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# JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5

CHAPTER 6: WAVE

## 6.1 Understanding Waves

1. Motion of Waves
A wave front is a line or plane on which the vibration of every points on it are in phase
and are at the………….(same/different) position from the source of the water.

## 2. When we use a fingertip to touch the surface of water repeatedly, ……....(circular/plane)

wavefronts are produced.

3. Types of waves
There are 2 types of waves :-
(a) ……………….
(b) ……………….

4. Transverse wave
(i). Transverse wave is a wave in which the vibration of particles in the medium is
at ……………….. (parallel/perpendicular) to the direction of propagation of the wave.
A A

B B

A = … ……………….(crest / compression)

B = …………………..(rarefaction /trough)

## (ii). Example of transverse wave:

i. ……………………………………..
ii……………………………………...
iii……………………………………..
5. Longitudinal waves
(i) A longitudinal is a wave in which the vibration of particles in the medium is
……………………….(parallel / proportional) to the direction of propagation
of wave. P
P

Q Q
(ii) Example of longitudinal wave:…………………………..
P = …………………..(crest / compression)
Q = …………………..(rarefaction / trough)

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A
C A

B B

Figure 6.20

## 1. Equilibrium position is …………………………………………………………….

2. One complete oscillation of the pendulum occurs when the pendulum bob moves from
…………............

## 3. The period, T of a vibrating system is ……………………………………………...

4. Frequency, f is ……………………………………………………
The S.I. unit is ……………..
1 n
f = or f =
T t

## 5. Stroboscope is use to ……………………………………..

Stroboscope frequency = number of slits x rotation frequency of stroboscope
or f = np

6. Wave speed
If the wavelength of the wave is λ , the waves move forward a distance of f x λ
per second. Therefore, the speed of waves, v
v=f λ

Frequency, f
Question 3 The number of complete oscillations per
In an experiment , Lim observes that a simple second.
Question
pendulum 2completes 30 ascillations in 48.0 The S.I. unit is Hertz (Hz)
A child on
seconds. a swing
What is makes 20 complete
2 swings in The number off complete
= 1 oscillations
or f = per
n
30 seconds.
the period ofWhat is the frequency of the
oscillation? second. T t
oscillation?
The frequency of oscillation? The S.I. unit is Hertz (Hz)
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5
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0 0

Exercise 6.1

Figure 6.10

1. (a) The wavelength of the wave in the diagram above is given by letter ……….

(b) The amplitude of the wave in the diagram above is given by letter …………

## 2. Indicate the interval which represents one full wavelength.

Figure 6.11

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Exercise 6.11

## 1. In an experiment , Lim observes that a simple pendulum completes 30 oscillations in

15.0 seconds. What is
(a) the frequency of oscillation?
(b) the period of oscillation?

(a) f = 30/15 = 2 Hz
(b) T = 1/f
= 1/2
= 0.5 s

2. Displacement/cm

5
0 2 4 6 Time/s
-5

1
f= Hz
T

= 0.25 Hz

Displacement/cm
5
0 6
2 4
-5 Distance/cm

## 3. Based in the displacement-distance graph of a wave, find

(a) the amplitude
(b) the wavelength of the wave

(a) amplitude = 5 cm
(b) Wavelength = 0.4 cm

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## 4. A transverse wave is found to have a distance of 4 cm from a trough to a crest, a

frequency of 12 Hz, and a distance of 5 cm from a crest to the nearest trough. Determine
the amplitude, period, wavelength and speed of such a wave.

## 5. A girl moves a long slinky spring at a frequency of 3 Hz to produce a transverse wave

with a wavelength of 0.5 m. What is the wave speed of the waves along the slinky
spring?

6.0 cm

6. The figure shows a wavefront pattern in a ripple tank produced by a vibrating dipper at
frequency of 5 Hz. What is the wave speed?

f = 5 Hz
λ = 6.0/4 = 1.5 cm
V=fλ
= 7.5 cm s-1

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4.5 cm

7. The figure shows a wavefront pattern in a ripple tank produced by a vibrating dipper at
frequency of 5 Hz. What is the wave speed?

f = 5 Hz
λ = 4.5/3 = 1.5 cm
V=f λ
= 7.5 cm s-1

20 cm (5λ)
8. A mechanical stroboscope has 12 slits and rotates at a frequency 5 Hz. The stroboscope
is used to observe water waves. The observer notes there are 6 successive bright bands at a
distance 20 cm. Calculate the speed of the water waves.

f=np λ = 20/5
= 4 cm
= 12 x 5 V=fλ
= 60 Hz = 60 x 4
= 240 cm s-1

9. The figure shows a loudspeaker produces a sound with a frequency 300 Hz. Calculate
(a) the wavelength.
(b) the speed of sound
(a) 0.6 m
(b) V = f λ
= 300 x 0.5

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= 150 m s-1

10. A given wave travels at a speed of 2 x 105 ms-1. If the frequency of the wave is 1000 Hz,
Calculate the wavelength
λ= v/f
2 x10 5
= = 200 m
1000

## 11. (a) Base on the figure determine,

(i) the amplitude
(ii) the wave length
(b) What is the frequency of the sound if the speed of sound is 330 ms-1.
(a) (i) 2 cm
(ii) 50 cm

(b) f = v / λ
= 330 / 0.5
= 660 Hz

Damping

Figure 6.12

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1. Damping is a …………………………………………………………………………..

## 2. When a system is damped , the amplitude of the of oscillation …………….

(decreases/increases) slowly until the system stops oscillating.

## 3. Damping is usually caused by :-

(i) external frictional forces such as air resistance
(ii) internal forces , where energy is lost from the system in form of heat.

Resonans
A resonance isthe phenomenon when the oscilating system is driven at its natural frequency by
……………………………………………………
a periodic force.
……………………………………………………………………………..

## Experiment to show a phenomenon of resonance

E
A
B D
C
Figure 6.12: Barton’s pendulum

Pendulum B and D are the same length. When pendulum B oscilates, all the pendulum start
to oscilate. But pendulum B and D have the same length, so there have same natural
frequency. So pendulum D will oscilates with ……………(maximum/minimum) amplitude.

## 6.2 ANALYSING REFRLECTION OF WAVES

1. Reflection of a wave occurs when a wave strikes an obstacle such as barrier, plane
reflector, mirror and wall.

## 2. The reflection of waves obeys the law of reflection :

………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………..

3. When the reflection of a wave happened , the wavelength ,λ, the frequency, f and the
speed, v …………………….but the direction of propagation of the wave changes.

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Exercise 6.2
Complete the diagram below.

(a) (b)

(b)

## 2. Show the dark and bright pattern on the screen below.

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Water waves

Ripple tank

Screen

B = Bright
D = Dark

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## Reflection of Light Wave

1. When rays of light strike any surface the rays are reflected , unless the surface is
black, when they are absorbed.
2. A plane mirror is a flat smooth surface which reflects regularly most of the light
falling on it.

Figure 6.20
1. The characteristics of reflection of light waves:

…………………………………………………………………

2. The bright and dark bands of the wave pattern formed on the screen because the
surface of water acts as lenses. The crest of water waves similar with …………….
(concave lens /convex lens) and the trough of water waves similar with ……
(concave lens /convex lens).

Exercise 6.21

The diagram shows a single ray of light being directed at a plane mirror. What are the
angles of incidence and reflection?
(a) (b)

35o

o
i =r = 90 – 35 = 55
i = r = 70 o

2.

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## Reflection of sound waves

1. The sound waves is reflected by walls and ceilings of buildings, unborn baby or sea
bed.

Figure 6.21

2. The sound wave from the stopwatch experience a reflection after striking the smooth
wall.
equal to
The angle of incidence, i is ………….(equal to /more than/less than) the angle of
reflection, r.

Exercise 6.22

1. The diagram shows a student shouting in front of a school building. Calculate the time
taken by the student to hear the echo of his voice.
[The speed of sound in air is 340 m s-1 ]

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2.

If an echo is heard one second after the holler and reflects off canyon walls which are a
distance of 170 meters away, then what is the speed of the wave?

2s = v x t

## = 2 (170) = 340 m s-1

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6.3 ANALYSING REFRACTION OF WAVES
change of direction of the propagation of waves
1. The refraction of water waves occur when there is a ………………………………………
traveling from a medium to another medium due
to a change of speed.

Figure 6.30

1. After refraction, the wave has the same …………………………. but a different
………………………….

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## Refraction of Water Waves

Deep shallow

Figure 6.31
towards
1. When the water wave travel from a deep area, the direction of the waves is refracted ………
(towards/away from) the normal.
2. The angle of incidence, i of the water isgreater ………. (greater / smaller) than the angle of
refraction, r
3. When the refraction of a wave happened , the frequency, f does not change but the
wavelength
……………… ,λ, the speed and the direction of propagation
................................................................................of the wave change.

Exercise 6.3
On each of the following diagram, draw the refracted wave by the perspex.

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

(e) (f)

## Refraction of water wave of the sea water

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Figure 6.32

1. Why are the speed and wavelength of waves in the middle of the sea almost uniform?

………………………………………………………………………………………

2. What do you think would happen to the wave speed if the depth of water is increased?
…………………………..
.
3. Why do the distances between the wavefronts decrease as the waves approach the beach?

……………………………………………………………………………………………

4. Why is the water in the bay stationary compared to the water at the cape?
The depth of water varies across the area of the bay
……………………………………………………………………………………………
The energy of the water wave spreads to a wider area as compared to the region near the cape
The amplitude of the water wave near the bay is low and hence the water at the bay is
comparatively still

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## Refraction of Light Waves

normal
air

glass block

Figure 6.33
1. When a ray propagates from one medium to an optically denser medium, the ray refracts
towards
…………………(towards / away from) the normal.
decreases
2. The speed of light …………….(decreases/increases) as it propagates in the glass block,
causing it to alter the direction of propagation.

## 1. Sound waves travel faster in warm air than incold

…….. (cold/hot) air.

2. On a hot day, the hot surface of the Earth causes the layer of air near the surface to be
warmer
………… (warmer/cooler)

## 3. This causes sound waves to be refracted

…………. (reflected/refracted) away from the Earth.
slower
4. On a cool night, the sound waves travel ………….(slower/faster)in the cooler layer of air
near the surface of the Earth than in the upper, warmer air. The waves are refracted
towards the Earth.
Hence, sound can be heard over a longer distance on a coldnight
……….(night/day) compared
with a hot day.

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## 6.4 ANALYSING DIFFRACTION OF WAVES

the spreading out of waves when
1. Diffraction of waves is they
……..........................................................................
move through a gap or around an obstacle.

## 2. The effect of diffraction is obvious only if

small
(a) the size of the aperture or obstacle is …………..small / large enough.
large
(b) the wavelength is ……………… small /large enough.
speed
3. Frequency, wavelength and …………………of waves do not change
4. Thedirection of propagation and the pattern of the waves are change
………………………………………….

Exercise 6.4
Complete the diagrams below by drawing the wavefronts to show the diffraction of water waves.

## (a) Narrow gap ≤ λ (b) Wider gap > λ

(c)Wider obstacle

## From the diagram above,

(d) Narrow obstacle
1. Thenarrower
………….(narrower/wider) the gap, the more the waves spread out.
2. When the gap is much wider than the wavelength of the waves, there is ………….
(little/more) diffraction.

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## Figure 6.41 (a) Figure 6.1(b)

Narrow slit Wide slit

1. The diffraction of light waves occur when the light waves pass through a small slit or
small pin hole.
2. The wider middle bright fringe shows that the light waves diffracted after pass
through a narrow slit.
less
3. If the slit becomes wider, diffraction pattern becomes ………….. (less/more) distint.

## Diffraction of sound waves

Figure 6.42

1. A listener is requested to stand on the other side of the corner of the wall so that the radio
is beyond his vision.
2. The listener is able to hear the sound of the radio although it is behind the wall.
3. It is because the sound of the radio spreads around the corner of the wall due to diffraction
of sound.

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## 6.5 ANALYSING INTERFERENCE WAVE

1. Interference is the superposition of two waves from two coherent sources meet
frequency
2. Two waves are in coherent if they are of the same ………………….and amplitude
………………,

## (a) Constructive interference

(b) Desctructive interference

Principle of superposition
When two waves overlap, the resultant displacement is
1. The principle of superposition states that………………………………………………………
equal to the sum of the displacements of the individual wave
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
the crests or troughs of both waves coincide to produce
2. Constructive interference occurs when…………………………………………………
a wave with maximum amplitude.
the crests of one wave coincide with the trough of
3. Destructive interference occurs when………………………………………………………
the other waves to produce a wave with zero amplitude

+ =

+ =

## Figure 6.50 (b)

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When the vertical displacemet of two waves are in the same direction as in Figure 6.50
constructive
(a) and (b), …………………………(constructive/destructive) interference occurs.

+ =

Figure 6.51

## If a wave with a positive displacement meets another with a negative displacement of

the same magnitude, they cancel each other and the combined amplitude becomes
zero.
……….

## Figure 6.52: Inteference of water waves

1. At the points of constructive interference, the water moves up and down with a ………
large
…(large/ small) amplitude
antinodes
2. The points of constructive interferences, is known as …………..( nodes/antinodes)
nodes
The points of destructive interferences is known as ………………(nodes/antinodes).

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Exercise 6.5
B
C

Figure 6.53

1. Figure 6.53 shows the interference pattern of water by two coherent sources of water
waves.
constructive
(i) At point A, two crest meet resulting in ……………………….. interference.
constructive
(ii) At point B, two through meet resulting in ……………………..interference.
destructive
(iii) At point C, a crest meet a trough resulting in …………………interference.

## Before superposition During After superposition

superposition

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## 3. Categorize each labeled position as being a position where either constructive or

destructive interference occurs.

## (a) Constructive interference:…………………….

(b) Destructive interference:……………………..

.
4. The diagram shows a full-scale interference pattern of a ripple tank experiment 2
seconds after vibration started. The crests of the water ripples are repsented by the dark
lines.
(a) What is represented at P at this instant?
………………………………………………………….

## (b) What is the frequency of the vibrator?

…………………………………………………………

5. Two dot vibrators which has a separation of 5.0 cm are placed on a water surface in
a ripple tank. The distance between two adjacent antinodes on a screen is 3.0 cm. If
the perpendicular distance between the dot vibrators and the screen is 10.0 cm, what
is the wavelength of the water waves?

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## Inteference of Light Waves

1. Interference occur when at least two coherent light waves overlap or superpose

## 2. The superposition of 2 rays produces:

(i) ………………………………………
(ii)………………………………………

## 3. When constructive occurs there will be a ………… (bright/dark) fringe

When destructive occurs there will be a …………(bright/dark) fringe

## is the distance between the slits

a = …………………………………………………..
is the distance between the double-slit and the screen
x = ………………………………………………….
is the distance between consecutive bright or dark fringes
D = ………………………………………………….

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Exercise 6.51

## 1. In a Young’s double slit experiment, a light of wavelength 633 nm passes through

two slit which are 0.5 mm apart. Vertical fringes are observed on a screen placed
4 m from the slits.
(i) Calculate the distance between two adjacent bright fringes.
(ii) What will happen to the distance between two adjacent bright fringes if
a light of shorter wavelength is used?

(a) λ = 633 nm = 633 x 10-9
a = 0.5 mm = 0.5 x 10-3 m
D =4m

(b)

## If λ is smaller, x will also be smaller. Therefore , the distance between two

adjacent bright fringes of light will smaller.

14 mm
2. The wavelength of light can be determined with a double-slit plate. The diagram
above shows the pattern of interference fringes obtained in a Young’s double-slit
experiment. The separation distance of the two slit is 0.20 mm and the distance
between the screen and the double-slit plate is 4.0 m.
Calculate the wavelength of the light used in the experiment.

## Answer: a = 0.2 mm = 2 x 10-4 m

7x = 14 mm
x = 2 mm = 2 x 10-3 m λ =

D = 3.0 m = 1 x 10-7 m

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## distance between two loudspeakers

a = …………………………………………………..
distance between two consecutive loud places
x = ………………………………………………….
perpendicular distance between the speakers and
D = ………………………………………………….
the loud

Exercise 6.52

1. Two loud speakers placed 2 m apart are connected to an audio signal generator that is
adjusted to produce sound waves of frequency 550 Hz. The detection of loud and soft
sounds as a person moves along a line is at 4.0 m from the loudspeakers.

Calculate the
(a) wavelength
(b) speed
of the sound waves.

(a)

(b) f = 550 Hz
V=fλ
= 550 x 0.6
= 330 m s-1

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## 6.6 Analysing Sound Waves

1. Sound waves are longitudinal wavces which require a medium for its propagation.

amplitude
2. The loudness of the sound is depend to the …………………

frequency
3. The pitch of the sound is depend to the ……………………...
a phenomenon when a sound wave has been reflected off a
4. Echo is ……………………………………………………………………
surface , and is heard after the original sound.

## Application of Sound Waves

1. Ultrasonic waves with frequencies above 20 kHz cannot be heard by human ear.
2. The ultrasonic ruler is used to measure the distance between itself and a target.
3. The depth of sea water can be calculated using the formula :

2d = v x t

Exercise 6.60
1. In an expedition to determine the depth of a freshwater lake using an ultrasonic
ruler, a pulse of ultrasonic sound is generated and travels to the bottom of the
lake and reflected by it. The time taken by the pulse to travel to the bottom of the
lake and return to the ruler is 0.35 s. If the speed of sound in freshwater is 1482
m s-1, calculate the depth of the lake.

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## 2. Fill in the blank.

Field Application
Medicine Sound waves of high energy are directed
to the kidney stones to destroy them in the
cavity of the kidney.
Industry Sound waves of high energy are directed
to the kidney stones to destroy them in the
cavity of the kidney.
6.7 Analysing Electromagnetic Waves
perpendicular
1. The electric and magnetic field vibrate ………………..(perpendicular/parallel) to
each other and to the direction of propagation.
2. Properties of electromagnetic waves
(i) Transverse waves
(ii)Do not require a medium to propagate and can travel8 -1
in a vacuum
The
(iii) waves travel at the speed of light, c = 3 x 10 ms
(iv)Undergo the same waves phenomenon : reflection, refraction, diffraction and
interference.
3. Sources and applications of electromagnetic waves in daily life

## Type of em wave Source Application

Electrical oscillating (a) telecommunications
λ = 10-1 - 105 m
transmission
Oscillating electrical (a) satellite transmissions
Microwave
charge in a microwave (b) radar
λ = 10-3 – 10-1 m
transmitter (c) cooking
(a) night vision
Infrared
Hot bodies, the sun and (b) thermal imaging and physiotherapy
λ = 10-6 – 10-3 m
fires (c) remote controls
(a) sight
Visible light The sun, hot objects, (b) photosynthesis in plants
λ = 10-7 m light bulbs, fluorescent (c) photography
tubes
Ultraviolet (a) identification of counterfeit notes
radiation Very hot objects, the sun, (b) production of vit-D
λ = 10-9 – 10-7 m mercury vapor lamps (c) Sentrilisation to destroy germs
x-ray tubes (b) Detection of cracks in building
λ = 10-11 – 10-9 m
structures
Gamma rays (a) Cancer treatment
λ = 10-14 – 10-10 m Radioactive subtances (b) Sterilisation of equipment
(c) Pest control in agriculture

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Exercise 6.70

1. The diagram below shows the pattern of spectrum electromagnetic. In the boxes
provided, write the names of the parts given .

Radiowave microwave gamma ray x-ray visible ray infra-red ray ultraviolet ray
wavelength

ray Violet light

frequency

## Electromagnetic waves Uses

P Remote control
R Photograph
S Kill cancerous cells

Table 6.70
Identify P, Q, R and S

P = Infra-red rays
Q = Microwaves
R = Visible light
S = Gamma rays

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Reinforcement Chapter 6

A. 8 Hz.
B. 1/8 Hz
C. 4 Hz.
D. ¼ Hz
E. 12 Hz

A. x-ray.
B. Gamma ray
C. water wave
D. microwave.

A. x-ray
B. gamma ray
C. sound wave
D. light wave.

## 4. Based on the given diagram above calculate the wavelength.

A. 4 cm
B. 8 cm
C. 10 cm
D. 15 cm
E. 20 cm

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A. velocity.
B. Frequency
C. Amplitude
D. Period.

## 6. What is the phenomenon shown above?

A. reflection.
B. Refraction.
C. Interference.

7. A given wave travels at a speed of 4 x 105 ms-1. If the frequency of the wave is 1000 Hz,
calculate the wavelength

A. 100 m
B. 200 m
C. 300 m
D. 400 m
E. 500 m

## 8. Which of the following is a common characteristic of visible light, ultraviolet rays,

infrared rays, gamma rays and X-rays?

## A. Influenced by magnetic field.

B. Possess the same frequency.
C. Possess the same wavelength.
D. Possess the same velocity in vacuum.

9. Which of the following electromagnetic waves are arranged in the order of increasing
wavelength.

## A. Visible light, X-rays. Radio waves. Infrared waves.

B. X-rays. Visible light. Infrared waves .Radio waves.
C. Radio waves, X-rays. Visible light. Infrared waves.

## 10. Which of the following waves cannot travel through vacuum?

A. Sound waves
B. X-rays

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## Part B: Structured Questions

Figure 1

1. Figure 1 shows the use of sonar equipment to measure the depth of the sea.
(a) Reflection
State the phenomenon of sound wave applied in sonar equipment.
……………….
[1 mark]
(b) Sound waves with frequency of 6.0 x 105 Hz are used to determine the depth of
the sea. [speed of sound in sea water = 1500 m s-1]

## (i) What is the wavelength of the sound wave in sea water?

[2 marks]
(ii) If the time interval between the instant the sound wave is sent to the
instant the echo is received is 1.5 s, what is the depth of the sea

[2 marks]

2.

Figure 2

A ping pong ball is held with a string and placed near a loudspeaker as shown
in Figure 2
The loudspeaker emits a low frequency sound and the ping-pong ball seems to
vibrate to it.

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(a) Explain how the sound from the loudspeaker produces vibration on the ping
pong ball.
The vibration of the loudspeaker moves the air molecules around it.
The sound wave produced by the loudspeaker transfers energy to the ping
pong ball and causes it to move

(b) What will happen to the vibration of the ping pong ball if the loudness emits
(i) a louder sound?
The ping pong ball vibrates with greater amplitude

## (ii) a sound with a higher pitch?

The ping pong ball vibrates with higher frequency.

(c) If the frequency of the sound is 50 Hz, calculate the wavelength of the sound
produced. [Assume the speed of the sound in air in 350 ms-1]

2. (a) Figure 3 shows two sets of ripple tanks used to study diffraction of waves.

## Figure 3.1 Figure 3.2

(i) What is meant by the diffraction of waves.
Diffraction is the spreading out of waves when they move through a gap
or around an obstacle

(ii) Which of the two sets will show a bigger effect of diffraction. Explain
The set shown in Figure 4.1 will show a bigger effect of diffraction. This is
because the narrower the gap, the more the waves spread out.

(iii) Redraw and complete Figure 3.1 and Figure 3.2 to show the between the
two diffraction patterns.

(iv) State the characteristic to the diffracted waves in terms of waves in terms
of wavelength, frequency, speed and amplitude compared to the incident
waves.
(a) Wavelength remains unchanged
(b) Frequency remains unchanged
(c) Speed remains unchanged
(d) Amplitude becomes smaller compared to the incident waves

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Part C: Essay

1. Figure 3.0 shows the arrangement of the apparatus for an experiment to study a wave
phenomenon.

Figure 3.0

Figure 3.1 shows the bright and dark bands of the waves pattern formed on the white
paper when plane waves passes through the narrow and wide gaps.

## Narrow gap Wide gap

Figure 3.1(a) Figure 3.1(b)

## (a) Name the wave phenomenon shown in figure 1.2.

Diffraction [1 mark]

(b) (i) Explain how the dark and light bands are formed on the white paper.
[4 marks]

√ Figure / Crests
act as a convex
lens

## √ Figure / Every crests will

converge the light, bright
fringes are formed
√ Figure / Every troughs will
diverge the light, dark fringes are
formed

33
JPN Pahang Physics Module Form 5
Student’s Copy Chapter 6:Wave

(ii) Observe Figure 3.2(a) and (b). Compare the waves patterns and the wavelength of
the waves before and after they pass through the gaps.
Relate the size of the gaps, the waves patterns and the wavelengths to deduce a
relevant physics concept.
[5 marks]

a. In figure 3.1(a), size of the wavelength is the same as size of the gap // In figure
3.1(b), size of the gap is wider than
b.
The narrower the gap the greater the spreading of the wave

(c) Figure 1.3 shows the seashore of a fishing village. During the rainy season, waves
are big. One year the waves eroded the seashore, caused the jetty to collapse and
damaged the fishermen’s boats.

Figure 3.3

To prevent similar damage in the future, the fishermen suggest building retaining walls
and relocating the jetty.
Make further suggestion of ways to help the fishermen solve their problems.
You should use your knowledge of reflection, refraction and diffraction of waves to
explain these suggestions, to include the following aspects.
(i) the design and structure of the retaining wall,
(ii) the location of the new jetty
(iii) the size or energy of the waves
[10 marks]