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INTRODUCTION

Rice, edible starchy cereal grain and the plant by which it


is produced. Roughly one-half of the world population,
including virtually all of East and Southeast Asia, is
wholly dependent upon rice as a staple food; 95 percent of
the world’s rice crop is eaten by humans. Rice is a grain. It
is the seed of the grass species Oryza Sativa (Asian rice)
or Oryza Glaberrima (African rice).

As part of our diet, it is considered a carbohydrate. 100g


of rice will contain 80g of carbohydrates, 7.13g of protein,
11.61g of water and 0.66g of fat.

Rice is also a great source for a number of essential


vitamins and minerals such as Vitamins B1 (Thiamine),
B3 (Niacin), B5 (Pantothenic acid), Folate, Iron, Copper,
Manganese and Selenium.

While there are more than 40,000 varieties of cultivated


rice in the world, here are the most common types of rice
you will come across:
Long grain rice
Typically around 7-9mm long, long grain rice remains
separate and fluffy when cooked. It is most commonly
used in main courses, salads and side dishes. Popular
varieties include basmati and jasmine rice.

Medium grain rice


The grain of choice for risottos, puddings and desserts.
Medium grain rice holds its shape and provides a smooth
texture. Grains are generally 5-6mm in length grain rice

The grain of choice for risottos, puddings and desserts.


Medium grain rice holds its shape and provides a smooth
texture. Grains are generally 5-6mm in length

Short grain rice


Fat, round grains (4-5mm long and 2.5mm wide), higher
in starch than the longer varieties. Best for sushi due to a
sticky texture when cooked.

Brown rice
Brown rice also comes in long, medium and short
varieties. The main different from white rice is that the
rice germ and bran layer remain on the rice kernel, with
only outer hull removed. Brown rice is 100% whole grain
and widely considered healthier than white rice. It has
slightly chewy texture and nutty flavour.

Basmati rice
Basmati rice is a long-grain rice known for its fragrant
taste and smell. It is the rice traditionally used in Indian
cuisine and it is mainly grown in India and Pakistan in the
Himalayan foothills.

Jasmine rice
As with basmati, jasmine rice is a long and slender,
aromatic rice. It differs from basmati in that it is generally
part of South East Asian and Chinese dishes. It originates
from Thailand

Wild Rice
Wild rice comes from a different grass species (Zizania)
than the rice varieties mentioned above. Wild rice is
mostly grown in North America. The seeds vary in colour
from medium brown to black.
Rice crops can be either direct seeded or transplanted.

In direct seeding, seeds are sown directly in the field.


While in transplanting, seedlings are first raised in
seedbeds before they are planted in the field.

When choosing the suitable planting method, the (1)


locality, (2) type of soil, (3) rice ecosystem, and (4)
availability of inputs and labor, should be considered.

Choosing when to plant is crucial to establishing the crop


in the field. Timely planting into a well prepared seedbed
will help produce a fast growing, uniform crop that will
have higher yields and better competition against weeds
and other pests. The best time to plant depends on locality,
variety, weather, water availability, and the best harvest
time. Planting at the same time (or within a 2 week
window) as the neighboring fields can help to minimize
insect, disease, bird, and rat pressure on individual fields.

Direct seeding requires 60−80 kg of seeds per ha, while


transplanting only requires 40 kg per ha, at 2 plants per
hill.