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Science Process Skills and Performance in Science of the Grade-12 STEM

Students of Davao Doctors College, Inc.

Arias, Princess Joy Clariz


Estenzo, Olive Mari Amor
Leopoldo, Alona Christelle
Licayan, Jeremae
Limbago, Christian
Luhas, Catherine Joy
Suelto, Noraisa
Unabia, Mariane Nicole
Chapter 1

Introduction

This study aims to know the significant relationship of science basic process skills
to the students’ performance in specific science subjects, such as General Chemistry 1,
General Physics 1, and General Biology 1. Based on personal experiences, there have
been low proficiency in acquiring and absorbing learning in the designated science
subjects. We want to know if this basic process skill can help improve students’ absorption
in the science academic field.

Based on the K to 12 science curriculum’s conceptual system, science instruction


points to create logical education among students that will get ready them to be educated
and participative citizens who are able to create judgments and choices regarding
applications of logical information that will have social well-being or natural impacts.
Basically, this study focuses on the students in schools in the Philippines specifically in
Mindanao, Region 11, that has a low rating on the performance in science subjects. If
preferably this study also will be conducted on school’s perimeter of Davao Doctors
College. To discover if students may need to acquire this science process skill to affect
their performance in science subjects.

The science process skills form the foundation for scientific methods. Science
process skills, according to Karamustafauglo (2011) understanding of Science process
handle as a rule allude to abilities or capacities that must be claimed by researchers on
the method of logical disclosure.

Riovero, as cited by Coronado (2016), defines science as more than of scientific


knowledge. Science process skills prepare aptitudes ought to be utilized as benchmark in
planning lessons, be that as it may science prepare abilities ought to not be displayed as
separate stand-alone lesson.

Students performance is influenced by psychological, economic, social, personal,


and environmental factors. These variables have a strong influence on the students'
performance. Most of the student’s preventive research about academic performance
concentrated on problems such as teacher's education, school climate, gender difference,
learning style, background in family education, and socioeconomic factor. Scientific
literacy is defined as developing individuals’ abilities of investigating, questioning, critical
thinking, problem solving, decision making, attitude and understanding regarding science
to sustain individuals’ curiosity about their environment and the world (MNE, 2009).
However, it is not easy to educate scientifically literate individuals by providing information
to them, but by educating them and helping them to embrace methods of gaining science
understanding.

The objective of science education is for science to be taught through scientific


inquiry that develops students’ science process skills (SPS). They are required to explain
how events in true life have happened. In addition to science thinking, SPS includes
creative and critical thinking. Having those who can believe creatively and critically is
known to be more significant factor in a country's growth. SPS can therefore be a measure
of creativity for making science findings and contributing to them.
At this point, the primary goal of science learning should enable learners to
understand various scientific facts, values and principles which are connected to their
direct physical and biological environment. However, deductive and inductive approaches
should be used to reveal these thoughts and concepts, more importance should be placed
on deductive approaches or techniques.
Statement of the problem

The purpose of this study is to determine the significant relationship between the
Science basic process skills and the performance of Grade-12 STEM students in science
subjects.
Specifically, the study answers the following questions:

1. What is the level of science basic process skills in terms of:


1.1 Observation
1.2 Communication
1.3 Classification
1.4 Measurements
1.5 Inference
1.6 Prediction
2. What is the level of performance in science subjects in terms of:
2.1 Grades in 1st quarter
3. Is there a significant relationship of science basic process skills and performance
in science subjects?

Null Hypothesis
The null hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance using appropriate
statistical tool.
1. There is no significant relationship between science basic process skills and
performance in science subjects
Significance of the study

In this study will have beneficiaries and their benefits of the following:

Students. This study will provide information regarding aptitudes and execution in
Science. Students will become familiar with the capacities of science just as science
content. Information gathered will additionally help the students improve the skills and
performances in Science.

Teachers. They may realize the students’ dominance of basic prepare aptitudes
and advancements of logical state of mind for them to discover suitable ways of educating
the subject.

School and Administration. This study will improve the school in development of
STEM students. This study will foster new ways of enhancing knowledge, skills and
practices. It will also help the improvement of school management, and teaching-
evaluation approach.

Future Researchers. This may serve as basis for future studies.

Scope and Delimitation

This study focused on two major variables science basic process skills and
performance in science subjects.

Science basic process skill only limited to observation, communication,


classification, measurement, inference, prediction. Performance in science subject limit to
Grades in 1st quarter.

The study was conducted in Davao Doctors College, Inc. and utilized 275 Grade-
12 STEM students, as a respondent for this research.
Chapter 2
Review of Related Literature and Studies

Related Literature
Science Process Skills

Science Process Skills, according to Karamustafauglo (2011) understanding of


science handle as a rule allude to aptitudes and capacities that must be claimed by the
researchers on the method of logical revelation. These skills are divided into two groups:
basic and integrated process skills. The basic process skills include observing, asking
questions, classifying, asking questions, measuring and predicting. While integrated
process skills include, identifying and defining variables, interpreting data, manipulating
materials, recording data, formulating hypotheses, designing investigations, making
inferences and generalizations.

Science process skills are the capacities and competencies shown when fathoming
logical issues to deliver concepts, hypotheses, standards, laws, and actualities. The
usage of science handle aptitudes will frame students' considering aptitudes such as basic
considering abilities and the other point of science instruction is to teach people who can
think fundamentally. (Journal of Physics: Conf. Series, 2018)

Science Curriculum Guide (2012) states that the K to 12 Educational programs is


constructed around the three fundamental measurements of the nature of science. The
other two vital measurements are, science handle abilities (SPS) and logical states of
mind and values. All these can be applied in our own locality and globally.

The use of science process skills by understudies increments the lastingness of


learning. For learning by doing, understudy employments nearly all of his or her faculties
and learning gets to be more changeless and hands-on exercises get them to obtain
experience. The improvement of science handle aptitudes empowers understudies to
unravel issues, think basically, make choices, discover answers, and fulfill their concerns.
(Bulgarian Journal of Science and Education Policy (BJSEP), Volume 5, 2011)

Riovero, as cited by Coronado (2016), defines science as more than of scientific


knowledge. Science process skills ought to be utilized as benchmark in arranging lessons,
be that as it may science handle abilities ought to not be displayed as partitioned stand-
alone lesson.
Observation

Observation does not just mean ‘seeing’. It is most often used to include ‘hearing’,
as well as using other senses to collect information. In real life the act of perceiving,
interpreting, assessing, and reacting. So, for some observation can mean all these things
together. In phrases such as ‘doing an observation’, the meaning of the word ‘observation’
extends beyond central activity to the events that surrounds it. (Angie Malderez, 2003)

Observation is using the senses in gathering information to identify the differences


between similar objects or events. Observation is used in identifying similarities between
different objects or events. It is recognizing the order in which sequenced events take
place. (Common Resources, 2013)
The process skill of observation includes using one’s senses to perceive objects
and occasions; their properties and behavior. It requires that the learners pay close
attention to some factors of what's being determined. Observation involves the outline of
phenomena, for example, in the course of titration experiment the learners could be
required to take observe at and state the changes of the color of the substance formed
within the conical flask, measure and document the volume of titer used to effect the
change. In this respect, observation as a process-skill could carry into play to other
process skills. (Abungu et al., 2014)
Learners need to know a way to accumulate facts through observation by means
of usage of their five senses in conjunction with instruments that extend the senses.
Instruments, consisting of thermometers, scales, rulers, microscopes, and probes, can
help enhance the precision of observations. Observations can be qualitative such as
describing color, texture, and scent or quantitative such as figuring out diameter and
period. (Intel Corporation, 2012)

Observing is determining the character of an object or event using our senses.


Each practicum will usually begin from sensory observation, and the results could be the
basis of the next step, due to the fact if there is a mistake on the observation it will affect
the result. Observation is important to students in order to familiarize the Physical
Phenomena cautiously. The student’s ability to observe can be seen from how far they
observe an object in accordance with the actual situations. (E. Wiwin and R. Kustijono,
2018)
Communication
Communicating is a significant ability whereas learners will have to clarify their
reasoning, description, or explanation in a clear and understandable manner almost
always in any subject matter or real-life situation. Communicating can require presenting
data in a multitude of ways to others, including written text, oral conversations, symbols,
metaphors, and protests. It also contains being capable to have information in a way of
using charts, graphs, and other models.
(Intel Corporation, 2012)
As the site (Home Science Tools, 2017) stated there are several skills that will help
the students to be more efficient in their science skills. Wherein, communicating is one of
them which defines that discoveries is an important ability in science. To make sure that
learners interact with their peers using accurate terms and showing as much as possible
the precise outcomes.
Communicating science does not easily come efficiently. It is a developed skill that
acquires a communicator, an audience and any mode of communication in a particular
object. It implies that communication is a complex way that involves organization, groups
and individuals that are either commutators or audience for science. In nature of science,
the methods of the scientists used are different from any other people which may result to
an uncertain conclusion causing the new findings arise. As a result, it draws hindrance in
science communication. National Academies of science, Engineering, and Medicine
(2017)
According to Mapstone & Kuchel (2015) communication of science is a varied and
trans-disciplinary field and is best learned when the abilities engaged are tailored to
instructional situations. There are few scholarly resources to guide communication
learning for an undergraduate scientific context with non-scientific audiences. This
research of blended techniques aimed to investigate what abilities should be learned
within the Australian Bachelor of Science to effectively communicate science with non-
scientific audiences. This was completed to provide a foundation for the growth of a
curriculum undergraduate learning resource.
The Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China as cited by Chung et
al (2014) states explicitly that the enhancement of communication and collaborative skills
is essential for the achievement of scientific literacy. Likewise, as he quoted the Science
International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education Framework for K-12 (2016).
In its list of eight science and engineering practices, the Ministry of Science and
Technology, Taiwan 2014 Education (National Research Council, 2012) relates to the
concept of ' obtaining, assessing and communicating data. There is also a widespread
need for communication skills in science learning in other countries.

Classification

Classification is the process of grouping objects on the basis of observable traits.


Objects that share a given characteristic can be said to belong to the same set. The
process is somewhat arbitrary depending upon the identifying trait selected. (Jerry Jinks,
2017)
Classifying things into different categories prevents new information from getting
lost. We categorize by recognizing similarities and differences between things, and how
they relate to one other. Classification is the basis for all concept formation. (Suzanne El-
Saghir, 2012)
Students need to know how to classify, because students often need to group
objects or organisms based on one or more common properties. This skill allows them to
understand the differences and similarities between items of study. For instance, students
might classify plant samples in various ways (color, bloom date, location, quantity, genus,
and so forth) to find patterns for early blooming. (Intel Tech Elements, 2012)

Classifying is the ability to group objects or events by their nature. In practicum


activities, each group formed is given the opportunity to observe the object under
investigation, then they are given the opportunity to group objects or events according to
their nature which is aimed to: 1) the ability to group the various information obtained, 2)
the ability to classify objects (tools and materials) used in the practicum. The ability to
classify students that can be seen from the extent to which students are able to group
information based on its nature (facts, concepts, and principles), and able to sort and
choose the right object. (E Wiwin and R Kustijono, 2018)

The Skill of Classifying is a Process of collection protests on the premise of


discernible attributes. Items that offer a given trademark can be said to have a place with
a similar set. The Process is discretionary contingent on the recognizing attribute chose.
This is a significant Procedure in Science on account of a fundamental supposition that
family relationship in one respect may involve family relationship in others. Science accept
that to a huge degree; the Universe comprises of its laws remaining constant all over the
place. Too, there is the idea of realness or profundity. This implies the more trademark a
characteristic is of a specific framework, the closer the family relationship of those sharing
the characteristic. In many examples, we should look to group on the premise of qualities
that are fundamental to the possibility of the set. Grouping includes gathering things into
like classifications. Things can be arranged at a wide range of levels, from the extremely
broad to the quite certain. (Funk et al., 2014)
Measurement
According to Karen Lancour (2009) using a standard measurements or estimation
to describe a specific dimension of an event or object is called Measuring. This information
is a quantitative data. He also stated that measuring is one of the basic process skills is
in science.

In science, measurement is the collection of numerical data that describes the


property of an object or event or it is also a quantitative collection. A measurement was
made to compare quantity with a standard unit. Since this comparison cannot be perfect
as it could, measurements inherently include error, which is measured by the value
deviates from the true value. (Helmenstine, 2019)

Measurements perhaps the one of the most fundamental concepts of science. In


addition to that, it could be more difficult for the scientist to conduct a study or an
experiment without having knowledge or an ability to measure. He argued that
measurement is not just important in science and chemical industry, but it is also essential
to farming, engineering, and manufacturing. Pranav Prubhu (2018)

Janelle Durham (2016). Measuring is a special case for observing and


communicating. In observing it measures how something against something else. In
addition to that communicating use commonly upon units for telling information for
someone else.

Measurement tools plays very important role in terms to scientific studies. A


scientific thinking involves an analysis of numerical data that is collected for a specific
purpose. By the end of the measurement, data will be obtained as qualitative or
quantitative variable. (Günes & Söylemez, 2018)
Inferring
An inference is an interpretation or a proof of an observation. The observation is
created exploitation our senses. To make an inference, we connect what we tend to
observe to previous data and the new information ascertained through our senses. An
inference is often made up of over one observation, and it's not simply a guess.
(SuzanneEl-Saghir,2012)

An inference is a reasonable, however tentative, conclusion or rationalization


concerning objects, organisms, events, or causes supported one’s previous information.
Inferring permits students to create educated assumptions or conclusions supported
reasonable explanations once an entire set of information isn't present. (Intel Corporation,
2012)
Students are required to collect relevant information to be inference and analyzed
in order to find the intended solutions by means of implementing sound scientific
processes. Modern teaching of chemistry also demands the students to be more actively
engaged in the teaching and learning process, instead of passively receiving the
knowledge from lecturers. It is expected that students must be inference the master
various advanced chemistry skills and by doing so assist to provide positive contributions
to the global. (Paulson, 2017).
Seung, Choi and Pestel (2016) emphasized the role of laboratory activities in
improving students’ inference of scientific skills to use in expanding their comprehension
on chemistry. Science process skills are teachable, and it can be facilitated to the students
using laboratory activities that are inferred to build and strengthen their comprehension
upon the concepts of chemistry through scientific research.

Prediction

A prediction is a guess of what could happen in the future, based on your


observations. This ability may require finding patterns in the outcomes of a collection of
studies and making hypotheses using experiences. A student must be able to differentiate
between his objective findings and inferences (Adam Hill, 2019).

Students need to know how to use current patterns of knowledge and data to make
educated guesses about probable research outcomes. Predicting enables learners to
form a hypothesis, ask appropriate questions, and start studying in a specific direction.
(Intel® Teach Elements, 2012).

Raj and Devi (2014) said that skills in the science process like predicting are
characterized as transferable skills that apply to many fields that reflect Scientists’
behaviors. It makes learners create the sense of responsibility in their own learning,
enhances learning performance, and enables learners to gain ways and techniques of
studies, that is, to guarantee that they think and act like a scientist.

Henry (2017) stated that modern chemistry education also requires learners to
engage more actively in the teaching and learning process rather than obtaining the
understanding passively from lecturers. Students are expected to master various
advanced chemistry skills related to prediction, thus helping the community make
beneficial contributions.

Performance in Science

Performance in science promotes discussion, debate and research into human


performance. It welcomes original reports aimed at elucidating fundamental skills,
mechanisms and outcomes underpinning performance activities and experiences,
Muzah(2011)
Performance in science is the multidisciplinary study of human performance. It
draws together methodologies across numerous scientific disciplines, including those of
biomechanics, economics, physiology, psychology, and sociology, to understand the
fundamental skills, mechanisms, and outcomes of performance activities and
experiences. It carries implications for various domains of skilled human activity, often
performed under extreme stress and/or under the scrutiny of audiences or evaluators,
Williamon(2015).
Scientific process abilities such as predicting are teachable and can be supported
to learners through laboratory operations aimed at building and enhancing their
understanding of chemistry concepts through science studies (Taber, 2016).
Students’ Performance. As understudies advance through the educational
modules, staff may have to be discover ways to advance review information for more
progressed subjects whereas proceeding to create their capacity to apply and analyze
data. Examinations with well-designed Different Choice Questions that tentatively target
different cognitive levels can encourage appraisal of student’s performance. (Tiemer,
2009)
Students’ Performance. To assess their scholarly execution in science,
accomplishment test is given to the understudies. Science accomplishment alludes to the
achievement of the understudies in his schoolwork. It is the degree of information,
understanding, abilities and appreciation achieved by the understudies in Science as
indicated by his scores within the accomplishment test. (Cabantuando, 2009)
Theoretical Framework

The study is anchored to the Constructivism Learning Theory (Bruner, et al.,1996).


This theory states that the thought of learning as a dynamic handle in which unused
thoughts are shaped based on both current and past information. Also, it is characterized
as the mental prepare that gives the learner the capacity to organize encounters and infer
meaning from them. Constructivism works best when the learner plans something to
uncover it to others. When the student plans visual components such as writings,
illustrations, web pages or exercises in which others can take an interest, is included in
clarifying materials to other understudies or working in a gather, learning is particularly
capable. This is where the performance of a student being affected by applying the
science basic process skills.
This theory is supported by (Longwood.edu) which states, effectively joining the
science prepare aptitudes with classroom lessons and field examinations will make the
learning encounters wealthier and more significant for understudies. Students will be
learning the abilities of science as well as science content. They also stated the 6 Science
Basic Process Skills: observation, communication, classification, measurement, inference
and prediction.
Manaran (2017) stated that the level of complexity of the Science concepts and
science process skills increases the level from lower grade to higher grade. This implies
that students must be guided to ended up autonomous learners by creating their prepare
aptitudes, coherent considering and basic considering skills.
Moreover, according to (Pennsylvania DepEd, 2014) a student accomplishment
degree could be a score or esteem that reflects a student’s execution on a tall quality
evaluation outlined to 1) align to a specified set of academic and/or interpersonal skills
standards, and 2) measure student proficiency relative to a clearly defined set of
content/skill-based expectations.
Conceptual Framework

The study’s independent is the Science Process Skills with indicators: observation,
communication, classification, measurement, inference, prediction. Observation does not
just mean ‘seeing’. It is most often used to include ‘hearing’, as well as using other senses
to collect information. the meaning of the word ‘observation’ extends beyond central
activity to the events that surrounds it. (Angie Malderez, 2003). Communication as defined
by Intel Corporation (2012) is a significant ability whereas learners will have to clarify their
reasoning, description, or explanation in a clear and understandable manner almost
always in any subject matter or real-life situation. According to (Suzanne El-Saghir, 2012),
classifying things into different categories prevents new information from getting lost. We
categorize by recognizing similarities and differences between things, and how they relate
to one other. Classification is the basis for all concept formation. Measurement also was
defined by Vitti and Torres (2006), means using numbers to describe an object, for
example by counting parts, measuring different parts with a ruler, weighing with a scale
or balance, and comparing objects using quantities. According to SuzanneEl-Saghir,
(2012) an inference is an interpretation or a proof of an observation. The observation is
created exploitation our senses. To make an inference, we connect what we tend to
observe to previous data and the new information ascertained through our senses. Raj
and Devi (2014) said that skills in the science process like predicting are characterized as
transferable skills that apply to many fields that reflect Scientists’ behaviors. It makes
learners create the sense of responsibility in their own learning, enhances learning
performance, and enables learners to gain ways and techniques of studies, that is, to
guarantee that they think and act like a scientist.
On the other hand, the study’s dependent variable is the performance in Science
subject with the indicator: 1st Grading grades in science subject, namely General Biology
1, General Chemistry 1, and General Physics 1. That measures the student’s ability in the
said subjects. It helps the students know how good or bad are they doing in the subjects.
This study is focused science process skills and performance in science among
Grade-12 STEM students. The science process skills are determined by observation,
communication, classification, measurement, inference, prediction. The level of student’s
performance in science is determined based on their acquired grades in the 1st quarter.
The coverage of this study is to further determine the relationship between the science
process skills and performance in science subjects.
Conceptual Paradigm

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE DEPENDENT VARIABLE

Science Basic Process Skills Performance in Science


Subjects
 Observation
 Communication  Grades in 1st quarter
 Classification
 Measurement
 Inference
 Prediction
Chapter 3
METHODS

This chapter presents the methods used in this undertaking. This includes the following:
Research Design, Respondents, Data Gathering Tool, Data Gathering Procedure and
Data Analysis.

Research Design

This research work employed the descriptive-correlation method. Descriptive


method establishes associations between variables. It can include collections of
quantitative data that can be organized along a continuum in numerical shape such as
scores on a test. It includes gathering information that portray occasions and after that
organizes, delineates and depicts the information collection. Hence, this method was
utilized in describing relationship between the science process skills and performance in
science subjects of Grade-12 STEM students of DDC, Inc.

The researchers looked into the student’s level of mastery of science process skill
and student’s rating on their performance in science subjects.

Respondents

The respondents of this study are the Grade-12 STEM students of Davao Doctors
College and used purposive sampling. Purposive examining is additionally known as
judgmental, specific or subjective sampling where a test may be a non-probability test
that's chosen based on characteristics of a populace and the objective of the think about .
(Crossman, 2017)

Students were selected from the population of the Grade-12 STEM students. Since
there are 13 sections of STEM class in DDC we have come up to select 275 students.
And this is base from the Sloven’s Formula of non-probability sampling.

Data Gathering Tool

In this study the, data was gathered through the adapted instruments: Science
Process Skills Test.
I. Science Process Skills Test

The test is teacher-made and served the reason of measuring student’s


dominance of Science Process Skills. This can be a test composed of 60 items
which is partitioned into ten item-test for each component of Science Handle
abilities such as watching, communicating, classifying, measuring, inducing and
anticipating.

The primary portion of the test is almost watching which is composed of


pictures and diagram that students ought to watch carefully. This portion tests
students’ sharpness in watching, particularly in utilizing the sense of locate. The
moment portion which is almost communicating is isolated into two:
Communicating with an Outline, where students are required to compose the
area of the question by counseling the outline; and portraying the barrel, where
students are required to compose sentence/s that portray the location of the
barrel. Classifying is the third portion of the test where students got to classify
the given units, by putting them within the legitimate column of the amount they
degree. The fourth part about measuring is separated into coordinating the
instrument and the amount it measures and solving simple issue of change.
The final portion of the test is distinguishing the proper inference and prediction,
respectively.

The responses of the respondents in all questions and statement indicator in the
questionnaire used descriptive statistics such as frequency count, Pearson r, Weighted
Mean, and standard deviation were used.

Data Gathering Procedure


In gathering data for this study, the researchers followed the following procedure:

The researchers have sent a letter to the Davao Doctors College Registrar’s Office
asking for the list of the Grade-12 STEM Students. The said letter asked for the complete
class list of the 13 sections of STEM class.

Another letter was sent to Davao Doctors College Administration, asking


permission for the conduct of the study in all the respective sections of Grade-12 STEM
class. The Administration had duly signed the letter allowing the researchers to conduct
the study.

Upon approval, the researchers distributed and administered the questionnaire for
Science Process Skills and Performance in Science subjects.
The data were retrieved, collected, tallied, tabulated, and interpreted confidentially
and accordingly.
Data Analysis Tool
In the analysis of data, the following statistical tools were employed:

Frequency count determines the number of respondents who were subjected to


the appraisal of science mean process skills.

Weighted Mean was utilized to evaluate students’ dominance of science process


skills and performance in science. This was used to answer statement problems 1 and 2
which were to determine the level of Science Process Skills and the level of Performance
in Science subject of Davao Doctors College’s Grade-12 STEM students

Pearson r. This was used to answer statement problem 3 to verify if there is a


significant relationship between Science Process Skills and Performance in Science
Subjects of the Grade-12 STEM students of Davao Doctors College.

Standard deviation. Was utilized to urge the normal of how removed the person
scores or recognition are from the cruel of the tests.