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Design of Machine Elements

• Creating a plan or drawing for a product using intellectual ability and


scientific knowledge is called design.
• A product should be designed, such that it should permit economical
manufacture, and it should meet the specification requirements.

Design Process: .
• The design prOCf!SS or approach varies with individual requirements, size
of the project, company practices etc.
• A logical order of, lesign steps is given below:
IRec: gnition of a need - Specific machine function

,-.'------- - . Specifications & Requirements ~- - --


1
t
IFeasibility Study -. Economic and Technclo~~q
~
/ Creative Design synthesis I ',-

t ~ "':!'

JPreliminary Design and Development, Kinematic I


'I Arrangement, Overall Configuration I.
~,
J Detailed Design (Mechanical Design)
'j Strength, Deformation, Materials
J, ,
lprototype Building and Testing I ~
t
I Design for Production I
J,
'I
I Product Release
. FIG.l.l. DESIGN PROCESS
Step 1: Specifying the customer Need: Customer criticism. on the product
function arid quality may force a redesign (Feed Back Loop). It may be
needed to satisfy a new requirement, to improve the existing design or to'
face competition from other manufacturers.

Step 2: Specifications (Defining the Problem): Collect the required


specifications like No. of speeds, values of speeds, No. of feed rates, their
values, power of the machine tool, bed size, weight of machine tool etc.

'-t-
Step 3: Feasibility Study: The possible success of the proposal should be
verified from technical and economical stand points.

Step 4: Creative Design Synthesis: Synthesis of various new and or old ideas
in such a way as to produce new idea, using .the various sources like 1)
already existing methods, 2) Kinemetics, 3) Machine elements and
mechanism like levers, screws, wheels, gears, couplings, hydraulic and
pneumatic elements etc. 4) Standards, "5) Technical Journals, 6) Exhibitions,
and 7) Experiments.

Step 5: Preliminary Design: The design solutions similar to the ones


. mentioned in the previous paragraph should be compared for the design
factors mentioned below and the best solution should be found,
Design Factors: Strength, Rigidity, Friction, Wear~Noise,
Lubrication, Weight, Volume, Manufacturing ease, Reliability, Safety, Cost,
Efficiency, life, ease of control, overload capacity, maintenance, space "
requirement, cost of manufacture, Ergonomics, Aesthetics and safety.
For dte best design solution, layout drawings are made, to know the
overall configuration. All the spe cifications and requirements are rarely met
during this phase.

Step 0: Detailed Design: It is the actual sizing and dimensioning all


individual (both fabricated and purchased) components that go into making
the final product.
Knowing the loads acting on each component and deciding on the
"material, design calculations are done and sketches are made by the
Engineer. The draughtsman makes the part drawing showring all the
necessary views and dimensions, tolerances, material etc.

Step 7: Prototype Building: 'This building and testing may .lead to some
modifications in the preliminary design and detailed design (F~edback
Loops)

Step 7: Design for Production: Design changes are introduced to suit the
most economical methods of production.
A part may be considered suitable for manufacturing by casting or
forging rather than by welding from several smaller parts; sometimes
commercially available purchased item cart. replace a manufactured
component leading to cost reduction.
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Types of Design:
a) Adaptive Design: Adaptation of the existing design
b) Development Design: Improvement of the existing design
c) New Design: Design of an entirely new product.

Ergonomic Considerations in Design:


The ease with which the user of the designed equipm.ent carries out various
operations, like moving hand wheels, levers and seeing instrument dials, fatigue of
the operator, energy expenditure in hand .and foot operations, environmental
conditions (light, noise, climate), human safety, etc. are the subject matter of
ergononucs.

Standards:
When designing machine elements, the calculated dimensions should be
rounded off to standard values wherever possible. By using standard dimensions
interchangeability of components is possible and hence the components can be
mass produced at lower costs.

Preferred Sizes:
When manufacturing a product in different sizes, it is better to have
minimum number ofsizes to cover a certain range, from economic considerations.
Here Size of a product may mean dimensions, power, speed, etc. It has been found
that if the numbers derived from geometric series (preferred numbers) are used to
specify the sizes, the demands are met with minimumnumber of sizes.
Refer Data Book Page No. 7.20 for the preferrednumbers.

Rules for Design:


• Design should aim. at the best with the least expenditure
• The component should have adequate strength, wear resistance and
corrosion resistance.
• The assembly should be backlash free. To prevent loosening of
connected parts, initial tension should be introduced to the joints.
• Resonance is to be avoided, because high stresses due to large amplitude
vibrations, will damage the component. High speed equipments should
be properly balanced.
• The machine should be simple, fool proof, easy to operate and should
reduce operator's fatigue. .

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~
<>

• The machine should need only a minimum maintenance. Design should


provide for proper lubrication of various parts.
• Design for Manufacture: Making a comparative study of designs,
depending on the number of components to be produced, manufacturing
process whether casting, forging or fabrication. (welding), should be
decided.
• By suitably designing castings and weld non uniform cooling, residual
stresses and deformations should be'minimized.
• When designing parts to be machined, a shape which facilitates quick
mounting, machining and easy measurement and also which requires low
cost simple machines and fixtures, should be chosen.
• Wherever possible, dimensions of the components should be rounded off
to standard values.
• Machines and equipments should be amenable for easy packing and
transportation. Transport cost should be as small as possible.

Material Selection:
• One of the first steps in machine design ~ selection of proper material.
• Following factors are considered in the selection of the material:
o Mechanical properties of materials
o Manufacturing ease
o Quantity required
o Space Available
o Material cost
o Manufacturing cost
o Availability of material

Mechanical Properties to be considered are:


1. Strength: is the ability of the material to resist the extemally applied loads
without failure (fracture or yielding). Ultimate strength is used for measure
the strength of brittle material and Yield strength for ductile material.
2
For steel, '[y Jay
2. Elasticity: enables the material to regain the original shape after
defonnation.
3. Plasticity: enables the material to permanently retain the deformation
produced by the externally applied loads.

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4. Stiffness (Rigidity): enables the material to resist deformation under loads.
Rigidity is of great importance in members whose deflections are limited by
service requirements as in machine tool spindles.
5. Ductility: enables the material to be drawn into wire when tensile force is
applied.
Steel, aluminium and copper are ductile materials, which have large
plastic deformation before rupture while brittle materials have a small plastic
deformation. .
Ductility is important because it permits the. material to absorb large
overloads and it permits the material to be cold worked.
6. Brittleness: means lack of ductility. Cast Iron is a brittle material.
7. Malleability: enables the material to be flattened or squeezed under a
compressive force. (Gold & Aluminium) Malleability isa compressive
quality while ductility i1 a tensile quality.
8. Resilience: is the material's capacity to absorb energy within the elastic
range. This enables material to -resist shock and impact and hence it is
desired in springs. .
9. Toughness: enaeles the material to -absorb energyin the plastic range; .it
. enables the m.aerial to be twisted or bent. under a sudden load before
rupture. _
10.Hardness: enables the material to resist indentation, wear or plastic
deformation.
11.Creep: At elevated temperatures materials yield and Undergo permanent
deformation at a stress lower than the yield pomt stress. In addition to the
loss of strength, there is a continuous gradual elongenon of the members at
. high temperature over a long period of time, known as.creep.
12.Strain· Hardening: When drawing ductile material through dies or when
rolling them between rollers, plastic deformation takes p1acemd this
increases the yield point stress and ultimate strength. This is known as strain
hardening.
13.Damping Capacity: is the ability of a material to damp vibrations by
absorbing the kinetic energy of vibration. CI has greater damping capacity.
14.Hardenability: is the ability of steel to through harden. Hardenability can be
improved by using alloying elements like boron, vanadium, manganese,
chromium and molybdenum.
I5.Machinability: is the ease with which the metal can be removed in
machining operations. This is an important factor, Good machinability
results in less tool wear, good surface finish and less power consumption.
This can be achieved by adding sulphur and lead in steel, which reduce the
tensile strength.

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y
The function of a key is to prevent relative rotation of a shaft and
. .. Ke"0" • '. lS'! the member (hub of pulley, gear or crank) to which it is connected. In
other words, key is used to transmit torque from a shaft to a gear, pulley
or similar device or vice versa.

Hub

(a) Saddle .(b).FI~t


Key

, -h
b .
- ~
/ a pe,linIDO r b -\ rb1l-/aper I inlOO r l .i.t l
b

-, Hub
[ -:=l El he
L.. ~I h 0
T
(d) Flat (sunk) IL---~L - - . I h = b T~ L---I
10) Square (b). Flat (sunk)

FORMS OF KEYS . TAPER KEYS

Z$;rnicircular slo t
Woodruff key

.-" ---
L..--l~~~~--"~5hafl
(a) (b)

Ke y instalied
.FEATHER KEYS
bet ween rna ting
Wheel palts
.GIB HEAD TAPERED· KEY'

*(a) Kennedy. key


~@r(b) Round key
WOOpRUFF KEY

(b).lnvolute spline
(a).Para"el side spline titling

Distribution. of ·PARALLEL-SIDE AND INVOLUTE SPLINES


to.ngential load I

~"@
• Keyway

Torque
'Area in cru~hing

L2d-=1
.LOAD DIAGRAM FOR
=O.Shl

(al Key in shear ...- (b! Crushing


l __ of key
--.~

A RECTANGULAR KEY

U.lZ. Failure Modes of Keys


1. Shear failure 2: Crushieg failure
F I = tangential force onthe"'key
_ Torque on shaft _.I-
- radius ofthe shaft - d/2
Induced shear stress on the key
FI FI
r= =-
Area resisting shear bl:
Induced compressive stress on the key . FORCES ON KEY DUE TO TRANSMITTED TOR~UE.
F, F, .
a - =---
C - Area resisting crushing L" h/2
G------------ -------------- - - f
-- --- -------- ------- --- - d

I----"'" ~
Shaft

~I
Fig. II Sleeve or-muff coupling.

DESIGN OF SHAFT
COUPLINGS: D = Outside dian eter of sleeve
Muff Coupling: (F l{;j. I I) L = Length of the sleeve
D= 2d+13mm d = Diameter ofthe shan
L = S.od ~ 4-<;t T = Torque transmitted by coupling
4 Shear stress of shaft material, 14 MPa for CI
Irit.= ~ lr (D4 - d ) ] 't's
I
=
= Length of the key in each shaft
16'Cs D
\V = Width ofthe key ,
1= 3.5d =!:. t = Thickness ofthe key
2 2
-t4} t= I.w.'t.d 't = Shear stress of key material
2 (Jc = Crushing stress ofkeymaterial

,~ = d!.)·"C,·l(
, \2
~I
2}
~ ..

Diameter of the muff or-sleeve, »";""id +13 mm


Length of the muff or sleeve, L = 3.5 d
where d =. Diameter of the shaft.
Muff,

~--L----'--..l

Clamp or compression coupling.

Compression or Clamp coupling: where


HT _ 1t
2
.p.d,/·[cr.Jn.d J.1 = Co-efficient offriction between the surfaces
of - 16 ofthe shaft and sleeve
= Core Diameter of the bolts
= No. of bolts
= Diameter ofthe shaft
~ fy)c-+;~ft\n~p,.
Unprotected type flange coupling. Protective type flange coupling.
. - -- ----

Flange Coupling:
a)Proportions: da. = Nominal Diameter of bolts

D==2d d = Shaft diameter


D = Outside Diameter of Hub.
L=l5::f
Da.. = Bolt circle Diameter
~==3d Va ':: l·~ ~ n =No.ofbolts.
1:1=4d = 3 for d upto 40mm~
b.==~ b, :: O.liS d. =4 for d upto 100mm,
= 6 for upto 180mm

b.l. t==~4 tt
tp
= Thickness of flange
= Thickness of protecting flange.
b) Shaft Design: 'tS, 'tb) 'tk)= Allowable shear stress for shaft)bolt and
z.,
tft= 16 S'
d8
't.: =
key material respectively
Allowableshear £tress for flange material
c) Hub Design: (Jtb, (Jck = Allowable crushing stress for bolt and key

t'\ =~T.[(l>4 - 4
d )1 material respectively
16 C I) t'ft:. = Torque transmitted by the coupling.
c) Key Design:
Mt == lW·'tk .d
2
Nt= t(~}CT~{~)
d) Flange Design:

tft=,.(D;},.t f D,
Dz
= Pitch circle diameter of bolts
= Outside diameter of'flange
e) Bolts Design: d = Shaft diameter
~== n.( ~ )(dt)·'tb .r~]
I" J L
T
'tb
= Torque transmitted by the coupling.
= Allowable shear stress for bolt material
= Allowableshear stress for shaft material
Ht n.~tf''''b.[;]
'ts
= d1 = Nominal diameter ofthe bolts.
n =No.ofbolts
=4 when 35 < d< 55 mm
Marine Coupling: (F /G!. 14-)
= 6 when 56 < d < 150 mm
Flange thickness = d/3= tf
=8 when 151 <d<250 mm
Taper of-bolt = 1 in 20 to 1 in 40
DI = 1.6d . = 10 when 251 <d < 390 mm
D2= 2.2 d
= 12 when d > 390 mm
...... rnl
,-, ,,== 1- r(q ):ti;J.n·I- 1
2 r~ 1
L4 J L2 j
Fig. 14- Marine type flange coupling.

····-·----1

Rod (L.H. Threaded) Rod (R.H. Threaded)

Turnbuckle,-1

DESIGN OF TURN BUCKLE:


[P] = 1.3P = Nominal diameter of'the thread .
1t 2 = Core diameter of'the thread
[P] = 4 (de) .[0"1"]
= Outer diam eter ofthe coupler nut
[P] = 1tde .l. ['c] = Length ofthe coupler nut
[P] = ; [d 2 - de2].n.L[0 .l =Length ofthe coupler between nuts
= Outside diameter ofthe coupler
[P] =; Lt>2 -d 2 ].[O-t ] =Inside dianeter of'the coupler
= Thickness of the coupler nut
[P] = 2 - D 2]. [O'T] t = Thickness ofthe coupler
4it [D2 1 .
I = d to 1.25d for steel nut
= 1.5dto 2dfor CI nut
D = L25d to 1.5d
Dl=d+6mm
D:2 = (1.5 to 1.7)d
L=6d
t = O.5d
t1= O.75d
Cheese head bolt

_..:.......- ------
1 d

~+_-__t_--- ----
____ _ __ -.1----+----' 1 --~"'1~5mm

5mm °

!--L= .5 d L= 1.5 d--l

1=1-1 1-1-1
Bushed-pin flexible coupling.

Flexible
Where
L = Hub Length
I = Length of the bush in the flange.
d.2 = Diameter of bush
d = Shaft diameter
PI;, = Bearing pressure on bush,
:s 0.5 to 0.8 MPa
n
D! = Pitch circle Diameter ofpins.
= No. of pins
I I
W = Load on each pins
M = Bending moment on pin °1
Gb = Bending stress in pin material ,
't = Allowable shear stress for pin material I

Z = 3~ d13 , Modulus of section of pins.


w = Width of'the key
t = Thickness of the key
tf = Thickness offlange
tp = Thickness of protecting flange.
'ts, 'tb~ '4:.= Allowable shear stressfor shaft. bolt and
key material respectively
1:.; = Allowable shear stress for flange material
O'cb, Gcl; = Allowable crushing stress for bolt and key
material respectively
T = Torque transmitted by the coupling.
p p -

, Sleeve and cotter joint.

SPLlNED CONNECTIoNS:
Torque carrying capacity of the
p = perm issible bearing pressure,
splined connection
<7MPa
T = p.A.rm
A = Total area of the splines, (h/N)
h = Height of the splines = (D - d)j2
SLEEVE AND COTTER
I = length ofthe hub
.JOINTS: (F 16i. 4-) N = No. of splines
(D + d)\ /
Empirical relations: I'm. = Mean radius = ~ I~
d, = 1.3 d
d2 = 2.5 d Where
a = 1.3 d d = Diameter of'the rods to be connected
L=8d d1 = Diameter of'the enlarged end
1=4d d2 = Outside diameter of'the sleeve
b = 1.3d a = distance of'the slotfrom the sleeve end
c=lAd L = Length of the sleeve
e = O.5d 1 =Length of the cotter
t = O.3d = O.25d1. b = Width of'the cotter
P = 11:4' d 2 .[Oot] c = Distance of'the slot from the rod end
e = Length of the- enlarged end outside the
sleeve
........ __. _ - - - - t = Thickness of the cotter
p = Load acting on the joint
p =[; (d.)2 - dt.f JrCT+j
= Crushing Stress
P = dt .t. [C5aJ = Shear stress
p=[;r d2 f - (d. )2]_(d;z -dd. t } [ C5tl crt
= Tensile Stress

. p = 2b.t.['t]
P = 2a.d:. ['t] clearance 1.5to 3 mm
P= 2.(d2 - d1 ).c.['t]
SCOKET A..ND SPIGOT JOINT:
p =[ ~ KD1 )2 - (~ 'f]-(D1 - d1 ). t} [crt]
P= (D - d1 ).t.[O'c]
P= 2.c.(I:> - d1 ).['t]
P = ~ (~2 - cit 2)[crc ]
P = n.dt •tt. ['t] "'-::==::::::=o:>'t hic k ne 55 t
P.(D+O.5~) ~-W///////~""""~/A
-.1 t
°b = 2.t.b~
COHERED JOI~T
--r
FOR RODS
4d~

Double eye or Pin head,---t---".


forked end

d
P P

Split pin

KNUCKLE JOINT

KNUKLE JOINTS:
Solid RQd in Tension [CS"t1;~ 4.P,:> Pm m b'endiing 2P(. -+
t1 t \ 1t d 3
4 ~ -32 1 .ob
o ' •

1t.d~
3 -) .
Prijportions: .
Pin in double shear p ~ 2.~d12['tJ
4 Diameter of'the rod = d
Rod end in tension Diameter ofthe pin d1 = d
p ~ (d2 - d1).t.[Ot] Outer diameter of eye d2 = 2d
Rod end in Double shear Diameter of Pin head <h = L5d
p 52. (d2 -4) t.['t] Thickness of eye t = 1.25d
2 Thickness of Fork t1 = O.75d
Rod end in crushing p ::; dJ.t.[ocl Thickness of pin Head t2 = O.5d
Forked end in tension
p::; 2.(~ - c\).fl.[crt] Where P = Load acting on the joint.'
Forked ends in double shear 't = Shear stress
p ~ 4.(~ - (U.t1.['t] O"c = Crushing stress
crt = Tensile stress
Forked ends in crushing
p ~ 2A .t1·[ocl

'E'~~
)i'~..:..;

LlJ~]
.~~I . At
f bJ
(0)

~ F-tG.~ Icl
(dJ
:
i
Proportions
Diameter of rod = d
Diameter of pin = d 1 = d
Octagonal
Outer dia. of eye = d z = 2d
end Dia, of pin head = d 3 = 1.5d

Dou ble eye or


forked end
Pin head _-1-_ Single eye or
Thickness of eye = t = 1.25 d
Thickness of fork = t1 = 0.75 d
rod end
Thickness of pin head = t z = 0.5 d
d
p p

Split pin
Knucle pin collar--
Knuckle pin

KNUCKLE JOINT

Area resisting 2
shear = 2 x TTd,
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Area resisting shearing=2(drd1 x ~
?Q resisting learing = (dZ- dl) t
-.-2- y
FAILURES OF EYE END

)II :.': :::.-:; 1.l4-4o<--+


.~; -e ,

Area resisting crUShing} = d, t


= projected area of pin TENSI LE FAI LURE OF FORK END

4>45
(JJ)
-E:>-I:SO a=J)
(;, : O"IJi~
~ :: "2'-d

DiQ 04wet e tl
D'A FfJ p,n D =e4
p OJ) 'tJ Ese a, = 2cl
_~-.A-"'--L"""- DI'~ '" A.,. ~etAtl d 2 :
'·rsJ
I-r----.-!::x::t~ Th""", '" ESe. l; = '·2 so d
n" " etwta' t, = Doo:J,tJ
Fig.IO.IS Knuckle joint 1hk , p,nheao( t 2 ': O·l5d