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GE 6 - Music Appreciation  A melody consists of a series of pitches.

The relationship of those pitches, in other

Alliah Erika S. Doydora BS MT -1
words the contrast between higher and
lower pitches and/or the repetition of the
same pitch, is what we recognize as a
What makes music an art form? melody or tune.
- It portrays feelings or emotions, mood  The musical basis upon which a
and specific situation. And through it, composition is built. Usually a theme
it conveys messages and this serves consists of a recognizable melody or a
as an entertainment? characteristic rhythmic pattern. The
theme may sometimes be called the
What makes music out of? subject. A melodic figure or phrase that is
- Abstract the basis for a composition or a section of
a composition.
“Music is the unique among other art form.
2. Texture in Music
- An audible art  Describes the combination of
- Made out of sound (basic material) sound
- Product of creative ideas, imagination  Nigeval Period – free flowing
- Gives psychological satisfaction sound
 Mallismatic - one syllable,
many tones, different styles,
1. Nature of melody and theme singing in unison
 Present a character through melody  Monophonic – unison
(brings characteristics of musical  Polyphonic – different tones in
composition) parallel (sound)
 Song itself o other chant in parallel motion
 Tune that we follow that we o example: organum –
recognize when we listen to music independent tune/melody
 It moves ascending, descending or o purely independent from each
in repetitions other
o Early Renaissance Period
Example: (Baroque Period) – little bit
 Joy to the World lower, sane lower but
- Descending (celebration of the birth of different pitch
Jesus)  Homophonic
- Has skips (happiness) - Music has organization of harmony
 Sana Maulit Muli - Intervals of tone organized
- Repetitions of tune, melodic line accordingly
(Because of the title/purpose itself) - Example: Hallelujah by George
- Tune in consonance with the subject Frederick Messiah

Side notes: Side notes:

 Melody is the foreground to the backing  texture is how the tempo, melodic, and
elements and is a combination of pitch harmonic materials are combined in a
and rhythm. composition, thus determining the overall
quality of the sound in a piece.
 Monophony: This is the simplest type of - Identified in 2 performing media in
texture. In monophonic music, a single music
voice or part is played without harmonic 1. Vocal 2. Instrumental
accompaniment. As long as the attention 1. Vocal
is on a single line or voice, the music is  Soprano
monophonic.  Alto
 Heterophony: Heterophonic music  Tenor
consists of two or more parts that are  Base
elaborating upon the same melody. Often
Quality of Voices (Tone Color)
this type of music is improvised. An
example of this type of music would be  Soprano – high & bright/brilliant
jazz.  Altos – melo & dark
 Polyphony: Polyphonic music consists of  Tenor – rich and bright
two or more voices, but it is distinct from  Base - melo & dark
heterophony. In heterophonic texture, the 2. Orchestra
part that all voices play is based upon the - Has 4 sections
same melody (though the same notes may  Strings
not be played). Polyphony is based on  Backbone of orchestra (70%)
counterpoint. Counterpoint is a Latin term  Violin – soprano
that in musical terms can be translated as  Viola – alto
“note against note”. This means that a  Cello – tenor
counterpoint or polyphonic texture  Double base
consists of two or more simultaneous  The smaller the instrument, the
melodies that are distinct from each other higher the pitch/sound
in notes and rhythm.  Woodwind
 Homophony: This is the type of music  Called woodwind because they
that most of us are accustomed to. In are made from wood before
homophonic music, one voice takes the  Flute – soprano
melodic lead, while the accompanying  Clarinet – alto
voices play the harmony and they take a  Oboe – single reed – tenor
subordinate role. The listeners interest is  Bassoon - base
directed to a single line of music, and the
Reed – reason why others are in woodwind
harmony is there to support it.
- Small piece of wood inserted to the
3. Rhythm masterpiece
 Just as important as melody - Without this, instrument cannot make
 Movement/notion (music is moved by the sound
rhythm) - Produce vibration by blowing
 Associated with beat
 Notes – represents beast duration Saxophone – made of brass

Musical Expressions - Seldom use this unless they play jazz

- Straight – soprano
 Tempo – speed of the music
 Dynamics – volume of the sound  Brass
(loudness, softness)  Brightest instruments
o Gives emphasis  Brilliant
 Has no keys, has only valves
4. Timbre or Tone Color
 Trumpet – soprano - Composition consists of
 French horn - alto stanzas/strophe
 Trombone – tenor – no valves, B. Binary
just stick - Contrasting melodic idea
 Tuba – base - Refrain/chorus (B), stanza (A)
C. Ternary
Valves – shifting of registration of the
- After B, it goes back to the first section
Technique – embouchure technique - Repetition of same section
- Tighten up in blowing Classical Period
- Tighter your blow, higher pitch
Ternary – Sonata form
Sousaphone – in replacement of tube
- Sonata Allegro – “to sound”
- John Philip Sousa (military band - Usually performed by solo/instrument
A section – exposition of the theme
 Percussion B Section – development sector
 Shaking, tapping (striking)
B – Modulation (Fantascia)
 Definite
 Piano A – Recapitulation
 Chimes
 Samba Classical – highly organized
 Tympani D. Fugue
 Drum - Example of polyphonic music
 Indefinite - Contra portal
 Drums - One subject the imitations
 Maracas - Make your fingers independent
 Beatbowc E. Theme & Variations
 Snares - Alterations – crated to make music of
 Shakes musical features (ingredients)
 Symbals - Do alterations but theme is still there
 Triangle
 Woodblock
Color – represent character in music
5. Musical Form
 Structure
 Organizations
 It’s the organization of musical
A. Through composed form
- Composition with one only musical
ideas (movement of the
- Example: Dandansoy
- Strophic form
 Group of beats
Music – organized sound in time
 Blue-collars of music
Cacophony – noise, unorganized  Gives vitality
 Establish the meter, change the
 RHYTHM way you feel
 no motion , no rhythm , no rhythm,  If it changes, it affects the music
no music
 indicates how live we are Celesta – keyboard instrument powered by
Melody – the song
Rhythm machine
- In percussion instruments
 Heart - Carry coloration or some types of
 Indicates the emotion flavour


 To proceed organization on the  Bass and piano
rhythm  Bass – like the engine of the train,
 METER power the brand, can interpret the
 Counted just like numbers whole ground rhythm by itself
 Organized beats, accents and  Cymbals – coloration of the music
rests also, can out a fear into the hearts
 They can be odd or even of the enemy
 Bass & drums – work together, just
 IMAGINATION & STYLES like wheels & engine to make the
 Like dribbling train move
 Bars
 Points of reference (let us know  Basic rhythm of jazz music
where we are)  Base - walking
 MOTION – RHYTHM  When the drummer rides the
 Marching cymbals
 Skipping Piano – body of the train
 Bouncing
 Flying - Gives the shape
 Tickling - Accompanies
 All of these can be combined - Can improvise the rhythm
 TEMPO - Can play rhythm (adding power)
 Speed of rests and beats - Makes the rhythm section feel good
 Has a powerful effect on the mood
or feeling of a piece of music  SYNCOPATION
 Accelerando – speeding up  Doing the unexpected
(Accelerator)  Playing rhythms with intensity and
 Vivace – lively soul
 Largo - slowly  Can change the feeling of a
 Allegro – moderately fast musical phrase
 Create rhythmic contrast and keep
our attention
 How? Going against an
established rhythmic pattern
 Meter – accusation of beats and
 Accenting a beat that no one is
1. We identify songs by melody, but
without rhythm, there can be no
2. Accented beats and rests fall into odd
or even meters
3. Meters are divided into measures
which are a point of reference for
dancing, hopping, skipping, flying,
tickling etc. the rhythm
4. Tempo means fast, slow, kinda fast,
kinda slow and so on
5. We play with rhythm by varying
accents and rest just like dribbling the
6. The ground rhythms are overworked
and underappreciated but they are
essential to give music of vitality and a
7. The bass, drums and piano are the
rhythm section and they swing
8. Rhythms must be played with intensity
and soul at all times
9. Syncopation is accenting the
10. No motion, no rhythm. No rhythm, no