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Unit 1 Test
Selected and Short Response
ANALYZE CRAFT AND STRUCTURE
“The Muscle of Resistance: Anthony, Gandhi, and Mandela”
Read the following essay. Then answer the question(s).
(1) History tells of many wars fought with weapons. What some leaders have discovered,
however, is that violence is not the only way to fight for something. Nonviolent protest and
resistance are powerful ways to pursue change, and they have a long history of success.

(2) The fight for women’s right to vote is one example. Up until 1920, women in the United
States were not allowed to vote. It took years of struggle to win the right. Elizabeth Cady
Stanton and Susan B. Anthony were two early leaders in the movement for women’s rights.
In 1872, Anthony organized a group of women to test the laws about voting. After casting a
ballot on November 5, 1872, she was arrested for illegal voting. Her trial helped publicize the
issue of women’s suffrage. Later leaders of the movement extended the use of nonviolent
tactics. In 1917, a group led by Alice Paul organized a picket, or demonstration, outside the
White House. Paul and others were imprisoned for their actions. Shortly afterwards,
however, women received the right to vote.

(3) Mohandas Gandhi was another leader who fought peacefully for justice. Gandhi was from
India. He began as a mediocre student who did not have a lot of self-confidence. After
becoming a lawyer, he went to South Africa, where he encountered discrimination against
people from India. One unfair law required Indians to be fingerprinted and to carry their
registration documents at all times. Gandhi helped organize the Indians. Once prone to stage
fright, Gandhi now showed himself to be an energetic leader. The Indians resolved to protest
the identity law by refusing to obey it. They also agreed to accept the consequences—even if
the consequences included imprisonment. This form of protest and the philosophy Gandhi
developed around it were named satyagraha, meaning “force of truth” or “holding onto truth.”
(4) After 20 years, Gandhi went back to India, where he applied his ideas of satyagraha in
protesting unfair British laws. At the time Britain had control of India. According to British law,
Indians had to buy and use only salt made by Britain. In protest, Gandhi organized the Salt
March. At the end of the 12-mile march, Gandhi picked up a small piece of sea salt, breaking
the law. As a result, Indians began to make their own salt from sea salt and planned a march
on a salt factory. Police officers beat the protesters, who did not fight back. Finally, a
government official met with Gandhi and agreed that Indians could make their own salt.

(5) In South Africa, Nelson Mandela used nonviolent resistance to eliminate apartheid. Apartheid
was a system of unfair laws that segregated races and gave more rights to white people
than to others. Mandela studied Gandhi’s methods. He organized and led groups that
protested unfair treatment by the government. He was soon arrested and imprisoned.

(6) Mandela remained in prison for 27 years. While in prison, he used nonviolent methods to
improve conditions and protect the dignity of the prisoners. Several times, Mandela was offered
freedom if he would give up some of his demands. He refused. Finally, in 1990, he was released.
Only two years later, he became the first democratically elected South African president.

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GRADE 7 • UNIT 1 TEST

Name:       Date:      

(7) These three leaders—Anthony, Gandhi, and Mandela—showed the world that change can
be brought about nonviolently. Their example continues to inspire others.

1. The following question has two parts. Answer Part A first, and then Part B.

      Part A Which of the following is a pair of central ideas developed in the
passage?
a. A number of leaders have used nonviolent action. It is the best form of
action.
b. A number of leaders have used nonviolent action. It has a history of
success.
c. Nonviolent action has helped women in their struggle for equal rights.
Gandhi called it satyagraha.
d. Nonviolent action has helped women and black South Africans. Gandhi
led a protest called the Salt March.

      Part B Which sentence from the passage provides the best evidence for the
answer to Part A?
a. What some leaders have discovered, however, is that violence is not the
only way to fight for something. (paragraph 1)
b. At the end of the 12-mile march, Gandhi picked up a small piece of sea
salt, breaking the law. (paragraph 4)
c. While in prison, [Mandela] used nonviolent methods to improve
conditions and protect the dignity of the prisoners. (paragraph 6)
d. These three leaders—Anthony, Gandhi, and Mandela—showed the world
that change can be brought about nonviolently. (paragraph 7)

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GRADE 7 • UNIT 1 TEST

Name:       Date:      

2. The following question has two parts. Answer Part A first, and then Part B.

      Part A Choose the inference you can make about Gandhi that is most clearly
supported by details in the passage.
a. He knew from the start that he was destined to succeed as a leader.
b. His confidence grew through his experience with politics in South Africa.
c. He supported nonviolence in part because of his own physical weakness.
d. He supported the distribution of salt for free to anyone who needed it.

      Part B Which excerpt from the passage best supports the answer to Part A?
a. Mohandas Gandhi was another leader who fought peacefully for justice.
(paragraph 3)
b. Once prone to stage fright, Gandhi now showed himself to be an energetic
leader. (paragraph 3)
c. At the end of the 12-mile march, Gandhi picked up a small piece of sea
salt, breaking the law. (paragraph 4)
d. Police officers beat the protesters, who did not fight back. (paragraph 4)

      3. Which of the following sentences could most logically be added to the
essay to support its central ideas? Choose all that apply.
a. War often has tragic consequences for individuals.
b. Gandhi’s protests helped lead to India’s independence from Britain.
c. Nonviolent protest helped African Americans in the struggle for civil
rights.
d. In the 1960s, protests against the government sometimes turned violent.
e. Human rights groups monitor prison conditions for political prisoners.

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GRADE 7 • UNIT 1 TEST

Name:       Date:      

ANALYZE CRAFT AND STRUCTURE


“The Flying Dog”
Read the following passage. Then, answer the question(s).
(1) I was two when my family left for a year abroad and three when we came back. I try to
picture my parents dragging me and a dog across the Atlantic Ocean to live in Germany for a
year. But they were not shy about setting off to new places. My head hurts just thinking
about all of the luggage. They packed some of the weirdest things. My dad, for example,
packed cookie sheets. Did he think there would be no cookie sheets in the entire country of
Germany? My mother detailed our family’s journey that year in a journal she kept and later
passed on to me.
(2) July 18, 1991
We boarded the plane with everything we wanted to have for the next year. Two adults, one
small child, one dog, six pieces of luggage, six carry-on bags, one car seat, and one dog
crate. Flying was new to one of us—the dog.
(3) Near 11:00 p.m., we finally found ourselves “settled” on the plane and heading out over the
Atlantic Ocean. Jackie, my little darling girl, was less than thrilled to be confined to an
airplane. She kicked and kicked and kicked her feet, over and over. It was no use getting her
to stop—but I hoped that the other passengers wouldn’t think I was a bad parent!
(4) We all breathed a sigh of relief when the plane took off. Just as we were drifting off to sleep,
the captain made an announcement. “Ladies and gentleman, the heat is not working in the
compartment where the animals are kept. We cannot risk flying without heat for the animals.
We are going to turn around and land in Boston. Once the problem is fixed, we will be on our
way again.”
(5) Once we landed, I sent Charlie up to find out what was going on. He reported back that the
dog was just fine. I asked if we could get upgraded to first class. “They’re already working on
it,” Charlie replied. “Oh, and, Baxter is the only animal on the plane. Baxter just
singlehandedly turned around a plane of 350 people—and got us first class seats!”

      4. Which quotation from paragraph 1 best shows that the paragraph is written
from a first-person point of view?
a. I try to picture my parents dragging me and a dog across the Atlantic
Ocean to live in Germany for a year.
b. But they were not shy about setting off to new places.
c. They packed some of the weirdest things.
d. Did he think there would be no cookie sheets in the entire country
of Germany?

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GRADE 7 • UNIT 1 TEST

Name:       Date:      

5. The following question has two parts. Answer Part A first, and then Part B.

      Part A Which of the following is an accurate statement about the point of view
used in paragraphs 2 and 3?
a. The paragraphs are written from a third-person point of view, shown by
fact that the mother is the narrator.
b. The paragraphs are written from a third-person point of view, shown by
the fact that they were written in the past.
c. The paragraphs are written from a first-person point of view, shown by
the fact that the narrator uses the pronouns she and her.
d. The paragraphs are written from a first-person point of view, shown by
the fact that the narrator uses the pronouns I and we.

      Part B Which quotation from paragraphs 2 and 3 is a detail likely to be


revealed only from the point of view used?
a. We boarded the plane with everything we wanted to have for the
next year. (paragraph 2)
b. Two adults, one small child, one dog, six pieces of luggage . . .
(paragraph 2)
c. Near 11:00 p.m., we finally found ourselves “settled” on the plane . . .
(paragraph 3)
d. . . . I hoped that the other passengers wouldn’t think I was a bad parent!
(paragraph 3)

      6. Which of the following best states the contrast developed between the
characters’ perspectives in the passage?
a. The daughter shares her amusement about a past event. The mother tells
what is was like to live through the event.
b. The mother shares her amusement about a past event. The daughter tells
what is was like to live through the event.
c. The daughter shares happy memories of her childhood. The mother tells
about the negative parts as well.
d. The daughter sees only the negative side of the family voyage. The
mother takes a more positive view.

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GRADE 7 • UNIT 1 TEST

Name:       Date:      

      7. Which of the following is the most reasonable inference you can make about
the traits of a character in the passage?
a. The narrator’s mother is a professional writer.
b. The narrator loves to travel the world.
c. The narrator’s parents are not good problem solvers.
d. The narrator’s father is not always practical.

ANALYZE CRAFT AND STRUCTURE


Article: “Sojourner Truth: A Story of the Struggle for Freedom”
Sojourner Truth was a former slave who became a powerful human rights advocate. She
was involved in the antislavery movement and the women’s rights movement. Read the
following biography of Truth. Then, answer the question(s).
(1) The harsh conditions of slavery could break the spirit of even a strong person. The fact
that many enslaved African Americans went on to do great things upon gaining their freedom
is a testament to their determination and spirit. Sojourner Truth is one example of this spirit.

(2) Born a slave named Isabella, Truth was the second youngest of ten or twelve children. Her
brothers and sisters were all sold away while Truth was quite young, so she was unable to
recall how many there were. She knew of them from the stories her parents told. At the age
of nine, she was also sold away from her parents.

(3) Throughout her years in slavery, Truth’s personal life was at the mercy of those who claimed to
own her. She fell in love with another slave on a nearby farm, but the relationship was ended
by the farm’s owner. Truth’s owner pushed her into marriage with another man. Sold away
from her parents as a child, Truth grew up to see her own children sold away from her, too.
(4) By New York law, Truth was supposed to be freed on July 4, 1827. Her master, however,
promised to set her free a year earlier if she worked hard. He did not fulfill this promise,
though. When July 4, 1827 came, he again refused to free her. A few months later, Truth
took the matter into her own hands and walked away from his farm.

(5) Once she was free, Truth officially changed her name from Isabella to Sojourner Truth. She
worked to keep her family together. After her young son was illegally sold out of New York,
she sued in court for his return. Truth spent most of her life with some of her children and
grandchildren by her side, taking at least one with her whenever she traveled to speak out
for human rights. Her fight for her family and for the rights of all showed that her spirit and
determination had survived.

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GRADE 7 • UNIT 1 TEST

Name:       Date:      

      8. The following question has two parts. Answer Part A first, and then Part B.

      Part A Read the following sentences from the article.


Throughout her years in slavery, Truth’s personal life was at the mercy of those who
claimed to own her. She fell in love with another slave on a nearby farm, but the
relationship was ended by the farm’s owner.

Which words in these sentences are weighted words, revealing the author’s
point of view?
a. Throughout her years in slavery, Truth’s personal life
b. At the mercy of those who claimed to own her
c. She fell in love with another slave at a nearby farm
d. But the relationship was ended by the farm’s owner

      Part B What do the weighted words identified in Part A most clearly reveal
about the author’s point of view?
a. The author wants to emphasize that Truth was enslaved for far too long.
b. The author wants to emphasize that slavery is cruel and unjustifiable.
c. The author doubts that slaves could find happiness in love.
d. The author wishes that Truth had been able to marry earlier.

9. The following question has two parts. Answer Part A first, and then Part B.

      Part A Which statement best summarizes the author’s point of view in the
passage?
a. The author admires Truth’s strength.
b. The author wishes Truth had done more.
c. The author is saddened by Truth’s suffering.
d. The author hopes the reader will take Truth as a model.

      Part B Which quotation from the passage best supports the answer to Part A?
a. Her brothers and sisters were all sold away while Truth was quite
young, so she was unable to recall how many there were. (paragraph 2)
b. At the age of nine, she was also sold away from her parents.
(paragraph 2)
c. She fell in love with another slave on a nearby farm, but the relationship
was ended by the farm’s owner. (paragraph 3)
d. A few months later, Truth took the matter into her own hands and
walked away from his farm. (paragraph 4)

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GRADE 7 • UNIT 1 TEST

Name:       Date:      

ANALYZE CRAFT AND STRUCTURE


“Mark Takes the Stage”
Read the following passage from a memoir. Then, answer the question(s).
(1) Mark McManus was one of the best students and one of the shyest kids in our whole
school. He would hang around a few kids at recess, but other times he would keep to
himself, reading a book on the steps until it was time to go in. Sometimes, Mark would sit
scribbling things in the little black notebook he always kept in his pocket. Any time we would
ask him what he was writing, he would say, “Just writing,” and keep on scribbling.
(2) That’s why we were all so surprised when he entered the talent show. We couldn’t imagine
him standing up there in front of an entire auditorium full of students. When his turn came, he
pulled the microphone out of its stand, pulled that same little notebook out of his pocket, and
waiting for the music to begin. When it did, those same eyes that he usually kept glued to the
floor looked straight into the audience. The voice that always seemed to mumble now came
out loud and clear, with some of the smoothest hip-hop rhymes we had ever heard.

     10. Which quotation from the passage is an example of direct characterization?

a. Mark McManus was one of the shyest kids in our whole school.
(paragraph 1)
b. Sometimes, Mark would sit scribbling things in the little black notebook
he always kept in his pocket. (paragraph 1)
c. Any time we would ask him what he was writing, he would say, “Just
writing,” and keep on scribbling. (paragraph 2)
d. When it did, those same eyes that he usually kept glued to the floor
looked straight into the audience. (paragraph 2)

     11. Which of the following inferences about Mark’s character traits is most clearly
supported by the indirect characterization in the passage?
a. Mark is creative.
b. Mark is a good student.
c. Mark is nervous about performing.
d. Mark was only pretending to be shy.

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GRADE 7 • UNIT 1 TEST

Name:       Date:      

ANALYZE CRAFT AND STRUCTURE


“The Rainy Day,” Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Read the poem “The Rainy Day” by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. Then, answer
the question(s).
The day is cold, and dark, and dreary;
It rains, and the wind is never weary;
The vine still clings to the mouldering1 wall,
But at every gust the dead leaves fall,
5 And the day is dark and dreary.
My life is cold, and dark, and dreary;
It rains, and the wind is never weary;
My thoughts still cling to the mouldering Past,
But the hopes of youth fall thick in the blast,
10 And the days are dark and dreary.
Be still, sad heart! and cease repining2;
Behind the clouds is the sun still shining;
Thy fate is the common fate of all,
Into each life some rain must fall,
15 Some days must be dark and dreary.
          
1. mouldering: decaying; rotting
2. repining: complaining

     12. The following question has two parts. Answer Part A first, and then Part B.

      Part A In the third stanza, what is the sun likeliest to symbolize?
a. death
b. light
c. hope
d. knowledge

      Part B Which of the following is a theme most clearly conveyed by the
symbolism in Part A?
a. All good things must come to an end.
b. Hard times may come, but better times are ahead.
c. Even on the darkest days, the sun is still present.
d. One must deal with difficulties to gain true understanding.

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GRADE 7 • UNIT 1 TEST

Name:       Date:      

     13. Which of the following are most clearly symbols of disappointment in


the poem?
a. the vine and the wall
b. the rain and the wind
c. the day and the sun
d. the wall and the clouds

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT: Vocabulary

Identify the choice that best answers the question.

     14. The word sagacious means “wise.” The related word sagacity is formed by
adding the Latin suffix -ity to sagacious. Based on your knowledge of -ity,
choose the most likely meaning of sagacity.
a. act of saying something wise
b. appearance of wisdom
c. causing to be wise
d. quality of wisdom

     15. Which of the following is the meaning of the suffix -ment?

a. the result of an action


b. causing an action
c. capable or worthy of
d. the quality of

     16. Review the following definition of the word urge.


urge ask, persuade, or appeal to in a serious or energetic manner
In which sentence does the underlined word have the same denotation as urge
but a negative connotation? Choose all that apply.
a. I won’t cooperate if he continues to nag me in a whiny voice.
b. Miguel felt sorry, so he decided to plead for Mari’s forgiveness.
c. To goad me into making a bad decision, he starting calling me names.
d. To prevent Mai from buying the toy, Ha hid her purse.
e. Speaking passionately, the lawyer began to exhort the jury to acquit
her client.

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GRADE 7 • UNIT 1 TEST

Name:       Date:      

     17. Read the following sentences.


The harsh, abusive conditions of slavery could break the spirit of even a strong
person. The fact that many enslaved African Americans went on to do great things
upon gaining their freedom is a testament to their determination and spirit.
Sojourner Truth is one example of this spirit.
The word determination has multiple meanings. Based on context clues, choose
the definition of the word determination as it is used in the passage.
a. a decision
b. process of defining a thing’s characteristics
c. quality of having a strong purpose or resolve
d. precise calculation

     18. Read the following two sentences.


I. If you tend your garden carefully, your tomatoes will grow big and flavorful!
II. My cousins tend to arrive late to family events.
Which is most likely the meaning of the word tend in each sentence?
a. I: bring about a certain result; II: lead in a certain direction
b. I: care for; II: lead in a certain direction
c. I: care for; II: be likely to do something
d. I: be likely to do something; II: bring about a certain result

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT: Conventions and Style—Short Story


Read the following passage. Then, answer the question(s).
Daylight broke over the horizon. Light scattered across the wide, distant fields. Although it
was early, the heat already hung heavy in the air. From my perch on our front porch, I felt a
timid gentle breeze stir my long, brown hair. I tipped my head back and closed my eyes,
breathing in the air. With a burst of relief, I realized that rain was on its way.

Weeks had already come and gone without a break from the vicious sun. Day after day after
day, the main street and the park in Midville stood deserted. Sid, my sister, and I stayed in
shady corners and in front of old plastic fans that twisted back and forth, back and forth.
Conversations slowed, and our smiles melted.

Now, the breeze swept through the dry restless grass, whispering as it went. It began to
move more quickly, stirring the heavy air. Within the hour, the whisper had grown to a roar.
Trees bent in the wind. When I looked up, the sky opened, and the rain began to pour down.
Beneath it, children danced.

I didn’t know it then, but that single breeze would long stand out in my memory. It reminded
me that even the worst times will pass. If I wait long enough, relief will come, just like the
rain!

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GRADE 7 • UNIT 1 TEST

Name:       Date:      

     19. Which underlined word in the sentence from the passage is a possessive
pronoun?
a. I didn’t know it then, but that single breeze would long stand out in my
memory.
b. I didn’t know it then, but that single breeze would long stand out in my
memory.
c. I didn’t know it then, but that single breeze would long stand out in my
memory.
d. I didn’t know it then, but that single breeze would long stand out in my
memory.

     20. Which of the following sentences from the passage has a dependent clause
underlined?
a. I tipped my head back and closed my eyes, breathing in the air.
b. Weeks had already come and gone without a break from the vicious sun.
c. Within the hour, the whisper had grown to a roar.
d. If I wait long enough, relief will come, just like the rain!

     21. Which of the following sentences uses a coordinating conjunction?

a. I tipped my head back and closed my eyes, breathing in the air.


b. With a burst of relief, I realized that rain was on its way.
c. It reminded me that even the worst times will pass.
d. If I wait long enough, relief will come, just like the rain!

     22. Which of the following sentences use a subordinating conjunction? Choose


two that apply.
a. Although it was early, the heat already hung heavy in the air.
b. Conversations slowed, and our smiles melted.
c. Within the hour, the whisper had grown to a roar.
d. I didn’t know it then, but that single breeze would long stand out in my
memory.
e. If I wait long enough, relief will come, just like the rain!

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GRADE 7 • UNIT 1 TEST

Name:       Date:      

     23. Which of the following underlined phrases from the passage is an independent
clause? Choose three that apply.
a. Although it was early, the heat already hung heavy in the air.
b. I tipped my head back and closed my eyes, breathing in the breeze.
c. Now, the breeze swept through the dry restless grass, whispering as it
went.
d. Beneath it, children danced.
e. It reminded me that even the worst times will pass.
f. If I wait long enough, relief will come, just like the rain!

     24. Rewrite the following sentences from the passage. In your rewrite, replace one
proper noun with a common noun of your choice. Replace one common noun
with a proper noun of your choice. Identify your replacements with “(P)” for
“proper” and “(C)” for “common.”
Day after day after day, the main street and the park in Midville stood deserted. Sid,
my sister, and I stayed in shady corners and in front of old plastic fans that twisted
back and forth, back and forth.

     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

     25. Which of the following sentences from the passage should be revised to show
correctly punctuated coordinate adjectives?
a. Light scattered across the wide, distant fields.
b. Sid, my sister, and I stayed in shady corners and in front of old plastic
fans . . .
c. Now, the breeze swept through the dry restless grass, whispering as it
went.
d. I didn’t know it then, but that single breeze would long stand out in my
memory.

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GRADE 7 • UNIT 1 TEST

Name:       Date:      

     26. Read the following sentence from the passage.


It began to move more quickly, stirring the heavy air.
Which answer choice correctly identifies the two adverbs in the sentence and
the words they modify?
a. “began” modifies “it”; “more” modifies “move”
b. “more” modifies “move”; “quickly” modifies “move”
c. “more” modifies “quickly”; “quickly” modifies “move”
d. “quickly” modifies “move”; “heavy” modifies “air”

     27. In the following sentence from the passage, there are two errors in punctuation.
Revise the sentence to correct the errors.
From my perch on our front porch, I felt a timid gentle breeze stir my long, brown
hair.

     
     
     

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT: Conventions


and Style
from “The Rainy Day,” Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Read this excerpt from “The Rainy Day” by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. Then, answer
the question(s).
The day is cold, and dark, and dreary;
It rains, and the wind is never weary;
The vine still clings to the mouldering1 wall,
But at every gust the dead leaves fall,
5 And the day is dark and dreary.
My life is cold, and dark, and dreary;
It rains, and the wind is never weary;
My thoughts still cling to the mouldering Past,
But the hopes of youth fall thick in the blast,
10 And the days are dark and dreary.

     28. Which of the following best explains the effect of the repetition of phrases in
these two stanzas?
a. It helps the reader imagine the action described in the poem.
b. It suggests that despite changes, some things remain the same.
c. It provides a contrast between the ideas in the two stanzas.
d. It emphasizes the comparison between the ideas in the two stanzas.

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GRADE 7 • UNIT 1 TEST

Name:       Date:      

EFFECTIVE EXPRESSION: Writing and Editing


Leni is writing a personal narrative. Read the draft of her introduction and her notes,
and then complete the task or answer the question(s).
Take My Advice
It used to frustrate me when someone said, “Take my advice . . .” I always wanted to answer,
“I will ask for your advice if I would like it. If I don’t ask, I don’t want any advice!” But then I
had an experience that made me think twice about listening.

When I was young, my mother often said to me “If you put yourself in the center of
everything, you don’t leave room for anyone else.” I heard her words, but I shrugged them
off. Her advice didn’t sink in until years later. I was organizing a party for my birthday. I had
started making plans a few weeks before. Every time I came up with a new idea I eagerly
told my friends about it. I had decided what movie we would watch, what we would eat, what
games we would play—everything. My friends liked my first few ideas. They became less
and less positive with every new idea I added.

I was confused. My friends were clearly growing less, not more, interested in coming. Finally,
I asked what was going on.

Leni made these notes about her personal narrative.

I talked a lot about myself.


I didn’t ask what my friends would like to do.
I forgot my friend Margo has peanut allergies.
I assumed Martin could miss his family reunion for my party.
My friends were hurt they weren’t included in the planning.
My mother’s advice started to make a lot of sense.

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GRADE 7 • UNIT 1 TEST

Name:       Date:      

29. Drawing on details from Leni’s notes, write the rest of the paragraph that
begins with the underlined sentences, and conclude the narrative. In your
paragraph, use precise language to further develop the characters and events.

     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

30. Read these sentences from the essay.


My friends liked my first few ideas. They became less and less positive with every
new idea I added.
Rewrite the sentences, replacing the two underlined words with more precise
words or phrases.
     
     
     

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