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Basis of Auto pilot

1) About function of Auto pilot

・ The system which makes changing and keeping course by controlling a rudder
during sailing.
2) The type of control valve which controls rudder actuator (steering gear).
・ Type E: Control of solenoid valve (except type E0)
・ Type DM / DW: Control of torque motor (connected servo valve)
・ Type L: Control of floating lever (connected serve valve)
・ Type P: Control of servo motor and floating lever (connected servo valve)
・ Type of ZZ: the system was separated into below sections;
SGCS(Steering Gear Control System: Control rudder actuator section)
HCS(Heading Control System: Auto steering section)
In this type, Tokyo keiki supply HCS only.
SGCS will be supplied from other company, because the type of control
valve will be unknown.
3) Steering mode of Auto pilot
Non follow up mode:This is the steering gear control system which the rudder
control signal is directly sent to steering gear without
passing through any processing circuits and servo amplifer.
The rudder moves during the lever kept turned to Port or
・ Lever steering
Follow up mode:This is the steering gear control system which the rudder control
signal is sent to steering gear control passing through processing
circuits and servo amplifer.
・ Hand mode:Handle steering
・ Auto mode:Auto steering(The order rudder angle is
calculated so that the ship’s heading coincides with
the setting course to keep the course)
・ RC mode:Remote control steering(Remote control unit
or Joy stick (and so on…)steering)
・ TCS mode (inside the RC mode):Track Control System is one
of the type of RC mode
(ECDIS order to Auto pilot)
4) About Auto steering system
PID control:Proportional Integral Differential
P・・・Rudder I・・・Auto calculation(CPU) D・・・Rate (adjust point)
※In this mode, check adjustment of the optimal value is required at the sea
ADPT(MRACS) control:Model Reference Adaptive Control System
The MRACS gives desirable specifications for the control system
(including ship’s hull and Auto pilot) as the mathematical model(called
reference model), and performs the gain (adjustments of Kp, Td, Ki) to
coincide the output of mathematical model with the actual output of the
control system.(by CPU)

ADPT(NCT) control:Notable Control Technology

This algorithm is estimated by the ship characteristics as the mathematical
Model, and performs the gain adjustment to be proper control.(by CPU)
※ Difference of function of old ADPT and function of NCT
・ Compared with the old ADPT, improvement in fuel consumption
performance is expected 1%.
・ In the old ADPT, the estimation algorithm was effective only at the manual
course changing.
In the new ADPT(NCT),it is possible that the ship characteristics is
estimated at the automatic course changing and at manual course

Left: New ADPT(NCT) PWB Right: Old ADPT PWB

Steering system for ship and car




Steering gear control block diagram

Steering gear control figure for car
for ship
Composition of Auto pilot

Steering stand (Gylot) Solenoid Valve

Steering gear Rudder