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Steam Turbines Introduction

Brajbhushan MISHRA
Steam Turbine Engineering & KWU Business Development
15/05/2008

POWER SERVICE
STEAM TURBINES

Introduction to Steam Turbines

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 2


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STEAM TURBINES - Energy Conversion Cycle

IGNITION OF CV OF FUEL CONVERTED HEATING OF HEAT ENERGY CONVERTED


COAL/ OIL INTO HEAT ENERGY WATER INTO STEAM PRESSURE

BOILER HEAT EXCHANGER

MECH. WORK TO STEAM PRESSURE CONVERTED

ELECTRIC POWER INTO MECHANICAL WORK

GENERATOR TURBINE

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 3


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STEAM TURBINES - Introduction

The Steam Turbine is a Prime-mover in which the


Potential Energy (in the form of Heat and Pressure) is
transformed into Kinetic Energy and the latter in its turn
is transformed into the Mechanical Energy of rotation of
turbine shaft.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 4


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STEAM TURBINES - Fundamental Laws

INTRODUCTION:
The Steam Turbine is governed by
following laws:
• The law of Conservation of Mass
• The law of Conservation of Energy
• The law of Conservation of Momentum
• Euler’s Turbine Equation

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 5


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STEAM TURBINES - Earlier “Turbines”

Impulse Turbine built by Giovanni Reaction turbine Turbine built by Hero of


Branca in A.D.1629 Alexandria in B.C. 120
Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 6
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STEAM TURBINES - Typical Steam Cycle

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 7


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STEAM TURBINES - Typical TG arrangement

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 8


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STEAM TURBINES

Classification of Steam Turbines

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 9


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STEAM TURBINES - Classification

• Based on ACTION of steam: Impulse, Reaction, Combined


• Based on FLOW DIRECTION of steam : Axial, Radial, Mixed flows
Single flow & Double flow
• Based on FINAL STATE of steam: Condensing, Back Pressure
• Based on CYCLE followed by steam: Reheat, Regenerative
• Based on No. of STAGES : Single stage, Multi stage
• Based on No. of CYLINDERS/ CASING : Single & Multi Cylinder
Single & Double (inner & outer) casing

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 10


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STEAM TURBINES - Impulse Turbine

If steam at high pressure is allowed to expand through


a stationary nozzle, the result will be a drop in the
steam pressure and an increase in steam velocity. In
fact, the steam will issue from the nozzle in the form of
a high-speed jet. If this high velocity steam is applied
to a properly shaped turbine blade, it will change in
direction due to the shape of the blade . The effect of
this change in direction of the steam flow will be to
1: Shaft produce an impulse force, on the blade causing it to
move. If the blade is attached to the rotor of a turbine,
2: Disc
then the rotor will revolve.
3: Blade
4: Nozzle
Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 11
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STEAM TURBINES - Reaction Turbine

The principle of a reaction turbine can be explained using a


balloon.

When the air is released from a blown balloon, it rushes out


through the small opening and the balloon will shoot off in
the opposite direction.

When the balloon is filled with air, the potential energy is


stored in the increased air pressure inside. When the air is let
escape, it passes through the small opening. This represents
a transformation from potential energy to kinetic
energy. The force applied to the air to speed up the balloon
is acted upon by a reaction in the opposite direction. This
reactive force propels the balloon forward through the air.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 12


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STEAM TURBINES - Reaction Turbine

A reaction turbine has rows of fixed blades


alternating with rows of moving blades. The
steam expands first in the stationary or fixed
blades where it gains some velocity as it drops in
pressure. It then enters the moving blades where
its direction of flow is changed thus producing an
impulse force on the moving blades. In addition,
however, the steam upon passing through the
moving blades, again expands and further drops
in pressure giving a reaction force to the blades.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 13


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STEAM TURBINES - Combined type turbine

• The pure Reaction turbine is not a practical type.


• Application of Impulse and Reaction principles of operation is a
practical approach.
• Partial pressure drop and hence small increase in velocity takes
pace in fixed nozzles.
• Remaining pressure drop and change of momentum takes place
in moving blades.
• The gross propelling force is the vector sum of the impulse and
reaction forces.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 14


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
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STEAM TURBINES - Axial Flow turbine

• Steam flows in a direction parallel to the axis of the turbine.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 15


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Single Flow Axial turbine

Steam Inlet

Steam Expansion

Steam flows in only one direction parallel to the axis of the turbine.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 16


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STEAM TURBINES - Double Flow Axial turbine

Steam Inlet

Steam Expansion

Steam flows parallel to the axis of the turbine and in two opposite directions. Axial
forces developed due to steam flow are counter balanced.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 17


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STEAM TURBINES - Reverse Flow Axial turbine

Steam Inlet

Steam
Expansion
Steam
Expansion

In this type of turbine, rotors of two cylinders are combined together.


Initially steam expands in one cylinder flowing parallel to the turbine
axis and then fed back to the entry of another stage with or without reheat.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 18


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STEAM TURBINES - Radial Flow turbine

• Steam flows in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the turbine.


Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 19
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STEAM TURBINES - Condensing turbine

Vertically down
condensing type

To condenser

Axial condensing
To condenser type

• With the condensing turbine, the steam exhausts to the condenser and the latent
heat of the steam is transferred to the cooling water. The condensed steam is
returned to the boiler as feed-water.
Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 20
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STEAM TURBINES - Back Pressure turbine

• Back-pressure turbines are often used in industrial plants, the turbine acts as a reducing
station between boiler and process steam header. The process steam pressure is kept
constant and the generator output depends on the demand for process steam.
Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 21
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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
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STEAM TURBINES - Reheat turbine

• In the Reheat cycle, steam at a given initial temperature is partially expanded through the turbine
(process C-D) doing some some work, and then is fed back to the boiler, where it is reheated to about
original temperature (process D-E). The heated steam is then fed through the remainder of the turbine
before being condensed (process E-F).
• In a reheat cycle, cycle heat input is increased and hence increase in thermal efficiency. But this
increases capital overlay in terms of re-heater pipe-work to, from and within boiler.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 22


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STEAM TURBINES - Regenerating turbine

• In the Regenerative cycle, steam from different stages of turbine are bled and used for
heating the feed water. There will be a small loss of work available from the bled steam not
expanding in the turbine; however, this loss is out-weighed by the gain in cycle efficiency.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 23


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STEAM TURBINES - Single Stage Turbine

• In a Single Stage turbine, steam is expanded in only one stage. Generally these
turbines are of Impulse type with exhaust pressure higher than the atmospheric
pressure.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 24


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STEAM TURBINES - Multi stage Turbine

• In this type of turbines, steam is allowed to pass through a series of fixed and moving
blades. Total heat drop in the turbine is the sum of heat drop in each stage. They can
be of Back pressure type or Condensing type.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 25


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use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Single Cylinder Turbine

• In a Single cylinder turbine, entire action of steam takes place in only one cylinder.
They can be either Single Stage or Multistage turbines.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 26


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STEAM TURBINES - Multi Cylinder Turbine

• In this type of turbines, steam is allowed to pass through two or more cylinders.
These turbines are of higher capacity and most of the time Re-heat type.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 27


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STEAM TURBINES

Working Concepts of Steam Turbines

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 28


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STEAM TURBINES - Compounding

Velocity Compounding:
This is achieved by alternate rows of fixed blades and moving blades.
• The high velocity steam leaving the nozzle passes on to the first stage
moving blade suffers a partial velocity drop.
• Direction of this steam is then corrected by the next rows of fixed blades
and then the same is entered in next row of moving blade where again
the velocity reduces partially.
• Hence, only part of the velocity of the steam is used up in each row of
moving blades.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 29


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STEAM TURBINES - Compounding

The advantages of velocity compounding are:


• System is easy to operate and more reliable.
• As nos. of stages are less, initial cost is lower.
• Since the total pressure drop takes place only in nozzles and not in the blades, the
turbine casing need not be heavily built. Hence, the economy in material cost and less
floor space is required.

The dis-advantages of velocity compounding are:


• As the steam velocity is too high, frictional losses are also high.
• Blade efficiency decreases with increase in number of stages i.e with the increase of
the number of rows the power developed in successive rows of blades decreases.
Whereas the same space and material are required for each stage, it means, the all
the stages are not economically efficient.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 30


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STEAM TURBINES - Compounding

Pressure Compounding:
This is achieved by an alternate rows of nozzles and moving blades.
• The steam enters the first row of nozzles where it suffers a partial drop of
pr. and in lieu of that its velocity gets increased.
• The high velocity steam passes on to the first row of moving blades
where its velocity is reduced partially.
• Similarly again a pressure drop occurs in second stage nozzle and with increased
velocity steam enters in second stage moving blades where again the velocity is
reduced .
• Thus pressure drop (partial) takes place in successive stages, the increase in
velocities are not so high resulting in slow speed rise of turbine.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 31


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STEAM TURBINES - Compounding

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 32


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STEAM TURBINES - Compounding

Pressure - Velocity Compounding:


It is a combination of Pressure compounding and Velocity compounding.
• Steam is expanded partially in a row of nozzles whereupon its velocity
gets increased (due to pressure drop).
• This high velocity steam then enters a few rows of velocity compounding
whereupon its velocity gets successively reduced.
• The velocity of steam is again increased in the subsequent row of
nozzles (due to drop in pressure) and then again it is allowed to pass
onto another set of velocity compounding that brings about a stage-wise
reduction of velocity of the steam.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 33


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STEAM TURBINES - Thermal Cycle
The efficiency of a thermal power plant can be expressed as the product of
efficiencies of its sub-systems:
ηthermal .plant = ηboiler x ηthermal cycle x ηturbine x ηmechanical x ηgenerator
(0.30 to 0.40) (0.75 to 0.90) (0.35 to 0.50) (0.85 to 0.95) (0.99 to 0.995) (0.98 to 0.985)

ηthermal plant = Energy output (at generator terminal)


Energy Input (calorific value of fuel)
ηboiler = Energy output (total increase in enthalpy of fluid in boiler)
Energy Input (calorific value of fuel)
ηthermal cycle = Energy output (energy available for conversion to mech. work)
Energy Input (total energy/ enthalpy available in working fluid)

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 34


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STEAM TURBINES - Thermal Cycle

ηturbine internal = Energy output(total enthalpy of fluid converted in mech work)


Energy Input (total energy for conversion to mech work)

ηmechanical = Energy output (work done at turbine-generator coupling )


Energy Input (total energy of fluid converted into mech work)
ηgenerator = Energy output (at generator terminal)
Energy Input (work done at turbine - generator coupling )

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 35


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STEAM TURBINES - Thermal Cycle
Typical values of these efficiencies for a modern thermal power plant
employing reheat and regenerative feed water heating cycle indicates:
• It is evident from the above values of efficiencies that mechanical
efficiency of turbine and efficiency of generator are very high
(approaching to 1),
• Boiler efficiency and internal efficiency of turbine are also fairly
good and these are improving continuously.
• The thermal cycle efficiency is lowest of all the efficiencies and is
governed by the laws of thermodynamics.
In order to get highest plant efficiency, it is imperative that thermal cycle
efficiency should be as high as possible.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 36


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STEAM TURBINES - Thermal Cycle - Phase Transformation

Liquid - Vapour Phase of Water :


• Steam is the vapour phase of water.
• To effect a change of state from liquid phase to vapour phase, internal
energy is required.
• In boilers, this internal energy is supplied by heat.
• The heat required to bring about this transformation is called the latent
heat of evaporation.
• Under pressure less than 225 kg/cm2, the latent heat is absorbed by water
at constant temperature, called the saturation temperature.
• The value of latent heat decreases with rising pressure. The saturation
temperature normally rises with pressure.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 37


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STEAM TURBINES - Thermal Cycle - Phase Transformation
Vapour (Superheat) phase. Sp heat ≈0.5
kcal/kg

T
Evaporation phase –
E absorbs latent heat
M
P
Liquid phase. Sp heat ≈ 1 kcal/kg

Enthalpy

♦ The specific heat of water and steam & latent heat changes with
pressure. See next graph.
♦ Evaporation takes place in furnace, boiler bank (where present),
evaporation of water in spray type attemperator and at times even
in economiser , if economiser is steaming.
♦ Superheat or reheat is heating in vapour phase in Superheater &
reheater.
♦ Heating in liquid phase takes place in economiser (where installed).

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 38


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STEAM TURBINES - Thermal Cycle
( Phase Transformation)

Critical point – 225 Kg/cm2g – No evaporation phase.

Evaporation phase
T
E
M Vapour
Pr = Hi
P (Superheat)
phase.
Pr = Med

Pr = Low
Liquid phase.

Enthalpy

♦ Note that latent heat of evaporation reduces with


increasing pressure & vanishes at critical point.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 39


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STEAM TURBINES - Factors Affecting Thermal Cycle
Efficiency
Initial Steam Pressure:
At constant initial steam temperature :
• Increase in initial steam pr. (means increase in saturation temp.of feed water
or in mean temp. at which heat is added to the cycle). This will result in
increase in thermal efficiency cycle.

However, with increase in initial steam pr. at constant temp. & constant
condenser pr., wetness of steam in the last stages of turbine increases, thereby
internal efficiency of these stages decreases. Usually 1% moisture increase in
steam in a particular stage results in 0.9% to 1.2% decrease in turbine internal
efficiency and also the erosion becomes so severe that life of the turbine is
endangered.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 40


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STEAM TURBINES - Factors Affecting Thermal Cycle
Efficiency
• With increase in initial steam pr., blade height of initial stages decreases
(cannot be designed below 25mm due to inefficiency and 3D flow & vortex
formation).

With increase in initial pr., shell thickness increases resulting in increased


stress and low rate of speeding/ loading.

In light of above considerations, lower initial steam pr. are used for smaller
turbines (simple design, quicker start up) and higher steam pr. for larger
turbine (higher efficiency).

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 41


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STEAM TURBINES - Factors Affecting Thermal Cycle
Efficiency

Initial Steam Temperature:


The theoretical considerations of thermodynamics it is imperative that:
• As initial temp. increase, the thermal cycle efficiency increases.
• However, material considerations do restrict the initial steam temp.
- upto 4000 C Plain Carbon Steel can be used
- upto 4800 C Low Alloy Steel can be used
- upto 6000 C Resistant Ferritic/ Martensitic Steel can be used
e.g: various grades of Cr-Mo-V(Ni) or Cr-Mo (Ni) ferrite steels.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 42


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STEAM TURBINES - Factors Affecting Thermal Cycle
Efficiency
• Hence, the initial steam temp. gives a limiting value of 5650 C (leaving
margins for temp. swings).

Further due to frequent failure of boiler tubes (resulting outages) at 5650 C,


most practical (safe) limit for initial steam temp. of 5400 C is adopted in
general.

Above 5400 C temp., austenitic steels could be used, which have higher co-
efficient of thermal expansion & lower thermal conductivity but due to poor
machineability and weldability as compared to ferrite steel, austenitic steel is
not preferred.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 43


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Factors Affecting Thermal Cycle
Efficiency
Reheat Cycle and Parameters:
• Re-heating of steam after it has partially expanded, improves the thermal
cycle efficiency by 4 to 5% as a more efficient cycle is added to original
cycle.
• With the reheat, available heat drop (for conversion to work) increases by
approx 12% of unit mass of working fluid, resulting in almost corresponding
reduction in mass flow of working fluid for generating same power output.
• This results in smaller aux. Equipment (condenser, heaters, CEPs, BFPs)
thus resulting in savings in investment.
• Re-heating reduces moisture in last stage blades thereby improving turbine
internal efficiency.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 44


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Factors Affecting Thermal Cycle
Efficiency
• However, re-heating invariably complicates the design of turbine, boiler &
their controls.
• Thus it involves additional investment in terms of complex design,
additional piping & re-heater.
• If pressure drop in re-heater is more, almost all the gain in efficiency is
offset.

Hence, the steam after partial expansion is usually re-heated to initial steam
temp. at pr. 0.15 to 0.30 times initial pr. Absolute increase in thermal cycle
and thermal plant efficiency by re-heating is approx. 1.5% to 2%.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 45


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Factors Affecting Thermal Cycle
Efficiency
Regenerative Feed Water Heating Cycle:
• In regenerative feed water heating part of the bled (extracted) steam after
partial expansion in the turbine is used to heat up the feed water going to
boiler.
• In this process the latent heat of liquidation of bled (extracted) steam is
utilised in heating feed water thereby increasing the thermal efficiency
(would otherwise been dumped into the condenser).

• Usually feed water is heated to 0.55 to 0.75 times saturation temp. in series
of heaters. As a consequence of steam extraction for feed water heating,
increased steam flow through turbine is required to generate the same power.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 46


© ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change
without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Factors Affecting Thermal Cycle
Efficiency
Usually thermal cycle employing regenerative feed water heating will have 30% higher
flow at stop valves and 30% lower flow at turbine exhaust as compared to thermal cycle
without regenerative feed water heating.

• This makes regenerative feed water heating even more attractive to the
following reasons:

- Increase in steam flow in initial stages of turbine results in increased blades


height thus improving internal thermal efficiency of turbine.
- Reduced flow at turbine exhaust demands lesser exhaust area, resulting in
smaller blades in last stages, which is limiting factor in turbine design.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 47


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
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STEAM TURBINES - Factors Affecting Thermal Cycle
Efficiency
Condenser Vacuum:
Condenser has triple function in “Rankine Cycle”,
• Provide Heat Sink (Phase change of working fluid takes place)
• Low Vacuum (heat rejection takes place at low temp./ thermal efficiency)
• Preserve/ store working fluid (costly demineralised water)
Condenser vacuum is dependent on the cooling water temp. and to some extent to
cooling water flow rate. In India, cooling water temp. ranges between 240 C (for snow
fed rivers) to 360 C (sea water or river waters in hot season) giving condenser pressure
of 0.06 to 0.12 ata. Since, cooling water is usually taken from river, lake or sea
whichever is nearby the thermal plant, we don’t have direct control over cooling water
temperatures. However, we can install cooling towers at our plants to further cool this
available direct cooling water of river, lake or sea and in turn can improve the
condenser vacuum.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 48


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STEAM TURBINES - Factors Affecting Thermal Cycle
Efficiency

Turbine Losses:
Losses in turbine can be divided in two groups:

Internal:
Frictional loss, loss due to leakage (heat loss), Leaving/ residual losses.

External:
Bearing friction losses, Auxiliaries drive power losses, radiation losses.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 49


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STEAM TURBINES

Construction of Steam Turbines

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 50


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Construction of Turbines

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 51


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STEAM TURBINES - Construction - Arrangement of
blading
Arrangement of Fixed and Moving Blades

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 52


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Construction Details
• Geometrical construction of Steam turbines vary from designer to designer.
• In general all steam turbines have the following Assemblies / Components

) Rotor
) Casing
) Moving blades
) Guide Blades / Nozzles/ Diaphragms
) Blading Materials
) Steam Sealing Arrangement
) Bearings & Bearing Pedestals
) Control and Stop Valves
) Auxiliary systems like Lube oil System, C & I, Gland Seal system,
Governing System etc.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 53


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
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STEAM TURBINES

Steam Turbine Rotors

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 54


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Rotor configurations

• Different configuration of rotors.


• Configuration depends on type of Turbine (Impulse or Reaction type),
ease of manufacturability, design philosophy applied.
• A rotor generally has:
Coupling flanges (Integral or Shrunk on)
Journals
Thrust Collar
Gland seal
Balance Piston
Blades (mounted on Discs or direct mounted)
Discs with Radial and Facial keys
Over-speed Trip assembly
MOP impeller

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 55


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STEAM TURBINES - Rotor configurations

Parts of typical Turbine Rotor


Blades mounted on Discs
Thrust Collar
Front
Gland Rear Gland Coupling
MOP Flange
Impeller

Front Rear
Over-speed Trip Journal Journal
assembly

Balance Piston Disc


Radial Key

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 56


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Rotor configurations

) Built-up rotor
) Forged disc rotor
) Combined rotor
) Drum type rotor
) Welded rotor

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 57


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Rotor configurations

Built-up Rotor

Rotors are built up with shrunk on discs. Such rotors are simpler in manufacture,
but can operate only at moderate temperatures of steam. At high temperatures of
steam, stress relaxation can result in loosening of disc fastening on the rotor.
Example for such rotor: 200 MW LP Turbine Rotor of LMZ design

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 58


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
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STEAM TURBINES - Rotor configurations
Forged Disc Rotor

In Forged disc rotors, the discs and shaft are machined from a single forging, and
therefore , loosening of discs on the rotor in turbine operation is improbable. The
diameter of the forged rotors is limited, since it is is difficult to make large size
forging of sufficiently high quality. Machining of forged rotors is more intricate and
time consuming.
Example of such rotor: 200 MW HP turbine rotor of LMZ design.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 59


© ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change
without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
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STEAM TURBINES - Rotor configurations
Combined Rotor

Combined type of rotors are employed in steam turbines where the temperature of
steam can vary within wide range in a single cylinder.
Example of such rotor: 200 MW IP turbine rotor of LMZ design.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 60


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use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Rotor configurations
Drum type Rotor

Drum type rotors are used in HP and IP cylinders of reaction type steam turbines. In
most of the cases, the rotor is a single forgings. However, in some cases, they are
made by welding together a number of small sizes forging. In this type of rotors,
blades are mounted on the rotor directly.
Example of such rotor: 140 MW HP & IP turbine rotors of CEM design.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 61


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
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STEAM TURBINES - Rotor configurations
Welded Rotor

Welded rotors consist of several discs welded together at the peripheral


circumference.The rotor portions in this design are forgings of moderate
dimensions, which makes it possible to have a homogeneous structure of metal over
the volume of a rotor part and improve thermal stability. They are more stiffer and
lighter than forged or built-up rotors.
Example of such rotor: 500 MW LP turbine rotor of ALSTOM design.
Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 62
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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Couplings

• Couplings are essentially devices for transmitting torque but they may
also have to allow relative angular misalignment, transmit axial thrust
and ensure axial location or allow relative axial movement.

COUPLINGS

FLEXIBLE SEMI-FLEXIBLE RIGID COUPLINGS


COUPLINGS COUPLINGS

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 63


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use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Flexible Couplings
Claw Coupling
• They are capable of absorbing
small amounts of angular
misalignment as well as axial
movement.
Multi-tooth Coupling
• Double flexible couplings can also
accommodate eccentricity.
• They need continuous lubrication.
• Suitable for small to medium size,
Bibby Coupling
light/heavy load.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 64


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Semi-flexible Couplings
• These type of couplings
Semi-flexible Coupling allow angular bending only.
• They do not require any
lubrication.
• They consist of a bellow
piece having one or more
convolutions.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 65


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Couplings

• Rigid couplings are either integral


Rigid Mono-bloc Coupling
with shaft forging (mono-bloc) or
shrunk on to the shaft.
• They are used for transmitting high
torque.
• When using Rigid couplings, shaft
Shrunk on Coupling
alignment must be set to ensure
that the coupling bending moment
forces are minimised.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 66


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Couplings

Coupling Bolt Assembly

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 67


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES

Moving Blades of Steam Turbines

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 68


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Moving Blades

• Convert Kinetic Energy and or Heat Energy of steam into Mechanical Work.
• Considered as the “Heart” of the turbine.
• In an Impulse turbine, no heat drop occurs in moving blades. However, heat drop
do occur in the case of Reaction turbine whose extent depends on Degree of
reaction.
• Size of the moving blades increases from HP turbine to LP turbine to
accommodate expanding steam. The length of the last stage blade in LP turbine is
a limiting factor for size of the LP turbine and hence the output.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 69


© ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change
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STEAM TURBINES - Moving Blades
Moving Blade Nomenclature TENON

AIRFOIL SECTION

PRESSURE SIDE

SUCTION SIDE
PROFILE LENGTH

PITCH

ROOT

TANG SHOULDER
NECK
Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 70
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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Moving Blades
Moving Blade Nomenclature

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 71


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use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Moving Blades

Classification of Moving Blades

Based on Working Principle Based on type of Profile Based on type of Root Based on type of Shroud Based on on direction of rotation

Impulse Blade Constant Profile "T" Root Separately Shrouded Right Hand

Reaction Blade Changing Profile Integral Shrouded Left Hand


Without Shoulder With Shoulder

Free Standing
Stradle Root

Serrated Root

Fork / Finger Root

Fir Tree Root

Axial Entry Radial Entry

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 72


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use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Moving Blades
Classification based on Working Principle

• “Bucket” Shaped Pressure


side
• Constant flow area between
two adjacent blades

Impulse Blade Reaction Blades

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 73


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use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Moving Blades
Classification based on type of Profile

Blades with constant profile Blades with changing profile

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 74


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STEAM TURBINES - Moving Blades Roots
Classification based on type of Root

“T” Root with “T” Root without Straddle Root


Shoulder Shoulder

Serrated Root
Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 75
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use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Moving Blades Roots
Classification based on type of Root

Fir Tree Root- Radial


Entry

Fork Root

Fir Tree Root-


Axial Entry
Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 76
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use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Moving Blades Roots
Classification based on type of Shroud

Blade with separate Shroud Blade with integral Shroud Free standing Blade

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 77


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STEAM TURBINES - Moving Blades
Classification based Direction of Rotation

Left hand blade Right hand blade


CCW direction CW direction

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 78


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STEAM TURBINES

Blading Materials

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 79


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
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STEAM TURBINES - Blading Materials

• Shrouds
• Rivet pins
• Setting Springs
• Locking Piece
• Spacers
• Lacing Wires/ Damping wires

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 80


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use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Blading Materials
Shrouds
• Improves the stage efficiency and the steam
flow conditions in the peripheral zone.
• Substantially reduces the leakage loss.
• A shroud band combines blades into packs,
thus increasing in blading stiffness.
• Shroud band also decreases the bending
stresses in blades.
• Some shroud bands have fins on periphery and
or on inlet side to form labyrinth gland with
narrow clearances.
• Shrouds bands are fastened to the blades by
upsetting the tenons on the blades.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 81


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STEAM TURBINES - Blading Materials
Rivets Rivet Pins
• Used for locking the blades and or Locking
Pieces.
• They can be of Axial entry type or Radial entry
type.

Setting Springs
• Used for providing necessary tightness during
blading.
Setting Spring
• They are placed below the blades.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 82


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use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Blading Materials
Lock piece Lock Piece
• In some cases, a wedge is inserted in the blade
entry pocket to complete blading instead of a
Lock blade.
• Generally two Lock pieces are present in
diametrically opposite directions

Spacers
• Used for maintaining proper gap (pitch)
Spacer between two adjacent blades.
• Generally they are buried in the blade grooves.
• They can be manufactured with material
different than that for blades.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 83


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STEAM TURBINES - Blading Materials
Lacing wire Lacing wires
• They are used to reduce stress due to
vibrations in the blade excited by steam flow
fluctuations as the blades pass the nozzles.
• Lacing wires fitted at an anti-node provide a
very effective form of dampening. However, the
anti-node may exist at different positions for the
different types of vibration so a compromise on
the position has to be reached.
• Lacing wires are Brazed to all the blades in the
packet or to the last blades in a packet.
• They can be of solid cylinder or hollow cylinder
in shape.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 84


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STEAM TURBINES - Blading Materials
Damping Wire Damping wires
• They are used to reduce stress due to
vibrations in the blade excited by steam flow
fluctuations as the blades pass the nozzles.
• A Damping wire which is 'free fitting' is free to
move within the holes. Centrifugal force throws
the wire to the outside of the hole where
frictional effects help dampen the vibration.
• The disadvantage of damping wires is that
heavy fretting can eventually cause the holes to
widen to an extent that the rotor has to be re-
bladed.
• Generally they are half round in shape.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 85


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STEAM TURBINES

Special Stages in a Steam Turbine

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 86


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STEAM TURBINES - Special Stages
Curtis Stage

The nozzles, of the convergent divergent type, produce very high steam kinetic
energy, some of which is absorbed in the first row of moving blades, the remainder
being deflected back by the fixed guide blades and used in the second row.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 87


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STEAM TURBINES - Special Stages

Curtis Stage :
• It is the first stage of blades used in an Impulse or Impulse-reaction turbines.
• It is an impulse stage with Velocity compounding.
• Turbines employing Nozzle Governing arrangement, have Curtis Stage as their
Regulating stage.
• Curtis stage permits the utilisation of a large heat drop in the nozzles and
consequently helps in obtaining lower temperature and pressures in the
following stages.
• The use of Curtis stage in an Impulse-Reaction turbine reduces the number of
reaction stages and hence construction of turbine becomes simple and cheap.
• Curtis stage can have either Single row or Double rows of blades. Turbines with
high initial pressures are built with double row Curtis stage.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 88


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Special Stages
Baumann Stage

In this design the penultimate turbine stage is divided: the steam flow through
the outer annular part of the stage is led directly to the condenser, while the
inner part flows through the final stage on its way to the condenser.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 89


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STEAM TURBINES - Special Stages

Baumann Stage :
• Baumann stage is incorporated for increasing the power output of the turbine.
• Almost 1/3rd of the entire steam flow is directed through the upper portion of
Baumann stage and exhausted directly into the condenser; bypassing the last
stage.
• The increase in power of a turbine is by a factor of 1.5
• At the same time, it reduces the efficiency of the turbine for the same exit
velocity loss.
• The two parts of the moving blade in the Baumann stage have different duties,
hence there is a discontinuity in the blade profile.
• Blades in a Baumann stage are complex in nature and thus they are difficult to
design and manufacture.
• These blade do not have good vibration characteristics.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 90


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use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES

Steam Turbine Casings

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 91


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Casings
• Stationary parts with complicated shape often varying in diameter along its
length.
• Turbine casings are pressure vessels supported at each end designed to
withstand hoop stresses in transverse plane and are very stiff in longitudinal
direction to maintain accurate clearance between stationary and rotating
components.
• They can be of Single Shell design or Double Shell design.
• Generally split horizontally passing through the turbine axis. Exception being
the HP inner casings of KWU design turbines which are vertically split; and
HP outer casings of KWU design turbines which are not at all split.
• Usually top and bottom halves of the casings are held together with the help of
fasteners at flanges on the parting plane. Exception to this method of holding
together the casing halves is HP Inner casings of ALSTOM design which are
fastened with Shrink rings.
• HP and IP casings are castings of special alloy steels while the LP casings are
of fabricated type made with Carbon steel.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 92


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
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STEAM TURBINES - Casings

IP-LP Combined outer casings

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 93


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Casings

HP Inner casing IP Inner casing

LP Inner casing

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 94


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Casings
IP-LP Combined outer & inner casings

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 95


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Casings
Parting Plane Fasteners
PART ING PLANE FAST ENERS
HP CASING IP CASING LP CASING

ST UD M 140 X 4-T X 810 ST UD M 100 X 4-T X 690

TURBINE TYPE K-200-130-8


ST UD M 140 X 4-T X 710 ST UD M 100 X 4-T X 705 ST UD M 48 X 130
ST UDS
ST UD M 120 X 4-T X 760 ST UD M 76 X 4-T X 635 ST UD M 42 X 120
ST UD M 100 X 4-T X 705 ST UD M 42 X 120

DOWEL
DOWEL ST UD M 100 X 4-T X 930 DOWEL ST UD M 76 X 4-T X 870
ST UDS

CAPNUT M 140 X 4 CAPNUT M 100 X 4


CAP NUT S NUT M 48
CAPNUT M 120 X 4 CAPNUT M 76 X 4
/ NUT S NUT M 42
CAPNUT M 100 X 4 NUT M 42

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 96


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STEAM TURBINES - Casings
Shrink Rings Comparison of Shrink Rings & P/P
Fasteners

ALSTOM Features Customer Benefits


• Light weight • Good behavior during load changes
• No mass concentration • Operational flexibility to grid
• No casing distortion requirements
• Horizontal separating flange • Easy maintenance,
• low maintenance costs

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 97


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
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STEAM TURBINES

Stationary Blades of Steam Turbines

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 98


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Guide blades / Nozzles/
Diaphragms

• Convert Pressure Energy or Heat Energy of steam into Kinetic Energy.


• Static components. They are also called Stationary blades, Nozzle blades.
• In an Impulse turbine, stationary blades are embedded in Diaphragms. In a
Reaction Turbine, individual blades are assembled in the casing or Blade carrier
and they are called Guide blades.
• In impulse turbine, entire heat drop of the stage happens in the stationary blades.
However, in a Reaction turbine, partial heat drop occurs and the extent depends
on the Degree of reaction.
• Nozzles are the stationary blades of first stage; generally the control stage. They
experience the highest temperature in the entire turbine. Generally, a large heat
drop occurs in the Nozzles.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 99


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES- Guide blades / Nozzles/ Diaphragms

• Guide blades can be un-shrouded, separately shrouded or with integral shrouds.


• Diaphragms are constructed in any of the following three methods:
* By pinning the Nozzle blades onto a disc
* By welding the Nozzle blades to outer and inner rims.
* By sandwich casting the Nozzle blades between outer and inner rims.
• Pin type diaphragms are used in small and moderate pressure turbines.
• Welded Diaphragms are used in High and Intermediate pressure turbines.
• Cast type diaphragms are used in low pressure and large turbines.
• Nozzles can be manufactured either by carving out material from a forged plate
or by welding nozzle blades with the Nozzle body.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 100


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES- Guide blades / Nozzles/ Diaphragms

Guide blades with Guide blades with


Separate Shroud Integral Shroud

Un-shrouded Guide
blade

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 101


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES- Guide blades / Nozzles/ Diaphragms

Guide blades assembled in inner casing

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 102


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
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STEAM TURBINES- Guide blades / Nozzles/ Diaphragms

A typical Diaphragm

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 103


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STEAM TURBINES- Guide blades / Nozzles/ Diaphragms

Nozzle for Pin type A closer look of Pin type Diaphragm


Diaphragm

Pin type Diaphragm

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 104


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use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES- Guide blades / Nozzles/ Diaphragms

Typical Cross Section of


Welded Type Diaphragm Welded Type Diaphragm

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 105


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STEAM TURBINES- Guide blades / Nozzles/ Diaphragms

Cast Type Diaphragm

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 106


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STEAM TURBINES- Guide blades / Nozzles/ Diaphragms

Nozzle carved out Welded type Nozzle


from a plate

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 107


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use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES

Steam Sealing

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 108


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STEAM TURBINES - Steam Sealing

• For minimizing the steam leakage and for maintaining the peak efficiency Sealing
systems are used.
• Generally Labyrinth seals are used where the shaft passes through the casing end
glands and diaphragms.
• Water sealing system and Carbon ring packing are also used for steam sealing in
some designs.
• Sealing materials are of relatively softer material and assembled concentric with
the turbine shaft.
• Sealing system generally comprises of gland box, leak off manifold, Gland
condenser, air ejector and condensate tank.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 109


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STEAM TURBINES - Steam Sealing

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 110


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STEAM TURBINES - Steam Sealing

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 111


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STEAM TURBINES - Labyrinth Seals
INTERMEDIATE GLAND SEALING

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 112


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STEAM TURBINES - Labyrinth Seals
END GLAND SEALING

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 113


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STEAM TURBINES - Other types of Sealing
END GLAND SEALING

This type of gland comprises a number of segmental


rings of graphitic carbon. The material is self
A wheel forged on the rotor ends runs in a water bath. lubricating. The rings are placed in a suitable housing.
This water is flung out by centrifugal action. The gland The rings are held close together by a spring which
only needs to be small as large pressure drops require wrapped around the gland rings. The rotation of rings
little head. is prevented by key sunk into bottom of the gland
The system cannot be used on reversible sets and at housing. In some cases, carbon rings are actually in
reduced revolutions. contact with the shaft or sleeve thereon, but in some
cases definite radial clearances are maintained.
Water Seal Carbon Seal

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 114


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STEAM TURBINES

Bearings and Bearing pedestals

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 115


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STEAM TURBINES - Bearings & Bearing
Pedestals
PURPOSE
Bearing Journal Bearing Thrust Bearing
Pedestals
The main purpose of The purpose of a The purpose of the
bearing pedestals is to journal bearing is to turbine thrust bearing is
support the turbine retain the rotor system to provide a positive
rotor, via the journal in its correct radial axial location for the
bearings, in a fixed position, relative to the turbine rotors relative to
relationship to the cylinders, and to the cylinders.
cylinders so that gland provide a low friction
clearances are support which will
maintained in all withstand static and
phases of operation. dynamic loads of shaft
They also house the rotation, together with
Main Oil Pump and the frictional and
some instrumentation. conducted heat, and to
remain free from
maintenance except at
major outages.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 116


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STEAM TURBINES - Bearing Pedestals

FRONT BEARING PEDESTAL THRUST BEARING PEDESTAL

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 117


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STEAM TURBINES - Bearing Pedestals

• Cast or Fabricated rigid construction.


• Stiffness achieved with ample usage of ribs and gusset plates.
• Fabricated construction has the advantage of increased support stiffness, whilst
maintaining a compact overall pedestal size with good resistance to impact load.
• Improved cast material (Spheroidal Graphite Cast) Iron is used for construction.
• Normally pedestals in LP area are firmly bolted and doweled to the foundations.
• At high temperature end of turbine, provision is made either for the cylinders to
expand at sliding mounting points on top of their pedestals or for pedestal to
slide relative to the foundations or both.
• Pedestals near adjacent to high temperature components of the turbine are
frequently protected by radiation shields.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 118


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STEAM TURBINES - Journal Bearings

• Horizontally split at centre line.


• White metal linings used because of high loading capacity, reliability
and absence of wear due to hydrodynamically generated films of
lubricating oil. The white metal surface is either cast into a mild steel
liner to form a bearing body or cast directly into the bearing body
itself. Two main white metal profiles in common use are Two Lobe
(Elliptical) and Three Lobe.
• Journal bearings for turbines are usually force lubricated and have
provision for admitting Jacking oil. The oil is continuously fed into
wedge by frictional drag and leaks away axially towards the brg edges
• The bearings are normally spherically seated in their pedestals on
pads under which shims are placed to facilitate precise horizontal
and vertical alignment of shaft line.
Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 119
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STEAM TURBINES - Journal Bearings
TYPICAL JOURNAL BEARING CONFIGURATIONS

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 120


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STEAM TURBINES - Journal Bearings
TYPICAL CONSTRUCTION OF JOURNAL BEARING

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 121


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STEAM TURBINES - Thrust Bearings

• Provides positive axial location for rotors relative to the cylinders.


• It is designed to withstand the unbalanced thrust due to blade reaction
and steam pressure acting on unbalanced areas.
• It is normally located close to the areas where blade/cylinder clearances
are minimum and operating temperatures are highest.
• Although the net thrust on the white metalled pads in the on-load
condition is always in one direction, i.e., typically towards generator, a
second set of pads, termed “Surge pads”, are incorporated on the
integral shaft collar. This is to take care of transient reversal of thrust
which occur during load reduction and following a turbine trip.
• The thrust bearing is generally combined with a journal bearing, housed
in spherically machined steel shell.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 122


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STEAM TURBINES - Thrust Bearings
TYPICAL CONSTRUCTION OF THRUST BEARING

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 123


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STEAM TURBINES

Steam Chest

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 124


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STEAM TURBINES - Control & Safety Valves
TYPICAL CONTROL VALVE & STOP VALVE ASSEMBLY: STEAM CHEST

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 125


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STEAM TURBINES - Emergency Stop Valves
TYPICAL STOP VALVE ASSEMBLY

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 126


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STEAM TURBINES - Control / Governor Valves
TYPICAL CONTROL VALVE ASSEMBLY

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 127


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STEAM TURBINES - Stop & Control Valves
• Turbines are equipped with Emergency Stop Valve (ESV) to
cut off steam supply during periods of shutdown and to provide
prompt interruption of the steam flow in an emergency trip.
• The Control Valves (CV) provide accurate control of the steam
flow entering the turbine, thus controlling the generator load
when the machine is synchronised to the grid.
• Steam chests can be integral with the turbine casings or
separate casing connected to turbine casing by flexible
pipelines.
• Usually Steam Strainers are also housed in the steam chest,
but sometimes separate casings are used to house steam
strainers.
• ESVs are actuated by servomotor controlled by the protection
system. ESV remains either fully opened or fully closed.
• CVs are operated by the governing system through
servomotors to regulate steam supply as required by the load.
Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 128
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STEAM TURBINES - General Considerations

Balancing:
Rotors are dynamically balanced to a very high degree of precision.
Anchoring:
LP Casing ( heaviest part- min. movement/ expansion) is usually anchored
to foundation. This anchoring can be done at front or rear pedestals or at
the mid point of LP Casing. Rotors are anchored at thrust bearing w.r.to
casing.
Catenary of Rotors:
Due to weight of rotor sag takes place which is compensated by bearing
alignment (coupling flanges made parallel) in the sag shape of rotors also.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 129


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STEAM TURBINES

Material Selection in Steam Turbines

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 130


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without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
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STEAM TURBINES - Material Selection
• Steam Turbine components are highly stressed as they operate at elevated
temperatures, pressures and high speed.
• Besides the design requirements metallurgical consideration are of utmost importance
in the selection of materials in order to have greater reliability and good service during
operation.
• The metallurgical considerations are
° Alloying elements and their effect on:
Structure, heat treatment, manufacturability, weldability, fatigue life and
creep resistance characteristics.
± The micro-structure stability
² Inter crystalline corrosion,
³ Embrittlement,
´ Effect of delta ferrite

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 131


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STEAM TURBINES - Material Selection
Criteria for selection of materials depends on
• Physical characteristics
 Thermal co-efficient of expansion
 Thermal conductivity
 Modulus of Elasticity
 Poison’s ratio
 Density
• Mechanical properties
 Hot yield strength
 Creep & rupture strength
 Stress relaxation properties
 Cyclic loading behaviour
 Fracture Toughness
 Rate of crack growth
 Resistance to scaling
Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 132
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STEAM TURBINES - Physical Characteristics
of Materials

• At elevated temp. thermal conductivity is important for quick dissipation/


absorption of heat thus minimising thermal stresses.
• Thermal co-efficient of expansion (elongation/ diff.temp.) and the modulus
of elasticity (stress/strain) are important because these play an important
role in inducting thermal stresses and ensuring the design clearance and their
minimum values are favorable.
• Poisons ratio : Ratio between the value of transverse compression and
longitudinal elongation within the limits of elastic strain, taken for the case of
simple tension in one direction.
• Density : mass (gm or kg) per unit volume (cm3 or m3 ) is density.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 133


© ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change
without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Mechanical Properties
of Materials
*Hot Yield (0.2% proof/ yield stress): At high temp. but not in creep range -
6500C( 62Kg/mm2). Hot yield of a steel decreases with an increase in temp.
* Creep and Rupture Strength:The gradual deformation under the action of
constant load at a constant elevated temperature is called creep.The gradual
strain is called creep strain.
* Creep Relaxation properties: There are certain high temp. components in
which the stress does not remain constant but decreases with time at
elevated temp. due to creep (elastic strain changes into plastic strain - hence
relaxes stress require re-tightening).
* Cyclic Loading behaviour:The components which are working at elevated
temp. under static and cyclic loading are subjected to creep fatigue due to
combined stresses.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 134


© ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change
without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Mechanical Properties
of Materials
* Fatigue behaviour : Fatigue under alternative cyclic (low or high) stresses.
* Fracture Toughness: Resistance of material to fast fracture in presence of
defects.
* Rate of crack growth : Rate of propagation of defects due to cyclic stresses
during operation of turbine.
* Resistance to Scaling :Scaling reduces effective thickness / area of heat
transfer.
* Metallurgical Stability: No change in grain structure during long term
operation.
* Corrosion & Erosion Resistance: To achieve the same various grades of Cr-
Mo-V or Cr-Mo ferrite steels are used according to weldability and hardness.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 135


© ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change
without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Important Terms

Heat Rate/ Specific Heat Consumption:


Required heat input for per unit power generation (KCal / KWHr).
Enthalpy:
Available Heat energy per Kg of working fluid (KCal / Kg)
Plant Load Factor:
Ratio of generated energy to the available (rated) energy for generation.
Availability:
Unit available for rated power generation.
Specific Steam Consumption:
Consumption of steam (Kg) for unit power generation (Kg / KWHr)

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 136


© ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change
without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES

LP Rotor Lifting at PSWS

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 137


© ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change
without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES

Rotor Lifting Bush METALLIC LIFTING SLINGS


Arrangement (SIMPLIFIED REPRESENTATION)

210 MW LP ROTOR
LIFTING BUSH ASSEMBLY (ONLY A PART SHOWN)

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 138


© ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change
without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES

Rotor Lifting Bush Design


Design Highlights:
• Fully fabricated structure.
• High stiffness with light weight and
simple construction.
• Easy to manufacture and to use.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 139


© ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change
without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES
Rotor Lifting Bush Design
Design Highlights:
• Finite Element Analysis employed for design.
• Designed with optimum Factor of Safety.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 140


© ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change
without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES
Rotor Lifting Bush Design
Design Highlights:
• Safety of Rotor shaft also
calculated.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 141


© ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change
without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES
Rotor Lifting and Disc removal Operation

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 142


© ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change
without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Manufacturers

The major players in Steam Turbine Manufacturing and their installed set
rating in India are given below:

- General Electric, USA


- Siemens, Germany
- LMZ, Russia
- Skoda, Czech Republic
- Toshiba / Hitachi/ MHI/ Sihn Nippon , Japan
- BHEL, India
- ALSTOM (Germany, UK, France, Poland, Switzerland )

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 143


© ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change
without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - ALSTOM’s Manufacturing
Units
* Berlin/ Mannheim, Germany:
( 68 - 74MW - Renusagar, 149MW Anta, 250 MW NLC STCMS, 500MW -
NTPC Talcher)
* Rugby, United Kingdom:
( 67.5MW - Balco, 500MW - NTPC Rihand)
* Belford/ Velizy, France:
(140MW -Nasik, 109MW Kawas)
* Elblag, Poland:
(66MW SAIL Bokaro & Durgapur, 120MW -Koradi), 225MW Gandhar
* Baden, Switzerland :
(53.5MW Hazira)

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 144


© ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change
without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - ALSTOM - OEM Designs

The lead centers for various design turbines installed in India are as follows:
* Berlin/ Mannheim, Germany:
Berlin, Mannheim, Ansaldo (BBC License).
* Rugby, United Kingdom:
AEI, EE, GEC, GEC Alsthom, AKZ, Toshiba, Parsons, Stork.
* Belford/ Velizy, France:
Alsthom, CEM, Rateau, SACM, Soget, TWOAX
* Elblag, Poland:
Zamech, LMZ, TMZ, Ch TGZ

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 145


© ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change
without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - ALSTOM - OEM Designs

* Milan, Italy : Ansaldo, Tosi


* Baden, Switzerland : BBC (IT, KT), DGI, MFO, SEW
* Budapest, Hungry : Lang, G& V
* Richmond, USA : GE,WH, AC
* Plzen, Czech Republic : Skoda

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 146


© ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change
without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
STEAM TURBINES - Types of orders executed

* Service :
- Overhauls / Inspections: Major/ Minor/ Supervisory, OEM / Third
party
* Repair :
- At site or At works - normal (regular)/ critical
* CA or RLA:
- At site or At works - normal/ regular or critical
* Spares Supply:
- Fast moving and noble parts, OEM / Third party, original drg. /
reverse engg.

Steam Turbines Introduction - 31/07/2008 - P 147


© ALSTOM 2007. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change
without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction,
use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.
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