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Emana, Hanieline V.

February 12, 2019

Morden, Wilson
Oligo, Jay Jay
BSED 1-1
ENGL 1102

Q1. Learning the second language affect the L1 or Does L1 can influence the
learning/Acquiring L2?

Cook, V. (2003)

Most people who try to learn a second language, or who interact with non-native
speakers notice that the way non-native speakers speak their second language is influenced
by their native language.


 They are likely to have a foreign accent

 They might use inappropriate words or an incorrect grammatical structure
 Words or that structure are used that way in their native language.

Learning a foreign language necessarily influence one's native language at all linguistic

 To a degree, the influence is larger the more dominant the use of the foreign language
is, and in particular if it is regularly used with native speakers of that language (as
when moving to a foreign country).
Effect: People who start using a foreign language regularly (for
example, after moving to a different country) often find
themselves struggling to recall words when using their native

Q2. Is it possible for a child to acquire two (2) languages at the same time?

Ramirez, N. (2006)

Early childhood is the best possible time (to learn a second language). Children who
experience two languages from birth typically become native speakers of both, while adults
often struggle with second language learning and (rarely attain native-like fluency)/

When do babies learn language?

1. Babies begin to learn language sounds before they’re even born. In the womb, a
mother’s voice is one of the most prominent sounds an unborn baby hears.
2. At birth, the baby brain has an unusual gift: it can tell the difference between all 800
(Language learning depends on the processing of sounds. All
the world’s languages put together comprise about 800 or so sounds. Each language
uses only about 40 language sounds, or “phonemes,” which distinguish one language
from another.)
3. Between six and 12 months, infants who grow up in monolingual households
become more specialized in the subset of sounds in their native language.
4. By their first birthdays, monolingual infants begin to lose their ability to hear the
differences between foreign language sounds.

So how babies can learn two languages at the same time?

Answer: Babies’ brains become tuned to whatever language or languages they hear
from their caregivers. A monolingual brain becomes tuned to the sounds of one language, and
a bilingual brain becomes tuned to the sounds of two languages. By 11 months of age, the
activity in the baby brain reflects the language or languages that they have been exposed to.

Q3. How these children acquire L2?

L2 can possibly achieved in the of 3 – 4 years of their life by letting them be socialize with
the native speakers of that target language, the children unconsciously acquire the target L2
and even L3 can achieved in this particular age and way of acquiring.
Second Language (L2) being Aquired / Learn
The stages of Second Language Acquisition
By The book of Jane D. Hill and Cynthia

Five (5) predictable stages:

1. Preproduction
2. Early Production
3. Speech Emergence
4. Intermediate Fluency
5. Advanced Fluency
*This stages also study of Krashen and Terrell (1983)

Factors on how quickly students’ progress through the stages:

1. Level of formal Education

2. Family Background
3. Length of time spent

Stages of Second Language Acquisition

1. Preproduction students
 "Where is …?" or "Who has …?" questions, that is, questions that require a
pointing, drawing, or circling response.
 Question that requires a one-word response, because we always want to
transition them to the next stage.
2. Early Production students
 Questions that require a one-word response, such as yes/no and either/or
questions, are acceptable. You also want to begin asking students at this stage
questions that require a phrase or short sentence.
3. Speech Emergence students
 Should be asked to answer questions that require a short-sentence response. It
is OK to sometimes ask these students questions requiring a multiple-sentence
response, but it is not OK to ask them questions requiring a pointing or one-
word response.
4. Intermediate and 5. Advanced Fluency students
 It is OK to ask them questions that require a lot of verbal output, but it is not
OK to ask those questions requiring minimal verbal output.

Cook, V. (2003). Effects of the second language on the first. Clevedon: Multilingual
Matters Retrieved on February 2019 from https://www.mpi.nl/q-a/questions-and-
Clark, L. (DA). The best Age for Kids to Learn a Second Language Retrieved on February
2019 from https://www.mother.ly/parenting/the-best-age-for-kids-to-learn-a-second-
Hill, J., Bjork, C. (2008). The Stages of Second Language Acquisition: Classroom Instruction
That Works with English Language Learners Facilitator's Guide Retrieved on
February 2019 from http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/108052/chapters/The-
Stages-of-Second-Language Acquisition.aspx.
Ramirez, N. (2016). Why the baby brain can learn two languages at the same time. University
of Washington Retrieved on February 2019 from