110~ (11 111~ 8(1111~ 11111~. 1( 111(~~ ()~~1~~8
~00()11~1, 111~ 110~ (10() ~11(18~ ~11((~018 ~0111() (0110~ 111~ 00(111(11 (~1(111008111~ 0( (1
111(~~-~11(18~ 8)181~111, (18 8110~0 10 ~1~. 6-10(1. 1( 111~ ~11((~0110 ~11(18~ (1 18 10/0 = /,,,
810 ())(, 111~ 110~ ~11((~01 ~111 0~ 10 = 10/0 - 1~0 = 0 /,,, 810 (())(
- ~/6). 1( 1~0
()~~1~~8 ~00()11~1 (11 111~ 8(1111~ 11111~, 00~ 1~(11110(11 0( 10(1() ~(10 0~ ~0081()~(~()
0~~0-
~1(~1111~() (18 8110~0 10 ~1~. 6-100 (10()
1~0 = 1/0~ = -10/0/2. 111~ 110~ ~11((~01 0( 10(1()
~0111() 0~ 10 = 10/0 - 1~0 = (3/,,,/2) 810 ())(
= 1.5/,,, 810 ())(.
111~ ~0~~( ()~~1~~8 ~(10 0~ ~000~~1~() 10~~111~( (18 8110~0 10 ~1~. 6-11. 11118
(1(((10~~111~01, ~111~11 ~~(111118 (188~11101)1 (18 (1 ~0111~(1~1 11011, 18 ~088101~ 0(1)1 1( 111~
0~111((11 0( 10(1() 18 (1~~~88101~.

~~301()1~ 6-5
1/1~ 1/1(~~-~/1(18~ 1111101(~~11011(11~0111(011~( 111~1~. 6-7 811~~11~8 (1 ~~~-~01111~~1~0 (~8186~~
10(10 0( ~ = 100 (11101/1~ 1111~-10-1111~ 111~111~011(1~~ 18 208 ~, 60 1-12. 1/1~ 0~1(1~ 18
~ = ~/3. 0~1~(111111~ 1/1~ ((1) (1118 0111~111 ~/1(18~ ~011(1~~, ~0~ (0) 111~111~0~~( ((1~10(,
~~~ (1110 (~) ~)(~(~8810118 (0( 1/1~ 11181(1111(111~01180111~111 ~011(1~~ 0( ~/1(18~ (1.

8010(100 ~1. = 208 ~, ~5 = ~1./~ = 208/~ = 120~, ~ = ~/3, (1110~ = 100.


((1) ~(0111 (6-28) 1/1~ (1118 0111~111 ~/1(18~ ~011(1~~ 18 ~0 =
110.86~.
(0) 1/1~ (1118 ~/1(18~ ~11((~111 0( 1/1~ 10(10, /. = 110.86/10 = 11.086 ~ (1110 1/1~

152

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8

..1~0..~ 6-11 ~)1~(111111...~ 11((11118~(11~111


01111(~~-))11115~ 011101(~(1101111) (0111(0))~(.

)( )(
~0 = 3/~~ = 3 11.0862 10 = 3686.98 ~

510.~~ 10.~ )030 18 ~00.0.~~1~0 10. ..,.,,.,,~, 10.~ ~0.35~ ~0..(~0.118 ~()03) 10 10.~ 110.~ ~0 ~0.1, /1-

= /~ = 11.086~. 10.~ 10.~01 ...011-30.1~~(~ ..3110.~,


, ~ = 3~/1- = 3 )( 120 )( 11.086 = 3990.96 ,~

~0 3686.98 ( ) .
~~ = ,~ =
3990.96 = 0.924 13~~10.~
(~) 1110.~ 10.~01 ~0.38~ ...0113~~ 18 (3)(~0. 35 10.~ ..~1~(~0.~~ 30.0 18 1)~,,., = 120 0
(1)1, 10.~ 10.5130.130.~008 10.~01110.~ .,,0113~~5 3..~
= 169.7510.
810. (1)1

1)~8 = 2080810. ((1)1+


~) = 294.2810. ((1)1+ ~)

1)8~ = 294.2810.((1)1-~)

1)~~ = 294.2 510.((1)1


_ 7~)
10.~ 10.8130.130.~008 001~01 ~0.35~ .,,0113~~, 1)~~, ..,.,,0.1~0.0~~~0.05 00. 10.~ 0.00.10~( 01 ~00.-
00~110.~ 0~.,,1~~8, ~30. 0~ 0~1~..0.110.~0 1..00.1 ~1~. 6-83 38 10110..,.,,8~

~0.. 0 ~ (1)1~ 7(/3~ 1)~~ = 0


~0.. 7(/3 ~ (1)1~ 47(/6~ 1).~ = 1)~,,., = 169.7510.(1)1
~0.. 47(/6 ~ (1)1~ 7(~ 1)~~ = 1)~~/2 = -1)~~/2 = 147.1810. ((1)1 - 77(/6 -7()
1) (1)1
~0( 7( ~ (1)1~ 37(/2~ = 1)~,,., = 169.7 810.
~~

~0.. 37(/2 ~ (1)1~ 57(/3~ 1)~~ = 1)~8/2 = 147.1810. ((1)1 + 7(/6)


1) (1)1
~0( 57(/3 ~ (1)1~ 27(~ ~~ = 1)~,,., = 169.7 810.

(1.

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111~ 1111101(~~11011(11 ~0111(011~(8, ~111~11 ~0111(1111 0~ 111()111~11((~111 (1110 111~11~( 11(1(1110111~
~0111~111 011~ 10 111~ (18~111111~1(1~(11 11(1111(~ 01111~ 0111()111 ..,011(1~~ ~(1..,~10(111, (1(~ 1101
110(111(111~ 118~0 111 (1~ 111010( 0(1..,~8~ (1 111(~~-()11(18~ 0101(~~11011(11 ~0111(0118 ~01111110111~
118~0. 111~ ~1(~1111 01(1~((1111 01 (1 111(~~-()11(18~ 11111-~(1..,~ (0( 0101(~~11011(11) ~0111(011~(
18 8110~11 111 ~1~. 6-12 ~1111 (1 ~~~-~01111~~1~0 (~81811..,~ 10(10. 111~ 0()~((111011 0111118
~0111(011~( 18 8111111(1(10 111(11 01 (111(111-~(1..,~ ~0111(011~(, ~)(~~()1111(11111~ (~111(11 ~11((~111
()(111118 ()(0..,10~0 0~ 111~(1810(8 12, 14, (1110 1611181~(10 010100~8. 111~ 11(111~ 8~(),11~11~~
01111~(1810(8 18 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16.
11~~ 0~1111~ 111~ 11181(1111(111~0118
111()111()11(18~ ..,011(1~~8 (18

7)~~ = -0~5 8111~(

7)8~ = -0~5 8111 ( ~(


_
2~)

7)~~ = -0~5 8111 ( ~(


_
4~)
111~ 11181(1111(111~0118 111()111 1111~ ..,011(1~~8 (1(~

7)~8 = ~ ~5 8111 (~( +


~)
7)
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~)
_
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111~ ~(1..,~10(1118 10( 111~ 111()111 ..,011(1~~8, ~011011~11011 (111~1~8 01111~(1810(8, (1110

154

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(1(~ 800~0 10 ~1~. 6-13 10( ~ = 600 (100 ~ = 1200. ~0( 0 ~
001~01 ~0(18~ 011(1~~8
~ ~ 600, 10000~01(11~1)1 0~10(~ 10~ 11(10~ 0111, 1~0 10)1(1810(8 ~0000~1. 00~~ 11 18
11(~0, 10(~~ 10)1(1810(8 ~0000~1. 1-.. 10)1(1810( 10(08 011 ~0~0 118 ~0((~01 (111~00~18 10
(~ ~(8~. 10~ ~000111008 (111~(0(11~ 0~1~~~0 1~0 (100 10(~~ ~0000~110~ 10)1(1810(8.
~0( 600 ~ ~ ~ 900, 001)11~0 10)1(1810(8 ~0000~1 (11 (10)11100~. ~0( 900 ~ ~ ~
1500, (111000~0 1~0 10)1(1810(8 ~0000~1 (11 (10)1 1100~, 10~(~ (1(~ ~~(1008 ~0~0 00
10)1(1810(8 (1(~ 00. ~0( ~ ~ 1500, 10~(~ 18 00 ~~(100 10( 1~0 ~0000~110~ 10)1(1810(8
(100 10~ 001~01 011(1~~ 0~~000~8 ~~(0 (11 ~ =
1500. 10~ ((10~~ 01 0~1(1)1(10~1~18
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0
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..,0113~~ 0~~~008 00 111~ (30~~ 01 0~13)1 30~1~8. 111~ (018 0111~111~0113~~ 10( 3 ~)1~-
~000~~1~0 1030 ~30 0~ 101100 38 10110~8. ~0( 0 ~ ~ ~ 600~

12,, )1/2
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(2~
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8102 0)/ 810 2 0)/
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+
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1,,/3+ ,,, _
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0)/
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(,, 111/2
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11/2
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(6-33)

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111~ ~0~~( 0~~1~~8 01 3 111(~~-~1138~ 0101(~~110031 ~001(011~( ~30 0~ ~000~~1~0


10~~111~( 38 8110~0 10 ~1~. 6-14. 1-1118 3((30~~01~0118 3180 /(00~0 38 //~ ~011(,0/ 300
3110~8 388~(101)1 01 311111)1(1810(8 38 00~ 11011.

~,.301)))~ 6-6
~~()~(11 8)((1111()1~ 6-5 101 1/1~ 1/11~~-()/1(15~ 01011~~6011(11 ~01111011~1 111~1~. 6-12.

80)0~100 111- = 208 ~, 115= 111-/0 = 208/0


= 120~,
((1) ~10111 (6-32) 1/1~ 11115001()111 ()/1(15~ ..,011(1~~ 15 110
~ = 10/3, (1110~ = 100.
= 100.9~.
(0) 1/1~ 11115()/1(15~ ~1111~111011/1~ 10(1015/0
()0~~1 15
= 100.9/10 = 10.09 ~ (1110 1/1~ 0111()111

110 = 3/~~ )( 10.092 )(


= 3 10 = 3054.24 ~
5111~~ 1/1~ 10(10 15 ~01111~~1~0 111~)1~, 1/1~ ()/1(15~ ~1111~11115 ~~11(1110 1/1~ 1111~~1111~111,
10.09~. 1/1~ 111()111..,011-(1111()~1~, /1-
= /0 =

~~ )( )(
= 3115/1- = 3 120 10.09 = 3632.4 ~~

156

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,.,
+

...~11..~ 6-14 ~((1111~~111~11( (0( (/1(~~-


+ ()/1115~ 0101(~~(1011111 (1~ ~011((01.

~0 3054.24
( . )
~~ =
,/1...= 3632.4 = 0.84 13.~~111~
(~) 1110.~ 111~1.11 ~0.3.5~ ~0113.~~ 1513./(~11 3.510.~ (~1~(~11~~ 3.11(151)-41-1 = 12005111
0)( 169.75111 0)(, 10.~ 111513.1113.11~01.15111~1.111111~ ~0113.~~5 3.(~
=

1)-48 = 2080 5111 (


0)( +
~) = 294.2 5111 0)( + ( ~)
1)8~ = 294.25111(0)( -~)

1)~-4 = 294.2 5111(0)(


_ 7~)
10.~ 111513.1113.11~01.15
01.11~1.11~0.3.5~ ~0113.~~, 1)00, ~0.1~0. 0~~~1105 011 10.~ 111.11110~(01 ~011-
01.1~1111~0~~1~~5, ~3.11 0~ 0~1~(111111~0 1(0111 ~1~. 6-133. 3.5 10110~5~

~0( 0 ~ 0)( ~ 70/3~ 1)00 = 0


~0( 70/3 ~ 0)( ~ 270/3~ 1)00 = (0)( + 70/6)
1)-48/2 = 147.15111
(0)(
~0( 270/3 ~ 0)( ~ 70~ 1)00 = 1)-4~2 = -1)~-4/2 = -147.15111 - 770/6 - 70)
~0( 70 ~ 0)( ~ 470/3~ 1)00 = 0
~0( 470/3 ~ 0)( ~ 570/3~ 1)00 = (0)( + 70/6)
1)-48/2 = 147.15111
(0)(
~0( 570/3 ~ 0)( ~ 270~ 1)00 = 1)-4~/2 = 147.15111 - 770/6 - 70)

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,~ ~8
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~1~01~015) ~~(~ ~1(1~~0 10 111~ 110~.
1-~11.15 (1551.101~ 111(11111~ 1051(101(10~01.15 110~-10-110~ ~011(1~~5 (1(~~

1)/1./3 = 1)0/) = ~~55100.)(

1)/3~ = 1)/)~ = ~~5510 ( 0.)(_ 2~)

1)
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111~ 10~1.11 110~ ~011(1~~5, ~11(15~ (100 110~ ~1.1((~015, (100 111)1(1510( ~(1110~ 51~0(115 (1(~
5110~0 10 ~1~. 6-16 10( ~ = 1200 (100 (~5156~~ 10(10.
~0( (~51511~~ 10(105, 111~ (015 01.11~1.11 ~11(15~ ~011(1~~ ~(10 0~ 0~1~(0110~0 1(001

2 70 1/2 1/2
2
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( 2~ 1,. ) =
( 2701,.70 )
(6-35)
1/2
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= ~5
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2 )
111~ 01(1)(1011.101 01.11~1.11 ~011(1~~ ~01.110 0~ 001(110~0 ~11~0 ~ = 0 (100 111~~001(01 ((10~~
01 0~1(1)1 (10~1~ 15

(6-36)

(6-37)

158

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0
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1(1,, = (1~ + 1~ + 1~ + 1~ + 1~ + 1~1+ . . .)1/2 (6-38)


1)11~ 10 10~ 0~11(1 ~000~~600, 10~ 1(1~1~0 0(1(111001~ ~0111~00~015 (1.~., 1005~ 010(0~(
11 = 3111, ~0~(~ 11115 (10 000 101~~~() 0110~ ~0(15~ ~11((~015 ~01110 110~ (1(01100 10~
0~11(1 (100 ~01110 001 (1~~~(1( 10 10~ 110~. 1015 15 011~ 10 10~ 1(1~1 10(11 10~ 2~(0-
5~()11~0~~ 0(1(111001~5 (1(~ 10 ~0(15~ 10 (11110(~~ ~0(15~5 0110(10. 10~ (1115110~ ~11((~01
0~~0111~5

(6-39)
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01 (1 10(~~-~0(15~ 5)151~111 511~0 10(11

(6-40)
~0 (111~(0(16~~ 10(111 01 0~11(1-~000~~1~0 ~001(011~(5 ~01~0 (~()111(~5 001)110(~~ 10)1-
(1510(5 (100 51111~1111~5 10~ ~001(01 ~1(~1111()115 500~0 10 ~1~. 6-17. 1015 (1(((10~~111~01
15 (1150 /(00~0 (15 (1 ~0/)18011-~01111~~(~(/, ~011(,.0//~,..
~)(301)))~ 6-7

10.~ 10.(~~-~0.38~ 0101(~~601131 0~113-~01111~~1~0 ~0111(011~( 111 ~1~. 6-15 0.38 3 (~8186~~
1030 01 ~ = 10 0. 1110.~ 1111~-10-1111~~0113~~ 18 ~$
= 208 ~, 601-12, 3110 10.~ 0~13)1
311~1~ 0. = 27//3, 0~1~(01111~ 10.~ (3) (018 01.11~1.11~0.38~ ~0113~~, ~0~ (0) ~)(~(~5510115 10(
111513111311~01.15~1.1((~1115 1., 1.0, 3110 10.~ (~) (018 01.11~1.11~0.35~ ~1.1((~111, /.0, 3110 (015 1111~
~1.1((~111, /.~ (0) 111~1.11~0~~( 13~10(, ..~~ 3110 (~) (015 ~1.1((~111 013 10.)1(1810(,
/~.
80)1.11100 ~1. = ~$ = 208 ~, 0. = 27//3, ~ = 100, 3110 ~~3~ ~311.1~ 01 ~0.35~~1.1((~111,
/,,, = -0 )(
208/10 = 29.4 ~.
(3) ~(001 8().. (6-35), ~0 = 92 ~.
(0) ~551.101111~ 1.0 35 10.~ (~1~(~11~~ ~0.380( 3110 1.0 = /,,, 5111 (,)(, 10.~ 111513111311~01.15
~1.1((~1115 3(~~

~0( 0 ~ (,)( -( 7//3~ 1.0 = 0

10. = /,,, 5111((,)( - 47//3)


1. = 1.0 - 10. = - /,,, 5111((,)( - 47//3)
~0( 7//3 -( (,)( -( 27//3~ 1.0 = 10. = 1. = 0

160

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/06 = 1,,, 5111 ())(
/,.0 = 0
())(
/0 = /00 - /00 = 1,,, 5111
/00 = 0
(())(
/00 = 1,,, 5111 - 4-../3)
/0 = /06 - /00 = -1,,, 5111 (())( - 4-../3)
())( ~
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())(
~0( 5-../3 ~ ~ 2-..~
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/0 = /00 - /00 = 1,,, 5111

(~) 111~ ((115 ~(1111~5 01 /06 (1110 /0 (1(~ 0~1~((11111~0 0~ 1111(11~(1~(111111~~((111011115111~


(1(~
(1 ~0(1111111~( 11(0~((1(11 11(1(11~0 ~~00-4, ...,111~1115 ~1~~11 111~1111~11(1)( ~. 51110~1115
~11~011((1~~0 10 ~~(11~ 111~ (~511115.

~ 13.18
11.. = 10 = 13.18~
106
=
9.32
= 1.1414 ~ 0
(0) 111~ 011111111110...,~(,

)( 9.322 )( 10
110 = 31~0~ = 3 = 2605.9

, ~ = 3~/)1.. = 3 )( 208 )( 9.32 = 5815.7

110 2605.900 ) .
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5815.7 =
(~) 111~ 111~(1510( ~11((~111 ~(1110~ 0~1~((11111~01(0(11111~ 1111(15~~11((~111,

~ 9.32
1~ = = 6.59 ~
~ = ~
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)(
10 = 93.2 ~, ~11~(~(15 ~(). (6-35) ~1~~5 92 ~.
111~ 0111~(~0~~ 15 00~ 10 (000010~ 01110 111~ 00(0~(1~(11 501111100.

011((10510((0~(5.
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~1(~1111 01(1~((1(0 01 (1 510~1~-~11(15~ 1((10510((0~( 1(1~ ~11(10~~( 15 5110~0 10 ~1~. 6-18.

~111100~11 (11((10510((0~( (0(1~ 11(1~~ (00111~1~ 5~~000(1(~ ~10010~5, 001~ 1~0 5~~000(1(~

~10010~5 (1(~ 5110~0, 10( 111~ 5(1~~ 01 51(0~11~11~.


~(1(0(1(~ 1051(101(10~005
111~ 10(0 ((1110 0110~011((10510((0~( (1(~ 511~11111(1111111~
~011(1~~ 15

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~ 13~ ~1130~~( 15 (0051 ~0(0(0001)1115~010( (~51511~~ 11~3110~ 10305. ~11~0 001)1


111)1(1510(5 13 300 14 3(~ 311~(031~1)111(~0 ~1111 3 0~13)1 30~1~ 01 (1 = 0, 111~1030
~0113~~ 15 11~10 31 3 (~011~~0 1~~~1 01110 =
111. 1111111 0111~111 ~0113~~ 15 (~()111(~0,
001)1111)1(1510(5 11 300 12 3(~ 311~(031~1)111(~0 ~1111 3 0~13)1 30~1~ 01 (1
= 0 300 111~
11111~0113~~ 15 110 = 111 300 112.
111~ ~3110~ ~1115~5 01111)1(1510(5 ~30 0~ ~001(011~0 10 ~3()1 111~ 1030 ~0113~~. 111~
((05 ~3111~ 011030 ~0113~~, 110, ~30 0~ ~3(1~0 ~111110 111(~~ ~055101~ (30~~5~

0 ~ 110 ~ ~1

~0.,1,.0) ,.~.,9~
1
= 0 $ 110 $ 111. 10 ~3()1111~ 1030 ~0113~~ ~111110 11115(30~~,
111)1(1510(5 1) 30012 3(~ 111(0~0 011. 111)1(1510(5
13 300 14 ~30 0~~(31~ 35 3 510~1~-
~1135~ ~0113~~ ~001(011~(. 111~ 105130130~0115 1030 ~0113~~ 1)0 300 ~11((~01
/0 3(~
5110~0 10 ~1~. 6-19~ 10( 3 (~51511~~ 1030. 111~ ((05 1030 ~0113~~ ~111~11 ~30 0~
0~1~((010~0 1(0(0 ~(). 6-8) 1030 15
)/2
1 510 2(1
110 = 11)
(~ (70 - (1
+
~ )) (6-41)

~0.,1,.0) ,.~.,9~ 2= 0 $ 110 $ (111 + 1(2). 111)1(1510(5 13 300 14 3(~ 111(0~0


011. 111)1(1510(5 1) 300 12 0~~(31~ 35 3 510~1~-~1135~ ~0113~~ ~001(011~(. ~1~11(~

162

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(01

(~)
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0

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3= ~1 ~ ~0 ~ (~1 + ~2). 10)1(1810( 13 18 111(0~0 00 (11
0 (100 10~ 8~~000(1()1 ~011(1~~, 1)1, (1()()~(1(8 (1~(088 10~ 10(10. 1110)1(1810( 11 18
111(0~0 00 (11 ())( =
~, 10)1(1810( 13 18 (~~~(8~ 01(18~0 011~ 10 8~~000(1()1 ~011(1~~ 1)2,
())(
(100 13 18 111(0~0 011. 10~ ~011(1~~ (1()()~(1(10~ (1~(088 10~ 10(10 18 (1)1 + 1)2). ~1

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= 70, 11 15 5~11-~01111111.1131~0 3110 1415 11.1(11~0 011. 111~ 5~~01103()1 ~0113~~ 1)1 3~~~3(5
3~(055 111~ 1030 1.11111112 15 11(~0 31 0)( ~11~11 12 15 11.1(11~0011 31 0)(
70 +~. = = 70
+ ~, 14 15 11.1(11~0 011 01.1~ 10 (~~~(5~ ~0113~~ 1)2 3110 111~ 1030 ~0113~~ 15 (1)1 + 1)2).
~1 0)( = 270, 1215 5~11-(01111111.1131~0, 1315 11.1(11~0 011 323111 3110 10~ ()1~1~ 15 (~~~31~0.
111~ 111513111311~01.15 1030 ~0113~~ 1)0 3110 ~1.1((~111 /0 3(~ 5110~11 111 ~1~. 6-19~ 10( 3
(~51511~~ 1030.
~ 13~ ~11311~~( ~1111 11115 1)1~~ 01 ~0111(01 15 3150 ~110~11 35 3 5)111~/1,0110/15 ((1/1
~/1(1118~,. 111.15~5 1~0-51~~ ~0111(01. ~ ~3(1 015~~01103()1 ~0113~~ 1)215 51.1~~(1111~05~0
011 3 51111.1501031 ~01132~ 1)1. ~5 3 (~51.111 10~ 113(1110111~ ~0111~1115 3(~ 1~55 11131 ~01~11
~01.110 0~ 0013111~0 0)1 3 110(11131 ~035~ 0~13)1 35 015~1.155~0 300~~ 10( ~0111(01 (311~~
2. 111~ (1115 1030 ~0113~~ ~311 0~ 101.1110 1(0111

~0= (2~102701)6(/(0)())1/2

(1,. 2~~511120)((/(0)1) 11/2


= + 1,.702(~1 + ~2)2511120)((/(0)()) (6-43)
12~

( _ 1/2
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+
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)
~1111 ~1. 10305, 111~ ~31111~ ~1(~1.111 01 3 5)111~11(01101.15 13~ ~11311~~( (~().1.11(~5 3
~3(~11.11 0~51~11. 1,~1 1.15 3551.1111~ 11131 (0)1(1510(511 3110 12 3(~ 11.1(11~0 011, ~1111~
(11)1(1510(5 133110 14 3(~ 11.1(11~0 011 01.1(111~ 111~ 311~(1131~ 11311-~)1~1~. 111~ 1030 ~1.1((~111
~01.110 111~11 0~

0~1
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~ -

~11~(~ 7, = (~2 + (0)1.)2)1/231106 = 1311-1(0)0~).


10~ 111513111311~01.15 1030 ~1.1((~111 /0 15 5110~11111 ~1~. 6-203. 1111 15 111~11 11.1(11~0
011 31 0)( = ~, ~0~(~ ~ ~ 6, 10~ 5~~0110 ~1110111~ 011(311510(111~( ~01.110 0~ 5110(1
~1(~1.111~0 0~~31.15~ (0)1(1510( 14 15 51111 ~01101.1~1111~ 3110 ~3(()1111~ ~1.1((~111 01.1~ 10 10~
11101.1~11~~ 1030. 111~(~10(~, 10~ ~0111(01 ~1(~1.111 5001.110 0~ 0~51~11~0 50 1031 11 15 1101
11.1(11~0 011 1.11111114 11.1(115 011 3110 /0 ~ 0. 51111113(1)1,
12 51101.110 1101 0~ 11.1(11~0 011
1.11111113 11.1(115 011 3110 /0 ~ 0. 111~ ~3~~10(1115 011030 ~0113~~ 1)0 3110 1030 ~1.1((~111
/0 3(~ 5110~11 111 ~1~. 6-200 10( ~ ~ 6.

~~301())~ 6-8

10~ ~1(~1.111111 ~1~. 6-18 18 ~0111(011~0 38 3 8)111~0(01101.18 13() ~0311~~(. 10~ ()(1013()1
.,,0113~~ 18 240 ~, 60 1-12. 10~ 8~~01103()1 .,,0113~~8 3(~ 111 120 ~ 3110 112
= = 120~.
1110~ 1030 (~8181311~~ 18 8. = 10 0 3110 10~ (1118 1030 .,,0113~~ 18 180 ~, 0~1~(111111~ 10~
(3) 0~13)1 311~1~ 0(10)1(1810(8 11 3110 12~ (0) (018 ~1.1((~111 0(10)1(1810(8 1, 3110 12~ (~)
(018 ~1.1((~111 0(10)1(1810(8 13 3110 14~ 3110 (0) 111()1.11()0~~( 13~10(, ~~.

80)1.11100 110 = 180~, 11,, = 240~, 111 = 120~, 112 = 120~, 31108. = 100.
(3) 10~ (~()1.11(~0 .,,3111~ 010~13)1 311~1~ ~ 10( 110 = 180 ~ ~~11 0~ 101.11101(0111 ~4.
(6-43) 1111~0 ~3)18 (1) ()101 110 3~311181 ~ 3110 11110 10~ (~()1.11(~0 .,,311.1~01 ~, 0( (2) 1.18~
31111~(311.,,~ 01~1000 018011.111011. ~ ~0111()1.11~( ()(0~(30118 1.18~0 10 801.,,~ ~(). (6-43) 10(
~ 0)111~(311011 3110 1018 ~1.,,~8 ~
= 980.

164

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...(1.(~1 + ~2)
1.

~1.

0=(3-8 ~

(0) 111~ 0115 ~1.111~111 01111~1151015 11 (1110 12 ~(111 0~ 101.1110 110111


1/2

(~
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/81 = 2708. ),, )

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1/2
171 +
08.
172

70
70 ~ +
51112~
2 )) (6-44)

10.91-...
(~) 111~ 11115 ~1.111~111 011111~151015 13 (1110 14 15 101.1110 110111

)1/2
5(1120)( (/(0)()
/83 = (2~8.2
(217~

)1/2
511122~) (6-45)
= ~8. -
(~(~
= 6.51-...
(0) 111~ 11115 ~1.111~111 01 (1 5~~0110 5~~0110(11~ ~1110111~ 15/2 = 0/81 = 15.4 1-....
111~ 11115 ~1.111~111 01 111~ 11151 5~~011031~ ~1110111~, ~111~11 15 111~ 101(11 11115 ~1.111~111 01
111~1151015 11, 12, 13, (1110 14, 15

/1 = ((0/81)2 + (0/83)2)1/2 = 17.941-...


111~ ~011-(1111~~1~1(11111~01 ~11111(11~01 5~~0110(11~, ~ 1 = 171/1 + ~2/2 = 4000.8. 111~
10(10 ~0~~1, ,,0 = ~6/ 8. = 3240 ~, (1110111~~0~~1 1(1~101,
,,0 3240 . )
~~ = 0.8 098 (1(1~~111~
~1 = 4000.8 =

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111~ 3~ .,,0113~~ ~0111(011~(5 ))(0.,,1()~ 3 .,,3(1301~ 0111))111 .,,0113~~, 0111111~ 1(~()11~11~)1 01
0111))111 .,,0113~~ 15 11)(~() 311() 111 3()()111011 111~ 113(1110111~ ~0111~11115 111~11, ~5))~~1311)1 31
3 10~ 0111))111 .,,0113~~ (311~~. ~ .,,3(1301~ 0111))111 .,,0113~~ 31 .,,3(1301~ 1(~()11~11~)1 ~311
0~ 0013111~() 1(0(11 1~0-513~~ ~011.,,~(510115~ 11)(~() 3~ 10 .,,3(1301~ ()~ (~.~., ~0111(011~()
(~~1111~(5) 311() .,,3(1301~ ()~ 10 .,,3(1301~ 3~ 31 .,,3(1301~ 1(~()11~11~)1 (~.~., 111.,,~(1~(5,
~111~11 3(~ ()15~1155~() 111 ~113))1~( 8). 1-10~~.,,~(, ~)1~10~011.,,~(1~(5 ~311 ~11(1111131~ 111~
11~~() 01 011~ 0( (110(~ 1111~((11~()131~ ~011.,,~(1~(5. ~ ~)1~10~011.,,~(1~( 15 3 ()1(~~1-
1(~()11~11~)1 ~11311~~( 11131 ~011.,,~(15 3~ ))0~~( 31 011~ 1(~()11~11~)110 3~ ))0~~( 31 3110111~(
1(~()11~11~)1 0)1 3~-3~ ~011.,,~(51011, ~11110111 311 1111~((11~()131~ ~011.,,~(51011 1111~.
111~ (113)0(11)1 01 ~)1~10~011.,,~(1~(5 3(~ 113111(311)1 ~0(11(1111131~() 311() 111~ (113)(1(1111(11
0111))1111(~()11~11~)115 11(1111~() 10 3 .,,3111~ 1113115 0111)1 31(3~11011 01111~ 5011(~~ 1(~()11~11~)1.
~5 3 (~51111111~ (113)0( 3))))11~3110115 01 ~)1~10~011.,,~(1~(5 3(~ 10~ 5))~~(), 3~ (11010( ()(1.,,~5
111 111~ (311~~ 11)) 10 15 000 ~~ ~11111(~()11~11~1~5 1(0(11 0 10 20 1-12. ~~ ()(1.,,~5 3(~
()15~1155~() 111 ~113))1~( 11.
~1111 111~ ()~.,,~10))(11~111 01 ))0~~( ~011.,,~(51011 1~~11111()11~5 311() (110()~(11 ~0111(01
(11~1110()5, 111.,,~(1~(-1~() 3~ (11010( ()(1.,,~5 3(~ 13~111~ 0.,,~( ~)1~10~011.,,~(1~(-1~() ()(1.,,~5.
1-10~~.,,~(, (~~~111 3().,,311~~(11~1115 111 1351-5~11~11111~ ))0~~( ()~.,,1~~5 311() (111~(0))(0~-
~550(5 ))~((1111 5)111111~512111~ 311() 1(11))1~(11~111111~ 3().,,311~~() ~011.,,~(51011 51(31~~1~5 10(
10(~~()-~0(11(1111131~() ()1(~~1-1(~()11~11~)1 ~11311~~(5 (~0~~5) 10 0))11(1112~ 111~ ~111~1~11~)1
311() (~()11~~ 111~ 113((110111~ ~0111~1115 (1,2). 111~ 5~11~11111~ 11111~110115 01 ~~0 ~~5 ~311
0~ ))(0~(3(11(11~() 10 ~0(110111~ 111~ 5~11~11111~ 11111~110115 013~-()~ 311() ()~-3~ ~011.,,~(1~(5.
011~ 10 111~ 113111(~ 01 ()~(1.,,3110115 111.,,01.,,~() 111 ~~0~~5, 10(~~()-~0(11(1111131~() ~)1~10-
~011.,,~(1~(5 ~1111101 0~ ()15~1155~() 111(111~(.

111~ ))(111~1))1~ 01 0))~(311011 01 5111~1~-))1135~/5111~1~-))1135~ ~)1~10~011.,,~(1~(5 ~311 0~ ~)(-


))13111~() ~1111 111~ 11~1)) 01 ~1~. 6-213. 111~ 1~0 5111~1~-))1135~ ~0111(011~() ~011.,,~(1~(5
3(~ 0))~(31~() 35 0(1()~~ (~~1111~(5. 1-10~~.,,~(, 111~1( ()~13)1 311~1~5 3(~ 511~11 11131 111~
0111))111 .,,0113~~ 01011~ ~011.,,~(1~( 15 ~()1131311() 0))))0511~ 10 11131 01111~ 0111~( ~011.,,~(1~(.
11 ~011.,,~(1~( ~ 15 0))~(31111~ 31011~, 111~ 3.,,~(3~~ 0111))111 .,,0113~~ 15 ))05111.,,~ 311() 11
~011.,,~(1~( 1-/ 15 0))~(31111~, 111~ 0111))111 .,,0113~~ 15 11~~311.,,~. ~1~11(~ 6-210 5110~5 111~
~3.,,~10((115 10( 111~ 0111))111 .,,0113~~ 311() ~31111~ 51~11315 01 ))05111.,,~ 311() 11~~311.,,~ ~011-
.,,~(1~(5, ~1111111~ ))05111.,,~ ~011.,,~(1~( 011 10( 11(11~ 10/2 311() 111~ 11~~311.,,~ ~011.,,~(1~( 011
10( 11(11~ 10/2. 111~ 1(~()11~11~)1 01111~ 0111))111 .,,0113~~ 15/0 = 1/10.
11 0./1 15 111~ ()~13)1 311~1~ 01 ))05111.,,~ ~011.,,~(1~(, 111~ ()~13)1 311~1~ 01 11~~311.,,~
~011.,,~(1~( 15 0.,,
= 10 - 0./1. 111~ 3.,,~(3~~ 0111))111 .,,0113~~ 01111~ ))05111.,,~ ~011.,,~(1~(
15 ~()1131 311() 0))))0511~ 11131 01111~ 11~~311.,,~ ~011.,,~(1~(.

(6-46)
51(11113( 10 ()1131 ~011.,,~(1~(5 111 5~~110115 4-5 311() 4-10, 111~ 111513111311~0115 .,,3111~5
011~0 0111))111 .,,0113~~5 (113)11101 0~ ~()1131. 11/5 ))055101~ 10( 13(~~ 113((110111~ ~11((~1115
10 ~1(~11131~ ~1111111 111~ ~011.,,~(1~(5.
111~ ~1(~11131111~ ~11((~111 ~311 0~ ~11(1111131~() 0)1 511))))(~55111~ 111~ ~31~ ))1115~5 10

166

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~-()0,,1/9/19~
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~~301)))~ 6-9

111.~ 111~01 ~0113~~ 10 111.~ ~)1~10~011~~~1~~ 111 ~1~. 6-213 18 120 ,, 60 1-12. 111.~ 1030
~~8181311~~ 18 5 0 3110 111.~103011100~1311~~ 18 1- = 40 1111-1. 111.~1~~().0~11~)101111.~
001~01
~0113~~ 18 20 1-12. 11111.~ ~011~~~1~~8 3~~ 0~~~31~0 38 8~1111~011~~~1~~8 80~0. 10.31 0 ~ ~
~ ,,,. 3110 111.~0~13)1 311~1~ 18~,, 2,,,./3, 0~1~~111111~ 111.~(3) ~1118~310~ 01001~01 ~0113~~,
=
110, (0) ~1118~0~~~111 01 ~3~11. 111.)1~1810~,1~~ 3110 (~) 111~01 ~0~~~ 13~10~, ~~.

80)01100 115= 120 ,,1. = 601-12, /0 = 201-12, 8. = 5 0, 1- = 40 1111-1,


~,, = 2,,,./3,
(()0 2,,,. )( 20 = 125.66 ~30/8, (110)(~
= = (()01-= 5.027 0.
(3) ~0~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ,,,., ~().. (6-8) ~1~~8 111.~~1118001~01 ~0113~~
1/2

110 = 115
( ~
1
( ,,,.
- ~ +
81112~
~ )) (6-47)
= 53 ,
())) 2 = (8.2 + ((()01-)2)1/2
= 7.09031109 = 1311-1((()008.) = 45.20. 111.~~1118
1030 ~0~~~111,10 = 11)2 = 53/7.09 = 7.48~. 111.~~1118~0~~~111111.~00~11.
~3~11.~011~~~1~~,
1,, = 1,., = 10/0 = 5.29 ~ 3110 10~ ~1118~0~~~11110~00~11. ~3~0 111.~)11810~,
1~ = 1,,/
0 = 3.74 ~.
(~) 111.~~1118111~01~0~~~111,15 = 10 = 7.48 ~, 10~ ~011-3111~~~~~31111~ , ~
= 11515
= 897.6 ,~, (111010~ 001~01 ~0~~~, ~0 = 11010 ~08 9 = 279.65~. ~~0111 ~().. (6-
8), 10~ 111~01..,0~~~ 13~10~,

110 9 )1,2
~~ = + 811122~)
= ~~8 = ~08 9 (~(,,,. - ~
~~5
(6-48)
_279.65 . )
= 3 2 (
897.6 = 0. 1 13~~111~
1-/01~. 8((03600 (6-48) 00~8 00110~100~ 111~113(111001~~001~01 00 111~001~01
~0113~~ 300 ~1..,,~8111~3~~~0)(111131~..,,310~01 ~0~~~ 13~10~. 111~ 3~1031 ..,,310~~111
0~ 1~88 11130 11131~1..,,~00)1 8((. (6-48). 8((036008 (6-47) 300 (6-48) 3~~ 3180..,,3110
10~ ~~8186..,,~ 10308.

111~ ~1~~011 013~~3111 01 3 111~~~-~1138~/810~1~-~1138~ ~)1~10~00..,,~~1~~ 18 8110~0 10 1=01~.


6-233. 111~ 1~0 3~-0~ ~00..,,~~1~~8 3~~ 111~~~-~1138~ ~001~011~0 ~~~1111~~8. 111~ 8)10-
111~818 01 001~01 ~3..,,~10~111 10~ 30 001~01 1~~((0~0~)1 01 12 1-12 18 8110~0 10 1=01~.
6-230. 111~ ~08111..,,~ ~00..,,~~1~~ 0~~~31~8 10~ 11311111~ ~~~100 01 001~01 1~~((0~0~)1
300 111~ 0~~36..,,~ ~00..,,~~1~~ 0~~~31~8 10~ 111~ 0111~~ 11311-~~~100. 111~ 30(1)18180111118
~)1~10~00..,,~~1~~ 18 81111113~ 10 11131 01 810~1~-~1138~/810~1~-~1138~ ~)1~10~00..,,~~1~~8.
111~ ~001~01 01 3~ 111010~8 ~~((01~~8 3 111~~~-~1138~ ..,,0113~~ 31 ..,,3~1301~ 1~~((0~0~)1.
111~ ~)1~10~00..,,~~1~~ 10 1=01~. 6-233 ~30 0~ ~)(1~00~0 10 ~~0..,,10~
111~~~-~1138~ 001~01
0)1113..,,10~ 81)( 111~~~-~1138~ ~00..,,~~1~~8 38 8110~0 10 1=01~. 6-243. 83~11 ~1138~ ~0081818
01 81)( 111)1~1810~8 38 8110~0 10 1=01~. 6-240, 300 3 10131 0118 111)1~1810~8 3~~ ~~((01~~0.
11 81),. 1011-~3..,,~ 111~~~-~1138~ ~~~611~~8 3~~ 08~0, 36 111)1~1810~8 ~0010 0~ ~~((01~~0.

168

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+
~0

1. = 60~2

-.,0

~~ ~30 0011~~ 1(001 ~1~8. 6-210 30(1 6-230 11131 111~ 001~01 ~0113~~ 18 001 ~0(~1~
8100801(131, 30(1 38 3 (~8011 111~ 001~01 ~0113~~ ~0013108 113(01001~8. 8()031100
(6-48) 8110~8 11131111~ 10~01 ~0~~( 13~10( (1~~~0(18 00 111~ (1~13~ 30~1~ 01111~(1810(8
30(118 ~00(, ~8~~~1311~ 31111~ 10~ 001~01 ~0113~~ (30~~.
111~ 001~01 ~0113~~ 01 ~~~10~00~~(1~(8 18 0381~311~ 013(1~ 0~ 01 8~~01~018 01
10~01 ~0113~~( 8) 30(1 111~ 3~~(3~~ ~310~ 01 3 8~~01~01 (1~~~0(18 00 111~ (1~13~ 30~1~
10( 11131 8~~01~01. 11111~ (1~13~ 30~1~8 01 8~~01~018 ~~(~ ~3(1~(110 80~11 3 ~3~ 11131
111~ 3~~(3~~ ~310~8 01 8~~01~018 ~0((~8~00(1 38 ~108~1~ 38 ~088101~ 10 111~ ~3(136008
01 (1~81(~(1 8100801(131 001~01 ~0113~~, 111~ 113(01001~8 00 111~ 001~01 ~0113~~ ~30 0~
011010112~(1. 510~~ 111~ 3~~(3~~ 001~01 ~0113~~ 01 3 8~~01~0118 3 ~0810~ 100~600 01

169
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~6()~~8.~
(8.) ~~6018.~~~

,.., ,..,.

0~1(1)1 (10~1~, 10~ 0~1(1)1 (10~1~5 ~0( 5~~(0~015 ~(10 0~ ~~0~((11~0 0)1 ~0(0~(1(10~ (1
~0510~
51~0(11 (11 5011(~~ ~(~()11~0~)1 (1)~ = -0 ~5 ~05 0)5/) ~110 (10 10~(11 510115010(11 0111~111
~011(1~~ (11 10~ 0111~111 ~(~()11~0~)1 (1).
= -0 ~. 510 0)0/). ~1~11(~ 6-25 500~5 10~
~~0~((11100 0~ ~(1110~ 51~0(115 ~0( 10~ 10)1(1510(5 0~ 10~ ~)1~10~00~~(1~( 10 ~1~. 6-23(1.
10~ (0(1)(1(011(0 (1~~((1~~ ~011(1~~ 0~ (1 5~~(0~01 (~01~00~~11(5 ~0( 0.,, = 0) 5001110
0~ ~()11(1110 10~ ~~(1~ ~(1111~ 0~ 0111~111 ~011(1~~, ~0( ~)((1(0~1~,

2-0~5
~,, = = -0 ~0 (6-49)
~
(100 ~(). (6-49) ~1~~5 10~ ((05 ~(1111~ 0~ 0111~111 ~011(1~~ (15

-0~5
~0=- (6-50)
~

170

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~.

_2-,(21/.
..

~2
~~00~8~0~ 00
0
~~00~8~0~00
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9,,92

0
93.94
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91..92.
0
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~~11~31 ~)(301111~ 6-9 1~ 111~ 0~13~ 31181~8 0~ 111~ ~~~10~011~~~1~~ 8~~ 8~11~~81~0 0~ ~0111-
()8~1118 8 ~08111~ 8181181 81 111~ 8011~~~ ~~~~11~11~~ ~1111 8 811111801081 8181131 81 111~ 0111()111
~~~~11~11~~ 88 8110~11111 ~18. 6-25.

80101100 ~$ ~~ = 271/3,
= 120 ~, /$ = 60 1-12,/0 = 20 1-12,~ = 5 0, ~ = 40 1111-1,
(00 = 271 )( 20 = 125.66 ~80/8, 8110)(1- = (00~ = 5.027 0.
(8) ~~0111 ~~. (6-50), 111~~1118~8111~0~ 111~011111111
~01188~,

0~$ )(
~0 =- = 0.6366~$= 0.6366 120 = 76.39 ~
71

5~~. 6-10 171

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1030 (11~~~111,10 = ~).2 = 76.39/7 = 10.77.4.. 111~ ~~5 (11~~~111111~011~11~,1(11
(011..,~~1~~, 1,, = 1,., = //)0 = 7.62.4., 3110 111~~~5 (11~~~111111~011~0~3(11111)1~1510~,
1~ = 1,,/0 = 5.39.4..
(() 111~ ~~5 111~111(11~~~111, /.- = /() = 10.77 ,4., 111~ ,,011-(1111~~~~ ~(11111~, ~,4. =
~,1, = 1292.4 ~.4., 3110 111~ 0(11))111 ))0.,.,~~,

~0 = ~010 (05 6 = 0.6366~)0 (05 6 = 580.25 ~.

~~ = 0.6366 (05 9
(6-51 )
580.25 . )
= 1292.4 = 0. 44 9 ( 13~~111~

~0(~. ~~1.131100 (6-51) 50.0~5 10.31 10.~ 10~1.11 ~0~~( ~3~10( 15 100~~~110~01 0~
0~13)1 30~1~, ~ 300 0~~~005 0(1)1 00 10.~ 1030 30~1~ 8. )31.11~0( 00((1131 ~0.35~ 311~1~
~001(01, 10.~ 111~1.11~0~~( ~3~10( 15 0~~~00~111 00 0010. 0~13)1 30~1~, ~, 3110 1030
311~1~, 8. 1~ ~~ ~0(11~3(~ ~~. (6-48) ~110. ~~. (6-51), 10.~(~ 15 3 ~(111~31 ,,311.1~ 0~
0~13)1 30~1~ ~0 ~0.1~0. 15 ~1,,~0 0)1
1/2
1
(~ ( 10 - ~~ +
510 2~~
~ )) = 0.6366 (6-52)

~0( ~ ~ ~0 10.~ 00((1131 0~13)1-311~1~ ~0111(01 ~01.110 ~)(0.1011 3 0~11~( ~0~~( ~3~10(
300 10.~ 5011.111000~ ~~. (6-52) )11~105~~ = 98.590.

10.~ (31111~5 0~ ~0~~( 0~,,1~~5 (111.1510~ 0~51~0~0 ~0( 10.~ ~0(51-~35~ ~0110111011, .,.,0.1~0.
0~~1.1(5 ~0.~0 10.~ ~00,,~(1~( 0~11,,~(5 10.~ (113)(1(111.1(11((115 ,,3111~ 0~ 0111~1.11 ,,0113~~ 110.
10.~ 10~111 300 0111~111 ~111~(5 (111151 3150 0~ 0~51~0~0 ~0( ~0(51-~35~ ~0001110115. 10.~
0111~111 0~ 3 ~0~~( ~0111(011~( ~01113105 0.3((11001~5, 300 10.~ 0~13)130~1~ ~0( 10.~ .,.,0(51-
~35~ ~011011100 0~ 3 ~3(11~1113( ~1(~1111 3((30~~(11~0150.01110 0~ 0~1~((1110~0. 10.~ 51~~5
10,,01,,~0 10 0~51~010~ 10.~ ~0~~( ~1(~11115 300 ~111~(5 3(~ 51(11113( 10 10.31 0~ 1~~11~1~1
~11~1111 0~51~0 10 5~~11011 2-11.

~,.301~1~ 6-11

.4. 5111~1~-))1135~11111-.,.,3..,~ 3( ..,0113~~ (0111~011~~ 111~1~. 6-33 (0111~015 ))0.,.,~~ 110.,., 110~
3 230- ~ 60-1-12 3( 50111(~ 11110 3 1~5156,,~ 1030. 111~ ~3)(1~11~ 0~811~0 0(11))111 ))0.,.,~~
18 10 /(~. ~31(11131~ 111~ (3) ~3)(1~11~ ~~8 (11~~~111 ~3611~ 01111)1~1510~8,
1~1-4~ (0)
~3)(1~11~ 3..,~~3~~ (11~~~111 ~3611~ 01111)1~1510~5, (() ))~3/( (11~~~111 01111)1~1810~8, 1/,~
1/11-4~
3110 (0) ))~3/( ,,3111~ 01111)1~1810~ ..,0113~~, ~,,.

801111100 ~0 = 10,000~, ~5 = 230 ~, 3110 ~,,, = 0 )(


230 = 325.3~. 111~
~3)(1~11~ ))0.,.,~1 .,.,1110~ 0~11..,~~~0 .,.,11~11111~0~13)1 311~1~18 ~ = 0. ~~0~ ~().. (6-8),
10~ ~~8 ..,3111~010(11))111 ..,0113~~ ~0 = ~5 = 230~, ~0 = ~6/8. = 2302/8.
= 10,000,
3110 1030 ~~8181311(~ 18 8. = 5.2911.
(3) 111~ ~3)(1~11~ ~~8 ..,3111~011030 (11~~~111,
101-4= ~)8. = 230/5.29 = 43.48
.4. 3110 111~~3)(1~11~ ~~8 ..,3111~01111)1~1810~(11~~~111,
1~1-4= 101-4/0 = 30.75.4..

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(11) ~10111 8().. (6-10), 1/1~ 111(1)(11111.1111(1,,,~1(18~ ~1.111~111 011/1~1151015,

)(
0 230
/,,.,,.,,,=
70
)(
5.29 = 19.57 ~
(~) 1/1~ ~~(1~ ~1.111~11101111~1151015, /,, = 1(~,/~ = 325.3/5.29 = 61.5 ~.
(0) 111~ ~~(1~ 111~115101 ,,,011(18~, 1(,, = 1(~, = 325.3 ~.

~)(301()1~ 6-12
(1 ~1., 10(10 (1110 1/1~
~ 511181~-~11(15~ 11.111-~(1,,,~~01111011~1 111~18. 6-6(1 ~01111015 ~0~~1 10
501.11~~ ,,,011(18~ 15 120 ~, 60 112. ((1) 05~ 1/1~ 111~11100 01 ~01.111~1 5~11~5 10 0111(1111
~)(~1~5510115 101 01.11~1.11,,,011(18~ 1)0(() (1110 10(10 ~1.111~111/0(1) (15 (111.111~11011010~1(1~ (11181~
~. (11) 0~1~1111111~ 111~ 0~1(1~ (11181~101111~ 111(1)(11111.1111
(111101.1111
0110~~51-010~111(111110111~
~1.111~111111111~ 10(10. (~) 11 ~ = 50,1., = 1011111, (1110 ~ = 70/2, 0~1~1111111~ 111~ .1115
,,,(111.1~01111110 11(111110111~~1.111~111. (0) 11 (1 ~(1~(1~1101 15 ~01111~~1~0 (1~1055 111~ 10(10 (~18.
6-26), ~(11~1.11(11~111~ ,,,(111.1~01 ~(1~(1~11(111~~10 1~01.1~~ 1/1~ 111110 11(111110111~~1.111~1111111/1~
10(10 10 10% 01111~ 10(10 ~1.111~111.

80101100 ((1) 111~ ~(1,,,~10101 101 111~ 01.11~1.11,,,011(18~ 15 5110~11 111 ~18. 6-611. 111~ 111-
51(1111(111~01.15
01.11~1.11,,,011(18~ ~(11111~ ~)(~1~55~0 111~01.111~1 5~11~5 (15
~ ~

1)0(() = 1(00 + ~ (/,, ~05 /1())( + ~ 00 5111


/1())( (6-53)
~=1.2 ~=1,2...

01(, + 1)~ + ~05 (/1 - 1)~ - ~05 (/1 - 1)701


= 70 ( ~05(/1

/1+1
- ~05(/1 1)70
/1-1 ~
101/1=3,5,... (6-54)
=0 101/1=2,4,...
(,,
00 = ~ 01(55111())(5111/1())((/(())1)
70)~

01(5 + 1)~ _ 5111(/1 - 1)~ 1


=
70 ( 5111(/1

/1+1 /1-1 ~
101/1 = 3, 5, ... (6-55)

=0 101/1 = 2,4, ...

+ +

0,/0

..1~11..~ 6-26 5111~1~-..,/135~ (1.111~0110,/~1(~1


~1(/1 ~/.., 1030.

58~. 6-11 173

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(6-56)

(6-57)

7, = 8. + 1(/1001,)= (8.2 + (/1001,)2)1/2


~
311() 6~ = ~311~1 (/10008.). 01~1()111~ 110(() 111 ~~. (6-53) 0)1103() 1111~~()311~~ 7, 311()
51111~111)1111~
~0.~ 5111~ 311() ~05111~ ~~(1115 ~1~~ ~0.~ 103() ~1.1((~11~ 35

/0(() = ~ 0
11=2,4,...
1~ 5111 (/100( - 6~ + ~~) (6-58)

1 ((1~ + 6~)1/2
1~ =
0 (8.2 + (/1001,)2)1/2
(0) 111~ ~0.1(() 0.3(1110111~ 15 ~0.~ 10~~5~-0(()~( 0.3(1110111~. 10.~ ~31~1.1136011 01 ~/11(()
0.3(1110111~ 10( ~3(101.15 ~311.1~5 01 ()~13)1 311~1~ 50.0~5 ~0.3~ 1~ 0~~0111~5 (113)(11111.111110( ~ =
~/2.
(~) ~0( ~ = ~/2, 1, = 1011111,8. = 50, 00 = 2~ )(
60 = 377 (3()/5 311() ~$ =
120 ~,
/0(() = (16.065111 (00( - 32.480 - 370) + 4.375111 (300( + 900 - 66.150)

+ 0.9235111(500(- 900 - 75.140) + 0.675111(700(+ 900 - 79.270)


+ 0.3155111 (900( - 900 - 81.620) + . . .)

4.37
13 = = 3.09 ~
0
(~) ~1~1.1(~ 6-27 50.0~5 ~0.~ ~~1.11~31~11~ ~1(~1.11~10( 0.3(1110111~ ~1.1((~11~. 05111~ ~0.~
~1.1((~11~-()1~1()~( (1.11~, ~0.~ 0.3(1110111~ ~1.1((~11~ ~0.(01.1~0. 103() 15 ~1~~11 0)1

~ _- (8.2 %0
1~ + (/1001, - %0)2)1/2

~..~ 6-27 ~().111~31~111 (1..(1111 ~0.. 03..-


1110111( (11 ~111.

174

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~/1~~~ %0 = 1/(1/0)0. ~0~ 1/ = 3 (11100) = 377,

/~ %0
1,, = (52 + (3 )(
3.77 - %0)2)1/2= 0.1
~/11~/1 ~1~108 %0 = -1.362 0~ 1.134. 5111~~%0 ~(11111010~ 11~~(16~~, %0 = 1.134 =
1/(3 )( 377~) 0~ ~ = 779.85 /-1-~.

10 10~ 0.~(1~(16.008 01 0111.,111 ~011(1~~8, ~~ 0(1~~ (18811((1~0. 10(11 10~ 8011(~~ 0(18 00
100.11~1(10~~. 10~ ~11~~1 01 (10)1 5011(~~ 100.11~1(10~~ ~01110. 0~ 10 0.~1(1)110~ 111(0-011
0(10)1(1810(8. 10)1(1810(8 ~01110. 001 111(0 011 (11 10~ 2~(0 ~(08810~ 0110.,111 ~011(1~~
(18 800~010 ~1~. 6-280, (100. ~(11~ .,1118~8 01800(1 0.11((11100 ((1(1)1 001 0~ 81111(101~. 10~
0(1(((1001~ ~001~018 00 10~ 0111.,111 ~011(1~~ ~01110. (1180 10~(~(18~.
~~ 0(1~~ 8~~0 10 5~~1100 6-5 10(1110~ 10(10. 100.11~1(10~~ .,1(1)18 (1 81~0111~(101 .,(1(1
(1 .,1118~0.
00 10~ .,~.-10(((1(10~~ 01.,0~~( ~001(011~(8. ~110011~010~ 0111.,111 ~011(1~~ 15
~(1~~10(((1, 10~ 10(10.100.11~1(10~~ 1(1~8 10 ((1(1101(110 (1 ~00110110118 ~11((~01110~ (18 800~0
10 ~1~8. 6-60 (100. 6-280. ~~ ~(10 (1180 0011~~ 1(0((1 ~~8. (6-48) (100. (6-52) 10(1110~
10.,111 .,0~~( 1(1~10( 01 .,0~~( ~00~~(1~( 0.~.,~00.8 00 10~ 10(10. .,0~~( 1(1~10(. 1)11~
10 10~ 8~11~010~ ~0(1((1~1~(1811~8 0(10)1(1810(8, (10)1 100.11~1(10~~ 10 10~ ~1(~1111 ((1(1~~8
10~ (10(11)1818 ((10(~ ~0((1.,1~)(.

~.

(8)

(0)

...1~0..~ 6-28 ~((~(15 0( 1030 111011(1311(~


011 1030 (11((~111 3110 ~0113~~.

58~. 6-12 175

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10~ 3~ ~0113~~ ~001(011~( ~30 1.15~ 00-011 ~001(01 0( ~035~-30~1~ ~001(01. 10~ 00-
011 ~001(0115 010(~ 51.111301~ 10( 5)151~015 113~10~ 3 111~111101~ ~0051301. 1)1.1~ 10 111~
0~ ~001~00~01 00 10~ 01.11~1.11 011.10101(~~110031 ~001(011~(5, 0101(~~110031 ~001(011~(5
3(~ 00(01311)11.15~0 10 1001.151(131 3~~11~311005. 01.1~ 10 10~ 5~11~010~ ~03(3~1~(1511~5
01 10)1(1510(5, 30 1001.1~11~~ 1030 013/(~5 111~ 5011.111005 01 ~().1.1311005 0~5~(1010~ 111~
~~(10(0130~~ 01 ~001(011~(5 010(~ ~001~1~)( 300 30 11~(311~~ 01~11100 01 5011.11100 15
010(~ ~00~~01~01. 111~ 10~1.11 ~0~~( 13~10( 01 ~001(011~(5, ~111~11 ~3(1~5 ~1111 0~13)1
30~1~, 15 ~~0~(311)1 ~00(, ~5~~~1(11)1 31111~ 10~ 01.11~1.11 (30~~. 111~ 3~ ~0113~~ ~00-
1(011~(5 ~30 0~ 1.15~0 35 1(30510(01~( 51311~ 13~ ~1130~~(5.
111~ ~0113~~ ~001(011~(5 ~(0~10~ 30 01.11~1.11 ~0113~~ 31 3 11)(~0 1(~().1.1~0~)1. 1~0
~1135~-~001(011~0 (~~1111~(5 ~000~~1~0 35 01.131 ~00~~(1~(5 ~30 0~ 0~~(31~0 35 01(~~1-
1(~().1.1~0~)1 ~1130~~(5 /(00~0 35 ~)1~/0~017~~,(~,5. ~1111 111~ 0~~~10~01~01 01 1351-
5~11~1110~ ~0~~( 0~~1~~5, 111~ 10(~~0 ~001011.1131100 01 ~)1~10~00~~(1~(5 15 ~055101~~
110~~~~(, 11 (~().1.11(~5 5)10111~51210~ 111~ 5~11~1110~ 11.10~11005 10( ~0~~( 0~~1~~5 (1,2).

1. ~. 0. ~10~(15, 8. 1. 1(11(111, (1110 ~. 1-1. ~(151110, --80111~ 1111~(0.,,~0 10(~~0 ~0111111111(11~0


~)1~10~011.,,~(1~( 51(1.1~111(~5.,, / ~~~ 1,.(1115(1(//0115011 /1101-/.5/,.)1
.4~~//((1//011.~, ~ 01. 1~ 121,
~0. 5 (8~~1~1110~(-0~100~() 1985, ~~. 1242-1253.
2. ~. ~~11111(1, --~ 11~~ 5111~~(1.,,~ 1115111~~(1.,,~ 0111 ~011.,,~(510111~~11111().11~~11111111(11~5
(~(1~6.,,~
~1~111~1115.,, ~,.0((~~0/1185 ~0/1)~,.(011 7, 1980, ~~. .83-1-.83-13.
3. 1,. 0)111~1, (1110 8. ~. ~~11)1, 5/(1//( ~0/1)~,. ~,.~~~~11()1 ~/1(1118~5-1/1~0,.)1, ~~,.10,.~/(111(~, (1110
.4~~//((1//0115, ~~~ ~ 0(/(~ ~11~)1-1111~(5~1~11~~, 1976.
4. 8. ~. ~~11)1, 1/1)1,./5/0,.-~/1(15~ ~011/,.0//~0 ~0111/~,./~,.5 (1110 ~)1(/0(0111/~,./~,.5. ~~~ ~0(/(=
~11~)1-1111~(5~1~11~~, 1971.
5. --1.8.8.8 51(1110(1(0 0~1111111011(1110 (~().111(~111~111510( 111)1(1510( (1~ ~0~~( ~0111(011~(5,,, /~~~
5/(1110(1,.0, ~0. 428-1981, 1981.

6-1. ~11(11 (1(~ 111~ (10.,,(1111(1~~5(1110 015(10.,,(1111(1~~5 01 011-011 ~0111(017


6-2. ~11(11 (1(~ 111~ (10.,,(1111(1~~5(1110 015(10.,,(1111(1~~5 01 ~11(15~-(111~1~ ~0111(017
6-3. ~11(11 (1(~ 111~ ~11~~15 01/0(10 111011~1(111~~011 111~ ~~(10(111(111~~ 01 (1~ .,,011(1~~ ~0111(011~(57
6-4. ~11(11 15 111~ ~)(611~11011 (111~1~7
6-5. ~11(11 (1(~ 111~ (10.,,(1111(1~~5(1110 015(10.,,(1111(1~~5 011111101(~~11011(11 ~0111(011~(57
6-6. ~11(11 (1(~ 111~ (10.,,(1111(1~~5(1110 015(10.,,(1111(1~~5 01 0101(~~6011(11 ~0111(011~(57
6-7. ~11(1115 (1 6~ ~0111(01 (1(((111~~111~1117
6-8. ~11(11 (1(~ 111~ 51~~5 111.,,01.,,~0 111 0~1~(111111111~111~ 0111~111 .,,011(1~~ ~(1.,,~10(1115 01111(~~-
~11(15~ 1111101(~~6011(11 ~0111(011~(5 7

176

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6-9. ~1131 3~~ 111~ 51~~5 111,,,01,,,~0 111 0~1~~~111111~ 111~ 0111~111 ,,,0113~~ ~3,,,~10~~5 01111~~~-

~1135~ 0101~~(601131 (0111~011~~57


6-10. ~1131 3~~ 111~ 30,,,31113~~5 3110 01530,,,31113~~5 01 0~113-(01111~(1~0 (0111~011~~5 7
6-11. ~113115 111~(0111~01 ~311~~ 01111~ 0~13)1 311~1~ 10~ 5111~1~-~1135~ 1111101~~(601131 (0111~011~~5 7
6-12. ~113115 111~ (0111~01 ~311~~ 01111~ 0~13)1 311~1~ 10~ 5111~1~-~1135~ 0101~~(601131 (0111~011~~57
6-13. ~113115111~ (0111~01 ~311~~ 01111~ 0~13)1311~1~ 10~ 111~~~-~1135~ 1111101~~(601131 (0111~011~~57
6-14. ~113115 111~ (0111~01 ~311~~ 01111~ 0~13)1 311~1~ 10~ 111~~~-~1135~ 0101~~(601131 (0111~011~~57
6-15. ~1131 3~~ 111~ 30,,,31113~~5 3110 01530,,,31113~~5 011~311510~~~~ 13~ (11311~~~57
6-16. ~1131 3~~ 111~ ~~111005 10~ 0111~111 ,,,0113~~ (0111~01 011~311510~~~~ 13~ (11311~~~57
6-17. ~1131 15 3 5)111(11~011011513~ (11311~~~7
6-18. ~1131 15 3 ()1(10(011,,,~~1~~7
6-19. ~1131 3~~ 111~ 30,,,31113~~5 3110 01530,,,31113~~5 01 ()1(10(011,,,~~1~~57
3( ,,,0113~~ (0111~011~~57
6-20. ~1131 3~~ 111~ 30,,,31113~~5 3110 01530,,,31113~~5 01
6-21. ~113115 111~ ~~111(1~1~ 01 0~~~36011 01 ()1(10(011,,,~~1~~57
6-22. ~1131 3~~ 111~ ~11~(15 011030 111011(1311(~ 011 111~ ~~~10~~311(~ 01 ()1(10(011,,,~~1~~5 7
6-23. ~1131 3~~ 111~ 111~~~ ~055101~ 3~~311~~~~1115 10~ 3 5111~1~-~1135~ 11111-~3,,,~ 3( ,,,0113~~
(0111~011~~7
6-24. ~1131 3~~ 111~ 30,,,31113~~5 01 511111501031 113~~0111( ~~011(6011 1~(11111~11~5 10~ ()1(10(011-
,,,~~1~~5 7

6-25. ~1131 3~~ 111~ ~31~ 51~1131 ~~~111~~~~1115 01111)1~1510~5 10~ ,,,0113~~ (0111~011~~5 ~1111 ~~
103057
6-26. ~1131 3~~ 111~ ~11~(15 01 5011~(~ 3110 1030 111011(1311(~57
0~,,,1(~5 10~ 3( ,,,0113~~
6-27. ~1131 3~~ 111~ (0110160115 10~ 111~ ~0~51-(35~ 0~51~11 01 ~0~~~
(0111~011~~57
3( ,,,0113~~ (011-
6-28. ~1131 3~~ 111~ (0110160115 10~ 111~ ~0~51-(35~ 0~51~11 011030 1111~~5 10~
1~011~~57

6-1. 111~ 3( ,,,0113~~ (0111~011~~ 111~1~. 6-13 15 115~0 10~ 11~31111~ 3 ~~5156,,,~ 1030 01 ~ = 5 0
3110 111~ 111~111 ,,,0113~~ 15 11, = 120~, 60 1-12. 111~ 111)1~1510~ 5~11(1115 011 10~ /1 = 125
()1(1~5 3110 15 01110~ 111 = 75 ()1(1~5. 0~1~~~111~ 111~ (3) ~~5 0111~111 ,,,0113~~, 110~ ()))

111~111~0~~~ 13(10~, ~~ ~ 3110 (~) 3,,,~~3~~ 3110 ~~5 (11~~~111 01111)1~1510~5.


6-2. 111~ 3( ,,,0113~~ (0111~011~~ 111~1~. 6-13 115~5 011-011 (0111~0110~ 11~3611~ 3 ~~5156,,,~ 1030
01 ~ = 4 0 3110 111~ 111~111,,,0113~~ 15 11, = 208 ~, 60 1-12. 11111~ 0~51~~0 0111~111 ~0~~~
())) 111~111~0~~~ 13(10~, ~~.
15 ~0 = 3 /(~, 0~1~~~111~ 111~ (3) (111)1 ()1(1~, /(~ 3110
6-3. 111~ 5111~1~-~1135~ 11311-~3,,,~ 3( ,,,0113~~ (0111~011~~ 111~1~. 6-23 1135 3 ~~51511,,,~ 1030 01 ~
120 ~, 60 1-12. 111~ 0~13)1 311~1~ 01111)1~1510~ 11
= 5 0 3110 111~ 111~111,,,0113~~ 15 11, =
111~ (3) ~~5 0111~111 ,,,0113~~, 110~ ())) 111~111 ~0~~~ 13(10~, ~~~
15 ~ = 71/3. 0~1~~~111~
3110 (~) 3,,,~~3~~ 111~111(11~~~111.
6-4. 111~ 5111~1~-~1135~ 11311-~3,,,~ 3( ,,,0113~~ (0111~011~~ 111~1~. 6-23 1135 3 ~~5156,,,~ 1030 01 ~
208 ~, 60 1-12. 11111~ 0~51~~0 0111))111 ~0~~~ 15
= 5 0 3110 111~ 111~111,,,0113~~ 15 11, = ())) 111~111~0~~(
~0 = 2 /(~, (31(11131~ 111~ (3) 0~13)1 311~1~, ~~ 3110 13(10~, ~~.

177

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6-5. 111~ 8111~1~-()1138~ ~11-~3~~ 3~ ~0113~~ ~0111..011~.. 111~1~. 6-33 1138 3 ..~8186~~ 1030 0( ~
= 5 11 3110 111~ 111()111~0113~~ 18 ~5 = 120 ~, 60 1-12. 111~ 0~13~ 311~1~8 0( 111~..1810..8
11 3110 12 3..~ ~~1131~(11 = (12 = (1
= 270/3. 0~1~..111111~111~(3) ..11180111()111~0113~~,
(())) 111~111 ~0~~.. 13~10.., ~~ ~ (~) 3~~..3~~ ~11 ~111 01111~..1510..5, ((() ..1115
~0~ 1.. ~ 3110
~11 ~111 0( 111~0510..8, 18..
6-6. 111~ 8111~1~-()1138~ ~11-~3~~ 3~ ~0113~~ ~0111..011~.. 111~1~. 6-33 1138 3 ..~8186~~ 1030 0( ~
= 1.5 11 3110 111~ 111~111~0113~~ 18 ~5 = 120 ~, 60 1-12. 1( 111~ 0~81..~0 0111()111 ()0~~..
18 ~0 = 7.5 /(~, 0~1~..111111~ 111~ (3) 0~13~ 311~1~8 0( 111~..1810..8 11 3110 12~ ())) ..11180111()111
~0113~~, ~0~ (~) 111()111()0~~.. (3~10.., ~~~ ((() 3~~..3~~ ~11 ~111 0( 111~..1810..8, /..~ 3110 (~)
..1118~11 ~111 0( 111~..1810..8, /8..
6-7. 111~ 1030 0( 311 3~ ~0113~~ ~0111..011~..18 ..~8186~~, ~1111 ~
= 1.5 11. 111~ 111()111~0113~~
18 ~5 = 120 ~, 60 1-12. ~101111~ ()0~~.. (3~10.. 3~311181111~ 0~13~ 311~1~ (0.. 8111~1~-()1138~
1131(-~3~~ 3110 (1111-~3~~ ~0111..011~..8.
6-8. 111~ 8111~1~-()1138~ (1111-~3~~ ~0111..011~.. 111 ~1~. 6-63 811()()11~8 311 ~1. 1030. 111~ 111()111
~0113~~ 18 ~5 = 120 ~ 31 60 1-12. 111~ 1030 18 811~11111311. = 5 1111-13110 ~
= 5 11.
111~ 0~13~ 311~1~8 0( 111~..1810.. 11 3110 111~..1510.. 12 3..~ ~~1131, ~11~..~ (1
= 70/3. 0~1~..111111~
111~ (3) ~011011~6011 311~1~ 0( 111~..1810.. 11, 8~ ())) ..11180111()111~0113~~, ~0~ (~) ..1118111~..1810..
~11 ~111, /8.~ ((() ..1118 0111()111 ~11 ~111, /0~ (~) 3~~..3~~ ~11 ~111 0( 3 111~..1810.., /,.,~ 3110 (0
111()111()0~~.. (3~10.., ~~.
6-9. 111~ 8111~1~-()1138~ ~11-~3~~ ~0111..011~.. 111 ~1~. 6-63 811()()11~8 311 ~1. 1030. 111~ 111()111
~0113~~ 18 ~5 = 120 ~ 31 60 1-12. ~101111~ ()0~~.. (3~10.., ~~, 3~311181111~0~13~ 311~1~,
(1, (0.. (3) 1. = 5 1111-1
3110~ = 5 11, 3110())) ~ = 5 11 31101. = 0.
6-10. 111~ 111..~~-()1138~ 1111101..~~601131 ~0111..011~..111 ~1~. 6-7 811()()11~8 3 ~~~-~01111~~1~0 ..~8186~~
1030 ~1111 ~ = 5 11 3110 111~ 1111~-10-1111~ 111()111~0113~~ 18 208 ~, 60 1-12. 111~ 0~13~
311~1~ 18 (1
=
70/6. 0~1~..111111~ 111~ (3) ..11180111()111()1138~ ~0113~~, ~0~ ())) 111()111()0~~..~
3110 (~) ~)(~..~8810118 (0.. 111~ 111813111311~01180111()111 ~0113~~ 0( ()1138~ (1.
6-11. 111~ 111..~~-()1138~ 1111101..~~601131 ~0111..011~..111 ~1~. 6-7 811()()11~8 3 ~~~-~01111~~1~0 ..~8186~~
1030 ~1111 ~ = 2.5 11 3110 111~ 1111~-10-1111~111()111~0113~~ 18 208 ~, 60 1-12. 1( 111~ 0~81..~0
0111()111 ()0~~.. 18 ~0 = 12 /(~, ~31~11131~ 111~ (3) 0~13~ 311~1~, (1~ ())) ..11180111()111 ()1138~
~0113~~, ~0~ 3110 (~) 111()111~0~~.. (3~10.., ~~.
6-12. 111~ 111..~~-()1138~ 1111101..~~601131 ~0111..011~..111 ~1~. 6-7 811~~11~8 3 ~~~-~01111~~1~0 ..~8186~~
1030 ~1111 ~
= 5 11 3110 111~ 1111~-10-1111~ 111()111~0113~~ 18 208 ~, 60 1-12. 111~ 0~13~
311~1~ 18 (1 = 270/3. 0~1~..111111~ 111~ (3) ..11180111()111 ()1138~ ~0113~~, ~0~ ())) 111~111()0~~..
(3~10.., ~~~ 3110 (~) ~)(()..~8810118 (0.. 111~ 111813111311~01180111()111 ~0113~~ 0(
~1138~ (1.
6-13. ~~()~31 ~..00. 6-10 (0.. 111~ 111..~~-()1138~ 0101..~~601131 ~0111..011~.. 111~1~. 6-12.
6-14. ~~()~31 ~..00. 6-11 (0.. 111~ 111..~~-()1138~ 0101..~~601131 ~0111..011~.. 111~1~. 6-12.
6-15. ~~()~31 ~..00. 6-12 (0.. 111~ 111..~~-()1138~ 0101..~~601131 ~0111..011~.. 111~1~. 6-12.
6-16. 111~ 111..~~-()1138~ 0101..~~601131 ~0111..011~..111 ~1~. 6-12 811()()11~8 3 ~~~-~01111~~1~01030 0(
~ =5 11 3110 1. = 10 1111-1. 111~ 1111~-10-1111~ 111~111~0113~~ 18 208 ~, 60 1-12. 111~
0~13~ 311~1~ 18 (1 = 70/2. ~101 111~ 1111~~11 ~111 (0.. 111~ 6..81 ~~~1~ 3(1~.. 111~ ~0111..011~..
18 8~11~11~0 011.
6-17. ~ 111..~~-()1138~ 3~ ~0113~~ ~0111..011~.. 811()()11~8 3 ~~~-~01111~~1~0 ..~8186~~ 1030 0( ~ = 5
11 3110 111~ 1111~-10-1111~ 111()111~0113~~ 18 ~5 = 208 ~ 31 60 1-12. ~101111~ ()0~~.. (3~10..,
~~, 3~311181111~ 0~13~ 311~1~, (1, (0.. 111~ (3) 1131(-~3~~ ~0111..011~.. 111 ~1~. 6-7, 3110 ()))
(1111-~3~~ ~0111..011~.. 111~1~. 6-12.
6-18. ~ 111..~~-()1138~ 0101..~~11011310~113-~01111~~1~0 ~0111..011~..111 ~1~. 6-151138 3 ..~8186~~ 1030
0( ~ = 5 11. 1( 111~ 1111~-10-1111~ ~0113~~ 18 ~5 =
208 ~, 60 1-12 3110 111~ 0~13~ 311~1~ (1
= 70/3, 0~1~..111111~ 111~ (3) ..11180111()111 ()1138~ ~0113~~, ~0~ ())) ~)(()..~8810118 (0.. 1118131113-

178

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11~0115 ~11((~1115 /0, /00, 3110 /00~ (~) ((115 011111111111135~~11((~111, /00, 3110 ((115 0111111111111~
~11((~111, /0~ (()) 11111111110~~( 13~10(, ~~~ 3110 (~) ((115 ~11((~111 01111~(1510(5, /~.

6-19. 111~ ~1(~1111 111 ~1~. 6-18 15 ~0111(011~0 35 3 5~11~11(0110115 1311 ~11311~~(. 111~ 11(1(113(~
~0113~~ 15 208 ...,, 60 1-12. 111~ 5~~01103(~ ~0113~~5 3(~ ~1 =
120..., 3110 ~2 = 88 ...,.
...,, 0~1~((11111~ 111~
11111~ 1030 (~5151311~~ 15 8. = 5 0 3110 111~ ((115 1030 ~0113~~ 15 180
(8) 0~13~ 311~1~5 01111~(1510(5 11 3110 12~ (/)) ((115 ~11((~111 01111~(1510(5 1, 3110 12~ (~)
((115 ~11((~111 01111~(1510(5 13 3110 14~ 3110 (()) 11111111110~~( 13~10(, ~~.

6-20. 111~ 11111111 ~0113~~ 10 111~ 5111~1~-111135~/5111~1~-111135~~~~10~011~~(1~( 111~1~. 6-213 15 120


...,, 60 1-12. 111~ 1030 (~5151311~~ 15 2.5 0 3110 1030 111011~1311~~ 15 1- = 40 (111-1. 111~
270/4,
1(~().11~11~~ 01 011111111 ~0113~~ 15 20 1-12. 11111~ 0~13~ 311~1~ 01111~(1510(5 15 0.,, =
0~1~((11111~ 111~ (8) ((115 011111111 ~0113~~~ (/)) ((115 ~11((~111 01 ~3~11111~(1510(~ 3110 (~) 11111111

110~~( 13~10(, ~~.

6-21. ~~11~31 ~(00. 6-20 111- = 0.


6-22. ~0( ~(00. 6-20, 11101111~ 110~~( 13~10( 3~311151111~ 0~13~ 311~1~, 0..

6-23. ~~11~31 ~(00. 6-20 10( 111~ 111(~~-111135~/5111~1~-111135~ ~~~10~011~~(1~( 111~1~. 6-233, 1- =
0.
6-24. ~~~~31 ~(00. 6-20 11111~ 0~13~ 311~1~53(~ ~~11~(31~0 0~ ~0(11113(111~3 ~05111~51~113131
5011(~~ 1(~().11~11~~~1111 3 51111150103151~113131 0111111111(~().11~11~~35 5110~11 111 ~1~.
6~25.
6-25. ~0( ~(00. 6-24, 11101111~ 111~111110~~( 13~10( 3~311151111~ 0~13~ 311~1~.

6-26. 111~ 5111~1~-111135~11111-~3~~ 3~ ~0113~~ ~0111(011~( 111~1~. 6-53 ~0111(015 111~ 110~~( 1(0(11
,
3208 60-1-12 3~ 5011(~~ 11110 3 (~51511~~ 1030. 111~ (113)(1(1111(110~51(~0 011111111110~~(
(/)) (113)(1(1111(11
15 10 ~~. ~31~11131~ 111~ (8) (113)(1(1111(11((115 ~11((~111 (31111~ 01111~(1510(~
3~~(3~~ ~11((~111 (31111~ 01111~(1510(~ 3110 (~) 111~ ~~3/( 111~(1510( ~0113~~.
6-27. 111~ 111(~~-~1135~ 11111-~3~~ 3~ ~0113~~ ~0111(011~( 111 ~1~. 6-12 15 115~0 10 ~0111(01 111~
110~~( 1(0(11 3 2300 , 60-1-12 3~ 5011(~~ 11110 3 0~113-~01111~~1~0 (~51511~~ 1030. 111~
(113)(1(1111(110~51(~0 011111111110~~( 15 100 /(~. ~31~11131~ 111~ (8) (113)(1(1111(11((115 ~11((~111
(31111~ 01111~(1510(5, / /0.1~(/)) (113)(1(1111(113~~(3~~ ~11((~111 (31111~ 01111~(1510(5, /,.,./0.1~3110
(~) 111~ 11~3~ ~3111~ 01111~(1510( ~0113~~, ~,,.

6-28. 111~ 5111~1~-~1135~ 11111-~3~~ ~0111(011~( 111 ~1~. 6-63 ~0111(015 110~~( 10 3 8.1- 1030 3110
111~ 5011(~~ ~0113~~ 15 208 ...,, 60 1-12. 111~ 1030 15 8. = 5 0 3110 1- = 10 (111-1. (8)
0~1~((11111~ 111~ ((115 ~3111~ 011111(0 113((110111~ ~11((~111. (/)) 11 3 ~3113~110( 15 ~01111~~1~0
3~(055111~ 1030, ~31~11131~ 111~ ~3111~ 01 ~3~3~11311~~ 10 (~011~~ 111~1111(0113((110111~ ~11((~111
111111~ 1030 10 5% 01111~ 1030 ~11((~111, 0. = 70/3.

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7

10 111(10)1100051(1(11 (1~~11~(111005, 1115 (~~01(~0 10 ~00~~(1 (1 ~1)(~0-~011(1~~ 0~ 500(~~


1010 (1 ~(1(1(101~-~011(1~~ 0~ 500(~~. ~ 0~ ~110~~~( ~00~~(15 01(~~11)1 ~(0111 0~ 10 0~
(100 15 (1150 ~00~0 (15 (1 ()~-(0-()~ ~011~€,(€,. ~ ~110~~~( ~(10 0~ ~00510~(~0 (15 0~
~~01~(11~01 10 (10 (1~ 1((105~0(111~( ~1111 (1 ~0011000051)1 ~(1(1(101~ 10(05 ((1110. 1.-1~~ (1
1((105~0(111~(, 11 ~0010 0~ 05~0 10 51~~-00~0 0( 51~~-0~ (1 0~ ~011(1~~ 500(~~.
~110~~~(5 (1(~ ~10~1)1 05~0 ~0( 1((1~1100 111010( ~001(0110 ~1~~1(1~ (10101110011~5,
1(011~)1 ~(1(5, 111(1(10~ 1101515, ~0(~11~11(0~~5, (100 11110~ 11(101~(5. 111~)1 ~(0~10~ 511100111
(1~~~1~((11100 ~001(01, 111~11 ~~~1~1~0~)1, (100 ~(151 0)10(11111~ (~5~005~. ~110~~~(5 ~(10
0~ 05~0 10 (~~~0~((111~~ 0((1~10~ 0~ 0~ 111010(5 10 (~10(0 ~0~(~)1 0(1~~ 1010 111~ 50~~1)1,
(100 11115 ~~(110(~ (~50115 10 ~0~(~)1 5(1~10~5 ~0( 1((105~0(1(11100 5)151~1115 ~1111 ~(~~0~01
510~5. ~110~~~(5 (1(~ (1150 05~0 10 0~ ~011(1~~ (~~01(110(5.

111~ ~(10~1~1~ 0~ 0~~((11100 ~(10 0~ ~)(~1(110~0 0)1 ~1~. 7-1(1. ~11~0 5~11~11 5~ 15
~105~0 ~0( (1 11111~(1, 111~ 10~01 ~011(1~~ 175 (1~~~(1(5 (1~(055 111~ 10(10. 1~ 111~ 5~11~11
(~111(1105 0~~ ~0( (1 11111~(2, 111~ ~011(1~~ (1~(055 111~ 10(10 15 2~(0. 111~ ~(1~~~0(1115 ~0(

180

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~0

~~~~~00~~6~ ~1

~0
_11_ ..
0
+ 0
51/-/ +
~ .
~5 ~0 -
-11--12

10.~ 01.11~1.11 ~011(1~~ (100 10(10 ~1.1((~01 (1(~ (1150 50.0~0 10 ~1~. 7-10. 10.~ ~0.0~~~(
(1 (1) ~0~~( .1311, (2) ~0~~( ~05~)31, (3)
5~11~0. ~(10 0~ 1111~1~111~01~0 0)11.15105
010, 0( (4) 10(~~0-~01111111.11(11~0 10.)1(1510(. 10.~ ~((1~11~(11 0~~1~~5 0.(1~~ (1 11011~
~011(1~~ 0(0~ ((10~10~ 1(0111 0.5 10 2 ~, (100 10( 10.~ 5(1~~ 01 51111~11~11)1 10.~ ~011(1~~
(1(~ 0~~1~~1~0.
0(0~5 0110.~5~ ~0~~( 5~1111~0001.1~10( 0~~1~~5
10.~ (1~~((1~~ 01.11~1.11 ~011(1~~ 15 ~1~~0 0)1
/1
1 (1
.((
~ =
0 -
1 10
1) () 0( = -1 ~5 = ). 1 ~ = /(~
5 5
(7-1)

~551.111110~ (1 10551~55 ~0.0~~~(, 10.~ 10~1.11 ~0~~( 10 10.~ ~0.0~~~( 15 10.~ 5(1111~ (15 10.~

01.11~1.11 ~0~~( (100 15 ~1~~0 0)1


/(, /(,1)2

~./ = -
1 1 ,.~
---20( = ,,, (7-3)
10 1 1)0/ 0( = -10 1 ~ ~

10.~ ~11~~11~~ 10~1.11 (~5151(10~~ 5~~0 0)110.~ 501.1(~~ 15

~. / = ~5
= ~ = ~
/(
(7-4)
10 /(~/~

10.~(~10(~,
10.~ 01.11)1 ~)1~1~, /(, ~(10 0~ ~(1(1~01(0111010 1 0)1 ~(1()110~ (1, 1, 0( 1.
10.~ 01.11~1.11~011(1~~ ~0 ~(10 0~ ~(1(1~0 1(0111 0 10 ~5 0)1 ~001(01110~ /( (100 10.~ ~0~~(
110~ ~(10 0~ ~001(011~0.

1. ~0118((111(-1,.~()/,/~11~)1 0/7~,.(1(/011. 10.~ ~0.0~~10~ 1(~()1.1~0~)1, 1 (0( ~0.0~~10~


~~(100 7), 15 ~~~1 ~0051(101 (100 10.~ 00-11111~, (1, 15 ~(1(1~0. 10.~ ~1010. 0110.~ ~1.115~
15 ~(1(1~0 (100 10.15 1)1~~ 01 ~001(01 15 ~00~0 (15 /7/,//8~-~/0(/1-~00/,//(1(/011 (~~~)
~001(01.

58~. 7-2 181

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2. ~(1,.1(10/~-/,.~~11-~11~)1 0/1~,.(1((011. 10~ ~00~~111~ 1(~()11~11~)7, /, 18 ~30~0. ~110~(
011-11(11~, (1, 0( 011-11(11~, (2, 18 ~~~1 ~011813111. 1018 18 ~311~0 /,.~~11-~11~)11110(/11-/(1(1011.
10~ 1(~()11~11~)7 038 10 0~ ~3(1~0 0~~( 3 ~10~ (311~~ 10 0013111 10~ 111110111~111 ~0113~~
(311~~. 1018 1)7~~ 01 ~0111(01 ~01110 ~~11~(31~ 113((110111~8 311111~(~01~1301~ 1(~()11~11~1~8
3110 10~ 1111~( 0~81~11 ~01110 0~ 01111~1111.

~~3111))1~ 7-1

111~ 0~ ~110~~~( 10 ~1~. 7-1(111(18 (1 (~8186~~ 10(10 01 ~ = 100 (100 111~ 10~111 ~011(1~~
18 ~$ = 220~. ~11~0 111~~110~~~( 8~11~/1 (~111(110800, 118...011(1~~0(0~ 18 1)0~ 2 ~
=
(100 111~ ~110~~10~ 1(~()11~0~)118
/ = 1 /(1-12. 11111~ (111)1~)1~1~18 50%, 0~1~(11110~ 111~
((1) (1...~((1~~ 0111~111 ~011(1~~, ~0~ (0) (1118 0111~111...011(1~~, ~0~ (~) ~110~~~( ~111~1~0~)1~ (0)
~11~~6...~ 10~111 (~8181(10~~ 01111~ ~110~~~(, ~,~ (100 (~) (1118 ...(1111~01111~ 11100(1111~01(11
~0111~00~01 01 0111~11111(1(1110111~~011(1~~.

801111100 ~$ = 220 ~, /( = 0.5, ~ = 100, (100 1)0~


= 2 ~.
((1) ~(011113(). (7-1), ~0 = 0.5 )( (220 - 2)
(0) ~(011113(). (7-2), ~0 = ~ )( (220 - 2) 109~.
=
= 154.15~.
(~) 111~ 0111~111 ~0~~( ~(1110~ 1011110 1(0111
/,, /,,
~0 = ~ ~ 01 = ~ (~$ - 1)0~)2
0 1 = /(
(~$ - 1)0~)2
10 1 ~ 10 1 ~ ~ (7-5)
)( (2201~ 2)2
= 0.5 = 2376.2 ~

111~ 10~111 ~0~~( 10 111~ ~110~~~( ~(10 0~ 1011110 1(0111


/,, /,,
~ = ~ ~.$/10 = ~ ~$(~$ - 1)0~)
0 1 = /(
~$(~$ - 1)0~)
.10 1 10 1 ~ ~ (7-6)
)( 220)( 220-2
= 0.5 = 2398 ~
10
111~ ~110~~~( ~111~1~0~)118

~0 2376.2
. 0
~, = 2398 = 99 09~
(0) ~(011113(). (7-4), ~, = 10/0.5 = 200.
(~) 111~ 0111~111...011(1~~ (18 8/10~0111 ~1~. 7-10 ~(10 0~ ~)(~(~88~0111 (1 ~011(1~( 8~(1~8
(18

111~ 11100(1111~111(11 ~0111~00~111 (10( /1 1) 010111~111...011(1~~ 11(1(1110111~ ~(111 0~ 0~1~(111111~0


=
1(0111 13(). (7-7) (18

~$
1)1(1)
= (8111 2-../( ~08 2-../1 + (1 - ~08 2-../() 810 2-../1)
-..
(7-8)
220 )( 2 . )(
= 8111 (2-.. 10001) = 140.068111 (6283.21)
-..
(100 118 (1118 ...(1111~18 ~1 = 140.06/0 = 99.04 ~.

/0/01~. 111~ ~111~1~11~)1~(11~111(16011, ~111~11111~1110~8 111~ ~00011~6011 1088 011/1~ ~110~~~(,


00~8 11011(1/(~ 1010 (1~~011111111~8~11~11111~1088 011~ 10 111(11-011(100 111(0-01101111~ ~110~~~(.

182

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0
+ 5~ +

~0 0,,,

~ ~110~~~.. ~1111 30 ~/..., 1030 18 8110~0 10 ~1~. 7-2. 111~ 0~~..31100 01111~ ~110~~~..
~30 0~ 01~10~0 1010 1~0 0100~8. 011..10~ 0100~ 1, 111~ ~110~~~.. 18 8~11~11~0 00 300
111~ ~11 ~01 110~8 1..001 111~ 811~~1)1 10 111~ 1030. 011..10~ 0100~ 2, 111~ ~110~~~.. 18
8~11~11~0 011 300 111~ 1030 ~11 ~01 ~0011011~8 10 110~ 111..011~111..~~~11~~110~ 0100~
1),,,. 111~ ~().111~31~01 ~1..~1111810.. 111~8~ 0100~8 3..~ 8110~0 10 ~1~. 7-33. 111~ 1030
~11 ~01 300 0111~111 ~0113~~ ~3~~10..018 3..~ 8110~0 10 ~1~. 7-30.
111~ 1030 ~11 ~01 10.. 0100~ 1 ~30 0~ 101100 1..001

0-/1 (7-9)
~5 = ~/1 + /..., + ~
~
111~ 80111110001 ~().. (7-9) ~11111011131~11 ~01 /1(1 = 0) = /1 ~1~~8111~1030 ~11 ~01
38

(7-10)

11118 0100~ 18 ~3110 0 $ 1 $ /1 (= /(1)~ 300 31111~ ~00 0111118 0100~, 111~ 1030 ~11 ~01
0~~001~8
(7 -11)

~0
(..
1/.
~-.1- 4 .2 .
+
~0 ,..
-1 ~.

~
~
~
0,,, ~1
_~,.._~_(1-~),..-~
~

~ ~
0 ,..
~009 2
(8) ~~(.8~~8190. ~(~~(.8~.5

183
58~. 7-3

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(7-12)

~110111111(11 ~1.1((~11112(( = 0) = 12 (1110 (~0~1111111~ 10~ 11(11~ 0(1~111 (1110~ 0~~11111111~


01 (1100~ 2, ~~ 0(1~~

(7-13)

1015 (1100~ 15 ~(1110 10( 0 ~ ( ~ (= (1


(2 - /()1). ,4.1 10~ ~110 011015 (1100~, 10~
10(10 ~1.1((~111 0~~0(11~5

(7 -14)
,4.1 10~ ~110 01 (1100~ 2, 10~ ~00~~~( 15 11.1(11~0 011 (1~(1111 111 10~ 11~)(1
~~~1~ (111~( 11(11~,
1 = 1/1 = () + (2.
0110~( 51~(10~-51(11~ ~01101110115, 1)
= 13. 10~ ~~(1~-10-~~(1~ 10(10 (1~~1~ ~1.1((~111
~(1110~ 0~1~((11111~01(0(11~~5. (7-10), (7-11), (7-13), (1110(7-14). ~(0(11 ~~5. (7-10)
(1110(7-11), 12 15 ~1~~110~

~5 - € _ ~-/(18./1-)
12 = 1) ~-/(18./1- + (1 (7-15)
~
~(0(11 8~5. (7-13) (1110(7-14), 13 15 ~1~~110~

(7-16)

10~ ~~(1~-10-~~(1~ (1~~1~ ~1.1((~11115

/11 = 12 - 1)

~01~0 (111~( 51(11~1111~(1110115 0~~0(11~5

_ ~-()-/()18./1-
~ 1 - ~-/(18./1-
/11 = ~ 1
+ ~-18./1-
_ ~-18./1- (7-17)

10~ ~0110111011 10( (11(1)(1(111.1(11 (1~~1~,

(/(/11)
(//( = 0 (7-18)

~1~~5 ~-/(18./1- - ~-(1-/()18./1-


= 00( -/( = -(1 - /() 0( /( = 0.5. 10~ (11(1)(1(111.1(11
~~(1~-10-~~(1~ (1~~1~ ~1.1((~111((11/( = 0.5) 15
~5 ~
/11~3~ = 1(1110 (7-19)
~ 411.,
~0( 411., ~ ~ ~, 1(1110 6
= 6 (1110 10~ (11(1)(1(111.1(11(1~~1~ ~1.1((~111 ~(111 0~ (1~~(0)(1(11(11~0
10

(7-20)

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1-/0(~. ~().036005 (7-9) 10 (7-20) 3(~ .,,3110 001~ 10( ~001100005 ~0(~01 110~.
~0( 3 13(~~ 011-11(0~, ~3(11~013(1~ 3110~ 1(~().0~0~~ 300 10~ 001~01 .,,0113~~, 111~ 1030
~0((~01 (03~ 0~ 015~001100005. 111~ 1030 ~0((~01 ~0010 0~ ~00600005 11 1) ~ ~ ~
1 0( 1-/ ~~~. 10 ~35~ 01 015~001100005 1030 ~0((~01, /1 = 0 300 ~().. (7-10)
0~~0(0~5
115 - ~ _ ~-(8./1--)
11(0 = (1
~
300 ~().. (7-13) 15.,,3110 10( 0 ~
( ~ (2 50~1111131 12(( = (2) 0.

~)(301()1~ 7-2

~ ~110~~~( 181~~0111~ 311 ~1- 1030 38 8110~11 111~1~. 7-2 ~11111/5 = 220 ~, ~ = 5 0, 1-
= 7.5011-1,/ = 1/(1-12, 3110 ~ = 0~. ~31~11131~ 111~ (3) 1111111011101111813111311~01181030
~11(~111, /1~ (/)) ~~3/( 111813111311~01181030 ~11((~111, /2~ (~) 013)(10111111 ~~3/(-10-~~3/( 1030
(~) (018 1030 ~11((~111, /0~ (1)
(1~~1~ ~11((~111~ (0) 3.,,~(3~~ .,,3111~ 011030 ~11((~111, /0~
~11~~6.,,~ 111~111(~8181311~~ 8~~11 0~ 111~ 8011(~~, ~,~ 3110 (~) (1118 ~110~~~( ~11((~111, /,,.

801111100 1/5 = 220 ~, ~ = 5 0, 1- = 7.5 1111-1, ~ = 0 ~, /( = 0.5, 3110/ = 1000


1-12. ~(0111~().. (7-15), /2 = 0.7165/1 + 12.4733110 1(0111~().. (7-16), /1 = 0.7165/2
+ 0.
(3) 501.,,111~ 111~8~ 1~0 ~().113110118 ~1~108 /1 = 18.37 ~.
(0) /2 = 25.63 ~.
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00~8 111..011~111111~.. 10011~10.. 1., 1111~.. ~3~3~110.. ~, 300 1030 ..~81810..~. ~00~ 2
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011 111~ 8~11~1110~ ~..~~11~11~)1, 1111~..111011~130~~, 3110 ~3~3~1130~~, 111~ 111011~10.. ~11 ~111
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(7-32)

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01 /11111 ~~8. (7-30) 300 (7-32) ~1~~8

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(7-38)

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(7-41)

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( (1. 111~
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= 2/3 = 0.6667 = 66.67%.
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5 (15 - 5)
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25,000 150 15
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2 = 2 = 1.945 ~

(0) ~(0(11 ~().. (7-53),

0.5 )( 0.6667
/1~0 =
2,5000 )( 220)( 10 - 6 = 60.61 (11~

~ 011~)( - 00051 (~~111(110( 11(0,,,10~5 (111 011111111 ,,,011(1~~ ~01~0 (11(1)1 0~ 1~55 10(111 0(
~(~(11~( 111(11110~ 11111111,,,011(1~~-0~11~~ 10~ 11(1(11~ ..011~)(-00051,,~
10~ 01111101 ,,,011(1~~
1101(1(11)1 15 011110511~ 10 10(11 0110~ 11111111,,,011(1~~. 1015 (~~111(110( 15 (1150 )(110~11 (15
(111 1/11/~,(1/1/5 0, 1/)/0(1~/( ,~/5/1/(1(0,. 10~ ~1(~1111 (1(((111~~(11~111 01 (1 00~)(-00051 (~~_
01(110( 15 5110~11 111 ~1~. 7-9(1.
111~ ~1(~011 011~((111011 ~(111 0~ 01,,,10~0 11110 1~0 (1100~5. 00(111~ (1100~ 1, 1((111-
51510( ()1 15 10(11~0 011 (1110 0100~ 1),,, 15 (~,,,~(5~0 01(15~0. 111~ 11111111~0((~111, ~111~11
(15~5, 110~5 111(00~1111100~10( 1- (1110 1((11151510( ()1. 011(111~ (1100~ 2, 1(31151510( ()1
15 5~11~11~0 011 (1110 111~ ~11((~111, ~111~0 ~(15 110~111~ 111(00~011100~10( 1-, ~01110 110~
110~ 111(00~111-, ~, 1),,,, (1110 111~ 10(10. 111~ ~11~(~)1 510(~0 111 11100~10(
1- ~0010 0~
1((11151~((~0 10 10~ 10(10 3110 111~ 111011~10( ~0((~111 ~01110
1311 11111111(31151510( ())
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5~11~11~0 011 (1~3111 111 111~ 11~)(1 ~)1~1~. 10~ ~()111,,,31~111 ~1(~0115 10( 111~ (1100~5 3(~
5110~11 111 ~1~. 7-90. 111~ ~3,,,~10((115 10( 51~(0)1-51(11~ ,,,0113~~5 3110 ~11((~1115 0110~
00~)(-00051 (~~01310( (1(~ 5110~11 111 ~1~. 7-9~ 10( ~01111110005 10(10 ~0((~111.
~550(11111~ 11131 111~ 11100~10( ~0((~111 (15~5 1111~3(1)11(0(11
11 10 12 111 11(11~ (1,

(7-54)

(7-55)

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0 ~,.. ,..

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~11~..~ /1115 111~ .,~(1~-10-.,~(1~ ..1.,.,1~ ~11 ~01 0110011~10.. 1-. ~..0111 ~~5. (7-54) (100
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= 1151,,/(/(1 /() (100 111~ (1~~..(1~~ 10()111
~11 ~01, 15, 15 ..~1(11~0 10 111~ (1~~..(1~~ 0111()111 ~11 ~01, 1,,,
0~

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1 /11 1- /11 1- /11 1-(11,, 1(5)


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1 115 11,, 11511,,
(100 11115 ~1~~5 111~ ()~(1~-10-()~(1~ ..1()()1~ ~11 ~01,

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~11~0 1..(1051510.. (21 15 00, 111~ 1111~.. ~(1()(1~110.. 511()()11~5 111~ 10(10 ~11 ~0110.. (
= (1-
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..1()()1~ ~011(1~~ 01111~ ~(1()(1~110.. 15

(7-63)

~~11(11100 (7-58) ~1~~5 (1 = 11)(11,, - 1(5)1) (100 ~~. (7-63) 0~~0111~5


1,,11,,
/1110 -- (7-64)
(11,, - 1(5)1~

(7-65)

~ 011~~ - 00051 ..~~111(110.. ()..0~10~5 0111()111 ~011(1~~ ()01(1..11~ ..~~~..5(11 ~11110111 (1


1..(10510..111~.._ 1111(15111~11 ~16~1~0~~. 000~.. (11(11111 ~00011100 01111~ 1..(1051510.., 111~
(///(/( 01111~ 1(11111~11 ~01 ~01110 0~ 11/1- (100 15 1111111~0 0~ 111~ 10011~10.. 1-. 0111()111

198

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500(1-~1(~011 ()(01~~11011 ~0010 0~ ~(15)110 1(11()1~(11~111. 1-10~~~~(, 10~ 111()01 ~0((~111
15 015~01111110005 (1110 (1110 (1 0180 ()~(1~ ~0((~111 -00~5 10(00801((11151510( (21.

~)(301()1~ 7-6
-.,,. 10~ 0111~
111~ 011~~ - 00081 (~~111310( 111~1~. 7-93 038 311 111~111~0113~~ 01 ~5 = 12
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= 0.25 3110 10~ 8~11~0111~ 1(~().11~11~~ 18 25 ~1-12. 10~ 111011~1311~~, 1- = 150
,..,..1-13110 1111~( ~3~3~11311~~, ~ = 220 ,..,..~. 10~ 3~~(3~~ 1030 ~11((~111, /0 = 1.25 /1...
0~1~(111111~ 10~ (3) 3~~(3~~ 0111~111 ~0113~~, ~0~ (0) ~~3~-10-~~3~ 0111~111 ~0113~~ (1~~1~,
~ ~,,~ (~) ~~3~-10-~~3~ (1~~1~ ~11((~111 01 111011~10(, ~1~ 3110 (0) ~~3~ ~11((~111 01 10~
1(31181810(, 1,,.

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~ = 220 ,..,..~.
)( 0.25/(1 - 0.25)
(3) ~(0111 ~().. (7-58), ~0 = -12 = -4-.,,.
(0) ~(0111 ~().. (7-65), 10~ ~~3~-10-~~3~ 0111~111(1~~1~ ~0113~~ 18
)( 0.25
1.25
~~,, = )( )( 10-6 = 56.8111-.,,
25,000 220

(~) ~(0111 ~().. (7-62), 10~ ~~3~-10-~~3~ 111011~10((1~~1~ 18


)(
12 0.25
~1 =
25,000 )( 150 )( 10-6 = 0.8/1..

)( 0.25/(1 - 0.25)
(0) ~(0111 ~().. (7-59),15 = 1.25 = 0.4167 /1... 5111~~1518 10~
3~~(3~~ 01 011(311011/(1, 111~~~3~-10-~~3~ ~11((~1110110~ 1(31181810(,
~1 0.4167 0.8
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(1 ()0~~( 131115 500~11 111 ~18.


10~ ~1(~011 (1(((1118~(11~111 0110~ ~0~ (~801(110( 051118
7-10(1. 51(1111(1( 10 10~ 00~~-00051 (~801(110(, 10~ ~0~ (~8111(110( ()(0~10~5 (111001()01
~011(18~ ~01~015 1~55 10(111 0( 8(~(11~( 10(111 10~ 111()01 ~011(18~ (1110 10~ 001()01 ~011(18~
()01(1(11)115 (1150 0()()0511~ 10 10(11 0110~ 111()01 ~011(18~. 1115 11(1(11~0 (111~( 115 111~~1110(
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1)/71 15 10(~(1(0 01(15~0 (1110 ~(1()(1~110( ~1 15 ~0(1(8~0 10(00801.,1, 1)/71, (1110 10~ 111()111
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( 10~
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~(1()(1~110( ~1 15 ~0(1(8~0 1(0(11 10~ 111()11150()()1)1 (1110 10~ ~11~(8)1 510(~0 11110~ 11100~10(
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10( ~01111110005 10(10 ~0((~111.

56~. 7-6 199

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6.11 = =
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5110511111110~ (1 = /(7300 (2 = (1 -
/()7, 111~ 3~~13~~ ~0113~~ 01 ~3113~1101 ~1 15

~,(1 -
2/()
~ 01 = (7-70)
1 - /(

~551111110~ 11131 111~ ~1111~01 011111~1 10011~101 ~2 115~5 110~3(1)1 110111 11-21 10 11-22 10
11111~ (1,

(7 -71)

01

6.12 ~2
(1 = (7-72)
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300 111~ ~1111~01 0110011~101 ~2 13115 110~3(1)1110111 11-22 10 11-21 10 11111~(2,


6.12 (7-73)
~= -~ ~2- (2

~~01 (2 = --
6.12~2 (7-74)

58~. 7-6 201

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~..0111 8()8. (7-71) 3110 (7-73),

(~01 - ~(1)(1 ~(1(2


6./2 =
1.,2 1.,2

5~()8111~1111~ (1 = /(73110 (2 = (1 - /()7, 111~ 3~~..3~~ ~0113~~ 01 ~3()~~110..


~1 18

_ _ ~(1(1- 2/()
~01 - /( (7-75)

8()~31111~ 8(). (7-70) 10 8(). (7-75), ~~ ~31111110 111~ 3~~..3~~ 0~1()~1 ~0113~~ 38

/(~5
~ (1 = -
1
_ /( (7-76)

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~~ ~111,

/ 51_/(
= ~ (7-77 )

111~ 8~11~11111~()~..100 7 ~311 ()~ 10~110 1..0111 8()8. (7-67) 3110 (7-69)=

7 = - =
1
(1 + (2
6./11.,1 6./1 1.,1 _ 6./1 1.,1(2~5 - ~01)
= - + - (7 -78)
/ ~5 ~5 - ~01 ~5(~5 - ~01)
~111~11 ~1~~8 111~ ()~3~-10-()~3~ ..1()()1~ ~~ ~111 011110~~10.. 1.,1 38

~5(~5 - ~01)
6./1 = (7-79)
/1.1(2~5 - ~01)

~5/(
6./1 = (7-80)
/1.1
111~ 8~11~11111~ ()~..100 7 ~311 3180 ()~ 10~110 1..0111 8()8. (7-72) 3110 (7-74)=

1
7 = = (1 + (2 = 6./21.2 -
6./2 1.2 _ 6./2 1.2(2~(1- ~01)
(7-81)
1 ~01 - ~(1 ~(1
-
~(1(~01 - ~(1)
3110 11118 ~1~~8 111~ ()~3~-10-()~3~ ..1()()1~ ~~ ~111 011110~~10.. 1.2 38

~(1(~01 - ~5)
6./2 = (7-82)
/1.2(2~(1 - ~01)

~(1(1 - /() /(~5


= (7-83)
/1.2 /1.2
~11~11 1..31181810.. (21 18 011, 111~ ~11~..~~ 1..31181~.. ~3()3~110.. ~1 18 ~113..~~0 ()~ 111~ 111()~1
~~ ~11110.. (
= (2. 111~ 3~~..3~~ ~113..~111~ ~~ ~11110.. ~1 18 /01 = /5 3110 111~ ()~3~-

202

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10-~~(1~ ..1~~1~ ~011(1~~ 0~ 111~ ~(1~(1~110.. ~1 18

1 (12 1 (12 / (
~ ~~1 = /~1 0( = ~1)0
/5 = (7-84)
~1)0 ~~
~()1.1(111011(7-76) ~1~~8 (2 = ~)((~5 - ~,,)() (1110~(). (7-84) 0~~0111~8

(7-85)

_ /.(1 - /()
~ ~~1 (7-86)
/~1
1~ ,,.~ (1881.1111~ 111(11 111~ 10(10 ~1.1 ~111 ..1~~1~, ~10, 18 11~~11~101~, ~11-2 ~1~2. 111~
(1~~..(1~~ ~11(1..~111~ ~1.1 ~111 0~ ~2, ,,.111~11 ~0,,.8 ~0.. 11111~ 1/2, 18 /~2 ~/2/4 (1110 111~
~~(1~-10-~~(1~ ..1~~1~ ~011(1~~ 0~ ~(1~(1~110.. ~2 18

1 (1/2 1 (1/2 ~/2 ~/2


~~~2 = /~2 0( = ~2)0 4 = 8/~2 (7-87)
~2)0

_ ~,,(1 - /() _ /(~5


~~~2 = - (7-88)
8~21-2~ 8~21-2~
111~ 01~ ..~~1.11(110.. 18 0(18~0 011 111~ ~(1~(1~111~~ ~11~..~)11..(1118~~.. (1110 (18 (1 ..~81.111,
111~ 111~1.11~1.1 ~11118 ~01111111.101.18. 111~ ~1..~1.11111(18 10,,. 8,,.11~11111~ 1088~8 (1110 11(18 111~11
~~6~1~11~)1. ~11~111..(11181810.. (211811.1..11~0 011, 1111(1810 ~(1 )1111~ ~1.1 ~1118 0~ 11101.1~10..8
(1110 1-2. ~8 (1 ..~81.111 (1 111~11 ~~(1~ ~1.1 ~111 ~0,,.8 111..01.1~111..(11181810.. (21. 5111~~
1-1
111~ ~(1~(1~110.. ~..0~10~8 111~ ~11~..~)11..(1118~~.., 111~ ..1~~1~ ~1.1 ~111 0~ 111~ ~(1~(1~110.. ~1
18 (1180 111~11.

~~301())~ 7-7

111~ 111~11( ~01(3~~ 01 3 ~6)( ~011~~~(~~ 111 ~1~. 7-103, 1/, = 12~. 111~ 011(~ ~~~1~,
/( 150
= 0.25 3110 (11~ 5~1(~11111~ 1~~()11~11~~ 15 25 )(1-12. 111~ 111(~~ 111011~(311~~, 1-2 =
/-11-13110 111(~~ ~3~3~1(311~~ 15 ~2 220 =
/-1~. 111~ ~11~~~~ (~31151~~ ~3~3~1(311~~ 15 ~1 =
200 /-1~ 3110 111011~(311~~ 1-1 = 200 /-11-1. 111~ 3~~~3~~ 1030 ~11~~~11( 15 1~ = 1.12 ~.
0~(~~~111~ (11~ (3) 3~~~3~~ 011(~11( ~01(3~~, 1/~~ (0) 3~~~3~~ 111~11(~11~~~11(, 1,~ (~) ~~3)(-
(0-~~3)( ~1~~1~ ~11~~~11(01111011~(0~ 1-1, ~11 ~ (0) ~~3)( -(0-~~3)( ~1~~1~ ~01(3~~ 01 ~3~3~1(0~
~1, ~1/01~ (~) ~~3)(-(0-~~3)( ~1~~1~ ~11~~~11( 01111011~(0~ 1-2. ~12~ (1) ~~3)(-(0-~~3)( ~1~~1~
~01(3~~ 01 ~3~3~1(0~ ~2, ~ 1/02~ 3110 (~) ~~3)( ~11~~~11( 01 (11~ (~311515(0~, 1,,.

80)11000 1/, = 12 ~, /( = 0.25, 1~ = 1.25 ~, / = 25 )(1-12,1-1 = 180 /-11-1,~1 = 200


/-1~, 1-2 = 150 /-11-1, 3110 ~2 = 220 /-1~.
(3) ~~0~ ~(). (7-76), 1/~ = -0.25 )( 12/(1
- 0.25) = -4~.
(0) ~~0~ ~(). (7-77), 1, = 1.25 )( 0.25/(1 - 0.25) = 0.42 ~.
(~) ~~0~ ~(). (7-80), ~11 = 12 )( 0.25/(25,000 )( )( 10-6)
180 = 0.67 ~.
)( )( 10-6)
(0) ~~0~ ~(). (7-86), ~1/01= 0.42(1 - 0.25)/(25,000 200 = 63~~.
(~) ~~0~ ~(). (7-83), ~12 = 0.25 )( 12/(25,000 )( )( 10-6)
150 = 0.8 ~.
(1) ~~0~ ~(). (7-87), ~1/02 = 0.8/(8 )(
25,000 )(
220 )( 10-6) = 18.18 ~~.

58~. 7-6 203

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(7-89)

~0~ 3 10551~55 ~1~~1.111,/1.2~0,,. = 1/0/0 3110 1/1~ 3..~~3~~ ..311.1~ 011/1~ ~1.1~~~11111111101.1~10~
1-2 15

/0
/1,-2 =
1 - 2/( (7-90)
1.25
1 - 2 )(
0.25 = 2.5 ~

/1/, /1/2 0.67 0.8


/,, = /$ + + + = 0.42 + + 2.5 + = 3.655 ~
2 /1.2
2 2 2

111~5~ 101.1( (~~1.11310(5 1.15~ 001)100~ 1(3051510(, ~(0~10)110~ 001)100~ 513~~ ~00,,,~~5100,
300 (~()1.11(~ 1001.1~10(5 0( ~3~3~110(5 10( ~0~(~)11(3051~(. 01.1~ 10 10~ ~1.1((~01-1130-
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15 00 150/31100 0~1~~~0 111~ 10~1.11 300 01.11~1.11 ,,,0113~~, ~111~11 15 3 01~01)1 0~51~301~
~(11~(100 10 (0051 3~~11~311005. ~0( 111~0 ~0~~(, (01.1111513~~ ~00,,,~~51005 3(~ 1.15~0,
~11~(~ 3 0~ ,,,0113~~ 15 ~00,,,~(1~0 10 3~ 0)1 30 10,,,~(1~(. 111~ 3~ 01.11~1.1115 150131~0 0)1
3 1(30510((0~( 300 111~0 ~00,,,~(1~0 10 0~ 0)1 (~~1111~(5. 111~ (01.1111513~~ ~00,,,~(51005
3(~ 015~1.155~0 10 5~~1100 9-4.

,4. 10)1(1510( ~110~~~( ~1(~1.111, ~111~111.15~5 3135111.1(0-011111)1(1510( 35 3 5~11~0, (~()1.11(~5


~0(0(01.1131100 ~1(~1.111()1 10 11.1(0 11 011. 10~(~ 3(~ ,,,3(101.15 1~~1101()1.1~5 0)1 ~111~11 3
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(~01.1~1100 01 (0101(01.1(0 00-11(0~ 1/(011, (2) 01~0 1(~()1.1~0~)1 01 0~~((11100, 300 (3)

~..,,,,
+
0,,,

204

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(~11(101~ 0~~((111011. 1-10~~~~(, ~110 10~ 0~~~10~111~111 0~ (111~(11(111~~ 5~11~0111~ 0~-
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10~ 1111~1115~-~0111111111(11~0 ~00~~~( 15 (1 ~~()1 ~0111111011 ~1(~1111 ~110 1~0 10)1(1510(5 (15

500~11 111 ~1~. 7-11 (111015 (1150 ~110~11 (15 (1 ~/(1551~(1/ ~110/1/1€,.. ~110~ 0~~11111111~ 0~
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10~ ~1(51 ~)1~1~. 10~ ~1(11~.-4 0~~0111~5 ~05111~~ ~110 (~5~~~110 ~1(11~ 13. 10~ ~1(~1111
0~~(311011 ~(111 0~ 01~10~0 11110 ~1~~ 11100~5, (1110 10~ ~()111~(11~111 ~1(~11115 11110~( 51~(10)1-
51(11~ ~01101110115 (1(~ 500~11 111 ~1~. 7-12.

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39.12 )(
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58~. 7-7 209

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