Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 17

TABLE OF CON'i'ENTS

: 1;
~ED IC~-\ TIO "N ...... .. .. .... .... · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · • · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · . · · : . . . . ' ·
? REFAC E. .... ..... .. .. . . .. ............................... . .. . .... . . . ....... . ... . . .... ' . \

CHAPTER 1 - I~;T RODUCTION TO CRIMINAL JUST ICE


Basic T ermir..o log ie s . Principle s
and P~iloso p h i cal Approach es .. ... . . .. . . .... .. ... .... ... . •• ••.. • .. · · · · · ····· .. l
.-... ..:.:- _:-:-..::-.c .o~- and Crisnin al J us tice D~ ffrren tia red . . - • ..,.2
=. ':: :-::-- e ~ nc :he rnra:na l J u s tice System ..... .... ... . - - - • ..,
~ . ~ :--::-_~:--• ..::.: :__.at..-;.· and the Crfrn inal Justice Syste1n .. . . . . .. .. . . . . .
1 "'
1 •..,

u c~:::-..:-4a ~ i:1 reiat.on to Cri rninal J us tice Sy stem .... ... .... .... .. . : 4
-. h-- ~ -,.... ~=--lceots 01,. vusti

· ·ce .. . .. ... ... ... ... .... ..... . ...... .....
· .... ... .. . •.... -• • 1 6 .1.

.·. . l q
,-J. ?~:~.}so phical Approaches behind .th e
L,, .__ , _ :::?.
• - · ~ - - .1
-, a-~ icP-
s...,1-A_~ ... . -
s--s~
.-m . . . . .. . .. . . .. . . . · · · · · ·•· •· · · · ·· · · · ·· · · ·
_,
0
~ - - -'-1

r_; __ __ ~-
~ - . .. . 1, . c ,
J · 1~u·ce s :J•,~'en·
• . " ~L ,..,,r od e 11 ~- · · ·· · .. · ·· ··· · · · · · · · · •· ·· · · · ·
._ l'{l
_···
-···=- ·1=: I, 1·s -...; ce .~-
""' ........
- ··~ . ,. ._' t· R . A.
. . . _y, s .;....e~!. , 9 '")~4 -;-
,11. . . . ... ..... .. . . . . ... . .. . . JO

CP.,APTER II - LAW ENFORCEME1iT


The Fust Pillar in ±he Administration
of the Criminal Justice System (CJS} ·················-----·····••H••· .... 3 '-.}
r""_..,::. Pht_ rr
• •
n .
.urpme
L• • ~ · - :. a u, onal P o·1ice
N •
· (PNP) .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 _)
_, ?o-;.·ers and Functions of the .PNP .;·· ···--·- ·-·~··········· · · ··· ·· · ·· ·· ·· · ···44 .
~ C::irrre Det~ction :. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
~ - .!..1-rr: s~ a...Tl.d Search W arrant ...... ...... .... ... . ~ ... .. .. ..... ... .... .. .. .. .. . .... . SO
~ 9 ..-• - ~· . -- -
LJ . • 0. -
. .
_, _ . - . . . - . .. . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . ... ... ... . .. ;:) ::)

Cri.'7?:nat !nve~tigation ......... .. .... . :.... .... ..... ... . ...... ... . ..... .... ....... . 5 6
-: . :.;"i::·c Prevention ... .. ......... ...... ........ .... ... .. ..... _.. ... .... ...... ....... . ~ ,
.---- - . po - - - - - - -~ - ·- - ·--. --
?c,lice !niase in the Administrat io n
0f t he Criminal Justice System .... ..... ...... .. ... ... .. .... ... ..... ...... ... . 58
r
I
/'"
Poh<:~r=- 0 ~sc retio n in .!'"elation to the
Adrni n1stration of the Criminal Justiee System .... . ... .. .
cHAl"l'FH 1\1 COURT . '1 • • -

• · l 1' ·t1·n· oft h<' t' t11.nt n (\l Ju s t 1cc Rystcm .............. .. .... .. 8 1
fl\¢ flu t t t • r
.\
-11·
,..lt,U'" \ ~(l 11. l 11 ·,
.. " . . . . • . . . . . . • .. .
........... " .......................... ) ()

~-: ¾,, es· tht'ir qu dill1.'atio 11 s ....................... :.......... .... ...... .·· gc..
1
r- \ \ l \ t~ ... • . ' ( l C:
.-"-.. . ,' t~ c o t \. '\., u rt I) 1~c-n~t1on ................ ... ... ........ •... .. • .... . . ;;, :J
~' 9b
D i\h.1(,,"t'i\ i O qt.hl Sh .. .............. .... .. ............ ..... . ... . .... .... .. ........... C-,
1
_L..... ,..\ l ii.8ib,i'l[ l l t'llt .......... ................ , ..... · .. · · · · · · · · · · · ..··· ···· · ·· ···· · · ... · · :J
... C P1 . ." - ti"l.:1t . .... ....... ........ . . ............. .. .... ........ • . ..•.•.. • 93
"T1 1al:............ ....................... ...................
\.; '
99
,T • J'll~,Q.'-, 111l'llt ······ · ··· ············· ·· ··· ·· · ········· : .•.••••• , .......... 102 I
i
'"l
I
-~~"'l-' ~..11 ... ' .. '.' ........ ...... ' .... ...... ·:: ................•. •• . -····· ... 104 •

CHAPTER V - CORRECTIONS
The F~urth Pillar of t h e Criminal Justice S ............... I 09 1

J
.
.Pur::>,>S,'S of Corrections ... ............ ~ ........ .. ..... . •.............. 1 l l i.
i
I

3. A:t~rna ~i\·es to confinem ent I


i
~
er cornmuni ty-based correction ............ ~··; .. .. . .. .. .... . .... l 19 1
.J : )_ !S ... • . • · • • • • • • • • • · · • • · • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • -. • • • • • • • • " • .. _. ....... ..... 1?0
l

,ja h~ in relation to the Criminal Justice Svs .......... ~ .. : 122


•i
. .. ~

,.,1. .~·pf' s .() t- J a 1.1.


·1
... . .. ........... ..... . .. ....... ... . . .......... .. .. --· ........ 123
c ass1t1ca_1ons o·f P n.s on ers ....... ....... ·........ .. .
""l . - t-·
··- ........... 123
G C0m:-n uniry-Base d Co rrections ... .... :..._....... . . .. ..... -· ... -.. 124 :
Correc tionai Discretion ........................... ·· ·• ·" ........... -- .. 1,--
~.:)
•t
t
t

CF-APTER VI - COMMUNITY l I
Pillar of the _C riminal Justice Sys
i
i
A ill· , .. .. 139
...,.ppend~ B - nie ~ . e . 143
....,.i:\\ppendrx C - Republic Act No . 9344 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. ........ 147
.!. PP~nd1x D_:. The Rule on the Writ of Habeas Data ...................... . 183

!
I

I
i
INTRO DUCT ION TO .-: IHiV!!N:\L JTJ$'l' t 1..,E 1

_CHAPTER I
-LN1~RO DUCTlON TO CRIMINAL JlJSTICE
BASI C TERlvl li'~ O LOGIES. PR.INC i PLES
1\ N D PH I LOSOPH IC/\L APPROACH ES

f
I

i
i
I

I
I

I
i
\

\I

\
I
l;
2 PHILIPP INE CRIMINAL J USTt cg .:3YSTEM

A. Criminology and Cri min a l J u s ti ce D if fe re n tiat e d


What 1s Criminal Just ice?
Siegel and Senna states that ''cnm1nal ju ..tlce malJ
be viewed or defined as the system of ia,-'-' . enforcement,
adjudication, and correct10n llwf. is cl,rr;dly 1nvolr1ed 1n thP
apprehension, prnsecu t_w n, and control of tho.~e char9cd Ll ith
cnminal ojfenses ... :
Notice that in t h is definit ion, the American Crim inal
Ju stice Syste m 's main focu s is on enforcMlent adju dication
and co rrec tio n .
In the American Justice System, there are o n ly three
(3 ) p illars : (1 ) Law Enforc_e ment, {2) the Courts, and (3) the
Corrections . •
In gen eral , a Cri1ninal Justice Sy sf'eli'i (CJS) involves a
number of government agencies that ensures tqe protection of
the public, t he maintenance of order the enforcement of the 1

i - lav.t~ the identification of transgre ssor~, t"" =\iProsecution of the4

{ accused and the finding of the guilty.,


2
and~e
correction and
r.reatme n t of crimin al behavior.

What Is Crimi nology?


.,,. Sutherland,_Cressey and Luckenbill
"the body of knowledge regarding cri.me as tt
le includes w ithin its s,cope the proc
breaki ng laws , a_n d of reacting toward t • l
They fu r ther n ote that Criminology has th ree interrelated
divis ions~-thes e--a.re: ·· --- -.. -. · -· •· -·--

1. The S ociology· of Criminal Law whic h sys tematically •


a nalyzes the conditions under \Vh1 ch pe nal law~ develop
and expl a ins as weil th e proced ures u sed in police
agencies and courts . This firs t. d ivis ion focuses on
'l a.wmak1 ng '.

-~ Siegi=; l , L . ,rnd .:-,cnu .-<, .; (2007 ). EtHH': nlial~ uf Crimi1• ~il .ru st.<i~ Uuirl·d Stat.!~ \, t'
" ~
1
~n ..-a: Th,>tn !ion W.'.ld sworth . pi.-4. ~

: ~h)yrc, P :.ind Wain, l'J. ( 201 '+l, A l.Ji~tionary of Cnm1no l ,Ju ~r1«:~. Nt:",1. \'ork :
r<ouc l edge. p . LOG

.3 .~urh_e~land, E ., Cressey, D. and Luckenbill , D. ( l 9Y2). Principle~ of Criminology


( l 1"· Ed1t1on). United Stateo of Amc~rica. Gen eral Hall. p . .3.
INTRODUCT I O.N TO CRJMINA L JUSTIC R 3

iL The Sorio!og~: of C'rirne and the Socia l Psy(ho!or, y


C'ii;.n1nal Behavior which examir:cs econO';'rnr. , social
--~:id po liticGtl conditions Lhat generates or pre~:en l s the
commission of crin1es . This ~econd d 1v1sion. focuses on
·13,,·- breaking'.
1u. Thf• Socioloc~y of Punishment an d· Cor-rcc '"1on Lh rH
I
i
•t systernatica10 a11alyzes t h e proced ur~!S and policies
ti1at aims to ~'ontrol crimes. Th is th ird divls1on focu
Ii on <society's reaction to law- breaking'.


I
I
ivhat is the Difference between Criminal Jus tice and
Criminology?

(a) \Vhile Cri1ninology explains the etiology, extent,


and n atu re of the crime in socie ty; Criminal Justice
studi~s the agencies of social control tha t handles
crimina l offenders.
(b) \Vhile Crimino logists are con~erned with identifying
the na ture, extent and. ca uses of crime;
Criminal J ustice sch~lars engage in
r analyzing, and explaining the operations of
a gencies of justice, specific~lly. !he p9lice agenci~
the prosecution , the co"urts and the rest of th e pill
of th e system in seeking more effective methods
crime control a nd offender rehabilitation. 4

Is t here an overlapping ar~a of


exp erts a n<!, .':.1:1:_ ....
"?,ino_l~gi~ts? ___ .. _ . ·- -
~es, Criminal Justice experts cannot begin to desigr:
tffect1ve programs of crime prevention of rehabilitation without
un derstanding the . nature and· cause of crin1e. Th~.Lr~y_uin:·
a c_cu ratc crimina l statistics and d~t1a__to te.~t the efft;ctive_pess of
!I c:·1?1 ~_ con trol ct,lJ,Q..Qieventio_p progran1s !. 1 It is in this a$pect tha.t
Crur,mal ·J u ·s t-1'r-:-. -::::. ,d C · · h .
\ • '- ~, 1 umno 1ogy uve overlapping CQrKi-n,s

(J
'I
l
----··--·--
Siegei and S P.n ~ ~ ·-:-- -- ·- - - -
q.
2

r 5 fb1d. . p . 14 .
B. Crime and Criminal Justice System
tVhat is the event that calls for the operation of !he Criminal
Justice System? Why?
Crime is the event th a t calls fo r the ope:-a t 10 11 Gf the
criminal justice system.
When a crime is co1nmitted, it d1sturbt the tranqu11tty
a nd harmony of the society. Such even: upqn rh~
police to 1nitiate po lice intervention by w mvest1gat1on
or apprehension of those w h o violate the law. the prosecutor
to prosecute the case; the co1:1rt to determine the gui!t vf the
a~cused; and L½e rest of t h e s vstem follot.XJS a& incumbPnt uoon
~ .
:heir role in the crimina l justice process·.

Enumerate so-me of the legal pririciples or ~ m s regarding a


cri.me or a criminal act?

(a) .-'Nullum crimen nu lla poena sine lege 11:S t is - ~here


is no c rime where no law is punishfn
.. •
(b) The m~"Cim is , "actus nonfacit reum, ~ mens rea"-
A crime is .n ot committed _if the -m ind ~I the person
performing the act complained be innocent.
(c") The maxim is t'Actus me invito factus,
actus)'- An act done by-me agains
act.
(d) Crimes mala en se an
first set of crimes refer to
criminal on moral grounds ' while . the second set
.cif c"rimes -p ertain . to 'those acts that ha V\:'. bcc·n
criminalized for regulatory purposes. Murder is an
example of a ma.la. en se while the Illegal Posses5wn
of Firearms and Ammunition is an exanlple of mala
prohibita . .
I N t'RCJ J) tJ(' TJ <)N 'f() C: .R I MIN/, t, ,JUS'Cl<' F 5

tVha t d epartm e nt of the gove rrunen t cfrfi n es


a nd punishes an act ?

(a) The 1987 Philippine C'on~ti tuti ()n crnpow, rs · th e


Legislative branch of the governmen t or CnngrPss
which is composed of the Upp,.r Hr>1J', F rir ~h ,. ·
Senate and the Lower Haus,, or 1he I !rn .~,., , ,f
Rep r ese ntatives, with the power to ena(' t n wd 1fy or
repe al laws. 6 lt is empowered to deterrru e h 1 a ts
are d ee m ed h a nnful to our society pun, he
such ac ts in order to suppress them
(b) Our . local legis la tive . bodies (Sanggt..&nUUl
Pa;1laia·wigan, Sangguriian Panlungsod, Sanggunian
Pa mbayan , Sanggunian Pambarangay) a r e a19'>
a uthori-zed to enact laws that a re crirnina! or penal
in na~u re and are applicable or enforceable only
\vi thin their respective territorial jurisdiction

ivhat is c rime in the criminolog ical s e nse?


. .
I
; A crirne is a · violation of societal rules of
i in terpreted and express.ed by a criminal legal ~
by p eople h olding social a·n d political power. [ndivi
ff
violate thes e rules are subject to sanctions by state
f
~
social stigma, .and lose of status.
!
l
f
Th_is definition com biQ.e$
i t he criminal law defines
I• emphasis on political
\ concept of stigma . T
~

J
l
s ocia 1, and economic fu
~

G •
:ut. V I, Sr.-,·. ! . Philippine Con11tit11ti,111-,
7
lbid, P- 18~.. U r:d('r th~ Consensus view, tl~e law defines the <:rune nncl luw~
;,,,i~ply ~,.-, all <:qi.;hlly; Und~r the Conflict view. thr. law is the tonl of thr n1lin 1t d~.,._
c_nme u, fl po lttic;-tlly dl'.:fined crmr-~pt and U'ied to control the underd:>.~s; while m
tbe _Inti!rc?.r.tionist vie,,..., mc,raJ cn trP.prt.-neurE, de-fine crime , crimes are illegal bec,1use
society defines th ~m tha.t way, Rnd criminal labe ls are life tran:1forrning event~ . .
rrnr.. rr>PlN E CR l ~i\l,; JUSTICE S YSTEM
0
-=- - --
{VJtat is crime i n the legal se nse?
Ci:iminologis ls d efine crime a s a voluntary a nd intrnt1o n 0J
n otation by ll!gally comp eten t p erson of a legal duty th a t
co mrr1a nds or prohibits an act for th e pro tection of th e s ociety.
>l.. r rirne is punish a ble by judicial proceedings in th e n ame of
the stale.3

From t his lega l definition, what are tM tldng• that ap p arently


cons t itute crime? -
Th ey a re the following:
1. Th e act must be · voluntary. Thus, if the criminal act
were shown to. have been done involuntarilv - as when
the individual is forced to commit a criminal act against
his will, the person cannot be found,guiity of the crime. 9
2. It must be intentional . .Thus, otherwise criminal act that
occurs by accident generally is not considered crimes.1°
3. , It must be committed by a legally competent person.
Under the law certain persons are considered not
capable .of committing a crime, like the insane or those
who are fifteen (15) years old ·~d below. 11
4. The behavior that constitutes crime
of commission or an act of omission .
guilty of a crime by doing someth·
or should not be done {i.e .
wha t the law says should b

8 Purs ley , R. D. (1991). Introduction to Criminal Justice System (S 1h Edition). New


York : Macmillan. p . 35. ·
9 Article 12, par. 5 (irresistible force) and 6 (uncontrollable fear) of the Revised Penal
Code is the bes t example .
10 I n t en t 1s
· one of th_e three elements of Felony. The other t\\"O a r~ - Intelligence and
~ree_do rn of ac tion.. However, our RPC also considers culpa or fitult as fi'elonv. Culpa
ts without intent or malice. It is merely the result of negligence (lack of fore~ightJ or
unp ru dence {lack of skjll). Further, if the law violated ia .a Spectal PenaJ Law, intent is
not required because the only requirement is whether or not the act prohibited was
co ,m ~ i~ted . lf yes , intent 1s imm~terieJ. (e.g. ntegal Possession of Firec4[:m or RA 8 2 94
al men.d.1ng. PD 1688, RA 7438, The Rights oftJie Person under Custodial Investigation or
nterroga.tion). . I
!
. l.l"
1
Ttrticle 1~, par. 1, and 2 of the Revised Penal Code and under Art. 15 of R.A:- 9344
e Juvenile and Justice Welfare Act of 2004.
j
Jl'i 1'HO I H J<. JIO N 10 t; JUMIN/\ J. ,,US'I H T·, '/

lt1 rh1s connN11 on , an 1c t of (1m issiot 1 t,, ,,, ns tt t 1, ,,. ,


critne 1n n s t be- c oP ~i det N I , 1n In \.V ft il by t li e t ' ti 11v~ ,r ti 1e
L 1n(! th e ac t 1s co1nm1 !t1,,.• cl .

5 . A c ri1n e is :_all_tl.r.LJh nt _th t"C' Fl,lc n s th r· \Vr•lfc:u C r,I l l 1e


society and i~12u n is h u1Jlc by j udkU tl jHOUY~rl 1n 1:s ir 1 h~
nan1c o f th1..• s1air' . Th u s, cr i m e I c:, < 0 11 !l1C.l e r cc.I t<J Le cJ
crim.e aga.inst the collective well being of the oc1 ty
In cri1ninal proceedings, the offended party or prwate
cotnpldinant is 1nerely considertd as the prnnary
witness of the state.

Based a lso on the legal definition, how may tM go•rn.llWld


convict a perso,1 of a crime?
In order to convict a pers ~n, the governmen t must show that:
1. An act was oommitted , th~t a t the time of.its c o ~
was prohibited, or tha t t he accused failed to. •
something com m and ed by la w (a.ct); .fi n this conn, I 1011
it is better to rece:-ll the principles or mCLtims in o&t fitgl
law as previously sta t ed.)
2. That the accus ed did the act voluntarily and wiell
knowledge of what he or she was doing (tlu,
must be committed with the concurreftce or
f reedom of action, and intelligence, or by
negligence or imprudence ·
3. That the act resulted..
of act ~nd tn~a.
4: That the act an:d th 1.,,,

that was offensive to the law ( cauaatio,v. an


5. That it cau sed some harm to socic:-ty '(result).u

NOTE: In t h e Philippines , if a crin1e is punished by t h~


Revised Pena l Cod e, it is ca lled a fdouy; if hy u ~p'6cinl law,
il is called a n offen,~; if by an 0 1 dincu1cc , 1t 1s called i\.1 1
infraction of lll...Qrdin.ru:~ 1"
-:,..' .....
12 l bicl . pp . 36 -38.
.
":...

13 Ibid. , p . 38 .
14
Gregorio , A. L. Funda 111enta.l1:1 o f Criminal tuw (9 111 fi~d ttlonl Rex Bo<>k Store. p . 1.
E C RIMINA L JUSTICE SYS'fEM
8 PHILIP PIN _

How are cn·rnes classiA'-J,.


e d by crimino logists? Give examp les.
Criminologists devote a grcut dea l of attention to dcfi.ning
crin1e in general or 1n specific terms.
Some of the examples of criminological classifications of
crimes are the followi n g:
The types of victims ( child ab~se , women, elderly)
The type of · offender( white~collar crimes, hate
crimes, blue collar crimes)
The object of the crime ( property, person, state)
The method of criminal activity ( organized1
accidental or n egligence, or modus operandi)
Degree of Gravity (Light, Serio:u,s, or Less Serious)1 5
. .
Nature of Crime ( inala in se ·o r_mala prohibita)1 6


Classify a s. to its source_of .enactment or legis lation
(Felony, Offense , Infraction of.an Ordinance)
# - Formal Crime or In formal Cri~e (consum mated •
immediately (like, oral defamation of physical injury]
or there a re stages in its commission 17
Continuing Crime (ele
be committed ih diffi
kidnapping, estafa or swin ing, ;

of the Anti-Trafficking in Petsons Act of 2012 oi


' .
R.A . . 10364] or that · the crime is committed in a
co_ntinuous or series of acts manifesting the same
- or singular intent or purpose)
Transitory crime (crime is committed while on board
a private or publi'c vehicle or ~n board a vessel) ts
Status offense (punishable when committed by
minors but not when committed by adults)

15 Article 9, Revised Penal Code. ·

~ ; nM~Za in se if...the crime is wrong by nature and /\!ala prohibita if the crime is not ·
1 0
ordergl· Y nature out merely regulatP.d or controlle'd by the State in order to maintain
Y conduct. ·
17 A ·
rttclc 6 , Revised Penal Code.
18
Rule l lO, Rules on Criminal Procedure.
INTRODUCTtON TO CR! M I NAL JUST ICE 9

~Vha t is the irnportance or effect of the classification of Cr i m es


\
in the Ad1ninistration of Crimina l Justi ce?

I
l
ll is \·ery important because it will affecl the decision
making of the agents or agencies of Criminal .Justice in regards
LO enforce1nent of crimes. Seriou s crime s like murder, robhertJ

I or kidnapping for ra.n som are more likely to be enforced ,


in~:estigatedl prosecuted or may even be given priority in court
proceedings co n1pared to ligh t or insignificant crimes like
dolatio n of an ordinance. Moreover, a complainartt ol a serious
c1iine ·will certainly repor t the crime or purs u e the interest in
the outcome of the case .
\1/hen the victim is a minor or a woman or an elderly
person~ the la-w 's full 'fo rce will most likely be enforced as it wiD
generate sympathy from .the media and the public at large.
If it is rnala in se, it will likely be enforced considc:n:o&
that the ac t is by nature morally wrong or odious to the p~
rhus.., will elicit J?ublic con~emnation. 19

How are crimes classified under Book U


of t h e Revised Penal. Code?·
. .
Book Two of the Revised Penal Code classi
the following:
A. ·crimes Against the NationaJ Se
of the State
B. Crim.es
C . Crimes Against
. ,. _____ ____ ·-- -···-·-
--- --, __ _____________ .,. ;........
~

------ ·- -·
D . Cr imes Against Public Interest

E . Crimes Relative to Opium and Prohibited Dn\gs

F. Crimes Against Public.Morals


G. Crimes Committed by Public Offi~ers
H . Crimes Against Persons
l L Cr,lmes Against Personal Liberty and Security

I
..J . 8rimes Against Property .
19 No Author. (2012} Introducti . . . . .
Ende..-sen Publishing, pp. _ _on to Criminal Justice_, Seventh Ed1t1on'. Elsevier Inc.,
73 82
PHILIPPINE CRI MIN AL J UST ICE SYSTEM
10
- - - - - - ..

K. e ri111es i\ gains r Chastity


. L. Crimes ,\gainst the Civi l Sta tu s ?f P e rso n s
M. Crimes Agru nst Hono r
N. Qu asi - offenses

c. Criminal Law and the Cr-iminal Justice System


tVhat is the basis of the Criminal Justice Sy,tem? Explain .
Th e Criminal Justice System is based on the enacted
Crim inal Law / Statu tes. -4

. .
On ly violatio ns of Criminal Law are qeing cons idered and
process ed in th e Criminal Justice System. Where there is no
violation of Criminal Law or where there is no commission of
the c rime , 1n general, Criminal Justice as. a process ·will not
20
operate .
Sometimes , even if the act of a person is somewhat generally
annoying or obnoxious to some people, that person cannot be
process ed in the__criminar justice system in the· absence of an
enacted Criminal Law. 21
The advent of the modern concept in
restorative · jus tice and diver~ion will dras .
point ~f view of the public conce.r ned ...

Define Cri m i nal Law.


-f- - - In _th e Philippines·,: Crirriinai Law is defined as 'that bra nch
O' of p~b hc law, which defines crimes, treats of their nature ,- and
~ provid es for their punishment. ·

~~- Unde r th e Revised Pe n al Cod e 1 Article LOO , n p e r~o n who is cri min £ilh li hbk
~ ta~l _also b e ctvilly liablt. !'wlc Lhar th /I!. civil li a bih w is an·y is a ttac: h t-rl t n Uw ,' r in11n:ll
iabillly . Thus , where no crim e w a s commitred as 1n th e-. c1rrum~ tnn c•~!-,. \." J\l.HHC:'.'."\lt-'d
t~e r Article 1 1, RPC, the E\CCU S<': d
1
is
not only (,.' ri m m a lly Hable b 1,,1t c\ l S(') no l ;, iv1 1lv
~ l~. Com~a re this with Article 12 , RPC, w h ere ·a per.!'l ~n m a y not be fl<lJudgerl ·
cnmtnally ~table, but civil liability st'ill att ach ed .
?
1
Nnllum crimen nuUa poena sine lege {No crime where no law is punishing the act). I
l
INT ROD UCTION TO C RIM INAL JUST [C E 11

~Vhat are t h e tw o c lassificat i o n s of Crim in al Law?


!>~ Crim inal Law m ay eithe r b e S ubs ta ntive or Procedural.
\

Defin e Substan tive Crimina l Law.


Substantive Crimin al Law defines the elements that
~ are necessary for an act to consti tute a crime and therefore
() punishable. ·
'\

Define Procedural Crimina l Law.


Procedural Crim inal Law refers 'to a s tatute that provides
procedu res appropriate fo~ th~ enforcement of the Substantive
0--\-
'\ Crim inal Law. · ·

What a re the sources of Substan ti.ve c;nminal Law in the


Philippines?

The following are the sources of Substantive Crimi


in the Philippines : _
1. The Revised Penal Code
2. Presidential Decrees
3. _Special Penal Law~
4. City and Municipal

'' What a re t he s ou rce s of Procedural Crim i nal Laws in the


Philippines? .. - · - - --·- - ·-···-· ·~----···------- - -- . -
i.
I.
! Th e following are the primary sources of Crin1inal Law
Procedur es in the Philippines:
I
(3 ) The Bill of Ri~hts of the Philippine Constitution .

I 1
i
{b) The Revised Rules of Criminal Procedure; Ruks of
Court. ·
,"":.,
t
<.c) 0th er Ru 1e,i on Criminal Procedures gro1nulgated by
t

:
the Suprerne Court pursuant to its Con.13titutwnal
mandate.ii
l
l 22 A I
i rt. X., Sec 5 (5), Philippine Constitution.
LIPPIN E CRIMJNAt, JuSTICf_j S Y STEM
12 PHI - -- - -::::::::======-:--:===
L - -==,.---==~ ---=- -- -
ivhat are the two basic princ iples of c rimittaI la w 1-hCLt: t he
Philippines adhere to in t h e adminis tration of t he Criminal
Justice System?
Our syscem of justice ppera:es on nvo key pnnc _::,ies o~
criminal iaw .
Th e first is "t h e presumption of in nocence". T:iis J

means th at those who arc accu sed of crimes are considered


innocent until proven guilty. This is the fundamental assumpt:on
of ou r lega l syste m that at least in theory ii suppo~ed to exist.
Thus, the a ccus ed is entitled to all the rights of th e citizens
un til the accused's guilt h as been determined by !h~ con t": o:
law or by the accused 's acknowledgment of his guilt tt.at he o r
she indeed comm itted the crime. 24
The s econd pri_nciple is ''the burden of p roof 5 which
in crimina l . cases means that the government' m ust pFove
beyond reasonable doubt'126 tha t the suspect committed the
crime . Because the criminal prosecutions carry the penalty of
im prisonmen t a n d even death in some cases: the state through
the prosecution is given a difficult burden. Nevertheies s it is
t he bedrock of our social - and th.r oµ gh it, our legai sy s tem.

Explain the concept of the Principle of Presu


Innocence. Give the ·s ource of this principle.
No les s than the <;:onstitution of the Phili
that a n acc~sed shalt be pr.e sumed innocent until

2 ~ Art ~ Ill, Sec. 'f4""(2j~°fSfiflippine" Corisiituti~


d u;pu ta ble presumption · •
H i s con troverted or d
criminal cases, the p
accused.
2_4 Detention p
n ghts, (even ru
and the right to
when ~ot punishaHte
'..25 ln our legal sy 8 t
:)roof Al1 . ·. em, ~ ll egation . .
1s n ot proof He who all~g~s h~s the hurden o!
.Wi' t h .t h · egation .. tf not. ·S1.l ppo r ted ',.,ya
n. • . 1·1) IP. ev1'd r .1 u• w .ill · n t.it ll t"u.::. pt-t 111
r d:,,,rt1I.!-.S . C'ffl.l rt s
. ts ru 1e in ou r Jt . di 1 . r
the prosecut' lns ction , Pu s tn <! ,act that I h•.· ctCCd.:.e; i ~s p i , ' ::i:~uli f' d ; u n .( i.:cffC.
weakness of t h ion mus. .t rely~ on tht sr1·e.ng ch u f Jts · o wn r~~.- 1'd (! n ee I at he 1 rni-i. l r ~i\ ::.ii L:-i \! ,
e ev,_dence of the accu sed .
2 6 Rule 133 s
' ec. 2, Rules of Court.
llUeidi l \[ jHn11f lir s in th r j11 t bli , p ,, , (! cU l r,r r: 1ft
,h,'
HH'tnnb~ tl l "l't".H"\ t lh p1 o s1•cul o1 to p rovt• tli At 1h ,· 1r: ~ 1, ,, ,,rJ 1$
~~,ult: n~, \' h,\l •:t \t •
ln ~l, 1. h,u1g, lh1... 1,1us et.11t nr· 111 u l ,, ly on rhf" tren gth of
his :1t'1 ~·\ td~th''r. ,, \\d nnt <"'
t I 11 · wca.kn~ss of the ac u sed
, , ,\ l~n C"t".'

lt l1.)n1.'\\ ~,, t lh't t•to 1c.\ th n t I h e Ht''rn ~~ d 1s en titled to a ll the


n ~h \~ ,,t , n 1n'1 t\ id\\ ._\l d li,;t' n until the' guilt 1s proven. This 1s
th~ l'<:,\~,,n ,, h) 1lh' th"' t"lH·H'd nnd c r th e c on stitutio n 1s granted
!h" 11h-h~ to l'\.\il t'X1..' l'P l u nder certa in crirnes committed.

£'\ pkdn t h e.' con ct!pt of Pt·oof Beyond Reasonable Doubt. Gfue fa
:c.--g il l bas is .
ln th~ Philippine s~tting, ou r criminal proceeding carries
1h1.' p~n~lt) 9f hnprisonm en~ or depriva tion of liberty and on th~
~ xt1 ~--nc:\ t he punis h me nt of death. 2s

ln order to rnake sure th a t only those who are truly guilty .


of the <"'rim~ a rc punished and t h a t no person who is innocent
is nnprisoncd, ou r Rules on Evidence provide that the weight of
C'\·iden ce required to convict. an accused for a criminal act must
be proof beyond r eason a ble doubt. Unless his . is sho\\-n
beyond reasonable doubt: he is enti~ed to .•

Define Proof Beyond Rea.sdnabZ.


Proof beyond. reasona~ such a
degree of proof as, excl ., produces
absolute ·c-ertairrty: M 1 6r that
degr:ee of proof which. ·udiced
mind.

'
l
·:ix !)<"itth prnalcy (Art 25, RPC) iij lhe~ 11pita.l puni1hment rnr hein\'\uh~mes u
P=-< 1v1ded also undl'"r a,.\, 81 t I, ''Ac-r o ~'- t<1f lllflllc/ {)Nit>, t, y 1,,tJi11/ l11 1t·< £1<" ' ' wh 1,·h ~' E\ $
:-t"p~al!'.'d ,HlU/<H ,uncu t1~d nncl p1oh1 blted bv N;\. No <>Jlb . otlit ,11·,.~,.. J,,,1 \ •:~ n d ' tilt''

I
~Acr Prohtbtting Chft Jmpo ~rt ,cm of n t"CJt l t P<! r1t1 lf !) i11 tlie J1hil,ppmt' '-

29 Rule 133, Sec. 2. Ru les of Co u1 t.


PHI LIPPINE CRIMINAL J USTl C'E SfSTEM
14
- -

D. criminal in relation to Crhninal Justic e 3 ys te1n


tVho is t h e cri minal in relation to the a dmini s tra t io n of th e .
Crimina l J u stice Systeni?
The cri1nina l is tl1e m a in c hrfrnctf•r o t the C rirn i n a l J 11stice
SYstc1m . Sarne a u thors e\ en refe r to him as the s~perstar
b~cause upo n h im th e pilla rs of th e system revolve .

Define a cri min al, in t h e criminological sense, t he legal sense,


and as defirteq. in the c riminal justice sense.
A criminal rnay be defined in th ree (3) different views:
1. In the · Criminologica l sense, aperson may be
considered as a crim inal from the time he or she
committed the crime regardless ivheth e·r or not
it has been referred or reported to th·e p olice for -
investigation.
2 . In legal.sens e, a person may be cons.i dered a criminal
only upon u nd ergoing the j~dicial process and upon
determina tion by the Court that _he or she is guilty
beyond reasonable doubt.
3. In Criminal Justice ·sense, a crimi~al may b e
as one who h8:s undergone the and
thr.ough all the pillars of th
System. 30

3~ Notice that it,.


crame or it a~
deemedt.obaNe
the criaunar Ii&
the crime lt
r - . IS al I
r no crime WU commlt
- nmmal m the CJ''
~ se n ~<
!.
·· - "l.- . •
On the othe 1 .; · -:-
the crimin a lr J'11<:u1<.
r' .'
1 Pnrclnn by th e Cl1H~r l::" - " • ·• ' ..-.::. • · •
. l.!,x ec nt1\' C ~w s th e ( · tlt'. C' I ()t C. '\'.l' 1n ½1 , ~c_ h11h' only
c ~ 0 11 1ty a nd 110L tb e cr im e . •=> -

ln h
s ort, Arn,nesty h · h fi . -
Pardon has the . as t e e feet _of el _im1_n ating the act that cause s the t: rime, v1hite
.effect only o~ extmgu1s htng the result of the crime, the· penalty .
----------
•i

l
i
Hl'fH OU UC.:'IJ <JN HJ< PIMfN.I\L, J US'J J <., I-✓ lfi

i. -~•l
;.~-~~t a.;~~- cha different nomenclature~ givt.:n to tho p<'r ,on 1.1./ho
is being pr.occsse~ under the Crirnincd Jusltce Sy bt(!m ?
At the police stage, dnr m g inw st 1ga r ic,n,

I
1. hr! ,,,
refe rred i.O as the SUSPEC1'.
2. A.t the Prosecutors offic~ , during th deu m1 1>
of probable cause or ch.u ing the Prelamu1dr
Investigation , h e is refer 1ccl to as the RE8P01'DEJf1
3 . At the trial of the case,. when a case has be~n filed in
Cour t, he is referred to as the ~CCUSED
t1 Once the Court has determined tha.t the accused 1
g-uilty" beyond reasonable doubt as charged and rh~

I
I

' J"...irigr:ient has been rendered, he is referred to as ~he


CONVICT .
.:). ! : is only u pon undergoing all the process when _the
~person h as served the sentence when he c~n r Pally
be considered as a CRIMINAL.

Vlhat are the classificat ions of an offender or cri.min al?

As to the crime committed (fo r the crime of murder


murderer; for the crime of robbery, robber:. ......~ a..
· thief; for rape, :apist, etc.f 1

As to the method by whj.ch


(Akyat Bahay Gang, Durl:4
BudolBudolGang,etcf
As to the tools or ins
of the crili!Re (by
Gang; ham.mer for

As to the age of
those comn'Uft:a

........
··••wlro
u•~
I 3. T e ar
dF-pe-ndu·,g rm thP. cnmc comm,tre
~2 T½·.e two rr:iert. r<J Lhe Modur. Opr-ra11d:

I
la.Sl
?7 f/i
;..., • :_n~•,; :-efer_to them a!; Chtldren in Conflict of the La,, (CICLJ \.i:vlc' l..'.A 931 i , or
--'le vU\f~nile Just:ee Welfare Act.