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Unit III

Respiratory, Digestive, Urinary

Adaptations For Exchange:


1. Single Cell Layer Membrane
2. Selective Permeability (Differential)
a. Simple Diffusion: across gradients
b. Osmosis
c. Facilitative Diffusion
d. Active Transport
e. Cytosis
3. Extensive Surface Area
a. Membrane Undulations: A regular rising & falling or movement to
alternating sides, movement in waves.
b. Viili
c. Microvilli
4. Communication with body cells via circulatory system
5. Communication with outside environment
6. Process: Part of selective permeability adaptation
a. Secretion: out
b. Excretion: out
c. Absorption: in
d. Reabsorption: reclaim

Exchange: The movement of substances across membranes

Digestive System Chapter 24:

Digestive Traits:
• Tubular & open @ both ends
• Extra cellular Hydrolysis
• Muscular
o Peristalsis
• Nervous & Hormone Control

Function:
• Chemical & Physical breakdown of preformed matter for use by the body
• Chemical:
o Macromolecules into smaller or simple products
o CHO’s
o Lipids
o Proteins
o Needs enzymes (hydrolytic) & water
• Physical:
o Breakdown

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o Critical to increasing particle size & surface area (mastication)
o Larger surface are to be acted on by enzymes
• Use: Provides energy, growth, repair & maintenance

*Sensory information is critical to food selection:


• Vision
• Olfaction
• Tactile
• Gustation

*Follow Macromolecules Down The Digestive Tract:

A: Salivary Gland:
• Exocrine ducts into oral cavity
• Parotid Gland: Largest salivary gland that produces mostly watery saliva
• Submandibular Gland: Mixed glands with more serous than mucous
alveoli
• Sublingual Gland: Smallest gland, mixed gland contains some serous
alveoli but mostly mucous alveoli
B: Oral Cavity:
• Physical breakdown of food through mastication
o Teeth: Critical to mastication, can cut & grind food
o Tongue: Forces food into oropharynx
o Saliva: Lubrication

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• Omnivore: Permits diverse diet, canines, incisors, molars
• Chemical breakdown is initiated
o Salivary Amylase: starch splitting enzyme, that helps increase
surface area
o Partial Hydrolysis of polysaccharides form amylase
• Broken down into smaller particle once it reaches the pharynx
• PH 6.5-7.2
C: Pharynx:
• Nasopharynx: Back of soft palate, break down does not occur here
• Oropharynx: tongue forces food into oropharynx
o Peristalsis & Swallowing initiated here
D: Esophagus:
• Muscular tube
• Mucousal lining
• Passageway
E: Stomach:
• PH between 1&2
• Muscular
• Diverse epithelium
o Parietal Cells:
 Secratory in nature
 Associated with HCL
 Intrinsic Factor: Effects absorption of B-12
o Chief Cells:
 Pepsinogen cells
 Pepsinogen + HCl = Pepsin (proteinase or polypeptidase)
which produces short peptides
o Mucous Cells:
 Stomach well endowed with (Brunners gland) which
prevent pepsin from breaking down stomach wall
o Gastrin Cells:
 Also known as Endocrine
 Produced by stomach which activates gastrin activity
 Initiates further secretion of parietal & chief cells
• Glandular Tissue
• Partial Hydrolysis of proteins occurs here
• Stomach is holding organ
• Cardiac Sphincter: physiologic constrictor
• Swallow a bolus which enters a stomach
• Chyme: Semi fluid material (food & stomach secretion)
o Short Peptides chains
o Initiate stomach emptying with high peptide content
o 3-5 hours for completion

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F: Small Intestine:
• Chyme enters small intestine
• ANS events stimulate motility
o
• Hormones:
o Gastro-Intestinal-Peptide or enterogastrone:
 Inhibits gastric secretion
 Decreases gastric motility
o Cholicystokinin: Stimulates bile ejection from gall bladder
o Pancreozyme: Stimulates pancreatic enzymes high in digestive
enzymes
o Secretin: Stimulate pancreas to release NaHCO3
• Enzymes active in small intestine
o Pancreatic Enzymes:
 P. Amylase: Hydrolysis of CHO’s
 P. Lipase: Hydrolysis of Lipids that have been emulsified
 P. Protienase: Hydrolysis of Proteins into amino acid
• Trypsin: Acts on polypeptides into smaller peptides
(like pepsin)
• Carboxypeptidase: Attacks carboxyl end of amino
acid
• Amino peptidase: Peptide chains into amino acids
o Intestinal Enzymes:
 I. Protienase: Hydrolysis of protein into amino acid
 I. Lipase: Hydrolysis of lipids
 I. Disaccharidase: Hydrolysis of disaccharides into
monosaccharides
• Hydrolysis --> Produce absorbable end products
o Complex CHO’S: Monosaccharides
o Complex Proteins: Amino Acids
o Complex Lipids: Fatty Acids & Monoglycerides
• Mechanism of Absorption:
o Lacteal (Lymph): Lipid absorption (lymph takes tissue fluid &
deposits it into blood circulation
o Blood Capillary: Amino acid & monosaccharide absorption
o Monosaccharide Absorption:
 Absorbed by secondary active transport into intestinal
epithelial cells
 Monosaccharides move out of intestinal epithelial by
facilitated diffusion
 Enter capillaries of intestinal villi and are carried through
hepatic portal to liver
 ***Figure 24.27 Monosaccharide Transport***
o Lipid Transport:

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Bile salts surround fatty acids & glycerol to form micelles
Micelles pass through epithelium by simple diffusion
Micelle critical structure to epithelial absorption
Within epithelial cell fatty acids & glycerol are converted
to triglycerides; proteins coat triglycerides to form
chylomicrons which move out of intestinal epithelium by
exocytosis
 Chylomicrons enter lacteals of intestinal villi & are carried
through the lymphatic system to general circulation
 Chylomicrons: Taken up by adipose cells & stored or
dismantled by liver
o Amino Acid Transport:
 Amino acids are absorbed by secondary active transport
into intestinal epithelial cells
 Amino acids move out of intestinal epithelial cells by
active transport
 They enter capillaries of the intestinal villi & are carried
through the hepatic portal vein to the liver
G: Liver:
• Accessory digestive organ
• Digestive function: emulsify lipids which prepares them for enzyme
activity
• Produces Bile salts
o Bile stored in Gall Bladder
• Largest internal organ
• Detoxification

H: Pancreas:
• Accessory digestive organ
• Exocrine digestive: contains ducts, Acini gland that produces digestive
enzymes
• Endocrine hormones: contains no ducts, Islets of Langerhan produce
insulin & glucagon
• Pancreatic fluid: Alkaline fluid which neutralizing fluid for enzymes to be
effective
I: Large Intestine:
***Figure 24.25 P.894***
• Larger in diameter but shorter in length than the small intestine
• Tenaie Coli:
o Muscle band that runs length of colon
o Contributes to formation of Haustra or pouches
• Haustra: Have partial septa or partitions
• Lining lacks villi but dies have undulation
• Not as Glandular

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• Mass movements: Strong peristaltic contractions
• Digested & Undigested remains enter colon
• Undigested:
o Food that has escaped due to
 Lack of enzymes i.e.: lactase
 Cellulose: a plant starch that we can not break down
 Lack of preparation i.e. Poor mastication
 Lack of bile
• E. Coli:
o Process feces
o Undigested remain into fecal matter
o Provides us with Vitamin K
• Absorption: Removes H2O & Electrolytes
• Defecation Reflex:
o Stimulated by tactile, chemical & olfaction
o Primary stimulation is the contents in the colon
o Normal absorption activity influences def. reflex of hard mass
o Figure 24.26 P. 895
 The presence of food in the stomach & chime in the duodenum
(small intestine) stimulates mass movement in the colon
 Mass movements are integrated by the enteric plexus
 They propel the contents of the colon toward the rectum
 The presence of feces in the rectum stimulates parasympathetic &
local reflexes that result in defecation

Urinary System Chapter 26:


 Nephron
o Organized with in renal pyramid
o Share ducts that enter papilla
o Functional unit of kidney
 Nephron Structure
o ***Figure 26.5 p.952***
o Bowman’s Capsule leads to Proximal Tubule (Convolution)
o Descending Convolution to (or limb of) Loop of Henle
o Loop of Henle to Ascending Convolution which completes loop
o Distal Convolution joins the Collecting duct

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 Blood Supply
o Figure 26.6 p. 953
o Renal Artery enters kidney
o Extensive Branching
o Afferent arteriole brings blood to Bowman’s Capsule
o Glomerulus: network of capillaries with in Bowman’s Capsule
o Glomerulus converges into Efferent Arteriole
o Efferent Arteriole exits Bowman’s Capsule to form Peritubular Capillaries
o Peritubular Capillaries permits communication between convolutions &
loop of Henle
o Vasa Recta; mimics Loop of Henle
o Veinuoles drain peritubular capillaries
o Convergence to Renal Vein which exits the kidney
***Exchange takes place between the tubule & capillaries***

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1. Filtration: Forcing things out of blood to tubule through permeable membrane
2. Reabsorption: Tubule to blood or interstitial space. (Also known as reclaim)
3. Secretion: Into tubule to urine.

Filtration Events:
 Background:
o Water is the vehicle for filtration which contain electrolytes & nutrients to
be reclaimed, Items not reclaimed: urea nitrogen
1. Initial Event is Glomerular filtration (blood supply):
a. Not a selective process
b. Driving force is arterial blood pressure which is approx. 70-75mmHg
c. Forces opposing filtration
i. 30mmHg is due to osmotic pressure (this can vary)
ii. 10mmHg is due to tubular pressure
iii. 10mmHg is due to interstitial pressure
iv. 75-50= 25mmHg (GCP) that is now net effective filtration pressure
v. 20-25mmHg produce a filtrate in Bowman’s Capsule
d. Nephric Filtrate is equal to: Blood – Cells & Large Proteins
2. Proximal Convolution:
a. Tubular reabsorption
b. Every mechanism is available here
i. Diffusion
ii. Facilitated Diffusion
iii. Active Transport
iv. Osmosis
v. Cytosis
c. Key & critical substances are reclaimed

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d. H2O is reclaimed by osmosis (60-80%)
3. Loop Of Henle:
a. Descending Convolution:
i. H2O out
ii. Na in
b. Ascending Convolution:
i. Not permeable to H2O
ii. Secrete Na & K
c. ***Overall effect or result is the concentration of filtrate***
4. Distal Convolution & Collecting Duct:
a. Hormonal Influence:
i. ADH: From the pituitary which permits H2O reabsorption
ii. Aldosterone: Mineralocorticoid, derived from adrenal gland, which
permits the reclaiming of Na & the H2O, follows by osmosis.
b. Secretion of H & K
i. Blood acidosis & dec, in pH response is to secrete H ions into
filtration:
ii. CO2 + H2O  H2CO3  H + HCO3
5. Summary:
a. 60% of Nitrogenous waste remains in filtrate
b. Proximal Convoluted tubule is the most active & use more energy
c. Loop of Henle: There is a relationship with surrounding tissue & Vasa
Recta.

Respiratory:
Ventilation:
 Ventilation involves air mass movement by pressure differences
 Atmospheric pressure 760mmHg @ sea level
 Involves Diaphragm & Intercostals
 Diaphragm depress’ & ribs elevate: Decrease in intrapulmonary pressure &
Increase in volume  inhalation
 Diaphragm elevated & ribs depressed: Increase in intrapulmonary pressure &
decrease in volume  exhalation

Control:
 Respiratory center is in the medulla
 Send impulses to intercostals of diaphragm (Phrenic nerve)
 Stretch receptors in lung tissue & airways send inhibitory impulses to medulla
for exhalation (also known as vagal reflex, over inflation reflex)
 Chemo receptors: Located in aorta & carotid arteries
o Elevated Co2 & H, Decreased O2 = Acidosis which will induce
hyperventilation
o Decreased CO2 & H, Increased O2 = Alkalosis which will induce
hypoventilation

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 At the Alveolus PO2 is inc & PCO2 is dec
 Arteries: PO2 inc & PCO2 dec
 Blood entering tissue capillaries is Oxygenated
 Body cell: PO2 dec & PCO2 is inc.
 Blood leaving tissue capillaries is CO2 enriched
 Pulmonary Artery: PO2 dec & PCO2 is inc.
 Cl is exchanged for HCO3
 Carbonic acid formation is produced by Carbonic anhydrayse
Oxyhemoglobin is critical to O2 transport

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