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DISCIPLINE IDEAS IN SOCIAL SCIENCE (DISS)

Prepared by: TAM GERALD P. CALZADO/Instructor for Humanities and Social Sciences (HUMSS) Grade 11
Eastern Samar State University, Borongan City 6800

MODULE 1: EMERGENCE OF THE SOCIAL SCIENCES

 Social Sciences – are the fields of scholarship/study of human society and of individual relationships in and to
society.
 FIELDS OF STUDY
1. Anthropology – study of humanity’s origins, customs and beliefs.
 Social-Cultural Anthropology – interested in exploring the possibility of the evolution of society and
culture. Associations: Economic Anthropology, Political Anthropology, Psychological Anthropology,
Ecological Anthropology, Ethno-archeology, Anthropology of Religion
 Physical (Biological) Anthropology – attempts to explore human mystery related to their origin,
differentiation, diversities and distribution. Associations: Primatology, Ethnology, Human biology,
Paleontology, Human Genetics, Nutritional Anthropology, Medical Anthropology, Physiological
Anthropology, Forensic Anthropology, Dental Anthropology, Human Growth and Development,
Anthropometry, Ergonomy, Demography, Ethology
 Archeological Anthropology – attempts to trace the origin, growth and development of culture in the past.
 Linguistic Anthropology – branch of anthropology that deals with language; it is concerned with the
languages of all people, past and present as it is the chief vehicle through which man preserves and
transmits his culture from generation to generation.
 Applied Anthropology

2. Economics – study concerned with the use of goods and services.


 Macroeconomics – concerned with whole aggregate economy. Issues such as inflation, economic growth
and trade.
 Microeconomics – concerned with individual markets and small aspects of the economy.
 Associations: Behavioral Economics, Business Economics, Constitutional Economics, Development
Economics, Environmental Economics, Energy Economics, Industrial Economics, Labor Economics,
Econometrics, Urban Economics

3. Geography – study of the earth’s surface and physical features, climate, products and population.
 Human Geography – major branch that studies people and their interaction with the earth and with their
organization of space on the earth’s surface. Associations: Economic Geography, Population Geography,
Geography of Religions, Medical Geography, Military Geography, Political Geography, Agricultural and
Rural Geography, Transportation Geography, Urban Geography
 Physical Geography – major branch concerned with the natural features on or near the surface of the
earth. Associations: Biogeography, Water Resources, Climate, Global Change, Geomorphology, Hazards
Geography, Mountain Geography, Cryosphere Geography, Arid Regions, Coastal and Marine Geography,
Soils Geography
 Other branches include:
a) Regional Geography – specializing in specific region of the planet combining regional specialty with
other branches of geography;
b) Applied Geography – uses geographic knowledge, skills and techniques to solve problems in society.
c) Cartography – focuses on improving and developing technologies in map-making.

4. History – study of human affairs and past events; important sequence of events; emphasis on cause and effect
regarding decisions made by those in power.
 Military History – refers to warfare, strategies, battles, weapons and combat psychology
 History of Religion – topics range from political, cultural and artistic dimensions to theology and liturgy.
 Social History – field that includes history of ordinary people and their strategies and institutions to deal
with life.
 Cultural History – examines narrative records and descriptions of knowledge, customs and past arts of a
group of people.
 Diplomatic History – focuses on relations between nations, mainly with respect to diplomacy and the
causes of wars.
DISCIPLINE IDEAS IN SOCIAL SCIENCE (DISS)
Prepared by: TAM GERALD P. CALZADO/Instructor for Humanities and Social Sciences (HUMSS) Grade 11
Eastern Samar State University, Borongan City 6800
 Economic History – deals with history of individual business organizations, business methods, government
regulation, labor relations, and impact on society.
 Environmental History – study of human interaction with the natural world over time.
 World History – the field that examines the story from a global perspective.
 Universal History – aims at presenting the history of humanity as a whole, as a coherent unit.
 Intellectual History – focuses on intellectuals and their books, as well as a study of ideas.
 Public History – describes the wide range of activities carried out by people with some background in the
discipline of history who works outside academic settings. Associations: historical conservation, archival
science, oral history, curatorship.
 History of the Arts – includes study of the history of architecture, sculpture, painting, music, dance, theatre,
motion pictures, television and literature.

5. Linguistics – scientific study of language and its structure (i.e. morphology, syntax, phonetics and semantics).
 Sociolinguistics – study of language and society
 Stylistics – study of language and literature
 Psycholinguistics – study of language and the mind
 Computational Linguistics – simulation of language by use of computers
 Comparative Linguistics – study of different languages and their respective linguistic systems
 Historical Linguistics – study of language change overtime
 Applied Linguistics – study of language teaching

6. Political Science – study of government and its structure and activity associated with it.
 Political Theory – concepts and principles used to analyze political events and institutions
 Comparative Politics – study of various political systems
 International Relations – explain how international systems work
 Political Behavior – explains the influences that defines a person’s political views, ideology and levels of
participation
 Public Policy – government maintains order and address the needs of its citizens
 Public Administration – field of service that maintains a civil society and provides for the needs of the
public
 Associations: Normative Political Theory and Political Philosophy, Political Behavior and Identities, Political
Economy, Political Institutions, Political Methodology, Security, Peace and Conflict

7. Psychology – scientific study of behavior and the mind.


 Pure branches – provide theoretical framework like formulation of principles, theories and different methods
for the assessment of human behavior
a) General Psychology – deals with fundamental rules, principles and theories of psychology in relation
to the study of behavior of normal adult human beings
b) Physiological Psychology – describes biological basis of behavior
c) Developmental Psychology – explains growth and development of various processes in relation to
behavior
d) Child Psychology – deals with aspects of childhood growth and development
e) Animal Psychology – deals with behavior of animals which are generalized to human behavior
f) Abnormal Psychology – deals with various kinds of mental disorders, their symptoms and causes
g) Social Psychology – deals with the interrelationships of people among themselves, likes and dislikes
of people, attitudes and interests, the prejudices and social distances people have, group behavior,
group cohesiveness, conflicts and such
h) Biopsychology – looks at the role the brain and neurotransmitters play in influencing our thoughts,
feelings and behavior; this combines neuroscience with psychology
i) Cognitive Psychology – deals with mental processes such as thoughts, memory and problem solving
j) Social Psychology – focused on psychological aspects of individuals within a community environment
exploring characteristics such as interdependence, adaptation, diplomacy, empowerment, social justice
and such
DISCIPLINE IDEAS IN SOCIAL SCIENCE (DISS)
Prepared by: TAM GERALD P. CALZADO/Instructor for Humanities and Social Sciences (HUMSS) Grade 11
Eastern Samar State University, Borongan City 6800
k) Parapsychology – study of extra sensory perceptions (esp or sixth sense) such as clairvoyance,
telepathy, psychokinesis, precognition, reincarnation and contacting souls.
 Applied branches – deal with the application of psychological principles and techniques
a) Educational Psychology – addresses the problems and improvements in teaching and learning
processes
b) Clinical Psychology – deals with therapeutic aspects of mental disorders
c) Industrial Psychology – addresses practical problems in the workplace through application of
psychological principles
d) Forensic Psychology – application of psychology to law making, law enforcement, examination of
witnesses, and the treatment of criminals; also known as legal psychology

8. Sociology – systematic study of relationship among people;


 Social Morphology – studies geographical aspects of society such as how density of population affects
society
 Social Physiology – studies influence of religion, law, economy and other aspects on society
 General Sociology – philosophical part of sociology which aims to discover laws from social associations
Modern Branches:
 Historical Sociology – studies background of social events
 Sociology of knowledge – tries to show that all things we know come predetermined by social phenomena
and social relations
 Criminology – studies criminal behavior of individuals or groups
 Political Sociology – studies interrelationship between society and politics
 Human Ecology – studies relation of humans with their natural, social and built environment
 Associations: Rural Sociology, Urban Sociology, Sociology of Demography, Economic Sociology, Sociology
of Culture

9. Demography – interdisciplinary study of human populations, its characteristics and development through time.
 Formal Demography – limits its object of study to the measurement of population processes
 Social Demography – analyses relationships between economic, social, cultural and biological processes
influencing a population; also known as population studies

Activity 1. Future Plans. General Instruction: Please write as legibly as you can (though you may have this typewritten).
Each paragraph should have at least 3 sentences. Kindly print/write in an A4 size paper. Please do not forget to indicate the
following at the top of your paper/s:

NAME: ______________________________________ DISS


GRADE/STRAND: HUMSS 11 Date of Submission: ___________

As you have read, the social sciences comes with a huge variety of fields that one can choose to study and specialize in. As a
Humanities and Social Science (HUMSS) student, what field of study appeals to you? Choose one field of study (though you
may opt to have more) and write an essay about it by answering the following guide questions:

1. What do you hope to be/to do in the future? Kindly choose one field of study and search for a prospect course
(should be linked to the chosen field of study).
2. What are the reasons and/or your motivations in choosing this field of study/course? How do you think your chosen
field can change the Filipino society for the better?
3. What are your future plans for you to finish your chosen field/course?
DISCIPLINE IDEAS IN SOCIAL SCIENCE (DISS)
Prepared by: TAM GERALD P. CALZADO/Instructor for Humanities and Social Sciences (HUMSS) Grade 11
Eastern Samar State University, Borongan City 6800

Activity 2. Be Like Your Idol. Please write as legibly as you can (though you may have this typewritten). Kindly print/write in
an A4 size paper. Please do not forget to indicate the following at the top of your paper/s:

NAME: ______________________________________ DISS


GRADE/STRAND: HUMSS 11 Date of Submission: ___________

As you finish your HUMSS and choose your course, you will encounter the founders and contributors of that field. For this
activity, kindly choose three (3) fields of study (preferably linked to your prospect courses), then for each of your chosen fields,
search for one (1) foreign and one (1) local founder/contributor/author. Kindly follow the following guide:

Field of Study: __________________________________


Name (Foreign Contributor): _______________________
Brief Profile: (include only place of origin and the school/university he/she made the contribution)
Contribution: (at least one contribution – either a book/idea and a brief description of the book/idea/contribution to the field.
At least three (3) sentences of description of book/idea/contribution).

Field of Study: __________________________________


Name (Local Contributor): _______________________
Brief Profile: (include only place of origin and the school/university he/she made the contribution)
Contribution: (at least one contribution – either a book/idea and a brief description of the book/idea/contribution to the field.
At least three (3) sentences of description of book/idea/contribution. Nb. You may search about local university professors).

Sources:

 https://www.civilserviceindia.com/subject/Anthropology/notes/main-branches-of-anthropology.html
 https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economics#Branches_of_economics
 https://www.economicshelp.org/blog/141461/economics/branches-of-economics/
 https://www.thoughtco.com/branches-of-geography-1435592
 https://www.lifepersona.com/what-are-the-12-branches-of-history
 https://www.britannica.com/topic/historiography/Branches-of-history
 https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-349-27748-3_6
 https://quizlet.com/216343740/branches-of-political-science-flash-cards/
 https://polisci.duke.edu/undergraduate/fields
 http://www.psychologydiscussion.net/branch/branches-of-psychology-different-branches-of-psychology/544
 https://www.sacap.edu.za/blog/psychology/types-of-psychology/
 https://education.onehowto.com/article/what-are-the-main-branches-of-sociology-9927.html
 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demography
DISCIPLINE IDEAS IN SOCIAL SCIENCE (DISS)
Prepared by: TAM GERALD P. CALZADO/Instructor for Humanities and Social Sciences (HUMSS) Grade 11
Eastern Samar State University, Borongan City 6800

STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALISM

Overview
 Views society as a complex system with many interdependent parts wherein the parts work together to promote
social stability and order
Theorists
 Emile Durkheim draws an analogy between the way a biological organism works and society. The various organs of
a living thing work together in order to maintain a healthy whole in much the same way that various institutions in
society work together to produce social order.
 Max Weber believed that Bureaucratic coordination of human action is the distinctive mark of modern social
structures. Further, he stated that, in a society, there should be:
 Hierarchy of authority
 Written rules of conduct
 Promotion should be based on achievement
 Specialized division of labor

Consensus and Conflict Theory

 Consensus
 Sees shared norms and values as fundamentals to society
 Focuses on social order based on tacit/unspoken agreements
 Examines value integration in society
 Absence of conflict as the equilibrium state
 A collection of theories in which social order and stability is the base of emphasis
 Concerned with the maintenance or continuation of social order in relation to norms, values, rules, etc.
 Emphasizes the dominance some social groups
 Social order as based on manipulation and control by dominant groups
 Asks how schools contribute to the unequal distribution of people into jobs in society
 Education plays a big part in maintaining the prestige, power, and economic and social position of the
dominant
 Conflict
 The powerful classes dominate education
 All education is experienced through the knowledge that is approved for each social class
 Formal educational structures support the preferences of the elite

 Four (4) Primary Assumptions of Modern Conflict Theory


 Competition
 Structural Inequality
 Revolution
 War

Activity 1: Concept Map. Write at least 3 ideas of the word CONSENSUS.

Activity 2: Group Work. Each group will present their own ideas of the roles or functions of the following
organizations/structures of the society:
1. FAMILY
2. CHURCH
3. SCHOOL
4. GOVERNMENT
5. MEDIA

As your guide, kindly look into the following process questions:


1. How does each institution work in society according to structural-functionalism?
2. How important are the social functions of social structure to the stability of society?
3. Looking into Max Weber’s theory, what concrete examples can you cite? Kindly cite historical issues and resolutions,
locally, nationally or internationally to support your answer.
DISCIPLINE IDEAS IN SOCIAL SCIENCE (DISS)
Prepared by: TAM GERALD P. CALZADO/Instructor for Humanities and Social Sciences (HUMSS) Grade 11
Eastern Samar State University, Borongan City 6800

STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALISM (cont..)

Durkheim and Functionalism


1. Successful socialization into the value consensus. People in society have shared goals, roles and norms which
enable people to operate.
2. Social integration. Durkheim believed that subjects such as history, language and religious education link the
individual to society, past and present, by promoting a sense of pride in the historical and religious achievements of
their nation. He argued the main function of religion is to socialize society’s members into value consensus by
investing certain values with a sacred quality
3. Social Control. Once members of society have been socialized into values, they need to be regulated by having
social control (formal and informal) since without social control, society would be disordered.
4. Specialized division of labor. Education encourages learning skills and attitudes through exams and qualifications so
that we can work in jobs that suit our abilities; families encourage us to commit to a career. We can therefore make
our own valuable contribution to society – working within the various social institutions.

Parsons and Functionalism


 Used organic analogy identifying 3 similarities of society with biological organisms:
 Both are self-regulating systems of interrelated interdependent parts that fit together in fixed ways
 Both have needs which must be met in order to survive (e.g. members must be socialized and organisms
need nutrition
 The functions maintain the system ensuring its survival (e.g. circulatory system and economy)
 Social order is achieved through a central values system or shared culture: a set of norms, values, beliefs and goals
shared by society. Value consensus is the glue that holds society together. This is made possible by integrating
individuals into the social system and directing them towards meeting the system’s needs. There are 2 system
mechanisms to ensure conformity:
 Socialization – process by which an individual learns or internalizes the culture of society. Through
socialization in the family, education, work, etc., individuals internalize the system’s norms and values so
society becomes part of their personality structure
 Social control – positive sanctions reward conformity, negative ones punish deviance (e.g. education
success = degrees/qualifications; those who deviate dropout = stigmatized as layabouts
 Socialization and social control ensure we each follow society’s shared norms, and this enables others to
predict our behavior with confidence which makes cooperation easier: they are motivated pursuing society’s
goals.
 Parts of the social system:
 Individual actions – each action we perform is governed by a system of specific norms/rules
 Status-roles – are ‘clusters’ or sets of norms that tells us how the occupant of a status must act (e.g.
teachers must be knowledgeable)
 Institutions – are clusters of status-roles (e.g. the family is an institution made up of roles such as parents)
 Sub-systems – groups of related institutions (e.g. shops, farms, factories form part of the economic sub-
system)
 Social system – subsystems together make up the social system as a whole
DISCIPLINE IDEAS IN SOCIAL SCIENCE (DISS)
Prepared by: TAM GERALD P. CALZADO/Instructor for Humanities and Social Sciences (HUMSS) Grade 11
Eastern Samar State University, Borongan City 6800
 Building Block Model

 GAIL Schema. Society is a system with its own needs. In this, Parson identifies 4 basic needs: GAIL:
 Goal attainment. Society needs to set goals and allocate resources to achieve them (political subsystem
e.g. Parliament)
 Adaptation of the environment to meet people’s material needs (economic subsystem e.g. shelter, food)
 Integration. The different parts of the system must be integrated together to pursue shared goals
(subsystem: religion, education, media)
 Latency. Refers to processes that maintain society overtime. The kinship subsystem provides ‘pattern
maintenance’ and ‘tension management’ ensuring individuals are motivated to continue performing their
roles.

Prerequisite or Description/explanation Sub-system


system need

Integration Coordinating all parts of the system to achieve Cultural/community organisations. For example,
shared goals, with people having a sense of the mass media, education and religion
belonging to society. Socialisation into shared socialise individuals into conformity to social
beliefs, values and goals promotes social norms and values and the criminal justice
harmony and solidarity with social control to system and other social control agencies restrict
prevent deviance. any threats to social order.
Latency (or pattern Minimizing social tensions and interpersonal Family and kinship
maintenance) conflicts which might prevent individuals and For example, the family is a key agency of
society working efficiently, and socialization and social control: a place to
preserving/maintain commitment to culture and recharge batteries, let off steam and escape
pattern of values and recover from the stresses and influences of
daily life outside the family.
Integration Coordinating all parts of the system to achieve Cultural/community organisations. For example,
shared goals, with people having a sense of the mass media, education and religion
belonging to society. Socialisation into shared socialise individuals into conformity to social
beliefs, values and goals promotes social norms and values and the criminal justice
harmony and solidarity with social control to system and other social control agencies restrict
prevent deviance. any threats to social order.
Latency (or pattern Minimizing social tensions and interpersonal Family and kinship
maintenance) conflicts which might prevent individuals and For example, the family is a key agency of
society working efficiently, and socialization and social control: a place to
preserving/maintain commitment to culture and recharge batteries, let off steam and escape
pattern of values and recover from the stresses and influences of
daily life outside the family.
DISCIPLINE IDEAS IN SOCIAL SCIENCE (DISS)
Prepared by: TAM GERALD P. CALZADO/Instructor for Humanities and Social Sciences (HUMSS) Grade 11
Eastern Samar State University, Borongan City 6800
 Parson’s Types of Society
Traditional Society Modern Society
• Ascribed status (fixed at birth, not to do with • Achievement status is based on performance
what you have achieved such as effort in education – i.e. what you do,
not who you are or who you know
• Diffuseness: relationships have a broad range • Specificity - relationships are narrow and
of purposes e.g. on the family farm – relatives limited to specific purposes (e.g. lawyer and
are also workmates client)
• Particularism: norms emphasise treating • Universalism – Norms emphasis everyone
people differently e.g. employing someone just being treated the same (e.g. giving the job to
because they’re a relative the best qualified person)
• Affectivity – immediate gratification of desires, • Affective neutrality – Deferred gratification
e.g. leaving school early to start earning e.g. staying on at school
• Collective orientation: putting the groups • Self orientation – individualism, pursuing one’s
interests first own self-interest.
 Structural differentiation – gradual processes in which separate, functionally specialized institutions develop, each
meeting a different need. Institutions evolve as they produce different needs, e.g. Industrialization occurs in the
institution of work needs a better educated workforce to cope with new skills; therefore the education system evolves
to limit the potential disruptive effects of anomie (lack of usual social or ethical standards in individual or group).
 Dynamic equilibrium – change occurs gradually in one part of the system producing compensatory changes in
other parts, e.g. a change in industry can bring about change in the family.
 Unique Concepts:
 FUNCTIONS & DYSFUNCTIONS. Functions are intended (manifest) or unintended (latent) and have a
positive effect on society; dysfunctions can also be manifest or latent though dysfunctions are usually
unintended or unrecognized and have a negative effect on society.
 MANIFEST & LATENT FUNCTIONS & DYSFUNCTIONS. Manifest. Consequences that people observe or
expect. It is explicitly stated and understood by the participants in the relevant action. Latent. Neither
recognized nor intended. A latent function of a behavior is not explicitly stated, recognized, or intended by
the people involved. Thus, they are identified by observers. E.g. Rain dance (Merton, 1967) – the manifest
function is to produce rain, and this outcome is intended and desired by people participating in the ritual; the
latent function would be that it reinforces the group identity by providing a regular opportunity for the
members of a group to meet and engage in a common activity. E.g. Dysfunctions: Manifest dysfunctions
are anticipated disruptions of social life, e.g. a manifest dysfunction of a festival might include disruptions of
transportation and excessive production of garbage; Latent dysfunctions are unintended and
unanticipated disruptions of order and stability, e.g. in a festival, people may miss work due to the traffic
jam.

Sources:
 https://study.com/academy/lesson/structural-functional-theory-in-sociology-definition-examples-quiz.html
 https://www.britannica.com/topic/structural-functionalism
 http://routledgesoc.com/category/profile-tags/structural-functionalism
 https://www.slideshare.net/elenitaramosmiranda/structural-functionalism-70863050
DISCIPLINE IDEAS IN SOCIAL SCIENCE (DISS)
Prepared by: TAM GERALD P. CALZADO/Instructor for Humanities and Social Sciences (HUMSS) Grade 11
Eastern Samar State University, Borongan City 6800

MARXISM

Developed by Karl Marx (and to some extent by Friedrich Engels) in the 19th century with their work titled The Communist
Manifesto, became the antithesis for capitalism and gave birth to the idea of communism with the Soviet Marxism or Leninism
(Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin) in the Soviet Union and Mao Zedong’s Marxism-Leninism in Asia (China).

Key points of Marxism: Perspectives


 Under Capitalism there are two basic classes – the bourgeois (or the rich and middle class) and the
proletariat (or the working class, the lowest class of the society). These politics of economic class structure of
the society, according to Marx, promotes inequities and inequalities in society. Marx critiqued capitalism both as an
economic system and as a social conditional wherein he argued that capitalism is at the heart of class struggle
between these 2 existing classes. He argued the bourgeoisie owned the means of production (factories, etc.) and
employed the workers exploitatively. By paying their workers less than the value of their labor they are able to extract
surplus value (profits) which is the engine of capitalism. Further, proletariats are persuaded to accept this situation
through a combination of coercion and ideology (the latter causing false class consciousness).
 Control of the Economic Base means control of the superstructure. According to Marx, those who have
economic power control all other institutions. During Marx’s day, there was some evidence to suggest this was true –
voting was restricted to men with property; press barons used their papers to spread propaganda; and only the
children of the wealth could get to a university.
 The bourgeois use their control of institutions to keep the masses ignorant of their exploitation known as ideological
control. According to Marx this was mainly done through the mass media and religion. Ideological control result in
false consciousness wherein individuals not being aware of their true class position or their exploitation by the ruling
class. As if they are in a state of illusion.
 Capitalism causes alienation. Under capitalism the worker becomes alienated from the process of production, from
the people he works with and from the products they produce. This is because he lacks control over his work and
becomes a ‘machine’, and thus work appears as ‘alien’ to him.
 Relation between labor and capital. Focused on the conditions of work, wages, and rights of workers differ from
economy to economy and how these things shift as economic systems shifts and as technologies evolve that
influence production.
 Relations between culture, social life and economy. Marx paid attention to the relationship between the base and
superstructure or the connections between the economy and relations of production and the cultural realms of ideas,
values, beliefs and worldviews. Marxist sociologists today remain focused on the relations between these things, with
a keen interest in how advanced global capitalism (and the mass consumerism that comes with it) influences our
values, expectations, identities, relationships with others, and our everyday lives.
 Connections between critical consciousness and progressive social change. Much of Marx’s theoretical work
and activism was focused on understanding how to liberate the consciousness of the masses from domination by the
capitalist system, and following that, to foster egalitarian (believing in the principle that people should be equaland
deserve equal rights and opportunities) social change.
 Marx’s ideas on Capitalism and social change – competition leads to increasing levels of exploitation. Marx
argued that capitalism had sown its own seeds of destruction wherein it would eventually create the social condition
leading to its downfall. In order to stay competitive, capitalists would have to sell goods at lower prices, which would
mean reduced profit. This would then encourage capitalist to seek to reduce wages and increase efficiency, making
the working conditions of the proletariat worse. Marx theorized that increasing numbers of increasingly exploited
proletariats crammed into ever expanding cities would eventually lead to a violent revolution overthrowing their
oppressors.
 Revolution and Communism. Marx argued that following the overthrow, society would eventually organize itself
along communist lines, where the means of production are collectively owned (no private property) and everyone has
equal wealth. Marx was vague about exactly what the Communist society would look like but argued that in this
society, each would give according to their ability and take according to their needs and that there would be a lot
more free time for all.
 Others. Today, this approach is also used by sociologist to study issues of gender, race, sexuality, ability and
nationality among others.

Sources:
 https://www.britannica.com/topic/Marxism
 https://revisesociology.com/2016/04/10/the-marxist-perspective-on-society/
 https://www.allaboutphilosophy.org/what-is-marxism-faq.htm
 https://www.thoughtco.com/marxist-sociology-3026397