Ver6.0
Naval Postgraduate School Microwave Devices & Radar Distance Learning
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5
10
RELATIVE POWER (dB)
15
20
25
30
35
40
80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80
PATTERN ANGLE (DEG)
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AN/TPQ37 Subarray
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5 5
10 10
15 15
20 20
25 25
30 30
35 35
40 40
20 10 0 10 20 20 10 0 10 20
PATTERN ANGLE (DEG) PATTERN ANGLE (DEG)
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SCR270DRADAR
Detected Japanese aircraft approaching Pearl Harbor.
Dipole array was tuned by maximizing the scattering from a metal propane storage tank.
Performance characteristics:
SCR270D Radio Set Performance Characteristics
(Source: SCR270D Radio Set Technical Manual, Sep. 22, 1942)
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Secondary functions:
Horizon and special search
Selftest and diagnostics
ECM operations
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AN/SPS64
Xband surface search and navigation.
• Transmitter
• Three PRFs: Frequency: 9.375 GHz
3600, 1800, 900 Hz Peak power: 20 kW
• Range: 64 nm • Receiver
IF gain: 120 dB
• Pulse widths: MDS:  98 dBm
0.06 µ s, 0.5 µ s, 1.0 µ s Noise figure: 10 dB
IF frequency: 45 MHz
• Antenna IF bandwidth: 24, 4, 1 MHz
Parabolic reflector False alarm rate: 1 per 5 minutes
Horiz HBPW: 1.2 degrees
Vert HPBW: 20.7 degrees
Gain: 28.5 dB
SLL: 29 dB
Polarization: horizontal
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AN/SPS67
Cband surface search and navigation radar for detection of surface targets and low
flying aircraft.
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AN/PPS6
Noncoherent pulseDoppler radar for combat surveillance. Detects moving terrestrial
targets (1 to 35 mph) under varying conditions of terrain, visibility and weather
conditions
Eplane HPBW: 7 deg
• Range Hplane HPBW: 8 deg
Personnel (σ = 0.5 sq. m):
50 to 1500 m • Receiver
Vehicles (σ = 10 sq. m): Type: superheterodyne
50 to 3000 m IF frequency: 30 ± 2 MHz
Accuracy: ±25 m IF gain: 80 dB
Resolution: 50 m IF bandwidth: 6.3 ± 0.6 MHz
• Transmitter MDS: 95 dBm
Frequency: 9 to 9.5 GHz
PRF: 1800 to 2200 Hz • Display
Pulse width: 0.22 to 0.3 µ s Headset (audible)
Test meter  visual indicator
• Antenna Elevation indicator
Size: 12 inch reflector Azimuth indicator
Gain: 24.5 dB
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AN/APS31
Early Xband surface search and navigation radar (about 1945).
• Antenna
Parabolic reflector
HBPW: 2 degrees
Gain: 2500
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AN/SPS40
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AN/SPS40
UHF long range twodimensional surface search radar. Operates in short and long
range modes.
• Antenna
• Range Parabolic reflector
Maximum: 200 nm Gain: 21 dB
Minimum: 2 nm Horizontal SLL: 27 dB
Vertical SLL: 19 dB
• Target RCS: 1 sq. m. HPBW (H by V): 11 by 19 degrees
• Transmitter • Receiver
Frequency: 402.5 to 447.5 MHz 10 channels spaced 5 MHz
Pulse width: 60 µ s Noise figure: 4.2
Peak power: 200 to 255 kw IF frequency: 30 ± 2 MHz
Staggered PRF: 257 Hz (ave) PCR: 60:1
Nonstaggered PRF: 300 Hz Correlation gain: 18 dB
MDS: 115 dBm
MTI improvement factor: 54 dB
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Radiometers (1)
All bodies at temperatures above absolute zero emit radiation due to thermal agitation
of atoms and molecules. Radiometers are passive receiving systems that sense the
emitted radiation.
A blackbody (BB) is an ideal body that absorbs all of the energy incident on it and
radiates all of the energy that it absorbs. The radiation distribution as a function of
wavelength (or frequency) is given by Planck’s Law:
2π h c2
MBB (λ ) =
( )
λ5 e hc /(λ k T ) − 1
W
where: MBB (λ ) = spectral excitance of the blackbody in
m 2 ⋅ µm
h = 6.626 × 10 −34 J ⋅s (Planck’s constant)
k = 1.3807 × 10 −23 J/K (Boltzman’s constant)
λ = wavelength in µ m
T = temperature of the body in degrees Kelvin
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Radiometers (2)
The total radiance leaving the surface is
∞
MBB = ∫ MBB (λ ) dλ = σ T 4
0
−8
where σ = 5.67 ×10
2 4
W / m ⋅ K (StefanBoltzman constant).
Only a few materials approach the characteristics of a blackbody. Most materials emit
energy according to a scaled version of Planck’s Law. These are called gray bodies
and the scale factor is the emissivity
M( λ )
ε (λ ) =
MBB (λ )
Kirchhoff’s Law states that at every wavelength the emissivity equals the absorptivity
ε =α
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Radiometers (3)
it follows that good reflectors are poor emitters; good absorbers are good emitters.
Blackbody and gray body radiation is diffuse, that is constant with angle. The noise
power radiated by a blackbody is k TB where B is the bandwidth of the detector. The
power radiated by a gray body relative to that of a blackbody is
PGB TB
ε= =
k TB T
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Radiometers (4)
Applications of radiometers:
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Radiometers (5)
SWITCH
T ref SWITCH RF AMP MIXER
IF FILTER
IF AMP
ANTENNA
TB
DETECTOR
LO
SQUARE
WAVE GEN
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fo 2 fo 3 fo L
f
Advantages:
1. Natural clutter sources are linear. They scatter waves at the same frequency as
the incident wave. Therefore a target return at a harmonic is not obscured by
clutter.
2. Manmade objects generate harmonic scattered fields. Odd numbered harmonics
arise from metal junctions on the target. The third harmonic is the strongest.
Disadvantages:
1. Energy conversion from the fundamental to harmonics is very low. Higher
conversion efficiencies can be obtained with cooperative targets using a
nonlinear circuit device like a diode.
2. Dual frequency hardware required.
3. The received field varies as Pr ∝ 1/ Rα where α > 4 .
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(Pt Gt )α Gr λ23σ h
Pr =
(4π )α +2 R 2α +2
where:
α ≈ 2.5 is a nonlinearity parameter that determined experimentally
(it varies slightly from target to target)
Pt ,Gt are transmit quantities at the fundamental frequency ( fo )
λ3 ,Gr are receive quantities at the third harmonic frequency ( 3 fo )
σ h is the harmonic scattering pseudo cross section
(typical values are 60 to 90 dB for Wi ≤ 1 W/m2)
Pr ∝ 1/ R7
Therefore the detection ranges are very small, but foliage penetration is good for
short ranges.
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x
RESOLUTION CELL
∆y
DOWNRANGE ∆x
Very narrow antenna beams are required for fine cross range resolution. The resulting
antenna size is very large and may not be practical. Returns from a large antenna can
be synthesized using the returns from a small antenna at sequential locations along a
flight path. This is the basis of synthetic aperture radar (SAR).
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SAR (2)
va (time)
AIRCRAFT Typical sidelooking airborne SAR geometry
FLIGHT PATH
γ
ha θB
CROSS
RANGE
R y
∆x
Rθ B
DOWN
SAR OPERATING MODES: RANGE
STRIP MODE
SPOTLIGHT MODE x
R θ B / sin γ
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SAR (3)
Comparison of array factors for conventional and synthetic apertures:
Conventional Array Synthetic Aperture
• •
SCATTERING ELEMENT
R1
Rn Rn vr
t1 t2 tN
... ...
Ls
∑ ∑
AF AFs
N − jk ( R + R )
En = ∑ e m n En = e − jk ( Rn + Rn )
m =1
2
⎛ ⎞
( )
N N N N 2
AF = ∑ ∑ e − jk ( Rm + Rn ) = ⎜ ∑ e − jkRm ⎟ AFs = ∑ e − jkRm
n =1 m =1 ⎝ m =1 ⎠ 1=4
m 14244 3
14 4244 3
SQUARE SUM OF
OF SUM SQUARES
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5
10
CONVENTIONAL
15 ARRAY
20
25 SYNTHETIC
30 ARRAY
35
40
120 130 140 150 160 170 180
PATTERN ANGLE (DEG)
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2k (R 2 2
)
+ ( Ls / 2) − R = 2kR {1 + L / 4R − 1}≈ 2kR{[11+44L 2/(8R
2
s
2
44
)] −1} ≤ π / 2
3
2
s
2
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GAIN
RESOLUTION LIMIT
BASED ON π/2 BEAMWIDTH
PHASE ERROR θ Bm
Ls
Lsm 1.22 Lsm
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Focused SAR
Focused SAR corrects for the path difference in the signal processing. The result is an
effective beamwidth determined by the total length of the synthetic array, Ls = Rλ / L.
The corresponding resolution is
⎛ λ ⎞ L
∆y = Rθ B = R ⎜ ⎟=
⎝ 2Ls ⎠ 2
which is independent of R and λ , and depends only on the actual size of the antenna.
va
tN
The smaller the antenna used by the radar,
the better the resolution because:
N
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Example
SAR is used to image clutter
B = 20 MHz, θ s = 20o (γ = 70 o ), ha = 800 km, λ = 23 cm, L = 12 m
The down range resolution is
64 τ =1/
4 74 B4
8
cτ (3 × 108 )(1 / 20 ×10 6 )
∆x = = = 22 m
2 cosγ 2 cos(70 o )
The cross range resolution for a conventional antenna is
ha λ 800 × 103 0.023
∆y = Rθ B = = = 1.63km
cos(θ s ) L cos(20 ) 12
o
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1.5 1.5
LINEAR
REGION DOPPLER LAST POINT
FILTER TO ENTER
1 1 BANDWIDTH FOOTPRINT
FIRST POINT
Doppler Frequency
∆f
Doppler Frequency
TO ENTER
0.5 0.5
FOOTPRINT
0 LAST POINT 0
TO ENTER
FOOTPRINT
0.5 0.5
1 1 FIRST POINT
TO ENTER
FOOTPRINT
1.5 LINEAR
1.5
REGION
2
300 200 100 0 100 200 300 2
100 0 100
Time (sec)
Time (sec)
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Motion Compensation
The radar platform has motion variations that can cause blurring and displacement of objects in
the image. Motion compensation involves estimating the displacement from the along track
direction and deviations from a constant velocity and correcting for them in the processing.
Several levels of correction may be required:
• The antenna may have to be stabilized or resteered
• Timing must be readjusted if the radar travels off of the ideal flight line by more
than the range resolution
• If phase information is used in processing, then phase errors due to cross track and
vertical random motion must be held to less than λ / 10
TRANSMITTER PULSER
TRIGGER
CIRCULATOR
TIMING &
MOTION
TO FREQUENCY
COMPENSATION
ANTENNA CONTROL
LNA I/Q
DETECTOR
I Q
TO DATA
A/D VIDEO
PROCESSOR
AMP
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Radar Mapping
Key features:
1. Radar provides its own illumination; operates in all conditions
2. Large area coverage in a short time
3. Surface features obtained in spite of vegetation and clouds
4. Operates at relatively low grazing angles
5. Images a plan view
Resolution requirements:
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Salt Lake
City
San
Francisco
Maui
http://www.op.dlr.de/nehf/SRL2/p48274_maui.html
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2. Motion effects – for satellite based SAR, earth's rotation can be important.
3. Range curvature – the illuminated strip can be curved rather than straight.
4. Changing atmospheric conditions – rain, moisture, dust, etc.
PULSES "ON"
FOOTPRINT
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WAVE FRONT
θ θB
h
R
PEAK
SHADOW
BASE
(ESA)
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ISAR (2)
The scattered field from the rotating point is
Doppler frequency
2φ&d
ω d = 2π f d = (− 2kd cos(φ t ) ) =
d & sin(φ&t )
dt λ
which can be found because φ& is known. A similar situation applies if the target is
stationary and the radar circles the target.
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ISAR (3)
ISAR has been applied to targets with linear motion. The geometry is similar to that of the
airborne SAR on a straight flight path, but the locations of the radar and target are
reversed. Over the observation time, tobs , a synthetic beam, θ B , is formed. The array
factor is the same as for airborne SAR.
• The cross range resolution at range R is
RADAR (FIXED)
∆y = Rθ B
• The observation distance is used to determine the
beamwidth (rather than the synthetic length)
θB θ B ≈ λ /( 2d obs )
R
TARGET • Cross range resolution can be improved by
MOTION increasing the observation (integration) time
...
va ∆y = Rλ /(2vatobs )
t1 t2 tN
d obs • The radar does not have control of the target’s
flight characteristics.
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ISAR (4)
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Spotlight SAR
In a spotlight SAR the radar antenna beam scans, as opposed to strip map SAR, which
uses a fixed beam antenna. The beam can dwell on a scene (like a spotlight) for an
extended period, which increases the observation time, and thus increases the resolution.
A scene can be imaged at multiple aspect angles.
The example below shows a scene imaged using a scanning spotlight beam. θ L = look
angle, tobs = observation time, ∆y = cross range, ∆x = down range. The number of beam
positions required to cover the sector is θ c / θ B .
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HF Radars (1)
• Radars that operate in the high frequency (HF) band are also called over the horizon
(OTH) radars. Advantages:
1. Long range target detection
2. Low altitude target detection
3. Operates in target scattering resonance region (i.e., detection of low observable
targets)
4. Low probability of intercept
• Major applications: Protection of land mass from attack (ships and aircraft)
• Atmospheric propagation mechanisms:
1. Sky wave: the interaction of HF waves and the Earth's ionosphere, which is the upper
atmosphere (heights ≥ 80 km)
2. Ground wave: over the horizon diffraction
• Comparison of operational ranges:
Conventional microwave: 200 km
HF ground wave: 200 to 400km
HF sky wave: 1000 to 4000 km
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HF Radars (2)
Atmospheric propagation issues:
1. The properties of the ionosphere are constantly changing with:
time of day, time of year, solar activity
2. Ionospheric reflections appear to originate at multiple reflective layers at
different heights. This often causes multipath fading.
3. Ionospheric reflections are strongly dependent on frequency and antenna
"launch" angle. A wide range of frequencies must be used.
4. Efficient operation requires knowledge of the current state of the
ionosphere.
VIRTUAL REFLECTION
POINT
IONOSPHERE
TRANSMIT RECEIVE
EARTH
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HF Radar (3)
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50
40
CLUTTER
POWER, dB
30
TARGET
20
10
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fc f c + ∆f f c + 2∆f f c + ( N − 1)∆f
t
1 2 3 N
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fstalo fstalo
STALO
fstalo + fsynn
fsynn FREQ STEP fcoho + fsynn
SYNTH 1
fcoho fsyn n
IF AMP fcoho
SYNCH COHO
DETECTOR
In Qn
⎡ 4πRfcn ⎤
SIGNAL In + jQn = An exp j = An e jΦn
PROCESSER ⎢⎣ c ⎥⎦
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cos[ 2 π ( f c + n∆f )t ]
Φ n = 2π ( fc + n∆f ) t R
2R
= 2π ( fc + n∆f ) n
c
where Rn = Ro + vr nTp . Therefore,
2
Φ n = 2π ( fc + n∆f ) (Ro + vr nTp )
c
4π fc Ro ∆f 2R 2vr fc ∆f 2vr nTp
= + 2π Tp + 2π nTp + 2π nTp
142 c43 Tp c c
123 Tp c
PHASE SHIFT
1 23 DOPPLER
1 4243
FREQ. SHIFT DOPPLER
DUE TO RANGE SHIFT
DUE TO RANGE SPREAD
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2f 2f
f x (t ) = cos[φ (t )] and f y (t ) = sin[φ (t )]
c c
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TARGET
R R
f f
N PULSES RANGE GATE
64748
∆f
... t ... t
BURST 1 BURST M 1
424
3
TRANSMITTED STEPPED 2R / c
FREQUENCY WAVEFORM RECEIVED SIGNAL
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f
1 2 M
... t
⎧1 ⎧ ⎫
⎪2 ⎪ ⎪
⎪ ⎪ ⎪
N ROWS
(PULSES) ⎨
⎪
... ⇒ ⎨
⎪ O ⎬
⎪
⎪⎩N ⎪⎩ ⎪⎭
1144442244443
M
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Many of our assumptions used to model radar systems and components no longer
are valid. For instance,
propagation characteristics,
target RCS,
antenna gain, and
radar device characteristics,
are not independent of frequency because the bandwidth is so large. The frequency
dependence of the system parameters must be included:
Pt ( f )Gt ( f )σ ( f ) Aer ( f )
Pr =
( 4π R 2 ) 2
Important points:
1. The waveform out of the transmitter is not necessarily the waveform that is
radiated by the antenna. The antenna removes the DC and some low frequency
components. The radiated signal is the time derivative of the input signal.
2. The waveform reflected by the target is not necessarily the waveform incident
on the target.
3. The waveform at the receive antenna terminals is not necessarily the waveform
at the antenna aperture.
To extract target information requires a substantial amount of processing.
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RECEIVER RECEIVE + +
ANTENNA
RECEIVED FIELD
The target’s scattered field can be determined from Y( f ) if all of the other transfer
functions are known. If they are not known they must be assumed.
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0.8 0.8
GAUSSIAN PULSE, g(t)
0.7 0.7
0.6 0.6
0.5 0.5
0.4 0.4
0.3 0.3
0.2 0.2
0.1 0.1
0 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
2 0 2 4 6 8 10
TIME, t (ns) FREQUENCY (GHz)
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0.5
1 1
0.8
SPECTRUM
π f c S( f ) 0.6
2 0.4
0.2
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
FREQUENCY, GHz
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0.8
normalized spectrum
0.5
amplitude
0.6
0
0.4
0.5
0.2 frequency spectrum of
double gaussian waveform double gaussian
1 0
0 2 4 6 0 5 10
time (ns) frequency, GHz
⎛ 4π ⎞ ⎛ 2π ⎞
Double gaussian derivative: s(t) = ⎜ 1 − (t − t o ) 2 ⎟ exp⎜ − (t − to )2 ⎟
⎝ tm ⎠ ⎝ tm ⎠
1 1
frequency spectrum of
0.8 double gaussian
0.5 normalized spectrum
derivative
amplitude
0.6
0
0.4
0.5
double gaussian 0.2
derivative waveform
1 0
0 2 4 6 0 5 10
time (ns) frequency, GHz
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RCS Considerations
• Target illumination and matched filtering:
• For very short pulses the entire target may not be illuminated simultaneously.
Therefore the time response (shape) depends on angle.
The time response differs with each target. The basis of matched filter design
no longer holds.
• Target resonances:
• Resonances are a characteristic of conducting structures
• Standing waves are set up on the structure when its dimension is approximately an
integer multiple of a half wavelength
The standing waves result in enhanced RCS relative to that at nonresonant
frequencies
In general, a target has many resonant frequencies due to its component parts (for
example, aircraft: wings, fuselage, vertical tail, etc.)
Applications:
1. Detection: given a specific target to be detected, use a knowledge of its
resonant frequencies to take advantage of the enhanced RCS
2. Identification (ID): when a target is detected, examine its resonant
frequencies to classify it
Nonconducting (lossy) structures also have resonances, but the RCS enhancement
is not as strong as it is for a similar conducting structure
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H  POLARIZATION REFERENCE = 34 dB
0
10
RCS, dB
15
20
25
30
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
FREQUENCY, MHZ
(From Prof. Jovan Lebaric, Naval Postgraduate School)
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Antenna Considerations
1. Referring to the UWB form of the RRE, the antenna gain aperture product
Gt Aer should be independent of frequency. This cannot be achieved with
a single antenna.
2. Low gain antennas have been used successfully. High gain antennas are
not well understood.
3. Beamwidth depends on the time waveform. Example: pulse radiated
from an array.
WAVEFRONTS DEFINE
EDGES OF ANTENNA BEAM
θ = sin −1 (cτ / L )
M
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• Frequency range:
15150 kHz
• Sweeps two frequency
ranges simultaneously:
5022 kHz
10044 kHz
• Linear FM waveform
(chirp)
• Integration time:
350 µ s
(From IEEE Spectrum, March
1992, p. 46)
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{ ( )}
r 2
Enorm (θ ,φ ) = exp −4ln(2) θ 2 / θ B2 + φ 2 / θ B2
and the HPBW in both principal planes is θ B . The antenna beam integral becomes
π 2π r 4 πθ B2
∫0 ∫0 E norm sin θ dθ dφ =
8 ln(2)
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Pt Go2 λ2ηπ θ 2B cτ
Pr =
(4π )3 Ro2 L2a Lr 8 ln 2 2
cτ 2
The signaltonoise ratio is proportional to . Unlike point targets, the maximum
Lr B6τ
SNR does not necessarily occur for B6τ ≈ 1. The optimum SNR consists of a matched
Gaussian filter and pulse that together yield the desired resolution.
Note: Skolnik has an additional π/4 in the clutter volume for an elliptical beam cross section, as opposed to the square beam cross section that
we used.
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σ v2 = σ 2s + σ 2m + σ 2d + σ t2
shear, σ s
2
where the sources are:
antenna modulation, σ m 2
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ηλ 4
Ze = 2
π 5 Kw
⎛ Z, mm6 / m 3 ⎞
dBZ = 10 log10 ⎜ 6 3
⎟
⎝ 1 mm / m ⎠
Typical values:
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{ }
1 ∗ 1 Ns Ns ∗
{
P (tn ) ∝ VV = ∑ ∑ Ap Aq exp j 2 k ( Rp − Rq
2 2 p=1 q=1
}
P (tn ) ∝
1 Ns 2 1 Ns N s ∗
{
∑ Ap + ∑ ∑ Ap Aq exp j2k( Rp − Rq
2 p=1 2 p=1 q=1
}
14243 p≠q
INCOHERENT 14 444442444444 3
SCATTER COHERENT SCATTER
The second term is negligible for spatially incoherent scatter, but is significant for
scattering from particles that have their positions correlated. An example is Bragg
scatter from spatially correlated refractivity fluctuations. Bragg scatter is usually
negligible for precipitation backscatter, but not clear air echoes (Angel echoes).
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Uniform direction, linear variation with height Uniform speed, linear direction change with height
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Pt Go2 λ2ηπ θ B2 cτ
Clutter return: C = Pr =
(4π )3 R2 L2a Lr 8ln 2 2
Pt Go2λ2σ
Target return: Pr =
(4π )3 R 4 L2a Lr
Assume all losses are the same for the target and clutter. Therefore, the power ratio
becomes
P σ 16 ln 2
SCR = r = 2t
Pr θ Bπ cτηRo2
(0.1)(16) ln 2
SCR =
( )( )( )( )
π 0.02 2 3 × 108 0.2 × 10 − 6 1.6 × 10 −8 500002
SCR = 0.368 = −4.3 dB
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Tile Concept
• Low profile, conformal
RADIATOR
FEED LINE
GROUND
PLANE
OTHER
DEVICE
LAYERS
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Module Concept
RADIATING
ELEMENT
EDGE ACTS
AS GROUND
PLANE
FEED LINE
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• Receiver: 3 dB BW 50 MHz
Noise figure 30 dB, max
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Reference: “A MMIC Radar Chip for Use in AirtoAir Missile Fuzing Applications,” M Polman, et al, 1996 MTT International
Symposium Digest, vol. 1, p. 253, 1996.
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• LNA: Gain 18 to 20 dB
Noise figure 6 to 7 dB
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ET
TARG
AIR UN D
DEFENSE GRO
RADAR
ATTACK
APPROACH
CHAFF
CLOUD
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Chaff (1)
Chaff is a means of clutter enhancement. Common chaff consists of thousands of
thin conductive strips. For a narrowband radar the strips are usually cut to the same
length; one that corresponds to a resonance. The shortest resonant length is about
l = 0.45λ as shown below (the exact value depends on the dipole diameter, d ).
1.5
1
σ/λ 2
0.5
0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
l/λ
After the aircraft discharges the chaff, it expands to form a cloud. In the cloud, the
dipoles are usually modeled as uniformly distributed (uniform density) and randomly
oriented. The dipole scattering pattern, where θ is measured from the dipole axis, is
σ (θ ) = σ max sin 2 (θ )
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Chaff (2)
Maximum broadside backscatter for a dipole is
π 5 l6
σ max =
16λ4 (log(2 l / d ) − 1)2
The average RCS over all angles is
2
σ = ∫∫ σ (θ , φ )sin θ dθ dφ = 3 σ max
An approximate value good for most calculations is σ ≈ 0.15λ . For a short time after
2
the chaff has been discharged, the RCS of the chaff cloud can be approximated by
(
σ ≈ Ac 1 − e −nσ )
where Ac is cross sectional area of the chaff cloud presented to the radar.
AREA PROJECTED
TO RADAR
CHAFF CLOUD
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Chaff (3)
The number of dipoles in the projected plane is n = N / Ac , N being the total number
of elements in the cloud. After the dipoles are widely dispersed n becomes small and
σ c ≈ Ac nσ = Nσ
The average RCS for a dipole is σ ≈ 0.15λ2 = 0.0034. Therefore the RCS of a cloud
of randomly oriented dipoles (which is the case at late time) is
σ c ≈ Nσ ⇒ N ≈ 100 / 0.0034 = 29412
"Advanced" chaff designs:
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Rt Rt Rr Rt Rr
Rr
TX RX TX RX TX RX
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σ B = bistatic RCS
Ft , Fr = transmit and receive path gain factors
Lt , Lr = transmit and receive losses
Radar and target geometry:
z TARGET
BISTATIC
β ANGLE, β
Rt
r Rr
θ
x
TX RX
BASELINE, L
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(b) If the aircraft had a monostatic radar, what would be the required transmitter power?
Pt G 2λ2σ −13
Pr = = 10 ⇒ Pt = 0.45 W
(4π ) R
3 4
The increase in transmitter antenna gain in the monostatic case more than makes up for
the monostatic R 4 factor.
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10 dB
15 dB
20 dB
25 dB 26.8 dB
TX RX
30 dB
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β =20 o
2
o
30
1
o
60
o
90
2 1 TX 0 RX 1 2
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ISORANGE ELLIPSOIDS
Rt′
Rr′
∆R
β /2 β /2
Rt Rr
o o
TX RX
a
L/2
a′
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TARGET 2
Rt β Rr
L
TX RX
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Target location can be computed if the time delay of the scattered pulse is referenced to
the transmission delay directly from the transmitter
( Rt + Rr ) = c∆TL + L
where ∆TL is the time difference between reception of the echo and the direct pulse
Unambiguous range is given by (Rt + Rt )u = c / f p which describes an ellipse with
semimajor axis of length c / f p .
Target velocity is computed from the Doppler shift, which in the bistatic case is given
by
fd = ⎡ (Rt + Rr )⎤ = ⎡ t + r ⎤ = t cos δ cos( β / 2)
1 d 1 dR dR 2v
λ ⎣ dt ⎦ λ ⎣ dt dt ⎦ λ
dRt
= the projection of the target velocity vector onto the transmittertotarget LOS
dt
dRr
= the projection of the target velocity vector onto the receivertotarget LOS
dt
vt = the target velocity projected onto the bistatic plane
δ = angle between target velocity vector and the bistatic angle bisector
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dRt r dRr
= v = 100 m/s, =0
dt dt
TX L RX
1 ⎡ dRt dRr ⎤ v 100
fd = + = = = 1000 Hz
λ ⎣ dt dt ⎦ λ 0.1
(b) The echo from the target arrives ∆TL = 200 µ s after the direct transmission. The receive
antenna beam is 30 degrees from the baseline. Find the target ranges to the transmitter and
receiver if the baseline is 30 km.
TX L RX
Solve the two equations for the ranges: Rr = 56.23 km and Rt = 33.76 km
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R Hr
R Ht RECEIVER
LOS
TRANSMITTER (SLANT RANGE
LOS hr TO HORIZON)
ht
COMMON
EARTH'S LOS AREA GROUND RANGE
SURFACE TO HORIZON
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RX LOS
TX LOS
TX L RX
φt φr
⎡ 2 2⎤ ⎡ 2 2⎤
−1 ⎢ RHt − RHr + L ⎥ −1 ⎢ RHr − RHt + L ⎥
2 2
where φ t = 2 cos and φ r = 2 cos . The equation
⎢ 2R L ⎥ ⎢⎣ 2RHr L ⎥⎦
⎣ Ht ⎦
holds for L + RHr ≤ RHt ≤ L + RHr or L + RHt ≤ RHr ≤ L + RHt (one circle does not
completely overlap the other).
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TX BASELINE RX
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L
TX RX
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Rr
θ Br
Rt
RX
θ Bt
L
TX
(Rrθ Br )(Rtθ Bt )
1. Beamwidth limited: (entire shaded area) Ac ≈
sin β
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β Rr
θ Br
Rt
RX
θ Bt
L
cτ
∆R ≈ Rt + Rr >> L
TX 2 cos( β / 2)
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40
20
σ / λ2 , dB
σ / λ , dB
45
10 sphere
2
50
disk 0
55
sphere 10
60
65 20
φ −polarization φ −polarization
70 30
0 50 100 150 0 50 100 150
Bistatic angle, degrees Bistatic angle, degrees
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Bistatic RCS of a 5λ square flat plate using the physical optics approximation
90 40
120 60
30 5λ SQUARE PLATE
150 20 30
θ i = 30 o
10
180 0
FORWARD SPECULAR
210 330 SCATTER REFLECTION
240 300
270
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Example: Returning to the previous example regarding a buoy that is dropped in the center
of the channel to detect passing ships. Compare the transmit power for the bistatic and
monostatic cases if the bistatic RCS is 10 dB higher that the monostatic RCS.
For an altitude (range) of 6735 m the monostatic radar required Pt = 0.45 W assuming that
the monostatic and bistatic cross sections are the same. If the bistatic RCS is increased by
10 dB then the buoy transmitting power can be reduced by 10 dB, or
Pt = 0.1 W
Comments: 1. One advantage of the bistatic radar is that the aircraft position is not
given away
2. Achieving a 10 dB RCS advantage would probably require a limited
engagement geometry that puts the receiver aircraft in the target’s
forward scatter beam. This would be difficult to insure with a ground
based transmitter and an airborne receiver.
3. The receiver dynamic range and pulse timing may be a problem
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RADAR
JAMMER #2
The jammers create two apparent scatterers that are out of phase with the following
results:
Passive Target With Cross Eye
Σ Channel Max Null
∆ Channel Null Max
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∆1
θ WAVE FRONT
∆1 ∆2
2 3
1 4
JAMMER #1 JAMMER #2
180 o
Signal path to and from radar:
Outer elements : Φ14 = R + 2∆1 + ∆ 2 + L + π + R ⎫
1442443
⎪
⇒ Φ14 + Φ 23 = 0
Inner elements : Φ 23 = R + ∆1 + ∆ 2 + L + ∆1 + R ⎬
TO #1
144244 3 123 ⎪
TO #2 FROM #3 ⎭
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TARGET RETURN
GENERATED BY
RADAR SIGNAL
t
JAMMER SIGNAL
t
TOTAL SIGNAL
RECEIVED BY
THE RADAR
t
It is usually sufficient for the jammer to just change the modulation (level or period)
to spoof the radar.
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RADAR
TARGET/JAMMER
•
SURFACE
Ground bounce ECM is usually only applied at low altitudes where a strong
controlled reflection can be generated.
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JAMMER
AUXILIARY ANTENNA DIRECTION
PATTERN FOR
SIDELOBE BLANKING
MAIN ARRAY AUX GAUX (θ )
COMPARE
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A CSLC requires an auxiliary antenna pattern with a null colocated with the
main array beam maximum.
JAMMER
AUXILIARY ANTENNA DIRECTION
PATTERN FOR
MAIN ARRAY AUX SUBTRACTION
+ w GAUX (θ )

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θ J = jammer angle
AF(θ J ) = main antenna array factor in the direction of the jammer
AUX (θ J ) = auxiliary antenna pattern in the direction of the jammer
AF(θ J )
y(θ ) = AF(θ ) − AUX (θ )
AUX (θ J )
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CSLC Performance
Example of CLSC performance for a 50 element array with d = 0.4 λ . The
auxiliary array has 8 elements with "phase spoiling" to fill in the pattern nulls.
30 30
20 20
RELATIVE POWER, dB
RELATIVE POWER, dB
10 10
0 0
10 10
20 20
30 30
40 40
0 50 100 150 0 50 100 150
PATTERN ANGLE, DEG ARRAY SCAN ANGLE, DEG
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Adaptive Antennas
Adaptive antennas are capable of changing their radiation patterns to place nulls in
the direction of jammers. The pattern is controlled by adjusting the relative magnitudes
and phases of the signals to/from the radiating elements. Adaptive antenna model:
L COMPLEX WEIGHTS
w1 w2 w3 w N −1 wN
wn =wn e jΦn
wn /wmax 
Σ SUMMING NETWORK
Φ n − Φref
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DIVERGING BEAM
LASER/
TRANSMITTER
NARROW FIELD
OF VIEW
WIDE FIELD
OF VIEW
RECEIVER/
DETECTOR
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SPOT
R
ASPOT πθ B2
The laser beam solid angle is Ω A = 2
=
R 4
4π 16π
The gain of the transmit optics is Gt = = 2
ΩA θA
The target is very large in terms of wavelength. Therefore, assume that the target only
scatters the laser energy back into the hemisphere containing the radar. Then the
spreading factor is 1/ 2πR rather than 1/ 4πR .
2 2
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Pt Gt 1
Pr = ⋅ σ ⋅ 2 ⋅ Aer
4π R 2
2π R
The area of the receive optics is Aer . Assume that the transmit and receive optics are
identical
2
⎛ D⎞
Aer ≈ Ar = At = π ⎜ ⎟
⎝2⎠
The half power beamwidth is related to the optics diameter
θ B = 1.02λ / D ≈ λ / D
Introduce the optical efficiency ρo and atmospheric attenuation factor. The monostatic
laser radar equation becomes:
8 Pt Ar2σ ρo −2αR
Pr = 2 3 4 e
λπ R
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SPECULAR
DIFFUSE
θi θr REFLECTION
SURFACE
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CW LASER MODULATOR
TRANSMIT
BEAM OPTICS
COHERENT
REFERENCE SPLITTER
RECEIVE
OPTICS
PROCESSOR DETECTOR FILTER
Filter
Refocusing
Mirror
Detector
Primary Secondary
Mirror Mirror
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Room
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*Radars for hidden object detection have requirements similar to those of ground penetrating radars.
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z
AIR • If d and x are known then R = d 2 + x 2
x
can be substituted.
( )
R
α = − ln 10 − L / 20
where α is the oneway voltage
attenuation constant.
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(From geomodel.com)
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Effective BW = 1.3306 GHz Effective BW = 0.99097 GHz The ground loss has reduced the
0 0
effective bandwidth Be by about
5 5
25 percent. By the uncertainty
10 10 relation
Beτ e ≥ π
Received Signal Spectrum, G, dB
15 15
Input Signal Spectrum, S, dB
20 20
Since the range resolution is
25 25 approximately
30 30
c
∆R ≈ τ e
35 35
2
40 40
the range cell has also been
45 45
increased by about 25 percent due
50
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
50
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
to the ground loss.
Frequency, GHz Frequency, GHz
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