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Etudes de faisabilité industrielle


Business Plan (Plan d’affaire)

D. Bounie, Polytech'Lille, IAAL - L‘usine agro-alimentaire


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Les étapes du cycle de vie du projet industriel


(adapté de UNIDO, 1991)

External
client

D. Bounie, Polytech'Lille, IAAL - L‘usine agro-alimentaire


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Analyse des
Place des études de besoins
faisabilité dans la phase
Besoins à traiter, identifiés
d’avant-projet
: Étape de validation / décision Analyse des
opportunités

Scénario 1 Scénario 2 Scénario i

Sélection scénario Eude de pré- Objectifs


optimal faisabilité stratégiques

Scénario x

Eude de Eude de Grandes options


Eude d’avant-
Données d’ingénierie CdC(F) faisabilité technico-
projet simplifiée économiques
simplifiée simplifiée
APS
(Avant projet simplifié)
Aspects
• commerciaux
Eude Dossier technique Eude de • techniques
détaillé (plan, fiches Eude d’avant- • financiers
Données d’ingénierie
projet détaillée
faisabilité
détaillée techniques ..) détaillée • organisationnels
• règlementaires
APD • risques
(Avant projet détaillé)

D. Bounie, Polytech'Lille, IAAL - L‘usine agro-alimentaire


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Comment évaluer la faisabilité


d’un projet d’entreprise
(http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/french/busdev/facts/03‐052.htm)

1. Définir des objectifs (à long et/ou court terme)


• Objectifs que l’entreprise doit atteindre
dans un délai donné
• Critères minimaux acceptables par
l’entreprise pour activité pérenne
2. Etablir des critères SMART (Specific,
Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Timely)
3. Avancer par étapes (faisabilité de management,
faisabilité commerciale, faisabilité technique,
faisabilité financière, gestion des risques, cf
schéma) et, pour chaque étape, prendre la
décision de continuer ou d’abandonner

D. Bounie, Polytech'Lille, IAAL - L‘usine agro-alimentaire


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Les différents éléments d’une étude faisabilité industrielle (1/8)


(étude réalisée pour le compte du PAM, 2010)

D. Bounie, Polytech'Lille, IAAL - L‘usine agro-alimentaire


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Les différents éléments d’une étude faisabilité industrielle (2/8)


(étude réalisée pour le compte du PAM, 2010)

D. Bounie, Polytech'Lille, IAAL - L‘usine agro-alimentaire


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Les différents éléments d’une étude faisabilité industrielle (3/8)


(étude réalisée pour le compte du PAM, 2010)

D. Bounie, Polytech'Lille, IAAL - L‘usine agro-alimentaire


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Les différents éléments d’une étude faisabilité industrielle (4/8)


(étude réalisée pour le compte du PAM, 2010)

D. Bounie, Polytech'Lille, IAAL - L‘usine agro-alimentaire


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Les différents éléments d’une étude faisabilité industrielle (5/8)


(étude réalisée pour le compte du PAM, 2010)

D. Bounie, Polytech'Lille, IAAL - L‘usine agro-alimentaire


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Les différents éléments d’une étude faisabilité industrielle (6/8)


(étude réalisée pour le compte du PAM, 2010)

D. Bounie, Polytech'Lille, IAAL - L‘usine agro-alimentaire


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Les différents éléments d’une étude faisabilité industrielle (7/8)


(étude réalisée pour le compte du PAM, 2010)

D. Bounie, Polytech'Lille, IAAL - L‘usine agro-alimentaire


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Les différents éléments d’une étude faisabilité industrielle (8/8)


(étude réalisée pour le compte du PAM, 2010)

D. Bounie, Polytech'Lille, IAAL - L‘usine agro-alimentaire


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Formalisation d’un projet de développement d’activités :


le Business Plan

Qu’est-ce qu’un Business Plan ?


• « Un business plan ou plan d’affaire, ou simplement plan d'entreprise, est un résumé de la
stratégie d'entreprise, des actions et moyens qu’un entrepreneur ou un cadre compte mettre en œuvre
dans un projet entrepreneurial afin de développer au cours d'une période déterminée les activités
nécessaires et suffisantes pour atteindre des objectifs visés. » (Wikipédia)
• « Document contenant le projet d'une entreprise, sa stratégie, ses prévisions et ses besoins. Ce
document est souvent utilisé pour présenter une société à des investisseurs dans l'objet de lever des
fonds » (Abcbourse)

A quoi sert un Business Plan ?


• « conforter le créateur sur la faisabilité de son projet, notamment sur l'aspect financier : rentabilité,
cohérence du plan de financement, etc
• compléter le dossier fourni au partenaire banquier en vue de l'obtention du financement nécessaire
• servir de tableau de bord dans le suivi de l'entreprise lors du démarrage de l'activité » (Nicole Comes)

Quand met-on en place un Business Plan ?


• création d’une entreprise
• lancement d’un projet, renforcement d’activités
• achat (ou cession) d’une entreprise ou des éléments d’actif
D. Bounie, Polytech'Lille, IAAL - L‘usine agro-alimentaire
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Contenu d’un business plan typique


(Quibel, Techniques de l’Ingénieur, 2001)

1. Résumé et but du plan 6. Management et personnel


2. Caractéristiques de l’entreprise • Description des fonctions
• Type d’activité • Managers
• Nom de l’entreprise et appellation de ses • Spécialistes
marques • Formation
• Localisation actuelle et future • Organisation
• Forme juridique 7. Données financières
• Propriétaires • Capitaux nécessaires
3. Description de l’activité • Moyens de financement
• Marchés, produits • Chiffres d’affaires et comptes de résultat
• Recherches concernant l’activité • Bilans
• Facteurs de succès ou d’échec • Éléments financiers présentés sous forme de
• Équipements requis budgets
4. Étude marketing • Définition du point mort
• Marchés et segments • Cash-flows prévisionnels
• Concurrence et environnement 8. Stratégies
• Fournisseurs • Objectifs à atteindre
• Clients et prospects • Types de stratégies à mettre en œuvre
• Réseaux de distribution • Méthodes et chemins pour les réaliser
• Politique de prix • Époques et modes de révision du plan
• Stratégie marketing 9. Risques
5. Outils de production • Principaux risques
• Bâtiments • Époque, importance, conséquences, moyens et
• Usines coût de leur limitation ou réduction
• Machines et matériels Ressources : http://www.prenhall.com/scarbzim/html/links/links2.html
• Stockages Exemples : http://www.bplans.com/sample_business_plans/index.cfm
• Méthodes de production D. Bounie, Polytech'Lille, IAAL - L‘usine agro-alimentaire
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Autres plans-types de Business Plan


1. Résumé du plan d'affaire : quels sont les points clef ? Plan-type anglo-saxon
2. Genèse et contexte du projet: qu'est ce qui a été fait ? où
en est-on ? • Synthèse (executive summary)
3. Équipe et encadrement • Besoin du client et Opportunité d'affaire
4. Analyse du marché • Stratégie et étapes clefs
5. Produit et services offerts • Plan marketing
6. Stratégie marketing et commerciale • Plan opérationnel
7. Moyens et organisation • Management et personnes clefs
8. Dossier financier (avec projections découpées par • Projections financières
années, voire par trimestres) • Besoins et plan de financement

• Executive Summary (www.chef-de-projet.org)


• Description de l'entreprise
Ce thème peut être développé notamment avec un soupçon de rappel historique des projets passés.
• Les produits et les services
Quel est le produit ? Qui sont les clients ? Quels avantages peut-on/peuvent-ils en tirer ?
• Analyse de marché (Market analysis)
Un chapitre essentiel. La connaissance du marché actuel et futur pour le produit en développement, tout comme la connaissance des
besoins des clients, sont des thèmes primordiaux.
• Stratégie d'implantation
Quels sont les leviers de succès de l'entreprise ?
• L'équipe
Qui sont les acteurs du projet ? Quels seront leurs responsabilités et rôles respectifs ?
• Plan de financement détaillé
Profits, pertes prévisibles, cash flow. Quels sont les modes de financement ? Quelle est la valeur des prêts à solliciter ? Quelle en sera
la rentabilité ? Quelles sont les garanties pour les investisseurs potentiels ?

D. Bounie, Polytech'Lille, IAAL - L‘usine agro-alimentaire


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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
A. Purpose of the business plan Le Business Plan,
B. Main highlights
C. Financial requirement selon l’UNCTAD* (1/3)
1. BACKGROUND (How to prepare your business plan, UNCTAD, 2002
A. Main products, markets and clients http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/iteiia5_en.pdf)
B. Location and premises
C. Key data
D. Legal form, ownership and management
E. Historical development and track record of the business *UNCTAD = CNUCED (Conférence des Nations
F. Business strategy and mission Unies sur le Commerce et le Développement)
G. General organization/operating units
2. PRODUCTS AND SERVICES
A. Product description and history
B. Product attributes
C. Research and development
D. Product life cycle
E. Costing and pricing
1. Costing
2. Pricing
a. Buyer's standpoint
b. Seller's point of view
F. Production process
G. Quality assurance and control
H. Sourcing
I. Intellectual property
3. MARKETS, CLIENTS AND COMPETITORS
A. Introductory remarks
B. Market characteristics
C. Clients
D. Competition
E. Positioning
F. Market strategy
G. Projected sales

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4. ORGANIZATION
Le Business Plan,
A. Location and premises
1. Location
selon l’UNCTAD (2/3)
(How to prepare your business plan, UNCTAD, 2002
2. Premises
http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/iteiia5_en.pdf)
B. Marketing
1. General remarks
2. Promotion and advertising
C. Selling methodology
D. Manufacturing
E. Distribution
F. Order processing and inventory control
G. Company structure
H. Project management
I. Management information system/reporting
5. HUMAN RESOURCES
A. Management
1. Shareholders
2. Board of directors
3. Executive management
4. Middle management
5. External support services
B. Labour
1. Practical issues venture capitalists will check
2. 2. Attitudes and human characteristics of managers
3. Team spirit
6. LEGAL FRAMEWORK, AND ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL FACTORS
A. Approvals and licensing requirements
B. Social compliance issues
C. Development and social benefits
D. Environmental risks
1. The concerns of lenders
2. The concerns of investors

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7. FINANCIAL PLANNING
A. Introductory remarks
C. Financial history
Le Business Plan,
D. Income statement projections
E. Cash flow projection selon l’UNCTAD (3/3)
F. Balance sheet projections (How to prepare your business plan, UNCTAD, 2002
G. Important financial ratios http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/iteiia5_en.pdf)
1. Liquidity ratios
a. Current ratio
b. Quick test ratio
2. Efficiency ratios
a. Inventory turnover
b. Accounts receivable turnover
c. Accounts payable turnover
d. Fixed assets turnover
e. Total assets turnover
3. Profitability ratios
a. Gross profit margin
b. Net profit margin
c. Operating profit margin
d. Return on assets
e. Return on equity
f. Dividend payout
4. Solvency ratios
a. Debt to equity ratio
b. Total assets to equity ratio
c. Total assets to total liabilities ratio
d. Capitalization ratio
e. Interest coverage ratio
G. Methods for ranking investment project
1. Payback perio
2. Net present value
3. Internal rate of return
H. Request for funds and other supporting information
1. Request for funds
2. Risk assessment
3. Start-up business financial information
D. Bounie, Polytech'Lille, IAAL - L‘usine agro-alimentaire
Page 19

GLOSSAIRE (1/6)
(adapté de Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook et UNCTAD How to Prepare Your Business Plan)

Amortization (fr : amortissement) : Gradual reduction of a loan (typically mortgage) through periodic back payments. Companies to
write off intangible rights or assets such as goodwill, patents or copyrights also use this accounting procedure. Often used
interchangeably with depreciation, but there is a slight difference depending on whether the life of an asset is known. If the period of
time is known to be usually more than a year, this annual expense is amortization; however, if the life is estimated, then it is
depreciation.

Appreciation (fr : appréciation, prise de valeur) : An increase in an asset's value.

Assets (fr : actifs) : Accounting term for everything a company owns and which has a monetary value listed in the balance sheet
(cash, credit balances, inventory, equipment, real estate, etc.).

Balance sheet (fr : bilan) : A statement of the assets and liabilities of a business at a given date. The “assets” side of the balance sheet
provides information on the employment of funds, whereas the “liabilities” side details the procurement of funds (financing) and the
composition of the shareholders’ equity. The assets must equal the liabilities plus the stockholders’ equity.

Battery limit (fr : limite des unités de production) : A geographic boundary defining the coverage of a specific project. Usually it
takes in the manufacturing area of a proposed plant, including all process equipment but excluding provision for storage, site
preparation, utilities, administrative buildings, or auxiliary facilities.

Book value (fr : valeur comptable) : Current investment value on the company books as the original installed cost less depreciation
accruals.

Break-even point (fr : seuil de rentabilité) : The percentage of capacity at which income equals all fixed and variable expenses at that
level of operation.

Capital ratio (fr : ratio du capital) : Ratio of capital investment to sales dollars; the reciprocal of capital turnover.

Capital recovery (fr : recouvrement du capital) : The process by which original investment in a project is recovered over its life.

Capital turnover (chiffre d’affaires du capital) : The ratio of sales dollars to capital investment; the reciprocal of capital ratio.

Cash (fr : trésorerie, chiffre d’affaires) : Money in the company’s current accounts in a bank and petty cash available in the office.

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GLOSSAIRE (2/6)
(adapté de Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook et UNCTAD How to Prepare Your Business Plan)

Cash flow (fr : flux de trésorerie) : The flow of money payments to or from a firm. Expenditures are sometimes referred to as
“negative” cash flow.

Contingencies (fr : imprévus) : An allowance for unforeseeable elements of cost in fixed investment estimates that previous
experience has shown to exist.

Cost of capital (fr : coût du capital) : The cost of borrowing money from all sources, namely, loans, bonds, and preferred and
common stock. It is expressed as an interest rate.

Cost of sales (fr : coût de revient) : The sum of the fixed and variable (direct and indirect) expenses for manufacturing a product and
delivering it to a customer.

Depreciation (fr : dépreciation, dévaloriastion) : The decrease in value of an asset through wear and tear or other factors limiting its
usefulness. Fixed assets are depreciated in the accounts by regularly reducing their book value in the balance sheet.

Direct expense (fr : frais directs) : An expense directly associated with the production of a product such as utilities, labor, and
maintenance.
Distribution expense (fr : frais de distribution) : Expense including advertising, preparation of samples, travel, entertainment,
freight, warehousing, etc., to distribute a sample or product.

Earnings (fr : gains) : Income after a company's taxes and all other expenses have been paid. Also called profit or net income. The
difference between income and operating expenses.

EBIT (fr: gains avant intérêts et taxes) : Earnings before interest and taxes. The figures are often used gauge the financial
performance of companies with high levels of debt and interest expenses.

EBITDA (fr: gains avant intérets, taxes, dépréciation et amortissement) : An acronym used in accounting to denote “earnings before
interest, tax, depreciation and amortization”.

Fixed assets (or long-term assets) (fr : immobilisations) : Land, buildings, machinery, tools and the equipment used by the company
to carry on the business. Typically, anything classified under this heading has a useful life of longer than one year. This account may
also be referred to as plant and equipment or buildings, machinery and equipment.

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GLOSSAIRE (3/6)
(adapté de Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook et UNCTAD How to Prepare Your Business Plan)

Fixed capital (fr : capital fixe) : Item including the equipment and buildings.
Fixed expense (fr : frais fixes) : An expense that is independent of the rate of output, e.g., depreciation and plant indirect expenses.

Fund (fr : fond) : Any amount of cash, or of assets, quickly convertible into cash and which has been set aside or reserved for a
particular purpose, such as the pension fund of a company. It is also an abbreviation for investment fund.
Grass-roots plant (fr : usine sur site vierge) : A complete plant erected on new site including land, site preparation, battery-limits
facilities, and auxiliary facilities.
Gross margin (profit) (fr : marge brute) : Total revenue minus cost of goods manufactured.

Gross national product (fr : produit national brut – PNB) : An economic indicator of a country’s economic activity. It is the sum of
all the goods and services produced by a nation both within and outside its borders.

Income (fr : revenu) : Profit before income taxes or gross income from sales before deduction of expenses.

Income statement (or profit and loss account) (fr : compte de résultat) : A list comparing all income items and all expense items of
a business for the past financial year.

Indirect expenses (fr : dépenses ou frais indirects) : Part of the manufacturing expense of a product not directly related to the amount
of product manufactured, e.g., depreciation, local taxes, and insurance.

Interest (fr : intérêt) : A fee charged by a lending institution (bank) for extending a credit to a business or an individual person. The
interest rate is the fee charged per annum.

Internal funds (fr : fonds internes) : Capital available from depreciation and accumulated retained earnings.

Internal rate of return (IRR) (taux de rendement interne – TRI) : Discount rate "k" that equates the present value of future cash
flows to the investment's cost (or equivalently the discount rate for which the NPV would be equal to zero).

Inventory (fr : inventaire) : The quantity of raw materials and/or supplies held in a process or in storage. Inventory includes all raw
materials, work in progress (partially completed items) and finished goods.

Leverage (fr : effet de levier, effet démultiplicateur) : The use of borrowed assets by a business to enhance the return to the owner's
equity. The expectation is that the interest rate charged will be lower than the earnings made on the money.
D. Bounie, Polytech'Lille, IAAL - L‘usine agro-alimentaire
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GLOSSAIRE (4/6)
(adapté de Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook et UNCTAD How to Prepare Your Business Plan)

Liabilities (fr : passif) : Amounts owed by a business to other businesses, banks or individuals. They may include accounts payable,
wages and salaries, dividends, taxes and obligations such as bonds, debentures and bank loans

Liquidity (fr : liquidité) : The ability of an enterprise to meet its payment obligations on time. In a wider sense it means the
availability of cash and cash-like funds within a company, on the money and capital markets and within the national or world
economy.

Manufacturing expense (fr : frais de fabrication) : The sum of the raw material, labor, utilities, maintenance, depreciation, local
taxes, etc., expenses. It is the sum of the direct and indirect (fixed and variable) manufacturing expenses.

Marginal cost (fr : coût marginal) : The incremental cost of making one additional unit without additional investment in facilities

Net income (fr : bénéfice net) : The amount left from the revenues after all the company's expenses, including taxes have been paid.
Also called net earnings or net profit.

Net present value (NPV) (fr : valeur actuelle nette - VAN) : Present value of future net cash flows discounted at the cost of capital,
minus the present value of the cost of the investment.
Net worth (fr : capitaux propres) : The amount by which assets exceed liabilities. It is also called “shareholders' equity”.

Operating expenses (fr : charges d’exploitation) : The sum of the manufacturing expense for a product and the general,
administrative, and selling expenses.This category includes rent, salaries, telephone bills, advertising, and other expenses not included
in inventory.

Operating income (fr : résultat d’exploitation) : Net income (or profit) excluding income derived from sources other than the
company's regular activities and before income deductions such as depreciation and taxes. Also called net operating income or net
operating loss.

Operating margin (fr : marge d’exploitation) : The gross margin minus the general, administrative, and selling expenses.

Payout time (payback period) (fr : période de récupération) : The time to recover the fixed capital investment from profit plus
depreciation. It is usually after taxes but not always.

Production rate (fr : taux de production) : The amount of product manufactured in a given time period.
D. Bounie, Polytech'Lille, IAAL - L‘usine agro-alimentaire
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GLOSSAIRE (5/6)
(adapté de Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook et UNCTAD How to Prepare Your Business Plan)

Profit (fr : profit) : The income remaining after deduction of all expenses during a specific period. The gross profit is the total
revenues minus the cost of goods sold. The operating profit is the gross profit minus general administrative expenses. The net profit is
the operating profit minus depreciation, interest, extraordinary charges and corporate tax.

Profit margin (fr : marge bénéficiaire) : A measure of a company's profitability, efficiency and cost structure that is calculated by
dividing profits by sales.

Return on investment (fr : retour sur investissement) : An important measure of how much the company earns on the money the
company itself has invested. It is calculated by dividing the company's net profit (income) by its total assets. This measure is also
called "return on assets".

Revenue (fr : revenu) : Money a company takes in, including interest earned and receipts from sales, services provided, rents and
royalties.

Sales (fr : ventes) : Money a company receives from the goods and services it has sold. In some cases, the amount includes receipts
from rents and royalties. For a business such as a pizza takeaway, “sales” refers to cash received over the counter in exchange for
pizzas. For department stores, “sales” includes cash received, charge account purchases and credit card purchases. In this case “sales”
does not always equal “cash”.

Sales, administration, research, and engineering expenses (SARE) (fr : frais de vente, d'administration, de recherche, et
d'ingénierie) : Overhead expenses incurred as a result of maintaining sales offices and administrative offices and the expense of
maintaining research and engineering departments. This item is usually expressed as a percentage of annual net sales.

Selling expense (fr : frais de vente) : Salaries and commissions paid to sales personnel.

Taxes (fr : taxes) : In a manufacturing cost statement, usually property taxes. In an income statement, usually federal and state income
taxes.

Total operating investment (fr : investissment total d’exploitation ou capital d’exploitation) : The fixed capital investment, backup
capital, auxiliary capital, utilities and services capital, and working capital.

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GLOSSAIRE (6/6)
(adapté de Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook et UNCTAD How to Prepare Your Business Plan)

Turnover (fr : rotation, roulement ; chiffre d’affaires) : In accounting terms, this is the number of times an asset is replaced during a
set period. In trading, the volume of shares traded on the exchange on a given day. In employment matters, "turnover" refers to the
number of employees replaced during a certain period divided by the total number of employees. In some countries the term refers to
a company's annual sales volume.

Utilities and services capital (fr : capital immobilisé pour utilités et services) : Electrical substations, plant sewers, water distribution
facilities, and occasionally the steam plant.

Value added (fr : valeur ajoutée) : The difference between the raw material expense and the selling price of that product.

Working capital (fr : fonds de roulement) : In the accounting sense, the current assets minus the current liabilities. It consists of the
total amount of money invested in raw materials, supplies, goods in process, product inventories, accounts receivable, and cash minus
those liabilities due within 1 year.

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Bibliographie

1. Etudes de préfaisabilité / faisabilité

W.Behrens and P.M. Hawranek


Manual for the preparation of Industrial Feasibility Studies
UNIDO, Vienna, 1991
--> logiciel Comfar 3
http://www.unido.org/index.php?id=o3470

J.E. Austin
Agroindustrial Project Analysis - Critical Design Factors
EDI Series in Economic Development, The World Bank, John Hopkins Unjversity Press, 1992
--> logiciel Mini-Agriventure, FAO
http://www.fao.org/inpho/isma?i=INPhO&m=decision&p=Download&lang=en

Un exemple : http://www.azaquar.com/iaa/index.php?cible=gp_analyse_critique_01
et http://www.azaquar.com/iaa/index.php?cible=gp_projet_exemple

2. Business plan

How to prepare your business plan, UNCTAD, 2002


http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/iteiia5_en.pd
D. Bounie, Polytech'Lille, IAAL - L‘usine agro-alimentaire

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