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3 Mark Questions and Answers

Part III - Selected Questions with Answers

Name :

Exam No :

School :

victory R. SARAVANAN. M.SC., M.Phil., B.Ed

12 PHYSICS UNIT - 1, 2, 5 , 7 and Some Important Questions and Answers
UNIT - 1 ELECTROSTATICS` 3. Explain how superposition principle explains the Properties of electric field lines :
1. Discuss the various aspects in Coulomb’s law. interaction between multiple charges. 1) They starts from positive charge and end at
𝑞 𝑞
 Coulomb law states that ; 𝐹 = 𝐾 12 2  According to Superposition principle, the total negative charge or at infinity.
𝑟 force acting on a given charge is equal to the 2) The electric field vector at a point in space is
 The force always lie along the line joining the two vector sum of forces exerted on it by all the other tangential to the electric field line at that point.
charges. charges. 3) If E is large, the electric field lines are dense and
 In S.I units, 𝒌 = = 𝟗 𝑿 𝟏𝟎𝟗 𝑵 𝒎𝟐 𝑪−𝟐  Consider a system of ‘n’ charges 𝑞1 , 𝑞2 , … , 𝑞𝑛 if E is small, the electric field lines are less dense
𝟒 𝝅𝜺𝟎
Here 𝜺𝟎 = 𝟖. 𝟖𝟓 𝑿 𝟏𝟎−𝟏𝟐 𝑪𝟐 𝑵−𝟏 𝒎−𝟐  By Coulomb’s law, force on 𝑞1 by 𝑞2 , … , 𝑞𝑛 are (i.e) the number of lines passing through a given
𝑞 𝑞 surface area perpendicular to the line is
(permittivity of free space or vacuum) ⃗⃗⃗𝐹12 = 𝑘 1 2 𝑟̂21
 The magnitude of electrostatic force between two
𝑟21 proportional to the magnitude of the electric field.
charges each of 1 C separated by a distance of 1 m 𝑞 𝑞 4) No two electric field lines intersect each other
⃗⃗⃗𝐹13 = 𝑘 1 2 𝑟̂31
is 𝟗 𝑿 𝟏𝟎 𝑵𝟗 2
𝑟31 5) The number of electric field lines that emanate
𝑞1 𝑞2 from ‘+q’ or end at ‘-q’ is directly proportional to
 The Coulomb law in vacuum and in medium are, finally. ⃗⃗⃗𝐹1𝑛 = 𝑘 𝑟̂𝑛1
𝟏 𝒒𝟏 𝒒𝟐 2
𝑟𝑛1 the magnitude of the charges.
⃗𝑭𝟐𝟏 = 𝒓̂𝟏𝟐
𝟒 𝝅𝜺𝟎 𝒓𝟐  By super position principle, the total force acting 6. Derive an expression for torque experienced by an
𝟏 𝒒𝟏 𝒒𝟐 on 𝑞1 due to all charges, electric dipole placed in the uniform electric field.
& ⃗𝑭𝟐𝟏 = ̂
𝒓 ⃗⃗⃗
𝟒 𝝅𝜺 𝒓𝟐 𝟏𝟐 𝐹1𝑡𝑜𝑡 = ⃗⃗⃗𝐹12 + ⃗⃗⃗𝐹13 + … … + ⃗⃗⃗𝐹1𝑛
where, 𝜀 = 𝜀𝑜 𝜀𝑟 −→ permittivity of the medium 𝒒𝟏 𝒒𝟐 𝒒𝟏 𝒒𝟑 𝒒𝟏 𝒒𝒏
𝟏 = 𝒌[ 𝟐 𝒓̂𝟐𝟏 + 𝟐 𝒓̂𝟑𝟏 + ⋯ + 𝟐 𝒓̂𝒏𝟏 ]
 Thus the relative permittivity of the given medium 𝒓𝟐𝟏 𝒓𝟑𝟏 𝒓𝒏𝟏
is defined as , 𝜀𝑟 = . 4. Explain Electric field at a point due to system of
For air or vacuum, 𝜀𝑟 = 1 and for all other media charges (or) Super position of electric fields.
𝜀𝑟 > 1  The electric field at any point due to system of
 Coulomb’s law has same structure as Newton’s law point charges is simply equal to the vector sum of
of gravitation. the electric fields created by the individual point  Let a dipole ‘AB’ of moment ⃗⃗⃗𝒑 is placed in an
 Electrostatic force obeys Newton’s third law. (i.e) charges. This is called superposition of electric
uniform electric field ⃗⃗⃗𝑬
⃗𝑭𝟐𝟏 = − ⃗𝑭𝟏𝟐 fields.
 Consider a system of ‘n’ charges 𝑞1 , 𝑞2 , … , 𝑞𝑛  The force on ‘+q’ = +𝒒⃗⃗⃗𝑬
2. Discuss the various aspects of electric field. The force on ‘-q’ = − 𝒒⃗⃗⃗𝑬
 If ‘q’ is positive, the electric field points away and  The electric field at ‘P’ due to ‘n’ charges
1 𝑞1  Then the total force acts on the dipole is zero.
if ‘q’ is negative the electric field points towards ⃗⃗⃗𝐸1 =
2 𝑟̂1𝑃  But these two forces constitute a couple and the
the source charge. 4 𝜋 𝜀0 𝑟1𝑃
1 𝑞2 dipole experience a torque which tend to rotate
 The force experienced by the test charge 𝒒𝒐 placed ⃗⃗⃗𝐸2 =
2 𝑟̂2𝑃 the dipole along the field.
in electric field ⃗⃗⃗𝐸 is , ⃗⃗⃗𝑭 = 𝒒𝒐 ⃗⃗⃗𝑬 4 𝜋 𝜀0 𝑟2𝑃
1 𝑞𝑛  The total torque on the dipole about the point ‘O’
 The electric field due to 𝒒 at a distance r is, finally, ⃗⃗⃗𝐸𝑛 = 2 𝑟̂𝑛𝑃 𝝉 = 𝒑 𝑬 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽
⃗⃗⃗𝐹 1 𝑞 4 𝜋 𝜀0 𝑟𝑛𝑃
⃗⃗⃗𝐸 =  where, 2 𝑎 𝑞 = 𝑝 → dipole moment
= 𝑟̂  The total electric field at ‘P’ due to all these ‘n’
𝑞𝑂 4 𝜋 𝜀0 𝑟 2  In vector notation, ⃗⃗𝝉 = ⃗⃗⃗𝒑 𝑿 ⃗⃗⃗𝑬
charges will be,
 The electric field is independent of test charge 𝒒𝒐 ⃗⃗⃗𝐸𝑡𝑜𝑡 = ⃗⃗⃗𝐸1 + ⃗⃗⃗𝐸2 + … … + ⃗⃗⃗𝐸𝑛  The torque is maximum, when 𝜃 = 90
and it depends only on source charge 𝒒 7. Obtain an expression electric potential at a point
𝟏 𝒒𝟏 𝒒𝟐 𝒒𝒏
 Electric field is a vector quantity. ⃗⃗⃗𝑬𝒕𝒐𝒕 = [ 𝟐 𝒓̂𝟏𝑷 + 𝟐 𝒓̂𝟐𝑷 + ⋯ + 𝟐 𝒓̂𝒏𝑷 ] due to a point charge.
1 𝟒 𝝅 𝜺𝟎 𝒓𝟏𝑷 𝒓𝟐𝑷 𝒓𝒏𝑷
 Since ∝ 2 , as distance increases the field
𝑟 5. List the properties of electric field lines.
decreases. Electric field lines :
 There are two kinds of electric field. They are  A set of continuous lines which are the visual
(1) Uniform or constant field  Consider a point charge +𝒒 at origin.
representation of the electric field in some region
(2) Non uniform field  ‘P’ be a point at a distance ‘r’ from origin.
of space is called electric field lines.
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 1, 2, 5 , 7 and Some Important Questions and Answers
 By definition, the electric field at ‘P’ is 9. Obtain an expression for electrostatic potential  Since the field is uniform, the potential difference
1 𝑞 energy of a dipole in a uniform electric field. between the plates,
⃗⃗⃗𝐸 = 𝑟̂
4 𝜋 𝜀0 𝑟 2 𝑸
𝑽=𝑬𝒅= [ ]𝒅 − − − − − (2)
 Hence electric potential at ‘P’ is 𝑨 𝜺𝑶
𝑟 𝑟
1 𝑞  Then the capacitance of the capacitor,
⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑉 = − ∫ 𝐸 . 𝑑𝑟 = − ∫ 𝑟̂ . ⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑑𝑟 𝑄 𝑄
4 𝜋 𝜀0 𝑟 2 𝐶= =
∞ ∞ 𝑉 𝑄
𝟏 𝒒 [ ]𝑑
𝐴 𝜀𝑂
𝑽= 𝜺𝑶 𝑨
𝟒 𝝅 𝜺𝟎 𝒓 𝑪= − − − − − − − (𝟑)
 If the source charge is negative (−𝑞) , then the 𝒅
potential also negative and it is given by  Let a dipole ‘AB’ of moment ⃗⃗⃗𝒑 is placed in a  Thus capacitance is,
𝟏 𝒒 uniform electric field ⃗⃗⃗𝑬 (i) directly proportional to the Area (A) and
𝑽=−  Here the dipole experience a torque, which rotate (ii) inversely proportional to the separation (d)
𝟒 𝝅 𝜺𝟎 𝒓
8. Obtain an expression for potential energy due to a the dipole along the field. 11. Derive an expression for energy stored in capacitor
collection of three point charges which are  To rotate the dipole from 𝜃  to 𝜃 against this  Capacitor is a device used to store charges and
separated by finite distances. torque, work has to be done by an external torque energy.
(𝜏𝑒𝑥𝑡 ) and it is given by,  For this work is done by the battery. This work
 
𝑊 = ∫ 𝜏𝑒𝑥𝑡 𝑑 = ∫ 𝑝 𝐸 sin 𝜃 𝑑 done is strored as electrostatic energy in
𝑊 = 𝑝 𝐸 [𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃 − 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃]
 To transfer ′𝑑𝑄′ for a potential difference ‘V’, the
 This work done is stored as electrostatic potential
work done is
energy of the dipole. (i.e) 𝑄 𝑄
𝑼 = 𝒑 𝑬 [𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝜽 − 𝒄𝒐𝒔 𝜽] 𝑑𝑊 = 𝑉 𝑑𝑄 = 𝑑𝑄 [∵ 𝑉 = ]
 Electrostatic potential energy of a system of 𝐶 𝐶
 Let the initial angle be 𝜃 = 90 , then
 The total work done to charge a capacitor,
charges is defined as the work done to assemble 𝑼 = − 𝒑 𝑬 𝐜𝐨𝐬  = −( ⃗⃗⃗𝒑 . ⃗⃗⃗𝑬) 𝑄
the charges
𝑄 1 𝑄2 𝑄2
 If 𝜃 = 180 , then 𝑼 = 𝒑 𝑬 = maximum 𝑊= ∫ 𝑑𝑄 = [ ] =
 Consider a point charge 𝒒𝟏 at ‘A’ 0 𝐶 𝐶 2 0 2𝐶
 If 𝜃 = 0 , then 𝑼 = − 𝒑 𝑬 = mimimum
 Let potential at ‘B’ due to 𝒒𝟏 is 𝑉1𝐵  This work done is stored as electrostatic energy of
10. Derive an expression for capacitance of parallel
 The work done to bring second charge 𝒒𝟐 to ‘B’ is the capacitor, (i.e)
plate capacitor.
stored as the energy of system of two charges. (i.e) 𝑸𝟐 𝟏
1 𝑞1 Capacitance of parallel plate capacitor : 𝑼𝑬 = = 𝑪 𝑽𝟐 [∵ 𝑄 = 𝐶 𝑉]
𝑊 = 𝑞2 𝑉1𝐵 = 𝑞2 𝟐𝑪 𝟐
4 𝜋 𝜀0 𝑟12  The energy stored per unit volume of space is

𝟏 𝒒 𝟏 𝒒𝟐 defined as energy density ((𝒖𝑬 ).
(𝒐𝒓) 𝑼 =
𝟒 𝝅 𝜺𝟎 𝒓𝟏𝟐 𝑼𝑬 𝟏
 Let the potential at ‘C’ due to charges 𝒖𝑬 = = 𝜺𝑶 𝑬𝟐
𝒗𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒎𝒆 𝟐
𝑞1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑞2 𝑤𝑖𝑙𝑙 𝑏𝑒 ( 𝑉1𝐶 + 𝑉2𝐶 ) 12. Explain the principle behind the lightning
 To bring third charge 𝒒𝟑 to ‘C’ , the work done is conductor (Action 0f point).
1 𝑞1 𝑞2  Action of point is the principle behind the
𝑊 = 𝑞3 (𝑉1𝐶 + 𝑉2𝐶 ) = 𝑞3 [ + ]
4 𝜋 𝜀0 𝑟13 𝑟23  Consider a capacitor consists of two parallel plates lightning conductor.
𝟏 𝒒𝟏 𝒒𝟑 𝒒𝟐 𝒒𝟑 each of area ‘A’ separated by a distance ‘d’  We know that smaller the radius of curvature, the
(𝑜𝑟) 𝑼 = [ + ] ′
 Let ‘𝝈 be the surface charge density of the plates. larger is the charge density.
𝟒 𝝅 𝜺𝟎 𝒓𝟏𝟑 𝒓𝟐𝟑
 Hence the the total electrostatic potential energy of  The electric field between the plates,  If the conductor has sharp end which has larger
system of three point charges is 𝝈 𝑸 curvature (smaller radius), it has a large charge
𝑬= = − − − − − − − (1) accumulation.
𝟏 𝒒𝟏 𝒒𝟐 𝒒𝟏 𝒒𝟑 𝒒𝟐 𝒒𝟑 𝜺𝑶 𝑨 𝜺𝑶
𝑼 = [ + + ]  As a result, the electric field near this edge is very
𝟒 𝝅 𝜺𝟎 𝒓𝟏𝟐 𝒓𝟏𝟑 𝒓𝟐𝟑
high and it ionizes the surrounding air.
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 1, 2, 5 , 7 and Some Important Questions and Answers
 The positive ions are repelled at the sharp edge Disadvantages : 2. Write a note on carbon resistors.
and negative ions are attracted towards the  Even after the battery or power supply is  Carbon resistors consists of a ceramic core on
sharper edge. removed, the capacitor stores charges and energy which a thin layer of crystalline carbon is
 This reduces the total charge of the conductor for some time. It caused unwanted shock. deposited.
near the sharp edge. This is called action of points 15. Define equipotential surface. Give its properties.  They are inexpensive, stable and compact in size.
or corona discharge. Equipotential surface:  Colour rings drawn over it are used to indicate the
13. Explain the principle, construction and action of  An equipotential surface is a surface on which all value of the resistance according to the rules in
lightning conductor. the points are at the same potential. the table.
 This is a device used to protect tall building from 1) For a point charge the equipotential surfaces Colour Number Multiplier
lightning strikes; are concentric spherical surfaces. Black 0 1
 It woks on the principle of acion of points or 2) For a uniform electric field, the equipotential Brown 1 101
corona discharge. surfaces form a set of planes normal to the Red 2 102
 It consists of a long thick copper rod electric field. Orange 3 103
 Its upper end has a sharp needle and its lower end Properties : Yellow 4 104
is connected to the copper plate which is buried  The wor kdone to move a charge ‘q’ between any Green 5 105
deep in to the ground. two points A and B is 𝑊 = 𝑞 (𝑉𝐴 − 𝑉 𝐵 ). If A and B Blue 6 106
 When a negatively charged cloud is passing above lie on the same equipotential surface then 𝑉𝐴 = 𝑉𝐵 Violet 7 107
the building, it induces a positive charge on the Hence work done is zero (𝑊 = 0) Grey 8 108
spike.  The electric field is always normal to an White 9 109
 Since the charge density is large at the spike, equipotential surface. Colour Tolerance
action of point takes place. UNIT - 2 CURRENT ELECTRICITY` Gold 5%
 This positive charge ionizes the surrounding air 1. Obtain an expression for drift velocity. How it is Silver 10 %
which in turn neutralizes the negative charge in related with the mobility? No ring (colourless) 20 %
the cloud.  The average velocity acquired by the free electrons  There is three coloured bands on its left and one
 The negative charge pushed to the spikes passes inside the conductors, when it is subjected to the metallic coloured band on its right side.
through the copper rod and is safely diverted to electric field is called drift velocity (⃗⃗⃗𝑣𝑑 )
 The first and second rings are the significant
the Earth.  If the conductor is subjected to an electric field figures of the resistance and the third ring indicate
 Thus the lighting arrester does not stop the (⃗⃗⃗𝐸 ) free electrons experinces a force given by, the decimal multiplier after them. The fourth
lightning, but it diverts the lightning to the ground ⃗⃗⃗𝐹 = −𝑒 ⃗⃗⃗𝐸 − − − − − (1) metallic ring shows the tolerance of the resistor.
 So all the free electrons are accelerated and it is Example :
14. Give the applications and disadvantage of
given by
capacitors ⃗⃗⃗𝐹 −𝑒 ⃗⃗⃗𝐸
Applications of capacitor: ⃗⃗⃗𝑎 = = − − − − − −(2)
 Flash capacitors are used in digital camera to take 𝑚 𝑚
photographs  But the positive ions scatter this electrons and due
to this collisions the electrons moves in zig-zag
 Capacitor of 175 µF is used in heart defibrillator
which produce electric energy applied patient’s
chest to retrieve the normal heart function.  The average time between successive collision is
called the mean free time or relaxation time (𝜏).  For the given carbon resistor,
 Capacitors are used in the ignition system of First ring (Green) = 5
automobile engines to eliminate sparking.  Hence the drift velocity is given by,
Second ring (Blue) = 6
 Capacitors are used to reduce power fluctuations −𝒆 ⃗⃗⃗𝑬
⃗⃗⃗𝒗𝒅 = ⃗⃗⃗𝒂 𝝉 = 𝝉 = − 𝝁 ⃗⃗⃗𝑬 Third ring (Orange) = 103
in power supplies and to increase the efficiency of 𝒎 Fourth metallic ring (Gold) = 5%
power transmission.  The drift velocity acquired by the free electron per
 Value of the resistor = 𝟓𝟔 𝑿 𝟏𝟎𝟑 𝛀 = 𝟓𝟔 𝐤 𝛀
unit electric field is called mobility (𝝁).
Tolerance =5%
 Its unit is 𝒎𝟐 𝑽−𝟏 𝒔−𝟏
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 1, 2, 5 , 7 and Some Important Questions and Answers
3. Define temperature coefficient of resistivity. 5. Write a note on electric cells in parallel. 7. Explain Seebeck effect. Give its applications.
Obtain an expression for it.
 Resistivity of the substance depends on the
temperature. Let
 Resistivity at 𝑇𝑜 ℃ = 𝜌𝑜
Resistivity at 𝑇℃ = 𝜌𝑇
∴ 𝜌𝑇 = 𝜌𝑜 [1 + 𝛼 (𝑇 − 𝑇𝑜 )] − − − −(1)
Where, 𝛼 → Temperature coefficient of resistivity  Seebeck discoved that in a closed circuit
 From equation (1)  Let ‘n’ cells each of emf 𝜉 and internal resistance consisting of two dissimilar metals, when the
𝝆𝑻 − 𝝆𝒐 ∆𝝆 ‘r’ are connected in parallel with an external juctions are maintained at different temperatures
𝜶= = resistance ‘R’. an emf (potential difference) is developed. This is
𝝆𝒐 (𝑻 − 𝑻𝒐 ) 𝝆𝒐 ∆𝑻
Where, ∆𝝆 = 𝝆𝑻 − 𝝆𝒐 → change in resistivity  Total emf of the battery = 𝑛 𝜉 called Seebeck effect.
∆𝑻 = 𝑻 − 𝑻𝒐 → Change in temperature Total resistance of the circuit = + 𝑅  The current that flows due to the emf developed is
 It is defined as the ratio of increase in resistivity  By Ohm’s law, called thermoelectric current.
per degree rise in temperature to its resistivity 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑒𝑚𝑓 𝜉 𝑛 𝜉  The two dissimilar metals connected to form two
𝐼= = 𝑟 = − −(1) junctions is known as thermocouple.
at 𝑇𝑜 . Its unit is 𝒑𝒆𝒓 ℃ 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 +𝑅 𝑛𝑟+𝑅
 For conductors 𝜶 is positive 𝑛  If hot and cold juntions are interchanged, the
 If 𝑟 ≪ 𝑅, equation (1) becomes, direction of current also reversed. Hence Seebeck
 For semiconductor, 𝜶 is negative 𝑛𝜉 𝜉
 A semiconductor with a negative temperature 𝐼= ≈ 𝑛 𝐼1 [∵ = 𝐼1 ] effect is reversiable.
𝑅 𝑅  The magnitude of emf developed in thermocouple
coefficient of resistance is called a thermistor.
 𝑟 ≫ 𝑅, equation (1) becomes, depends on,
4. Write a note on electric cells in series. 𝑛𝜉 𝜉
𝐼= = ≈ 𝐼1 (i) Nature of the metals forming thermocouple
𝑛𝑟 𝑟 (ii) Temperature difference between the junctions
6. Explain the principle of potentiometer. Applications :
 Seebeck effect is used in thermoelectric
generators (Seebeck generators).
 This effect is utilized in automobiles as automotive
thermoelectric generators.
 Let ‘n’ cells each of emf 𝜉 and internal resistance  Seebeck effect is used in thermocouples and
‘r’ are connected in series with an external  A battery (Bt), key (K) and potentiometer wire
(CD) are connected in series forms the primary thermopiles.
resistance ‘R’. 8. Explain Peltier effect.
 Total emf of the battery =𝑛𝜉  When an electric current is passed through a
Total resistance of the circuit = 𝑛𝑟+𝑅  The positive terminal of primary cell of emf ′𝜉 ′ is
connected to the point C and negative terminal is circuit of a thermocouple, heat is evolved at one
 By Ohm’s law, junction and absorbed at the other junction. This
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑒𝑚𝑓 𝑛𝜉 connected to the point D through galvanometer
𝐼= = − − − (1) (G) and high resistance (HR). This forms the is known as Peltier effect.
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑛𝑟+𝑅
secondary circuit.
 If 𝑟 ≪ 𝑅, equation (1) becomes,
𝑛𝜉 𝜉  Let contact be made at ‘J’ on the wire by jockey.
𝐼= ≈ 𝑛 𝐼1 [∵ = 𝐼1 ]  If the potential difference across CJ is equal to the
 𝑟 ≫ 𝑅, equation (1) becomes, emf (𝜉) of the cell, then the galvanometer shows
𝑛𝜉 𝜉 zero deflection. Here ‘CJ’ is the balancing length 𝒍
𝐼= = ≈ 𝐼1  If ‘r’ is the resistance per unit length of the wire,
𝑛𝑟 𝑟  In Cu - Fe thermocouple, the junctions A and B are
then by Ohm’s law,
Potential difference across CJ = 𝐼 𝑟 𝑙 maintained at the same temperature.
Hence, 𝝃 = 𝑰 𝒓 𝒍  Let a current flow through the thermocouple.
 Since I and r are constants, , 𝝃 ∝ 𝒍
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 1, 2, 5 , 7 and Some Important Questions and Answers
 At junction ‘A’, where the current flows from Cu to UNIT - 5 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES` 3. Explain the sources of electromagnetic waves.
Fe, heat is absorbed and it becomes cold. 1. Discuss briefly the experiment conducted by Hertz  Any stationary source charge produces only
 At juction ‘B’, where the current flows from Fe to to produce and detect electromagnetic spectrum. electric field.
Cu, heat is liberated and it becomes hot.  The theoritical prediction of existence of  If the charged particle accelerates, in addition to
 When the direction current is reversed, junction electromagnetic wave by Maxwell was electric field, it also produces magnetic field. Here
‘A’ becomes hot and junction ‘B’ becomes cold. experimentally confirmed by Henrich Hertz. both electric and magnetic fields are time varying
Hence peltier effect is reversiable.  His experimental set up consists of two metal fields.
9. Distinguish between Peltier effect and Joule’s electrodes which are made of small spherical  The linked electric and magnetic fields have wave
effect. metals. property which propagate in the direction
Peltier effect Joule’s effect  These are connected to larger spheres and the perpendicular to the plane containing electric and
1) Both heat liberated 1) Heat liberated only ends of them are connected to induction coil magnetic field vectors.
and absorbed occur occur which produce very high emf.  This is known as electromagnetic waves and it is
2) Occurs at junctions 2) Occurs all along the  Due to this high voltage, the air between the transverse in nature.
conductor electrodes gets ionized and spark is produced.  Let, electric and magnetic vectors are given by,
3) Reversiable effect 3) Irreversiable effect  A receiver (ring electrode) kept at a distance also 𝐸𝑦 = 𝐸𝑜 sin(𝑘𝑧 − 𝜔𝑡)
10. Explain Thomson effect. gets spark which implies that the energy is 𝐵𝑥 = 𝐵𝑜 sin(𝑘𝑧 − 𝜔𝑡)
transmitted from electrode to the receiver as a then the direction of propagation of
wave known as electromagnetic waves. electromagnetic waves are along Z -axis
 If the receiver is rotated by 90, then no spark is  In free space or vacuum, the ratio between 𝑬𝒐 and
observed by the receiver. 𝑩𝒐 is equal to the speed of electromagnetic wave
 This confirms that electromagnetic waves are which is equal to speed of light (c)
transverse waves as predicted by Maxwell. 𝑬𝒐
𝒄 =
 Hertz detected radio waves and also computed the 𝑩𝒐
 Thomson showed that, if two points in a speed of radio waves which is equal to the speed 4. Write a note on Radio waves.
conductor are at different temperatures, the of light (3 𝑋 108 𝑚 𝑠 −1 ).  It is produced by oscillators in electric circuits.
density of electrons at these points will differ and 2. Obtain an expression for energy density associated  Wavelength range : 1 𝑋 10−4 𝑚 − 1 𝑋 104 𝑚
as a result the potential difference is created with an electromagnetic wave propagating in  Frequency range ∶ 3 𝑋 109 𝐻𝑧 − 3 𝑋 104 𝐻𝑧
between these points. This is known as Thomson vacuum or free space.  They obey reflection and diffraction
effect.  The energy per unit volume (i.e.) the energy  It is used in,
 Thomson effect is reversiable. density of electromagnetic wave is, (i) radio and television communication systems
 If current passed through copper bar AB which is 𝑢 = 𝑢𝐸 + 𝑢𝐵 (ii) cellular phones to transmit voice
heated at its mid point C, the point C will be at 1 2
1 2 communication in the ultra high frequency
𝑢 = 𝜀𝑜 𝐸 + 𝐵 − − − (1) band
higer potential. This indicates that the heat is 2 2 𝜇𝑜
absorbed along AC and evolved along CB. Thus  The velocity of electromagnetic waves, 5. Write a note on infra microwaves.
heat is transferred in the direction of the current. 1 1  It is produced by electromagnetic oscillators in
It is called positive Thomson effect. 𝐶= (𝑜𝑟) 𝐶2 = electrical circuits
√𝜀𝑜 𝜇𝑜 𝜀 𝜇
𝑜 𝑜
(e.g) Ag, Zn. Cd  Wavelength range: 1 𝑋 10−3 𝑚 − 3 𝑋 10−4 𝑚
 When the copper bar is replaced by an iron bar,  If 𝐸 = 𝐵 𝐶 then, 𝑢𝐸 = 𝑢𝑚  Frequency range : 3 𝑋 1011 𝐻𝑧 − 1 𝑋 109 𝐻𝑧
heat is evolved along CA and absorbed along BC.  Hence equation (1) becomes,  They obey reflection and polarization
Thus heat is transferred in the direction opposite 𝟏 𝟐
𝒖 = 𝜺𝒐 𝑬𝟐 = 𝑩  It is used in,
to the current. It is called negative Thomson 𝝁𝒐 (i) radar system for aircraft navigation,
effect.  The average energy density for electromagnetic (ii) speed of the vehicle,
 (e.g.) Pt, Ni, Co, Hg waves, (iii) microwave oven for cooking
𝟏 𝟐
𝟏 𝟐 (iv) very long distance wireless communication
〈𝒖〉 = 𝜺𝒐 𝑬 = 𝑩
𝟐 𝟐 𝝁𝒐 through satellites
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 1, 2, 5 , 7 and Some Important Questions and Answers
6. Write a note on infra red rays. 9. Write a note on X - rays. UNIT - 7 DUAL NATURE OF RADIATION AND`
 It is produced from hot bodies and also when the  It is produced when there is a sudden deceleration MATTER`
molecules undergo rotational and vibrational of high speed electrons at high atomic number 1. How does photo electric current vary with the
transitions. target. intensity of the incident light?
 Wavelength range : 8 𝑋 10−7 𝑚 − 5 𝑋 10−3 𝑚  Also by electronic transitions among the  Keeping 𝜈 and V as
 Frequency range : 4 𝑋 1014 𝐻𝑧 − 6 𝑋 1010 𝐻𝑧 innermost orbits of atoms. constant, the intensity
 It provides electrical energy to satellites by means  Wavelength range : 1 𝑋 10−13 𝑚 − 1 𝑋 10−8 𝑚 of incident light is
of solar cells  Frequency range : 3 𝑋 1021 𝐻𝑧 − 1 𝑋 1016 𝐻𝑧 varied and the
 It is used in,  It has more penetrating power than UV - rays. corresponding photo
(i) producing dehydrated fruits  It is used in, eletric current is
(ii) green housed to keep the plants warm, (i) studying structures of inner atomic electron measured
(iii) heat therapy for muscular pain or sprain shell and crystal structures.  A graph is drawn
(iv) TV remote as a signal carrier, to look through (ii) detecting fracture, diseased organs, formation between intensity along
haze fof or mist of bones and stones, observing the progress of X-axis and the photo current along Y-axis.
(v) night vision or infrared photography healing bones  From the graph, the photo current (i.e) the number
7. Write a note visible light. (iii) detect faults, cracks, flaws and holes in a of electrons emitted per second is directly
 It is produced by incandescent bodies and also it is finished metal product proportional to the intensity of incident light.
radiated by excited atoms in gases. 10. Write a note on gamma rays. 2. State the laws of photo electric effect.
 Wavelength range : 4 𝑋 10−7 𝑚 − 7 𝑋 10−7 𝑚  It is produced by transitionsof atomic nuclei and  For a given frequency of incident light, the number
 Frequency range : 7 𝑋 1014 𝐻𝑧 − 4 𝑋 1014 𝐻𝑧 decay of certain elementary particles. of photoelectrons emitted is directly proportional
 It obeys the laws of reflection, refraction,  Wavelength range : 1 𝑋 10−14 𝑚 − 1 𝑋 10−10 𝑚 to the intensity of the incident light. The
interference, diffraction, polarization,  Frequency range : 3 𝑋 1022 𝐻𝑧 − 3 𝑋 1018 𝐻𝑧 saturation current is also directly proportional to
photo -electric effect and photographic action.  They produce chemical reactions on photographic the intensity of incident light.
 It can be used to, plates, fluorescence, ionization, diffraction.  Maximum kinetic energy of the photo electrons is
(i) study the structure of molecules  Its penetrating power is higher than X-rays and independent of intensity of the incident light.
(ii) arrangement of electrons in eternal shells of UV rays.  Maximum kinetic energy of the photo electrons
atoms and  It has no charge but harmful to human body. from a given metal is directly proportional to the
(iii) sensation of our eyes  It is used in, frequency of incident light.
8. Write a note on ultra violet rays. (i) providing information about the structure of  For a given surface, the emission of
 It is produced by Sun, arc and ionized gases. atomic nuclei photoelectrons takes place only if the frequency of
 Wavelength range : 6 𝑋 10−10 𝑚 − 4 𝑋 10−7 𝑚 (ii) radio therapy for the treatment of cancer and incident light is greater than a certain minimum
 Frequency range : 5 𝑋 1017 𝐻𝑧 − 7 𝑋 1014 𝐻𝑧 tumour frequency called the threshold frequency.
 It has less penetrating power (iii) food industry to kill pathogenic micro  There is no time lag between incidence of light
 It can be absorbed by atmospheric ozone and organism and ejection of photoelectrons.
harmful to human body. 3. Explain why photoelectric effect cannot be
 It is used to, explained on the basis of wave nature of light
(i) destroy bacteria  According to wave theory, light of greater
(ii) sterilizing the surgical instruments, intensity should impart greater kinetic energy to
(iii) burglar alarm the liberated electrons.
(iv) detect the invisible writing, finger prints and But the experiments show that maximum kinetic
(v) study of molecular structure energy of the photoelectrons does not depend on
the intensity of the incident light.
 According to wave theory, if a sufficiently intense
beam of light is incident on the surface, electrons

12 PHYSICS UNIT - 1, 2, 5 , 7 and Some Important Questions and Answers
will be liberated from the surface of the target, 6. Derive the expression of de Broglie wavelength.  When high speed electrons strike the target, they
however low the frequency of the radiation is.  The momentum of photon of frequency ′𝜈′ is, are decelarated suddenly and lose their kinetic
But photoelectric emission is not possible below a 𝐸 ℎ𝜈 ℎ energy.
certain minimum frequency called threshold 𝑝= = = [𝑐 = 𝜆𝜈]  As a result, X -ray photons are produced.
𝑐 𝑐 𝜆
frequency.  The wavelength of a photon is,  The face of target is inclined at particular angle, so
 Since the energy of light is spread across the ℎ that the X - rays can leave the tube through its
wavefront, each electron needs considerable 𝜆= side.
amount of time (a few hours) to get energy  According to de Broglie, this equation is applicable  Since most of the kinetic energy of electrons get
sufficient to overcome the work function and to to matter particle also. converted in to heat, the target made of high
get liberated from the surface.  Let ‘m’ be the mass and ‘𝒗’ be the velocity of the melting point and a cooling system are usally
But experiments show that photoelectric emission particle, then the wavelength employed.
is almost instantaneous process 𝒉 𝒉 9. Write a note on continuous X - ray spectrum.
4. Explain the concept of quantization of energy. 𝝀= =  When a fast moving electron penetrates and
𝒎𝒗 𝒑
 Max Planck proposed quantum concept in 1900 in approaches a target nucleus, it get accelerates or
 This wavelength of the matter waves is known as
order to explain the block body radiations. decelerates
de Broglie wavelength.
 According to Planck, matter is composed of a large  It may results in a change of path of the electron.
7. An electron and an alpha particle have same kinetic
number of atomic oscillator.  The radiation produced from such decelerating
energy. How are the deBroglie wavelengths
 Each atomic oscillator which vibrates with its associated with them related? electron is called Bremsstrhlung or braking
characteristic frequency emits or absorbs radiation.
 De Broglei wavelength of electron beam,
electromagnetic radiation of the same frequency. ℎ  The continuous X -ray spectrum is due to such
(i) If an oscillator vibrates with frequency v, its 𝜆𝑒 = radiations.
√2 𝑚𝑒 𝐾
energy can have only certain discrete values,  De Broglei wavelength of alpha particle,  When an electron gives up all its energy, then the
𝑬𝒏 = 𝒏 𝒉 𝝂 [𝑛 = 1,2,3, … . ] ℎ photon is emitted with highest frequency (𝜈0 ) or
where h  Planck’s constant. 𝜆𝛼 =
√2 𝑚𝛼 𝐾 lowest wavelength (𝜆0 )
(ii) The oscillators emit or absorb energy in small  The intial kinetic energy of an electron = eV
packets or quanta and the energy of each 𝝀𝒆 𝒎𝜶
∴ = √ where, V  accelerating voltage
quantum is E = h ν 𝝀𝜶 𝒎𝒆  Thus,
 This implies that the energy of the oscillator is 𝑐
8. Write a note on the production of X - rays. 𝑒 𝑉 = ℎ 𝜈0 = ℎ
quantized and not continuous This is called 𝜆0
quantization of energy. 𝒉𝒄 𝟏𝟐𝟒𝟎𝟎
5. Explain Eienstein’s explanation for the particle (𝑜𝑟) 𝝀𝟎 = = 𝑨°
𝒆𝑽 𝑽
nature (quanta ) of light  This relation is known as Duane - Hunt formula.
Particle nature of light - Eienstein’s explanation : 10. Write a note on characteristic X - ray spectra.
 According to Einstein, the energy in light is not Characteristic X - ray spectra :
spread out over wavefronts but is concentrated in  The characteristic X -ray spectrum is due to the
small packets or energy quanta. Therefore, light of electronic transitions within the atoms.
frequency v from any source can be considered  For example, when an energetic electron
as a stream of quanta  X - rays are produced in a Coolidge tube which is a
discharge tube. penetrates in to the target atom and removes the
 The energy of each light quantum ; E = h ν electrons in various shells and create a vacancy in
𝒉𝝂  Here a tungsten filament ‘F’ is heated by L.T, so
 The linear momentum of quanta is ; 𝒑 = that electrons are emitted from it by thermionic it.
 The individual light quantum of definite energy emission.  So the electrons from outer orbits jump to fill up
and momentum can be associated with a particle.  These electrons are accelerated to very high that vacancies.
The light quantum can behave as a particle and speeds by H.T  During the downward transition, the energy
this is called photon.  The target material like tungsten is embedded in difference between the levels is given out in the
the face of solid copper anode. form of X - ray photon of definite wavelength.
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 1, 2, 5 , 7 and Some Important Questions and Answers
 Such wavelengths, characteristic of the target, 12. Give the application of photo cells . ADDITIONAL IMPORTANT`
consitute the line spectrum.  Photo cells have many applications especially as QUESTIONS AND ANSWER`
 It is evident that K - series of lines in the X - ray switches and sensors. 1. List the properties of Diamagnetic materials.
spectrum arise due to the electronic transistions  Automatic lights that turn on when it gets dark  Magnetic susceptibility is negative.
from L, M. N, O, ……… shells to K - shell. use photocells, as well as street lights that switch  Relative permeability is slightly less than one
on and off according to whether it is night or day.  The magnetic field lines are excluded by
 Photo cells are used for reproduction of sound in diamagnetic materials when placed in a magnetic
motion pictures fields.
 They are used as timers to measure the speeds of  Susceptibility is nearly temperature independent.
athletes during a race. 2. List the properties of Paramagnetic materials.
 Photo cells of exposure meters in photography are  Magnetic susceptibility is small positive value.
used to measure the intensity of the given light  Relative permeability is greater than one
and to calculate the exact time of exposure.  The magnetic field lines are attracted in to
13. Derive an expression for de Broglie wavelength of paramagnetic materials when placed in a
electrons. magnetic field.
 An electron of mass m is accelerated through a  Susceptibility is inversely proportional to
potential difference of V volt. temperature.
 The kinetic energy acquired by the electron is 3. List the properties of Ferromagnetic materials.
given by  Magnetic susceptibility is positive and large
1  Relative permeability is very very greater than
𝑚 𝑣2 = 𝑒 𝑉
 Similarly L - series originates due to electronic 2 one
transition from M, N, O, ……. shells to L - shell.  Hence the speed of the electron is.  The magnetic fleld lines are stronglyattracted in to
2𝑒𝑉 the ferromagnetic materials when placed in a
11. Explain the applications of X -rays. 𝑣2 =
(1) Medical diagnosis : 𝑚 magnetic field.
 X - rays can pass through flesh more easily 2𝑒𝑉  Susceptibility is inversely proportional to
than through bones. Thus X -ray radiograph (𝑜𝑟) 𝑣= √ temperature.
containing a deep shadow of the bones and a 4. Define Lorentz force. Give the properties of
 The de Broglie wavelength of electron is Lorentz magnetic force.
light shadow of flesh. So X -rays radiographs ℎ ℎ
ae used to detect fractures, foreign bodies, 𝜆= =  When an electric charge ′𝑞′ moves in the magnetic
diseased organs etc., 𝑚𝑣 2𝑒𝑉 field 𝐵 ⃗ , it experience a force called Lorentz
(2) Medical therapy : 𝑚 magnetic force.
 X - ray can kill diseased tissues. So they are 𝒉 𝟏𝟐. 𝟐𝟕 𝒐 𝑭𝒎 = 𝑩 𝒒 𝒗 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝜽 (𝒐𝒓) ⃗⃗⃗𝑭𝒎 = 𝒒 (𝒗 ⃗ 𝑿 ⃗𝑩
𝝀= = 𝑨
employed to cure skin diseases, malignant √𝟐 𝒎 𝒆 𝑽 √𝑽 (i) ⃗⃗⃗𝑭𝒎 is directly proportional to the magnetic field (𝑩⃗⃗ )
tumours etc., ⃗⃗⃗
(ii) 𝑭𝒎 is directlty proportional to the velocity (𝒗 ⃗)
(3) Industry :
(iii) ⃗⃗⃗𝑭𝒎 is directly proportional to sine of the angle
 They are used to check for flaws in welded
between the velocity and magnetic field.
joints, motor tyres, tennis balls and wood,
(iv) ⃗⃗⃗𝑭𝒎 is directly proportional to the magnitude of the
 At the custom post, they are used for
detection of contraband goods.
(4) Scientific Research : (v) The direction of ⃗⃗⃗𝑭𝒎 is always perpendicular to
 X - ray diffraction is important tool to study ⃗⃗⃗𝑣 and 𝐵⃗
the structure of the crystalline materials (i.e) (vi) The direction of ⃗⃗⃗𝑭𝒎 on negative chanrge is
the arrangement of atoms and molecules in opposite to the direction of ⃗⃗⃗𝑭𝒎 on positive charge
crystals. (vii) If the of the charge is along the manetic field, then
⃗⃗⃗𝑭𝒎 is zero.
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 1, 2, 5 , 7 and Some Important Questions and Answers
5. How Galvanometer can be converted in to  Here, 𝐼𝐺 = 𝐼 9. Distinguish between Fresnel and Fraunhofer
Ammeter. 𝑉 diffraction.
𝐼𝐺 =
𝑅𝐺 + 𝑅ℎ Fresnel diffraction Fraunhofer diffraction
𝑉 Spherical or cylindrical Plane wavefront
(𝑜𝑟) 𝑅𝐺 + 𝑅ℎ =
𝐼𝐺 wave front undergoes undergoes diffraction
𝑽 diffracion
∴ 𝑹𝒉 = − 𝑹𝑮
𝑰𝑮 The source of light is finite The source of light is infinite
 Let 𝑅𝑣 be the resistance of voltmeter, then distance from the obstacle distance from the obstacle
𝑹𝒗 = 𝑹𝑮 + 𝑹𝒉 Convex lenses need not be Convex lenses are to be
 A galvanometer is converted into an ammeter by  Here, 𝑅𝐺 < 𝑅ℎ < 𝑅𝑣 used used
connecting a low resistance called shunt in
 An ideal ammeter has zero resistance. Difficult to observe and Easy to observe and
parallel with the galvanometer.
7. Explain various energy losses in a transformer. analyse analyse
 Galvanometer resistance = 𝑅𝐺
(i) Core loss or Iron loss : 10. State and prove Brewster’s law
Shunt resistance = 𝑆
 Hysterisis loss and eddy current loss are  Sir David Brewster found that, at polarizing
Current flows through galvanometer = 𝐼𝐺
known as core loss or Iron loss. angle, the reflected and transmitted rays are
Current flows through shunt resistance = 𝐼𝑆
 When transformer core is magnetized or perpendicular to each other.
Current to be measured = 𝐼
demangnetized repeatedly by the appled ac,  Let, incident polarizing angle = 𝑖𝑃
 Here, 𝑉𝐺𝑎𝑙𝑣𝑎𝑛𝑜𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 𝑉𝑠ℎ𝑢𝑛𝑡
hyterisis takes place and some energy lost in Angle of refraction = 𝑟
the form of heat. It is minimized by using
𝐼𝐺 𝑅𝐺 = (𝐼 − 𝐼𝐺 ) 𝑆
silicone steel in making transformer core.
𝑺= 𝑹𝑮  Alternating magnetic flux in the core induces
𝑰 − 𝑰𝑮 eddy currents in it. Therefore there is energy
 Let 𝑅𝑎 be the resistance of ammeter, then loss due to the flow of eddy current called
1 1 1
= + eddy current loss. It is minimized by using
𝑅𝑎 𝑅𝐺 𝑆 very thin laminations of transformer core.
𝑹𝑮 𝑺 (ii) Copper loss :
(𝑜𝑟) 𝑹𝒂 =
𝑹𝑮 + 𝑺  When an electric current flows through  From the figure,
 Here, 𝑅𝐺 > 𝑆 > 𝑅𝑎 primary and secondary coils, some amount of 𝑖𝑃 + 90° + 𝑟𝑃 = 180°
 An ideal ammeter has zero resistance. energy is dissipated due to Joule’s heating and 𝒓𝑷 = 𝟗𝟎° − 𝒊𝑷 − − − −(1)
6. How Galvanometer can be converted in to it is known as copper loss. It is minimized by  From Snell’s law
voltmeter? using wires of larger diameter (thick wire) sin 𝑖𝑃
(iii) Flux leakage : =𝑛
sin 𝑟𝑃
 The magnetic flux linked with primary coil is sin 𝑖𝑃
not completely linked with secondary. =𝑛
sin(90° − 𝑖𝑃 )
Energy loss due to this flux leakage is sin 𝑖𝑃
minimize by winding coils one over the =𝑛
cos 𝑖𝑃
 A galvanometer is converted in to voltmeter by other.
𝐭𝐚𝐧 𝒊𝑷 = 𝒏
connecting high resistance in series with the 8. State Huygen’s principle.  Thus, the tangent of the polarizing angle for a
galvanometer.  Each point of the wavefront is the source of
transparent medium is equal to its refractive
 The scale is calibrated in volts. secondary wavelets which spreading out in all
index. This is known as Brewster’s law
 Galvanometer resistance = 𝑅𝐺 directions with speed of the wave.
11. Write a note on pile of plates.
High resistanc = 𝑅ℎ  The envelope to all this wavelets gives the
 It work on the principle of polarization by
Current flows through galvanometer = 𝐼𝐺 position and shape of the new wavefront at a later
Voltage to be measured = 𝑉 time.
 It consists of a number of glass plates placed one
Total resistance of this circuit = 𝑅𝐺 + 𝑅ℎ over the other in a tube.
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 1, 2, 5 , 7 and Some Important Questions and Answers
13. What are the uses and drawbacks of Nicol prism?  Thus reading or viewing smaller things held in the
Uses : hands is difficult for them.
 It produces plane polarized light and funcitons as  This kind of farsightedness arising due to aging is
a polarizer. called presbyopia.
 It can also used as an analyser. 18. What is astigmatism?
Drawbacks :  Astigmatism is the defect arising due to different
 It cost is very high due to scarity of large and curvatures along different planes in the eye lens.
 These plates are inclined at an angle 𝟑𝟑. 𝟕° to the flawless calcite crystal.  Astigmatic person cannot see all the directions
axis of the tube.  Due to extraordinary ray passing obliquely equally well.
 A beam of unpolarized light is allowed to fall on through it, the emergent ray is always displaced a  Lenses with different curvatures in different
the pile of plates along the axis of the tube. So the little to one side. planes called cylindrical lens is used to rectify
angle of incidence of light will be 𝟓𝟔. 𝟑°, which is  The effective field of view is quite limited. astigmatism defect.
the polarizing angle for glass.  Light emerging out of it is not uniformly plane 19. Give the properties of cathode rays.
 The vibrations perpendicular to the plane of polarized.  Cathode rays possess energy and momentum
incidence are reflected at each surface and those 14. Distinguish between near point focusing and  They affect the photographic plates
parallel to it are transmitted. normal focusing.  They produce fluorescence
 The pile of plates is used as a polrizer and also as Near point focusing Normal focusing  When the cathode rays fall on a material of high
an analyser. The image is formed at The image is formed at atomic weight, x-rays are produced.
12. Discuss about Nicol prism. near point infinity  They produce ionization.
In this position, the eye In this position, the eye is  They deflected by both electric and magnetic
feel little strain most relaxed to view the fields and the direction of deflection indicates that
image they are negatively charged particles.
Magnification is high Magnification is low 20. Calculate the energy equivalent to one atomic
𝑫 𝑫 mass unit (1 u). Give the answer in eV unit.
𝒎= 𝟏+ 𝒎=  According to Eienstein’s mass - energy relation
𝒇 𝒇
15. What is myopia? What is its remedy? 𝐸 = 𝑚 𝑐 2 = (1 𝑢 ) 𝑋 (3 𝑋 108 )2
 A person suffering from myopia or nearsightedness 𝐸 = 1.66 𝑋 10−27 𝑋 9 𝑋 1016
 Nicol prism is made by calcite crystal with its 𝐸 = 14.94 𝑋 10−11 𝐽
cannot see distant objects clearly.
length is three times of its breadth.  But we have, 1 𝑒𝑉 = 1.602 𝑋 10−19 𝐽
 It occurs when the eye lens has too short focal
 The face angles are 72 and 108 length due to thickening of the lens or larger ∴ 𝑬 = 𝟗𝟑𝟏 𝑴𝒆𝑽
 It is cut in to two halves along the diagonal AB and diameter of the eyeball than usual. 21. List the properties of neutrons.
joined together by a layer of canada balsam, a  Using concave lens this defect can be rectified.  Mass of the neutron is little greater than the mass
transparent cement. 16. What is hypermetopia? What is its remedy? of the proton and had no charge.
 Let an unpolarized light from monochromatic  A person suffering from hypermetopia or  Neutrons are stable inside the nucleus. But free
source is incident on the face AC of the Nicol prism. farsightedness cannot see objects close to the eye.  neutron has half life of 13 minutes. Then it decays
 Here double refraction takes place, and the ray  It occurs when the eye lens has too long focal with emission of proton, electron and anti
split in to ordinary ray and extraordinary ray. length due to thinning of eye lens or shortening of neutrino.
 For this calcite crystal. the eyeball than normal.  Neutrons are classified according to their kinetic
refractive index for the ordinary ray = 1.658  Using convex lens this defect can be rectified. energy as
refractive index for the extraordinary ray = 1.486 17. What is presbyopia? (1) slow neutrons (0 to 1000 eV)
 The refractive index of canada balsam = 1.523  The least distance for clear vision for aged people (2) fast neutrons (0.5 MeV to 10 MeV).
Here canada balsam does not polarize light is appreciably more than 25 cm and the person  The neutrons with average energy of about
 The ordinary ray is totally internally reflected at has to keep the object inconveniently away from 0.025 eV in thermal equilibrium are called
the layer of canada balsam. the eye. thermal neutron.
 The extraordinaty ray alone is transmitted
through the crystal which is plane polarized.
12 PHYSICS UNIT - 1, 2, 5 , 7 and Some Important Questions and Answers
22. Give the relation between 𝜶 and 𝜷 Truth table : 27. Give the circuit symbol, Boolean expression,
 Forward current gain in common base mode, Inputs Inputs logical operation and truth table of NOR gate .
∆ 𝐼𝐶 A B 𝒀= 𝑨+𝑩 NOR gate - circuit symbol :
𝛼= [ ]
∆ 𝐼𝐸 𝑉 0 0 0
 Forward current gain in common emitter mode, 0 1 1
∆ 𝐼𝐶 1 0 1
𝛽= [ ] Boolean expression :
∆ 𝐼𝐵 𝑉 1 1 1
 A and B are the inputs and Y be the output, then
 From the above two equations, we have 25. Give the circuit symbol, Boolean expression,
𝜷 𝜶 𝒀 = ̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅
logical operation and truth table of NOT gate .
𝜶= (𝒐𝒓) 𝜷= Logical operation :
𝟏+ 𝜷 𝟏− 𝜶 NOT gate - circuit symbol :
 The output is high (1) when all the inputs are
23. Give the circuit symbol, Boolean expression, low (0).
logical operation and truth table of AND gate .  The rest of the cases, the output is low (0)
AND gate - circuit symbol : Truth table :
Boolean expression :
 If A be the input and Y be the output, then 𝒀 = 𝑨 ̅ Input Output (OR) Output (NOR)
Logical operation : A B Z=A+B 𝒀 = ̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅
 It is also called as inverter. 0 0 0 1
Boolean expression :  The output Y is high (1), when input is low (0) and 0 1 1 0
 A and B are the inputs and Y be the output, then vice versa.
1 0 1 0
𝑌 = 𝐴 .𝐵 Truth table :
1 1 1 0
Logical operation : Input Output 28. Give the circuit symbol, Boolean expression,
 The output of AND gate is high (1) only when all ̅
A 𝒀=𝑨 logical operation and truth table of EX-OR gate .
the inputs are high (1).
0 1 EX-OR gate - circuit symbol :
 The rest of the cases the output is low (0)
1 0
Truth table :
26. Give the circuit symbol, Boolean expression,
Inputs Output
logical operation and truth table of NAND gate .
A B Y=A.B NAND gate - circuit symbol :
0 0 0 Boolean expression :
0 1 0  A and B are the inputs and Y be the output, then
1 0 0 𝒀 = 𝑨 .𝑩̅+ 𝑨 ̅ .𝑩 = 𝑨⨁ 𝑩
1 1 1 Boolean expression : Logical operation :
 A and B are the inputs and Y be the output, then  The output Y is high (1) only when either of the
24. Give the circuit symbol, Boolean expression,
𝒀 = 𝑨 .𝑩 two inputs is high (1).
logical operation and truth table of OR gate .
Logical operation :  In the case of an Ex-OR gate with more than two
OR gate - circuit symbol :
 The output is at low (0) only when all the inputs inputs, the output will be high (1) when odd
are high (1). number of inputs are high (1)
 The rest of the cases, the output is high (1) Truth table :
Truth table : Input Output
Boolean expression :
Input Output (AND) Output (NAND) A B 𝒀=𝑨⨁𝑩
 A and B are the inputs and Y be the output, then
𝑌 =𝐴+𝐵 A B Z=A.B 𝒀 = ̅̅̅̅̅̅
𝑨 .𝑩 0 0 0
Logical operation : 0 0 0 1 0 1 1
 The output of OR gate is high (1) when either of 0 1 0 1 1 0 1
the inputs or both are high (1) 1 0 0 1 1 1 0
1 1 1 0