Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 22

Coursework brief cover

Academic Department Business

Programme: BSc Business Management
ModuleTitle/Code: Consumer Psychology and Buyer Behavior
Module Leader: Behaviour/GBCA227
Dr. Gregory Painesis
Assessment Type: Individual Assignment and Presentation
Gregory Painesis
Assessment Weighting: Individual Assignment
Academic Year: 2018-2019
Teaching Semester: Autumn
Tuesday, 25/1
35%, Presentation:
Assessment due date:


via Ilearn


In this report, will be analyzed how the organizations use their findings into the role and importance of
packaging to develop nudge campaigns. The main goal is through certain actions of the campaign, to
influence the behaviors of the consumers, such as motivational theories, perception theories and attitudes
theories. Nudge campaign is designed to improve the engagement with the issue of sustainability and is
also designed to change every consumer, behavioral patterns. The campaign will also benefit from the
social media and might take other formats as well.


Abstract ........................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.

Introduction .................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.

Theories that influence consumers behaviors ............. Error! Bookmark not defined.

Results of a small primary pilot research .................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

The Nudge Campaign………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9

Conclusions ................................................................ 2Error! Bookmark not defined.

Bibliography .............................................................. 2Error! Bookmark not defined.

Nudge or nudge theory, is a concept which uses positive reinforcement and indirect suggestions as different ways to
Influence the decision making of a consumer or a group, as well as the behavior of consumers. The main goal of nudging is
to indirect force consumers to make better decisions. Also, people do not mind to be marketed to, if of course, the
massage behind it is acceptable and respectful of public’s vigilant sensibilities. In the marketing field, plays a very
important role, because it can influence enormous groups of individuals. A good nudge in marketing, can be recognised by
Influence the behaviour of an individual in a positive manner and is crucial because it influence consumers to focus on
making good decisions especially about the sustainability through packaging. In short , the ultimate goal is to steer people
to make better choices in terms of sustainability. Such as recycle, and support the campaigns that cares more about the
long term protection of our planet, than profits in the short term and do not care about the future generations.

Theories that influence consumers behaviours

First of all, it must be defined which are the psychological factors : Perception, Motivation, Learning and
Attitude and Belief. These are the psychological factors that affect mainly, the consumers in terms of their
behaviour. Before we analyse the psychological factors, let’s define what a consumer actually is.
Consumers could be a single one consumer, and could also be an organization. Any legal person that is
buying goods and services from a business is called a consumer. A consumer also, can be defined as a ‘king’
of the economic system, as he is the decision maker.

Now that has been defined what a consumer is, let’s proceed to analyse the psychological factors that
influences the consumers behaviours. The motivation that a consumer has towards a specific purchase is
the psychological drive behind it. In other words, if a consumer is highly motivated or the consumer’s
perception of that need is fairly strong, the more likely to make a purchase. Motivation of a consumer, is
very well explained by Abraham Maslow in his theory “Hierarchy of Needs". This theory comprising the
need of safety, the need of basic needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs etc. The basic needs
and the security needs are the more pressing needs of the other and hence, these same needs become a
motive to the consumer and ‘control’ him in some way to seek satisfaction through it. Motivation in other
words, can be explained that ‘’arises out of tension systems which create a state of disequilibrium for the
individual’’ .’’This triggers a sequence of psychological events directed towards the selection of a goal
which the individual will bring about release from the tension and the selection of patterns of action which
he anticipates will bring him to the goal’’. (James A. Bayton) (Jan., 1958), pp. 282-289.

Motivation, emotion and behaviour are all affecting the behaviour of the consumer and decision making
And also affects the marketing strategies. To understand better the concept of buying behaviours of
Consumers it must be recognisable these three elements. Motivation can be characterized as ‘’energising
Force’’ (Hawkings and Mothersbaugh , 2010) that can move these elements and gives them direction,

And most importantly purpose in behaviour. It is the process that might lead to certain behaviours in
Other words. The question ‘’why’’ can be answered by consumers in a specific way. Many psychologists
are ask the question ‘’What motivates people’’ and there are many theories and perceptions about this
question that help to explain what motivates them. Motivation leads the way towards some behaviour and
it can actually be a very positive trait of a person, especially about marketing.

There are some internal influences that have effect on consumer behaviour and those are, learning,
perception, memory, motives, emotions, and attitudes. (Hawkins& Mothersbaugh, 2010, 274-275).
Perception is the major reason that influences the consumer most on the decision making in terms
of what he likes or what exactly to purchase. Stimuli that is entered at the conscience is not proceeded
objectively. Stimuli is differentiate from individual to individual, as it is influenced by experiences, unique
moments and needs. (Solomon, Bamossy, Askegaard & Hogg, 2010). A great example can be when an
individual being highly selective when it comes to shopping when he enters a store. Stimuli is more likely to be
processed by consumers, because they want to understand if something has relevance to their personal


There are many definitions about explaining the Perception from a consumer behaviour perspective, this is
one that used by Walters et al ( 1989 p. 333) makes the topic a little bit more understandable: "The entire
process by which an individual becomes aware of the environment and interprets it so that it will fit into
his or her frame of reference." Van der Walt (1991) adds also ‘’ perception occurs when sensory receptors
receive stimuli via the brain, code and categorise them and assign 49 certain meanings to them, depending
on the person's frames of reference. A person's frame of reference consists of a/l his previous held
experiences, beliefs, likes, dislikes, prejudices, feelings and other psychological reactions of unknown
Also , self-perception attempts to explain how people understand their motivations inside their own self
and behind their own behaviour. Self-perception also ‘baits’ the individuals into the buying behaviour
which is also an important asset in the history of the perception theory.

Last but not least, one of the most important reasons on perception is surprisingly stimuli. Stimuli is an
survival instinct that gives us the attention to something unknown and unexplored, and may requires
action. More and more companies take advantage of it, because it is in our DNA and it draw lot of
attention, something that is very important from a marketing/nudge campaign perspective.


The methodology that has been used in order to help our research was through a questionnaire of
Ten questions. The number of the participants was 30 and they all answered their questions anonymously.
Here are the results:

The participants agreed that the best way to promote the idea of recycle, is through promoting the
negative effects when we do not recycle (43.3%). Second, comes the idea of promoting recycling through
fun ways to make it lighter and more positive (33.3%). And last comes the use of logical arguments with
The most used social media platform was Instagram (56.7%) surprisingly and second was Facebook with
(30%). You tube following after with (10%) and last was WhatsApp with (3.3%).
92.6 % Said that the media should promote more the idea of recycling without any doubt.
75% Believes that every designed by the Company should care more about the environment through
sustainability of it. And 69% could use more easily those products.

53% of the individuals believes that if with every recycle attempt they get a little extra bonus of it, it will
Be more easy to recycle.
The participants that participated in that primary research through questionnaire were slightly
More women (53,3%) than men (47,7%) .There was also all kinds of ages from teen to elder people
Which certainly helps for a complete research. The results are in the link below more analytically:

Those results summed up in this link with all the necessary graphs:
https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1gloa27z765jmcOLds0sFkCeI9QKP1oAjY7G3t97VCPg/viewanalytics .


The main concept of that nudge campaign is to make more and more people to understand and ‘feel’ the
Value of recycling. Through the years, it has not been the appropriate information or it has been very
Limited and people do not take the knowledge that they could. Most of the people, they do not recycle
Not because they do not want to, but because they do not know in which bin they put the paper and
Which bin they put the glass or the plastic. This is a mayor issue for our environment and sustainability
Of the packages, so our campaign will take care of not only informing the people, but also make it simple
for them. Also, a large number of people, do not recycle because they believe that is boring and is pointless
, well our goal is also to make it fun and educational at the same time. We will pursuit on how that is going

to be possible.


The main activities that we will implement is based mainly on social media, apps, and through gamification.
It will be a creation of a Facebook page for updates and recent activities, and also creation of Instagram
For promotions reasons, since the participants of the questionnaire used more that particular platform
than Facebook. Those platforms, except promotion, they will also be used to publication of recent articles
about recycle.

Since, we wanted to make it even more interesting, we have created also, the ‘’WECYCLE’’
Application. Through that application, the individuals can play games that are related to
recycling and not only that, they will be able to find the nearest recycle bin from wherever
they are. Our target group, and especially young people they will be able to understand the need

of recycling, and at the same time the importance of sustainability through packaging.
That same application, also includes codes for every user of it, that automatically that code will be used
to open new offers in green products, kitchen products, and clothes at the end of every month. So, many
individuals strangle to recycle through the reason that they are not motivated by it, our goal is to bring
back the motivation that they need in order to live a healthier life.


Our implementation plan will not be easy to reach, but is definitely not impossible, therefore reachable.
First of all, the current goal, is to make each and every one that recycle is for everybody. This is a goal
that will take a lot of effort and commitment but with the right plan and effort it will be eventually a
reality. No one prefers a campaign that is difficult and complicated, and since we are focusing in each and
every one person, our plan is clever, straight and simple.

By the end of January, the goal is at least 500 followers on Instagram to promote our ideas, and if
possible to find some Instagram promoters, but also on Facebook 800-1.000 likes would be ideal.
As the months passes, we will promoting series of videos on You Tube in order to facilitate and
Educate more the audience. Furthermore there will be T.V. charge free advertisements on April
In order to also educate elder people that cannot use other platforms.
If the plan works as planned, then at the end of October, we will create a dinner table for free
On a random selection, in the T.G.I. Fridays. This offer will last till the December 21st.





APPLICATION - - 4.500€

YOUTUBE PAID 20€ 560€ 700€




FACEBOOK PAID 15€ 400€ 1.500€



As you can see T.V. Advertisements were off charge which makes the purpose of the campaign
more meaningful. Also, in the Celebrity Participation in order to fulfill the purpose of the campaign
was free, which is a big Budget extenuation. The key to this campaign, is the You Tube series, because
the total cost is very low, but it can offer so much if it becomes successful, for example more viewers and
more advertisements. The application also might be a very good promotion tool, because it connects
knowledge and fun at the same time, which will be very interesting for the younger generations.


In conclude, the importance of sustainability through packaging is very crucial. One of the most difficult
tasks in that era, is to create and at the same time improve engagement with the issue of sustainability
and eventually change behavioral patterns once and for good. In terms of creation our nudge campaign
we took into consideration that we might take different formats and also different patterns. In the
technological era a campaign must be very flexible and ready to face any problem that comes in
his way. One of the most important things that a campaign must create, is to motivate the consumer
either to buy that product or in that case to save the environment and recycle. Most of the individuals,
lacks of motivation to do such a thing, because for him is hard to see the bigger picture, so our job
is to make it easier for him and engage with the whole concept. Lastly, a campaign that truly cares
about the environment and truly is interested into sacrifice important things, then most of the
consumers will reward it and create a connection with it.


Ruth, J, A. 2001. Promoting a Brand’s Emotional Benefits. Journal ofConsumer Psychology. 11, no. 2, 99-
Solomon, M. Bamossy, G. Askegaard &S. Hogg, M. 2010. Consumer Behaviour. A European
Perspective.Fourth Edition. Prentice Hall.

Yi, S &inger Baumgarter, H, 2004. Coping with negative emotions in purchase related situations. Journal
of Consumer Psychology. 14, No. 3, 303-17.

Jansson-Boyd, Cathrine V.2010.Consumer behavior --Psychological aspects.Consumers –Psychology.

McGraw-Hill Education

Cohen, J.B, Tuan, M & Andrade, E.B, 2008. The Nature and Role of Affect in Consumer Behaviour. In
C.P. Haugtvedt, P.M, Herr, F.R, Kardes. Handbook of Consumer Psychology. 297-348. New York:
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Solomon, M. Bamossy, G. Askegaard &S. Hogg, M. 2010. Consumer Behaviour. A European
Perspective.Fourth Edition. Prentice Hall.