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A FORMALIST ANALYSIS

By Hanieline Emana
(The Lord of the Ring: The Fellowship of the Ring by J.R.R. Tolkien)

PLOT

Among the three volumes in The Lord of the Ring, The Fellowship of the Ring is the first story. It
begins with the Antagonist named Sauron the Dark Lord who lost his powerful Ring that rules the other rings
from the battle between Isildur who cut his finger that caused Sauron vanished like a pieces, the ring past to
Isildur but it seduced him to his grief and he fail to destroy the ring to the Volcano where the ring is made, but
the ring also betray Isildur to his death. The ring became unseen until the creature named Gollum who live in
the deep cave of Misty Mountains, the ring prolong his life and remain unseen though hundreds of years until
Bilbo Baggins found the ring in the cave of Gollum and keep it and takes it back with him to the Shire, the part
of Middle-earth that is the Hobbits’ home. All Bilbo knows of his ring is that wearing it causes him to become
invisible. He is unaware that it is the One Ring, and is therefore oblivious to its significance and to the fact that
Sauron has been searching for it.

The life of Hobbits where Bilbo Baggins with his adopted son Frodo Baggins who is orphaned by his
cousin lived there quiet life until the Hobbits celebrate Bilbo’s 111th birthday. Bilbo gives his ring to his heir,
his cousin Frodo Baggins. When the time comes to part with the ring, however, Bilbo becomes strangely
reluctant to do so. He gives up the ring only at the determined urging of his friend, Gandalf the Grey, a great
Wizard. Gandalf suspects that the ring is indeed the One Ring of legend. After confirming his suspicions, he
tells Frodo that the Ring must be taken away from the Shire, as Sauron’s power is growing once again. Frodo
sets out from the Shire with three of his Hobbit friends Sam, Merry, and Pippin with the command of Gandalf.
Along the way, they are pursued by the nine Ringwraiths, servants of Sauron who take the form of terrifying
Black Riders. The hobbits spend a night in the company of wandering Elves, who promise to send word ahead
to friends who will protect the hobbits. Barely out of the Shire, the hobbits get lost in the Old Forest, where they
have to be rescued from a malevolent willow tree, which swallows up Merry and Pippin, and then from an evil
tomb ghost. The hobbits’ rescuer is Tom Bombadil, a strange, jovial entity with great powers who is the oldest
creature in Middle-earth.

The hobbits make it to the town of Bree. Gandalf set to meet the Hobbits in the Prancing Pony but
Gandalf couldn’t make to come due to the betrayal of Saruman who side to the Darkness of Sauron, but they
meet Aragorn, a Ranger who roams the wilderness and who is the heir of the Kings of the ancient Men of
Westernesse. Frodo tries to keep a low profile at the inn in Bree, but he ends up causing a scene when while
taking part in a rollicking rendition of a song he falls, accidentally slips the Ring onto his finger, and vanishes.
That night, Aragorn advises the hobbits not to sleep in their rooms at the inn. In doing so, he saves their lives
for the first of many times.

A letter Gandalf left at the inn months before advises the group to head for Rivendell, a realm of the
Elves. Aragorn sets out with the hobbits the next day, and with his help they avoid the Black Riders for some
time. However, at the top of the hill Weathertop, the Company is forced to defend itself against the attacking
Riders. Frodo is wounded during the skirmish Frodo’s wound, made by a weapon of a servant of Sauron,
plagues the hobbit as the Company makes its way eastward. Aragorn is greatly concerned about the power the
wound might exert over Frodo. Near Rivendell they meet the Elf-lord Glorfindel, who has been out looking for
them. At the last ford before Rivendell, Frodo, riding Glorfindel’s horse, outruns the ambushing Black Riders,
who are swept away in a flood created by Elrond, the master of Rivendell. Elrond heals Frodo and then holds a
meeting to discuss what to do about the Ring. During this Council, Frodo learns the full history of the Ring.
Frodo accepts the burden of taking the Ring to the only place it can be destroyed the place where it was forged.
It promises to be a long, nearly impossible journey, as the Ring was forged in the Cracks of Doom, part of the
fiery mountain Orodruin in the very heart of Sauron’s realm of Mordor.

In the land of the elves, the council had a meeting on how they can destroy the ring so Sauron can`t take
his power back but the only way is to destroy it in the Volcano. The council cause an argumentation that caused
Frodo Baggins to stand up and volunteer to destroy the ring. At the end of the meeting, the Council creates a
group to help Frodo in his quest. In addition to Frodo, the Fellowship of the Ring includes Sam, Merry, Pippin,
Aragorn, Gandalf, an Elf named Legolas, a Dwarf named Gimli, and a Man from the south named Boromir.

The Fellowship heads south and attempts to pass over the Misty Mountains via the pass of Caradhras.
Their way is blocked by snow and rock slides, and they are forced to divert their path through the Mines of
Moria the ancient, underground realm of the Dwarves. During the journey through Moria, Gandalf falls into the
chasm of Khazad-dûm while protecting the Company from a Balrog, a terrible demon.

The rest of the party continues on to Lórien, the forest of the Galadrim Elves, where the Lady Galadriel
tests their hearts and gives them gifts to help them on the quest. Frodo, spellbound by Galadriel’s power and
wisdom, offers her the Ring. She refuses, however, saying that, despite her intentions, the Ring would corrupt
her; ultimately, she would only replace Sauron. Leaving Lórien, the Fellowship travels by boat down the Great
River, Anduin. At night, they spot Gollum a deformed creature that had once owned the Ring but then lost it to
Bilbo Baggins in The Hobbit—following them. When they reach the Falls of Rauros, the Fellowship must
decide whether to head toward Mordor on the east or toward the safety of the city of Minas Tirith to the west.
Boromir, overcome by the Ring’s power and desiring the Ring for himself, confronts Frodo. Frodo fends off
Boromir and decides that he must go on to Mordor rather than to the safety of Minas Tirith. However, Frodo
cannot bear the thought of imperiling his friends on the dangerous journey or allowing the Ring to corrupt them,
so he attempts to leave secretly and continue the quest alone. Frodo does not, however, manage to elude Sam,
so the two of them set out together for Mordor.

SETTING

The story goes on to different places that deals with the subject of the story, it first centered in the Saire
where the home of the Hobbits can be found, and through the journey of the four Hobbits they arrived in the
Bree where the inn of the Prancing Pony would be found and they set up for another places like the land of the
elf, underground realm of the dwarft, Lórien, the forest of the Galadrim Elves and end up to the Great River.

CHARACTERS

The central character of the story is the protagonist Frodo Baggins. Frodo colleagues in the fellowship
Gandhalf, Sam, Merry, Pippin, Aragorn, an Elf named Legolas, a Dwarf named Gimli, and a Man from the
south named Boromir. The Antagonist of the story is the Dark Lord Sauron along with Saruman.

POINT OF VIEW

The story is narrated in the third person, following Frodo throughout most of the narrative, but
occasionally focusing on the points of view of other characters.
IRONY

The irony in the story is in the first part of the story particularly in the Prologue of The Fellowship of the
Ring. In the section marked as Of the Finding of the Ring that talk about the hobbit Bilbo and the finding of the
one ring. J.R.R. Tolkien uses this instance indirectly to tell the audience that this magical ring of power and
corruption would not be used or found by persons of larger size but by both persons who are diminutive. Far
before Bilbo ever found the ring of power it is the creature Gollum who is very similar to a hobbit that finds it
first and takes it for him.

SYMBOLISM

The symbolism is the Ring where it represents the pure, limitless power and its attendant responsibilities
and dangers. The One Ring of the Dark Lord Sauron confers almost unimaginable power to its wearer;
however, in return, it exerts an immense pressure on its wearer, and inevitably corrupts him or her.

THEME

From the word Fellowship, Friendship was a theme of The Fellowship of the Ring. A Fellowship is
created, consisting of all the Free Peoples of Middle-earth, including elves and dwarves, setting aside their
differences against the common enemy of Sauron.
A FORMALIST ANALYSIS
By Hanieline Emana
(The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers by J.R.R. Tolkien)

PLOT

The story begins with the repentance and death of Boromir, who has tried to wrest the ring away from
Frodo. Merry and Pippin are kidnapped by orc-soldiers and they are taken towards Isengard, while Aragorn,
Legolas, and Gimli are in pursuit. The Riders of Rohan appear, led by Éomer the Marshal, and they destroy the
orcs. The hobbits escape and meet Treebeard, the Ent, secret master of Fangorn. Treebeard rouses the Tree-folk
against Isengard and the forces of evil. Meanwhile, Aragorn, Legolas and Gimli cross paths with Eomer and
they meet Gandalf again, who is returned from death as the White Rider, veiled in grey. With Gandalf, they
advance to the halls of King Théoden and Gandalf heals the king and rescues him from the spells of
Wormtongue, an evil counselor who is in secret league with the enemy. The combined forces continue on
towards Isengard, a fortress that has been destroyed by the Tree-folk. Saruman and Wormtongue are trapped in
the tower of Orthanc. Saruman will not repent before Gandalf and so Gandalf breaks his staff and removes him
from the council of wizards. Wormtongue throws a stone out of the window but he fails to it Gandalf; the stone
turns out to be a palantír, one of the Seeing Stones of Númenor. Peregrin picks it up and gives it to Gandalf, but
later in the night he falls to the lure of the palantír and steals it. When he looks into it, he is revealed to Sauron.
Gandalf forgives Pippin and he gives the palantír to Aragorn, riding away (with Pippin) towards Minas Tirith.

Frodo and Samwise, who are lost and wandering through the somber war-torn region of hilly Emyn
Muil. Gollum has been spying on the hobbits and following their trail. Here in Emyn Muil, Frodo tames Gollum
and Gollum serves Frodo as a servant serves his master. Gollum leads Frodo and Sam through the Dead
Marshes until they reach the Morannon, the Black Gate of the Land of Mordor in the North. They are unable to
pass through the gate and so Frodo accepts Gollum's advice to seek a "secret entrance" which is at the western
walls of Mordor in the Mountains of Shadow. As they continued on the journey, the travelers encountered
Faramir, the brother of Boromir, who was leading a scouting-force of the Men of Gondor. Faramir learns about
the Ring but he overcomes the temptation that overcame his brother, Boromir. Faramir helps the hobbits by
replenishing their dwindling supplies. Frodo, Sam and Gollum make their way to Cirith Ungol, the Spider's
Pass. Faramir warned Frodo and Sam that this pass was a place of mortal peril, of which Gollum had told them
less than he knew. The travelers reach the Cross-roads and take the road that leads to Minas Morgul; in the
darkness, they can see the mobilization of Sauron's first army, led by the black King of the Ringwraiths. Gollum
guides the hobbits to a secret path that strays away from the city and they reach Cirith Ungol. Here, Gollum
betrays the hobbits, intending to lead them to a monster called Shelob, who would devour them. Gollum's plan
is frustrated by Sam's bravery: he chases Gollum away and wounds Shelob, as well. Frodo is stung by Shelob
and he appears dead. Sam concludes that he must continue the quest alone and abandon his master, but as he is
about to cross into Mordor, Sam overhears the orcs. He learns that Frodo is not dead but drugged. The orcs
carry Frodo's body down a tunnel leading to the rear gate of the tower and Sam is unable to keep up with them.

SETTING

The setting is set in Middle Earth: Rohan, the Forest of Fangorn, Isengard, the Dead Marshes, Ithilien,
Cirith Ungol, Mordor, every setting in this novel acts as a point of comparison for another place in Middle-
earth. Until it takes place beyond the Shire in the rough worlds between Bag End and the citadel of Sarumon,
the tower Orthanc at Isengard. It also takes place in the Tower of Sorcery, Minas Morgul, where the evil Sauron
rules.

CHARACTER

Most of the character in the Fellowship of the Ring is also in the Two Tower and other characters has
been presented along with the new settings that the central characters goes to. Frodo Baggins, Sam Gamgee,
Marry Brandybuck, Pippin Took, Gollum, Gandalf, Aragorn, Sauron, The black riders: Ringwraiths and
Nazgul, Legolas, Gimli, Boromir, Faramir, Treebeard, The Southrons, Eomer, Eowyn, Theoden, Hama, Grima
Wormtoungue, Shelob, Humans, Animals and trees, Orcs, Hobbits and Elves.

POINT OF VIEW

The story is narrated in the third person, following Frodo throughout most of the narrative, but
occasionally focusing on the points of view of other characters.

IRONY

The irony of the story is when the creature Gollum secretly followed Frodo and Sam, Gollum isknown
to be the major struggle in The Two Towers is between two halves of himself, as he decides what's more
important: his loyalty to Frodo, or his love of the Ring. Of course, by the end of the book, he leads Frodo and
Sam to the lair of the huge spider, Shelob, in the hopes that they will be killed so that he can steal the Ring from
Frodo's dead body. This is pretty good evidence that the bad side of Gollum's nature wins out.

SYMBOLISM

The symbolism in the story is the Two Towers itself that refers to Barad-dûr and Orthanc, Sauron’s
stronghold in Mordor and Saruman’s citadel in Isengard. These two towers can be seen as a physical
embodiment of the two visions of evil that J.R.R. Tolkien explores throughout The Lord of the Rings.

THEME

Same with the Fellowship of the Ring, Friendship is a theme in The Two Towers; their camaraderie is
proven in battle as they forge their friendship by standing with the men against the army of Saruman. Merry and
Pippin befriend the Ents and help them with their war against Saruman. Frodo and Sam befriend Faramir and
the Men of Gondor.
A FORMALIST ANALYSIS
By Hanieline Emana
(The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King by J.R.R. Tolkien)

PLOT

The story is not presented in a chronological order but the events can be arranged in sequence and
assigns scenes to specific dates. The story begins with Gandalf and Pippin heading towards Minas Tirith on
March 5, 3019. The next day finds Aragorn in battle against the Dunedain, while Theoden leaves the Hornburg
fortress and sets out for Harrowdale. Aragorn eventually wins his battle and heads towards Dunharrow, arriving
on the night of the 7th. The next day is crucial to the story, as Aragorn takes the "Paths of the Dead." Gandalf
arrives at Minas Tirith with Pippin and Lord Denethor does not receive Gandalf so warmly, as he is resigned to
the fate of his inevitable defeat.

March 10 is the Dawnless Day; during the Muster of Rohan, the Rohirrim ride from Harrowdale and
when Faramir is trapped in battle outside the gates of Minas Tirith, it is Gandalf who rescues him in dramatic
fashion. Aragorn has still not arrived at his destination, crossing Ringlo and reaching points in Linhir and then
Lebennin. Meanwhile, Lorien is being attacked‹yet another battle in a war that is being fought on at least three
fronts at any given time. The Ents defeat the invaders of Rohan, while Aragorn drives the enemy towards
Pelargir and Theoden camps under Minrimmon while Faramir has no option but to retreat to the Causeway
Forts. Midway through March is when we find heated action on the battle front as well as in the story of Frodo
and Sam. The Return of the King continues the story of Frodo and Sam after Frodo is captured by the Orcs of
Cirith Ungol on March 13. This is the same day in which the Pelennor is overrun, Faramir is wounded and
Aragorn reaches Pelargir. The next day, Sam finds Frodo in the tower. Minas Tirith suffers under siege and on
March 15, the side of good suffers several blows: The Witch-King finally breaks down the walls of the city,
Denethor is unsuccessful in murdering his wounded son, though he is successful in burning himself to death on
his funeral pyre; Lorien is assaulted for a second time; and Theoden is slain in battle. If there is any hope
remaining, as Gandalf notes, it is with Frodo, Sam and the Ring. On this day of battle, Sam and Frodo escape
from the tower, disguised as orcs. This disguise has a negative consequence when the hobbits are apprehended
by orcs later on and presumed to be mutinous orc-soldiers‹but at least their true identity is hidden, and the two
hobbits eventually escape from the ranks of the orc army on March 18 and 19.

By the time of this second escape, the commanders have debated and the Battle of Dale has been fought.
King Brand and King Dain Ironfoot are both killed. Meanwhile, Shagrat (an orc) presents Frodo's cloak, mail-
shirt, and sword to Barad-dur. If March 10 was "the Dawnless Day," March 22 is "the dreadful nightfall." This
is when Lorien is assaulted for a third time and deep in the realm of Mordor, Frodo and Sam are forced to leave
the road and head due south‹towards Mount Doom. On the 18th, Aragorn and the Host of the West marched
from Minas Tirith and on the 23rd, they pass through Ithilien. Out of sympathy, Aragorn releases some of his
soldiers from their duty, as they are without hope and faint-hearted. Only the bravest remain with him. Victory
comes with Frodo and Sam's success: they reach Mount Doom on March 24, and the following day, marks the
scene in which Frodo is about to complete his mission, only the evil power of the Ring overcomes his good
intentions. Frodo suddenly feels compelled to keep the Ring for himself. As Sauron realizes that his Eye has
been diverted from the true threat, his evil power rushes towards Mount Doom to make an end of Frodo and
Sam. Gollum reappears after a long absence and successful rips the Ring away from (invisible) Frodo, tearing
Frodo's finger off in the process. Gollum's wrestling sets him off-balance, however, and he falls into the Cracks
of Doom, destroying the Ring in the process. An eagle rescues Frodo and Sam, returning them to the company
of Gandalf, Pippin and the others. The power of Sauron has been destroyed and only comparatively minor and
administrative tasks remain. Aragorn officially comes into the royal seat that was prophesied.

When the Hobbits finally make their way back to the Shire, they find that the Shire has been altered for
the worse‹it is "all very gloomy and un-shirelike." They find that a sizeable portion of the population has been
jailed as they were unwilling to obey Mr. Lotho (a hobbit who serves as a self-appointed mayor) and his
henchman, Sharkey. The hobbits successfully chases out the henchmen and Sharkey reveals himself to be
Saruman. Saruman laughs with revenge because he has destroyed so many of the homes and gardens of
Hobbiton. He stabs Frodo, but the hobbit is wearing a coat of mail beneath his garment and the knife does no
damage. Frodo remains patient and forgiving and he refuses to strike at Saruman, but this only angers Saruman.
Asking about Mr. Lotho, the hobbits learn from Saruman that Wormtongue (Grima) has killed him‹but
Wormtongue is enraged because Saruman forced him to do this. Wormtongue then draws his own knife and
cuts Saruman's throat. Wormtongue is shot dead with arrows. Saruman's body emits a grey mist and then it
dissolves into nothing.

The cleansing of the Shire does not take as long as Sam fears. One of the initial tasks at hand is the
release of the prisoners who have been locked up by Sharkey and Mr. Lotho. Sam remembers the gift of
Galadriel: a box that was filled with a grey dust and a small seed. Sam spreads this dust and in a year's time, it
does the work of twenty years. The trees and flowers return, the children grow beautiful and strong, and pretty
much everybody is happy.

Sam gets married to Rose Cotton and they move in with Frodo, who still suffers his ailment. Frodo
finishes nearly all of the writing before he passes the project on to Sam to finish the final pages. Sam becomes
the mayor in Frodo's place and Frodo prepares for his departure with Gandalf to the shores of the Sea. Sam,
Merry and Pippin ride along with them, and there are also the Elves, Bilbo, Elrond and Galadriel. All of the ring
bearers must depart from Middle Earth and so they board the great ship and sail away. The three hobbits return
to their lives in Hobbiton and enjoy the rest of their lives.

SETTING

The setting is also set in Middle Earth. The of the King opens as Gandalf and Pippin ride east to the city
of Minas Tirith in Gondor, just after parting with King Théoden and the Riders of Rohan at the end of The Two
Towers at the end of the story hobbits came back to the shire.

CHARACTER

Most of the character in the Fellowship of the Ring and Two Towers are also in the The Return of the
King. Frodo Baggins, Samwise, Gandalf the White, Legolas, Gimli, Aragorn, Peregrin (Pippin) Took,
Meriadoc (Merry) Brandybuck, Sauron The Lord of the Nazgûl, Gollum (Sméagol), The Lieutenant of the
Dark Tower, Saruman the White, Gríma Wormtongue, Shagrat, Denethor , Faramir, Théoden, Éowyn, Éomer,
Beregond, Bergil, Imrahil, Barliman Butterbur and here are the Elves: Elrond Halfelven, Arwen Evenstar,
Elladan, Celeborn and Galadriel, the Hobbits: Bilbo Baggins, The Shirrifs, Lotho, Farmer Tom Cotton, Rosie
Cotton and the other Allies and Benevolent Beings: Gwaihir, the Windlord Shadowfax.
POINT OF VIEW

The story is narrated in the third person, following Frodo throughout most of the narrative, but
occasionally focusing on the points of view of other characters.

IRONY

The irony of the story that stood out throughout the story is the Witch-king of Angmar was defeated by
two of the most unlikely heroes: a woman in disguise and a Hobbit, namely Éowyn and Pippin. The Witch-king,
Lord of the Nazgûl was Sauron's deadliest and most feared servant who thought he was invincible for no man
could kill him, according to a legendary prophecy, even Gandalf couldn't even defeat him during a brief
showdown between the two, the Witch-king met his demise at the sword of a woman who was forbidden to
fight by her kind and of a Hobbit, a creature whom many doubted of their strength in battle.

SYMBOLISM

Unlike the ring that symbolize on the The Fellowship of the Ring and The Two Towers, the White tree
stood out in the The Return of the King. The White Tree is the symbol for Gondor when Arwen makes Aragorn
his war banner, she embroiders "a white tree flowered upon a sable field beneath a shining crown and seven
glittering stars". So the white tree represents Aragorn's hereditary right to the throne of Gondor.

THEME

Same with the Fellowship of the Ring and The Two Towers, Friendship was the theme of The Return of
the King this when Aragorn decides to make a suicidal bid for Frodo by taking the armies of Rohan and Gondor
to the Black Gate at the final battle of The Return of the King, it just showed a strong bind of friendship
between the characters.