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What are the stages of curriculum process?

Curriculum Process

 Curriculum is composite of entire range of experiences the learner undergoes of


school or college. It is a systematic arrangement of the sum total of selected
experiences planned by a school or college or defined group of students to attain
the aims of particular educational program.

STAGES OF CURRICULUM PROCESS

I. Formulating the statement of philosophy of the school or college or university

Philosophies are the beliefs and standards of the persons who starts a program. The
philosophy serves as a framework within which an organization, school or college or
educational program can function with an objective and purpose. The philosophy is
expressed in different ways as the quality of education, selection, of teachers and
students.

Guidelines for Development of Philosophy

An educational philosophy states the values which are believed to be right, true and
good by the persons responsibilities for the school or college. An educational
philosophy will be unique to the particular society and individual whom it serves. All
teaching staff should participate in the formulation of the school philosophy or college
philosophy.

College or school philosophy is used as a screen. College or school philosophy


should not conflict with the philosophy of the institution of which it is a part. College or
school philosophy should be re – examined periodically to determine its suitability in the
light of the changing conditions.

II. Establishment of purposes and objectives of the school or college or


university

The term ‘Purposes’ refers to describe the overall goals of the total education
program and the term ‘objective’ refers to the breakdown of purposes into the specific

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goals which can be used to pinpoint the content. The objective is developed to indicate
what changes in behavior it is hoped to bring about in the student as a result of the
courses being offered.

Factors to be Considered

 Statement of philosophy,
 Social and health needs of the people,
 Kind of students to be expected in the education program,
 Level of professional competence to be attained,
 Role of nurse (after qualifying) in society,
 Statutory minimum requirements,
 Teaching,
 Physical and clinical resources availability.

III. Selection of learning experience to achieve the purpose and objective

A learning experience is something in which the student actively participates and


which results in a change of behavior. The teacher should select only experiences
which will result in a change in behavior outlined in the objectives of the program.

Classification of Learning Experience

 Direct Learning Experiences. These are first hand experiences with various
objects or symbols. Examples for direct learning experiences are as follows:
Observing samples or specimens, Experimenting with physical and chemical
materials, Setting up apparatus for experiment, Operating machines
Constructing models, charts, plans, Dramatizing historical events
Summarizing a lengthy description Collecting, analyzing and interpreting the
data and generalizing, Listing important facts and points, Presenting ideas
orally or in writing, Conducting physical examination of clients, Performing
nursing procedures, Handling different types of medical equipment and
articles.

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 Indirect Learning experiences. Those experiences which are not the first
hand information. Examples: Reading accounts or descriptions or discussion
in books, journals, magazines and newspaper, Observing pictures photos
maps and models, Listening to oral descriptions and lecture talks

IV. Effecting organization of selected learning experience

The major task to be attempted in phase IV is the combining of information about


experiences, including developmental sequences & stage discovered in phase II.
With information derived from the taxonomic analyses of phase III in order to setup
educational experiences designed to achieve the goals of phase I.

Phase IV is concerned with educational sequences, this is with sequences of


selected experiences with content planned to produce certain behavior within the
general areas of understandings, sensitivities, feelings, attitudes, values and skill.

Organization of Learning Experience-After the content knowledge & learning


experiences have been selected carefully in relation to be desired objectives, they
must organize in the curriculum. The element of the curriculum should be relative to
one another vertical & horizontally, so that systematic body of ideas and activities
will be expanded continuously into larger and more meaningful patterns.

Criteria for Organizing Learning Experience

 Continuity
 Sequence
 Integration

Guidelines for the selection, organization of learning experiences

 A learning experience is defined as an interaction between the student


and condition in the environment to which he/she can react.
 The faculty should develop a systematic approach to the selection of
learning experience through which student are provided with opportunity
to meet the objective

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 Effective learning depends upon planned organization of the experiences
included in the curriculum
 The teaching method used should depend upon the purposes to be serve
the learner, the teacher and the available resources
 The selection, organization and guidance of student’s learning
experiences should be submitted to continuous appraisal by the faculty

V. Evaluation of the total program

The final phase in the curriculum process is the coming to the conclusions about the
success or failure, of the educational enterprise by means of some measurement or
assessment of change in behavior.

Criteria for evaluation of curriculum

 Child centered
 Concentrate on the experience of human race as a whole
 Best on the twin principle of unity & reality
 Broad-bases, flexible & changing/dynamic and should not be rigid & static
 Possess continuity, articulation & integration
 Provide for individual differences among children/student
 Social significance
 Consist of purposeful activities & meaningful experience
 Provide direct instruction
 Provide democratic value
 Achieve the rounded growth of the child or student

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Give (5) factors affecting nursing practice and its implication to the preparation of
the nurse practitioner.

ISSUES EXTERNAL TO THE NURSING PROFESSION

Increasingly, health issues are related to the sociopolitical and economic


characteristics of the communities where people live, work, and play. Curriculum must
acknowledge the broad determinants of health to prepare practicing nurses to effectively
intervene in complex problems

These issues external to nursing relate to curriculum in several ways. First, they
provide the setting for the world in which nurses practice and learn. Collectively, they
describe the current states of humanity and health. Second, they comprise the risk factors
for health and disease and contribute to the complex web of causation. Nurses need to
have a working knowledge of these issues as they strive to prevent health problems and
promote wellness. From both of these perspectives, issues external to nursing provide a
crucial foundation for nursing’s understanding of societal needs and characteristics and
therefore form an essential piece of the foundation necessary for contemporary
curriculum development.

Five trends capture significant developments and concerns for society and are
presented as the broad sociopolitical and economic context of nursing practice and
education.
 threat of violence, other disaster
 demographic revolutions,
 the technological explosion,
 globalization and the rise of the global economy,
 and environmental challenges

These recurring issues from the broad sociopolitical and economic setting have
current and future influence on the practice of nursing. Curriculum needs to
acknowledge the possibilities and implications of global violence; demographic
revolutions in number, age, and ethnic composition of populations; the technological

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explosion; the globalization of the economy and health; and the increasing awareness
of environmental fragility.

ISSUES IN HIGHER EDUCATION

As learning, knowledge, and skills become the primary resources of a country, the
public and private financing of quality higher education becomes more challenging.
Colleges and universities, faced with shrinking resources, technological advances, and
increased enrollments must strive to find a balance between innovation and tradition if
they are to remain relevant and current in an ever-changing and evolving world

Therefore affordability, access, and accountability continue to be three key issues


facing higher education. Each issue affects the other, for affordability determines access
and, as public concerns related to these issues mount, there are increasing calls for
accountability. These challenges must be met in the face of shrinking public higher
education budgets. Institutions often deal with the question of whether they can “do more
with less” or whether they will be forced to “do less with less.”

REFERENCES

Bibliography  Nursing Education, BT Basavanthappa, 2003 Jaypee Brothers 


Curriculum Development and Evaluation in Nursing, Sarah B. Keating. Third Edition
 http://www.moe.gov.tt/curriculum_process.h tm

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