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ë þ ocos Region (Region þ is Cagayan Va ey (Region þþ is ocated in the northeast portion
of the main is and and a so covers the Batanes and Babuyan is ands to the north. The
va ey is surrounded by the Cordi era Centra and Sierra Madre mountain ranges.
Running through its center is the country's ongest river, Cagayan River. þts provinces are
Batanes, Cagayan, þsabe a, Nueva Vizcaya, and Quirino. The region's administrative
center is Tuguegarao City.

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ë þn the rugged andscape of the Cordi era, Apayao is the on y region that has a navigab e
river, the Apayao, after which the region is named. Thus, among the Cordi era peop e, on y
the þsneg are boatmen and boat bui ders. The þsneg boat, ð    or ð , consists main y
of three p anks; a bottom p ank, which tapers at both ends, and two side p anks, which are
curved to receive the bottom p ank
ë The posts, girders, joists and wa s are of wood; the roof is of thatch or bamboo. Most
Cordi era houses have pyramida or hip roofs; the þsneg house, ike the Lower Ka inga
house, has a gab e roof. Some þsneg houses have annexes at both ends.
ë A adder eads to a door on one end of the side wa , actua y the front. þn some houses the
entrance opens at the gab e and under the protection of a ean-to roof.
ë A ong the gab e edges thick boards are mortised on to the beam and pur in ends. Where
the ðð post stands, two beams are attached to these gab e boards: one at the
bottom, the other ha fway to the roof ridge. Both beams are rabbeted to receive wa
boards, but the space above the upper gab e beam is eft open.
ë At the other end of the house, where the annex is attached, cogon grass pressed between a
pair of frames made of reeds covers the gab e͛s upper ha f. The annex͛s ean-to roof covers
the ower ha f. þn some areas, the roof covering consists of ha f-sections of bamboo aid on
ike shing es. The roof is quite thick, having as many as 15 to 20 rows of bamboo sections
with wide over aps. A narrow, f at ͞roof͟ of bamboo covers the roof ridge
ë þnside the house the space expands because the wa s s ant outward. No cei ing hides the
roof͛s woodwork. The space immediate y visib e within corresponds comp ete y with the
externa form of the house. The f oor, made of reeds, seems transparent, as ight fi ters
through, suffusing the house with a gent e g ow. The f oor is a space surrounded by space.
The main section, =  or
 , is surrounded on three sides by narrow, s ight y raised
p atform,  , and at the remaining end by the s ight y raised f oor of the annex.
ë uf the 15 posts of the þsneg house, eight  or inner posts support the f oor ʹ six inner
posts for the main section of the house, and two additiona ones for the annex. Six other
posts, the =
, carry the roof and one, the ðð, supports one end of the ridge po e.
ë The six inner  posts, there on each side, support the girders running engthwise. Laths
are mortised onto 11 f oor joists which run crosswise across the girders. As among the
Ka inga, mats made of reeds form the f oor and can be ro ed up and washed. The f oor
frame is so constructed that it accommodates the atera p atform and a ows wa boards to
be removed


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ë The octagona house ca ed ð  or   is found in Upper Ka inga, in sett ements
a ong the Chico River. þt is not, however, the on y house type in the region. Rectangu ar
houses are just as common, if not more common. þt has been suggested that the octagona
houses were houses of the rich. This, however, may be disputed. þt has a so been suggested
that the octagona house is the o der type.
ë The Ka inga house is not an equi atera octagon, the four diagona wa s being shorter than
the front, back and side wa s. The f oor is not a perfect octagon, since the corners are not
a f oored over. At one side of the entrance a arge portion of the f oor is e iminated to
provide a working space that reaches from ground eve to roof height. As one sits inside the
Ka inga ð  the wa s and roof seems to form a dome- ike and even spherica space,
which suggests expansion rather than enc osure
ë The exterior of the octagona house does not have the architectura impact of other
Cordi era houses, since its features are not strong y defined. The thatched, hipped roof is
not high and steep, and the eaves form a rough edged circ e. The octagona form is not
c ear y pronounced in the wooden and bamboo wa s. The octagona house is about 6.00 m.
ong and 5.20 m. wide. The f oor of the iving quarters is 1.20 m. above the ground. The
height from the ground to the roof ridge is about 4.50 m.
ë The interior of the octagona house is remarkab e for its spatia concept and organization.
The f oor is divided into three para e sections running front to back, the centra portion
being ower than the sides. The eight sides are more c ear y defined inside the house than
outside because of the exposed structura frame of wa s and roof. The roof͛s inner
configuration dominates the interior space.
ë The traditiona house in Lower Ka inga is about 6.00 m. ong, 5.00 m. wide and 5.75 m. high
from ground to roof ridge.
ë The roof is gab ed and its ridge is para e to the sides of the house. Houses are genera y
ocated near the river, and the roof ridge, which marks the axis of the house, does not
fo ow the downstream f ow of the river, but rather ies crosswise, crossing it, as it were, ike
a dam, in order to prevent misfortune.
ë The roof, of moderate pitch, may be of thatch or bamboo. The f oor rises about 1.50 m.
above ground eve ; a adder connects it to the ground. The wa s from ground to f oor eve
are of horizonta y aid bamboo po es, and from f oor to eaves eve are of vertica y set
wooden boards. þn front and at the back, the wooden wa s end at height of about 2.50 m.,
and from there on to the roof ridge horizonta y aid bamboo s ats cover the gab es.

ë The Bontoc house,   , is about 3.50 m. in frontage and 4.50 m. the roof is hipped with the
ridge para e to the front. þt projects about 1.20 m. beyond the sidings of the ground f oor
that ends at 1.20 to 1.50 m. above the ground.
ë The basic form is ike that of the þfugao house, except that the house cage serves as a
granary,   , and the iving quarters are on ground eve . The granary, resting on three-
joists-on-two girders-on-four-posts, is about 1.50 m. above the ground and about 2.00 m.
square. As in the þfugao house, the wa s of the house cage support the roof.


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ë The extent of the roof necessitates additiona posts, one at each corner to receive the end
of each diagona rafter.
ë The ground f oor is enc osed at the front and sides by horizonta wooden boards up to waist
height, ashed to the outer posts, and at the rear by a stone wa of the same height, eaving
a continuous opening from waist to head eve , an opening we protected by eaves.
ë Through the doorway one enters the ground f oor ca ed O    which inc udes the
space under the granary. Beyond this area, between the two eft posts of the granary and
bounded at the rear by a ow interior wa , is an area containing a firep ace and a she f a ong
the outer wa for jars.
ë un the right side of the entrance, a p atform about .30 m. high and 3.60 m. ong and 1.20 m.
wide extends from the front wa to the rear interior wa . un this p atform sit baskets and
imp ements, underneath are chicken cages

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ë The þfugao house may be visua ized as a three- eve structure. The first eve of structure
consists of a stone pavement, whose perimeter coincides with the edge of the eaves; four
posts and girders.
ë A wooden disk;  , which serves as a rat guard, if fitted on each post a few centimeters
be ow the girder.
ë The second eve is the house cage, that is, roof frame, wa s and f oor. The third eve
comprises the roof.
ë Since the posts of the þfugao house rise to about shou der height from ground to girders,
they do not frame the house cage nor direct y support the roof. Thus the house is a cage
resting on sti ts and a roof resting on the cage.
ë A though the upper frame of the house cage is above head eve , the wa boards rise from
the f oor to chest or waist height.
ë þn contrast, the roof s opes downward beyond the upper frame of the cage to f oor eve
and the section from head to eve to waist height serves as the upper comp ement of the
wa boards. A she f,  , extends outwards from the top of the wa boards to the
underside of the roof and forms a recess that circumscribes the interior
ë The þfugao house (Fig. 2 is compact, sophisticated in its deceptive simp icity, and may we
serve as the prototype of the Southern Strain.
ë Square in f oor p an, it is e evated to about shou der height by four posts (tukud, around
which are fitted cy indrica wooden rat-guards (ha ipan, carrying two transverse girders
(ku ing which support three f oor joists into which the f oor-boards (dota  are fitted and
wa boards (gaob and pamadingan and studs (bagad are mortised. þt is typica of the
exactness of þfugao construction that the three f oor joists are designated by different terms
indicative of their purpose-the center one is the gawaan, "center", and the outer two are
mundi ig, a verb meaning the patting motion made with opposed hands to pack something
together. The four studs, p aced at the corners of the house, are mortised at their upper
end into four tie-beams or pur ins (wanan which form a square to carry much of the weight
of the roof as we as a centra cross-beam (pumpito an on which stand two queenposts
(taknang. These queenposts terminate in a sma square (ambubu an which supports the


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upper ends of the rafters (bugho , the roof being a true pyramid in form with four
triangu ar sides and thus rising to an apex without any ridgepo e. The wa -boards are
rabbeted into a transverse beam (huk ub at waist- or chest-height, at which point a she f
(patie is fitted between them and the roof, whose eaves descend as ow as the eve of the
f oor. Above the tiebeams a reed f oor or p atform is often fitted to make an attic- ike
storage space (pa an for unthreshed rice. Wooden pane s c ose doorways on two opposite
sides of the house, and entrance is gained by means of a adder which is removed at night.
ë This type of house is ca ed ba e (or fa e, but the same basic bui ding with a few
modifications-the wa -boards extend up to the roof, there is on y one door, and the who e
thing is sma erserves as a rat-proof granary (a ang.
ë The pitch of the roof is the on y noteworthy variation from one oca ity to another, those of
Mayaoyao being steepest and those of Kiangan being most sha ow. With the exception of
the reed and grass roofing, the who e house is made of heavy hand-hewn timber, preferab y
hardwood, especia y the four posts, and can be expected to ast a considerab e period of
time; with periodic reroofing, some houses in use today have been occupied for five or six
ë coorer þfugaos, and even the swidden-farming Kadasans of the Benguetbordering western
mountains, make a simi ar house with sp itand- woven bamboo wa s.
ë The þfugao house is not without its disadvantages, however, and one of these is the often
eye-smarting smokiness which resu ts from cooking in a firep ace with no chimney, for a
roof thatched tight y enough to keep out to the rain but oose y enough to et smoke escape
is an impossib e compromise.
ë The grass tied to the very apex of the roof is intended to accomp ish this purpose, and in
some p aces an o d pot is turned upside-down over the oose thatch at that point. Another
obvious disadvantage is the imitation in size attendant upon the traditiona architecture,
for a though a wea thy man may bui d severa houses, his fami y wi ive in the same
restricted space in each of them.
ë The actua f oor space, where cooking and s eeping occur, is of itt e concern, for in the
Mountain crovince genera y parents do not share the same bedchamber as members of
the next generation beyond the age of ear iest innocence, but the storage space above and
the working space be ow are inconvenient y cramped. These disadvantages have to some
extentbeen a eviated in the houses of Bontoc and Lepanto

ë The Kankanai house has a high, steep, hippef roof with the ridge para e to the front.
ë The roof drops, to about 1.50 m. above the ground, thereby concea ing the house cage.
ë The roof rests on the upper frame of the house cage, and the house cage in turn rests on a
three joists-on-two girders-on-four posts structure.
ë Under the house cage, broad p anks aid s ight y above ground eve form a spacious
p atform that extends to the ine of the eaves.
ë Around the ower f oor is a rough stone pavement. The house cage measures about 4.000
by 4.50 m. and the p ank f oor, about 7.00 by 7.50 m.


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ë The height of the house from ground eve to roof ridge is s ight y over 6.00 m. The Kankanai
house is made of narra or pine

ë A typica house of the poorest þba oi c ass is bui t squat on the ground. þt is made of a ow-
hanging heavy thatch of cogon grass.
ë The door is a sma round opening, so sma that one has itera y to craw to get in or out.
The ow roof and sma opening serve to keep the house warm and comfortab e. Such a
structure is a practica necessity in a co d region that ies on the path of typhoons and rains.
ë Some bigger houses are provided with a wooden p atform about two feet high outside the
house but c ose to the wa .
ë Members of the fami y and neighbors sit on the p atform with raised fo ded egs, their
buttocks resting on the p atform and their backs eaning against the wa of the house.
ë þba ois with exposure to the way of ife of the ow anders have adopted a modified house
ë The house is genera y raised on the ground on four, six or more posts depending on the
size of the house.
ë The structure is made of pine wood aborious y sp it and c eaned of its trunk. These
processed woods are ca ed sinapsapan and the process of bui ding the house is ca ed
pinadek (nai ed with woods and every part of it fi tered to each other.
ë The comp eted house is ca ed dema. A dema usua y has two doors and a window and it is a
mu tipurpose structure. þt serves as a storage for va uab es, a kitchen, a dining room, a
bedroom, or a discussion room. As one ascends the teytey (staircase and enters a house,
he wi find the weapons in one corner, the dresses and b ankets in another corner, the
working materia s in another and so forth.
ë The arger houses are for the aff uent. They are wider at the cei ing than at the f oor area.
They ook ike the houses of the other mountain ethnic groups, but the þba oi house has a
onger ridge po e to support the four-sided roof. The houses are usua y c ustered on
mountain ridfes or kno s commanding the approaches.

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ë The composition of the þvatan heritage house is not just a sing e structure. þt is made up of
at east two separate bui dings: the main house and the kitchen. þn other cases, a third
structure serving as storage or shed may a so exist.
ë There are severa variations of the þvatan heritage houses. However, two major archetypes
can be easi y identified. They are referred to in this paper as: the wood-and-thatch (WT
structures, and the ime-stone-wood-and-thatch (LSWT structures.
ë ? = = O     O    O =  =  = = a
combination of these. They are usua y sma er and bui t with ess height compared to those
made of stone wa s. These are imited to sing e story structures. Most ?   O   
=as storage or kitchen areas. þn addition, a ong coast ine vi ages, the ?   O   
  temporary dwe ings during harvest season for fishing and other agricu tura


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ë 2 ?    = = O      O             

grave to bou ders. Different stones are used inc uding vo canic, basa t, metamorphic, and
the ike. Cora stones are a so common y used particu ar y in areas c ose to the sea. Stones
are pi ed and bound together by app ying ime mortar, forming a strong, inter ocking
ë The bui ding system a ows for a arger f oor area and a two-storey frame. During the rainy
season, the ower eve is usua y used as storage for food and as she ter for anima s. During
summer, it is used for storage of agricu tura products such as yam, sweet potato, wood and
charcoa whi e the upper eve is used as the main iving quarters. A wood f oor separates
the two eve s
ë The 2 ?   O   O  =      = ?    O 
 storage and on certain occasions as temporary dwe ing during harvest season

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ë The houses of the wea thy in Mayaoyao are made of narra, a hardwood esteemed in the
modern Mountain crovince for cabinetmaking, and po ished to a g ossy sheen with a rough
hairy eaf ca ed   which is irritating to the naked skin. The who e construction is
accomp ished by c ever mortising without nai s or hardware, and the comp ete house can
be knocked down, moved, and raised again on a new site within a sing e day
ë Sagada, 16 ki ometers west of Bontoc, is about 1,500 meters above sea eve . þts average
annua rainfa is 3,100 mi imeters, and its temperatures range from 5°C to 32°C. the co d
wet c imate has produced a house that is comp ete y enc osed, yet has its iving quarters on
ground eve .
ë The Sagada house has a frontage of about 4.80 m. and a depth of 5.10 m. þmmediate y
visib e are the wooden wa s about 1.50 m. from ground to eaves and the steep, thatched,
hipped roof, with the ridge para e to the front and 6.00 m. above the ground. To the right,
as one approaches the entrance, is a sunken, stone- ined pigpen, part of which is under the
ë The two major sections are first, the upper eve granary and second, the mu ti- eve ed
ground f oor, with its work and s eeping areas.
ë Since the granary,  , is the heart of the structure, this type of house is ca ed
  . The granary͛s wa s, which are about 1.50 m. high, support the roof. But a
frame consisting of rafters and king posts ho ds up the roof ridge; in turn the rafters are
attached to sma posts. þn some   , the granary has its own wooden gab e roof as
a protection against rats. The main roof͛s king posts rest on the ridge of this wooden roof.
With or without this additiona roof, the granary does not have rat guards underneath the
ë Upon entering the house, the visitor notices a row p atforms defined by the posts
supporting the granary. To the eft a wooden p atform, the s eeping area, extends a ong the
wa from the front wa to the eft rear posts of the granary, about .30 m. above the f oor.
To the right is a s ight y higher wooden p atform, the storage area. A wooden p ank f oor


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connects the entrance to the rear posts of the granary. Beyond the p atforms and the
wooden f oor, the firep ace and work area cover the entire rear section of the ground f oor.
ë The ground f oor is characterized by symmetry of space as we as an atmosphere of
intimacy. The granary hangs prominent y over the iving area without being oppressive, as
its visua weight is reduced by the p ay of girders and joists. Light fi ters in from the s its
between the horizonta p anks of the exterior wa . Even in the dim interior one can notice
and appreciate the sheen and fineness of the wood, which in many a Sagada house is not
ess than narra or pine. Like the Bontoc house whose granary forms the core structure and
the iving quarters on ground eve , the Sagada house may be described as a house within a

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ë The partitioning of a typica Vigan house is designed for specific purposes. une enters the
house through the main door that is wide enough to accommodate the width of a horse-
drawn carriage and the height of O  (re igious icon on a decorated carriage brought out
during re igious processions into a    or ha on the ground f oor .
ë The more important visitors used to be received at the O = or   , a arge room
where informa entertaining took p ace. The  , often the argest room in the house, was
reserved for specia functions.
ë At one end of the iving room is theO = or dining room, which ed to theOO or
kitchen. To one side of the kitchen is the bathroom and toi et.
ë The  , an extension at the back of the second f oor is an outdoor terrace where the
residents and their guests repaired to during coo c ear nights.
ë A typica Vigan house has on y two to three bedrooms where fami ies s ept together as in
the pre-co onia wood-and-bamboo ð  ð.
ë cartitions between rooms did not reach the cei ing, ending instead in O  = or cut-work
friezes that enab ed breeze to waft through.
ë From the outside, the unique features inc ude the windows made of O she s (a type of
trans ucent seashe ,  or sma er windows protected by wooden ba usters, the
extensive span of c ay-ti ed roofs and eaves that deve oped in response to c imactic oca
ë The rest of the ground f oor are used to be rented as shops or used as storage areas .
Horses for carriages were housed in stab es ca ed O ð  . The grand staircase is of
two sections: a few steps from the ground f oor is a anding where ordinary visitors were
received; a ong f ight of stairs ead to the second f oor of the house


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