Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 13

Model-Based Tuning Methods for PID Controllers

Jeffrey Arbogast Douglas J. Cooper, PhD Robert C. Rice, PhD


Department of Chemical Engineering Control Station, Inc. Control Station, Inc.
University of Connecticut One Technology Drive One Technology Drive
Storrs, CT 06269-3222 Tolland, CT 06084 Tolland, CT 06084
arbogast@engr.uconn.edu doug.cooper@controlstation.com bob.rice@controlstation.com

KEYWORDS
PID, Controller Design, Controller Tuning, Dynamic Modeling, Process Data, Software

ABSTRACT

The manner in which a measured process variable responds over time to changes in the controller output
signal is fundamental to the design and tuning of a PID controller. The best way to learn about the
dynamic behavior of a process is to perform experiments, commonly referred to as “bump tests.”
Critical to success is that the process data generated by the bump test be descriptive of actual process
behavior. Discussed are the qualities required for “good” dynamic data and methods for modeling the
dynamic data for controller design. Parameters from the dynamic model are not only used in correlations
to compute tuning values, but also provide insight into controller design parameters such as loop sample
time and whether dead time presents a performance challenge. It is becoming increasingly common for
dynamic studies to be performed with the controller in automatic (closed loop). For closed loop studies,
the dynamic data is generated by bumping the set point. The method for using closed loop data is
illustrated. Concepts in this work are illustrated using a level control simulation.

FORM OF THE CONTROLLER

The methods discussed here apply to the complete family of PID algorithms. Examples presented will
explore the most popular controller of the PID family, the Proportional-Integral (PI) controller:
KC
u (t ) = u bias + K C e(t ) +
τI ∫ e(t ) dt (1)

In this controller, u(t) is the controller output and ubias is the controller bias. The tuning parameters are
controller gain, KC, and reset time, τI. Because τI is in the denominator, smaller values of reset time
provide a larger weight to (increase the influence of) the integral term.

innovative solutions from the process control professionals


CONTROLLER DESIGN PROCEDURE

Designing any controller from the family of PID algorithms entails the following steps:
™ specifying the design level of operation,
™ collecting dynamic process data as near as practical to this design level,
™ fitting a first order plus dead time (FOPDT) model to the process data, and
™ using the resulting model parameters in a correlation to obtain initial controller tuning values.

The form of the FOPDT dynamic model is:

dy (t )
τP + y (t ) = KP u(t − θP) (2)
dt

where y(t) is the measured process variable and u(t) is the controller output signal. When Eq. 2 is fit to
the test data, the all-important parameters that describe the dynamic behavior of the process result:

™ Steady State Process Gain, KP


™ Overall Process Time Constant, τP
™ Apparent Dead Time, θP

These three model parameters are important because they are used in correlations to compute initial
tuning values for a variety of controllers [1]. The model parameters are also important because:
™ the sign of KP indicates the sense of the controller (+KP → reverse acting; −KP → direct acting)
™ the size of τP indicates the maximum desirable loop sample time (be sure sample time T ≤ 0.1τP)
™ the ratio θP /τP indicates whether a Smith predictor would show benefit (useful if θP > τP )
™ the dynamic model itself can be employed within the architecture of feed forward, Smith
predictor, decoupling and other model-based controller strategies.

DEFINING GOOD PROCESS TEST DATA

As discussed above, the collection and analysis of dynamic process data are critical steps in controller
design and tuning. A “good” set of data contains controller output to measured process variable data that
is descriptive of the dynamic character of the process. To obtain such a data set, the answer to all of
these questions about your data should be "yes" [1]. Ultimately, it is your responsibility to consider these
steps to ensure success.

1. Was the process at steady state before data collection started?

Suppose a controller output change forces a dynamic response in a process, but the data file only shows
the tail end of the response without showing the actual controller output change that caused the
dynamics in the first place. Popular modeling tools will indeed fit a model to this data, but it will skew
the fit in an attempt to account for an unseen "invisible force." This model will not be descriptive of your

innovative solutions from the process control professionals


actual process and hence of little value for control. To avoid this problem, it is important that data
collection begin only after the process has settled out. The modeling tool can then properly account for
all process variations when fitting the model.

2. Did the test dynamics clearly dominate the process noise?

When generating dynamic process data, it is important that the change in controller output cause a
response in the process that clearly dominates the measurement noise. A rule of thumb is to define a
noise band of ±3 standard deviations of the random error around the process variable during steady
operation. Then, when during data collection, the change in controller output should force the process
variable to move at least ten times this noise band (the signal to noise ratio should be greater than ten). If
you meet or exceed this requirement, the resulting process data set will be rich in the dynamic
information needed for controller design.

3. Were the disturbances quiet during the dynamic test?

It is essential that the test data contain process variable dynamics that have been clearly (and in the ideal
world exclusively) forced by changes in the controller output as discussed in step 2. Dynamics caused
by unmeasured disturbances can seriously degrade the accuracy of an analysis because the modeling tool
will model those behaviors as if they were the result of changes in the controller output signal. In fact, a
model fit can look perfect, yet a disturbance that occurred during data collection can cause the model fit
to be nonsense. If you suspect that a disturbance event has corrupted test data, it is conservative to rerun
the test.

4. Did the model fit appear to visually approximate the data plot?

It is important that the modeling tool display a plot that shows the model fit on top of the data. If the two
lines don't look similar, then the model fit is suspect. Of course, as discussed in step 3, if the data has
been corrupted by unmeasured disturbances, the model fit can look great yet the usefulness of the
analysis can be compromised.

NOISE BAND AND SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO

When generating dynamic process data, it is important that the change in the controller output signal
causes a response in the measured process variable that clearly dominates the measurement noise. One
way to quantify the amount of noise in the measured process variable is with a noise band.

As illustrated in Fig. 1, a noise band is based on the standard deviation of the random error in the
measurement signal when the controller output is constant and the process is at steady state. Here the
noise band is defined as ±3 standard deviations of the measurement noise around the steady state of the
measured process variable (99.7% of the signal trace is contained within the noise band). While other

innovative solutions from the process control professionals


definitions of the noise band have been proposed, this definition is conservative when used for controller
design.

When generating dynamic process data, the change in controller output should cause the measured
process variable to move at least ten times the size of the noise band. Expressed concisely, the signal to
noise ratio should be greater than ten. In Fig. 1, the noise band is 0.25°C. Hence, the controller output
should be moved far and fast enough during a test to cause the measured exit temperature to move at
least 2.5°C. This is a minimum specification. In practice it is conservative to exceed this value.

Noise Band of Heat Exchanger PV


Process: Heat Exchanger Controller: Manual Mode

140.2
Exit Temp (deg C)

140.1
140.0
139.9
139.8
139.7
± 3σ of random error is 0.25 oC
Controller Output

39.5

39.0

38.5 controller output is constant

10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30
Time (mins)

Figure 1 - Noise Band Encompasses ± 3 Standard Deviations Of The Measurement Noise

CONTROLLER TUNING FROM CORRELATIONS


The recommended tuning correlations for controllers from the PID family are the Internal Model Control
(IMC) relations [1]. These are an extension of the popular lambda tuning correlations and include the added
sophistication of directly accounting for dead time in the tuning computations.

The first step in using the IMC (lambda) tuning correlations is to compute, τC, the closed loop time
constant. All time constants describe the speed or quickness of a response. The closed loop time constant
describes the desired speed or quickness of a controller in responding to a set point change. Hence, a small
τC (a short response time) implies an aggressive or quickly responding controller. The closed loop time
constants are computed as:

Aggressive Tuning: τ C is the larger of 0.1 τ P or 0.8 θ P


Moderate Tuning: τ C is the larger of 1.0 τ P or 8.0 θ P
Conservative Tuning: τ C is the larger of 10 τ P or 80.0 θ P

innovative solutions from the process control professionals


With τC computed, the PI correlations for IMC tuning are:

1 τp
KC = τI = τ P (3)
KP (θ P + τ C )

Final tuning is verified on-line and may require tweaking. If the process is responding sluggishly to
disturbances and changes in the set point, the controller gain is too small and/or the reset time is too large.
Conversely, if the process is responding quickly and is oscillating to a degree that makes you
uncomfortable, the controller gain is too large and/or the reset time is too small.

EXAMPLE: SET POINT TRACKING IN GRAVITY DRAINED TANKS

The gravity drained tanks process, shown in Fig. 2, is two non-interacting tanks stacked one above the
other. Liquid drains freely through a hole in the bottom of each tank. As shown, the measured process
variable is liquid level in the lower tank. To maintain level, the controller manipulates the flow rate of liquid
entering the top tank. The disturbance variable is a secondary flow out of the lower tank from a positive
displacement pump. Thus, the disturbance flow is independent of liquid level.

manipulated variable
controller output
.

measured
process variable level sensor
& controller

disturbance
variable

Figure 2 - Gravity Drained Tanks Process

The design level of operation for this study is a measured level in the lower tank of 2.4 m while the pumped
flow disturbance is at its expected value of 2.0 L/min. The control objective is to track set point steps in the
range of 2.0 to 2.8 m. The process is currently under P-Only control and operations personnel will not open

innovative solutions from the process control professionals


the loop for controller design experiments. Hence, closed loop set point steps are used to generate dynamic
process data.

As shown in Fig. 3, the P-Only controller being used has a KC = 40 %/m and a bias value of 55.2%
(determined as the value of the controller output that, in open loop, causes the measured level in the
lower tank to steady at the design value of 2.4 m when the pumped flow disturbance is at its expected
value of 2.0 L/min). With data being saved to file, the dynamic testing experiment begins. Specifically,
the set point is stepped up to 2.8 m, then down to 2.0 m, and finally back to the design level of 2.4 m (set
point sequences of other sizes and durations would be equally reasonable).

P-Only Set Point Step Test


Process: Gravity Drained Tank Controller: PID ( P= RA, I= off, D= off )
3.0
2.8 measured tank level
2.6
PV/Setpoint

2.4
2.2
2.0
1.8 set point steps
1.6

70
Controller Output

60
50
40
30

0 5 10 15 20 25
Time (mins)
Tuning: Bias = 55.2, Gain = 40.0, Sample Time = 1.00

Figure 3 – Set point step tests on gravity drained tanks under P-Only control

Visual inspection of Fig. 3 confirms that the closed loop dynamic event is set point driven (as opposed
to disturbance driven). Also, control action appears energetic enough such that the response of the
measured process variable clearly dominates the noise.

innovative solutions from the process control professionals


FOPDT of Closed Loop Data
Model: First Order Plus Dead Time (FOPDT) File Name: closed.txt
3.0
2.8

Tank Level
2.6
2.4
2.2
2.0 process data
1.8
1.6 and FOPDT fit
Manipulated Variable

70
60
50
40
30

0 5 10 15 20 25
Time

Gain (K) = 0.094, Time Constant (T1) = 1.61, Dead Time (TD) = 0.56
SSE: 0.3837
Gain (K) = 0.094, Time Constant (T1) = 1.61, Dead Time (TD) = 0.56
SSE: 0.3837

Figure 4 – FOPDT fit of closed loop dynamic data generated in Fig.8.5

The dynamic data of Fig. 3 is fit with a FOPDT model using Loop-Pro software by Control Station. A
plot of the model and closed loop process data is shown in Fig. 4. The model appears to be reasonable
and appropriate based on visual inspection, thus providing the design parameters:

Process Gain, KP = 0.094 m/%


Time Constant, τP = 1.6 min
Dead Time, θP = 0.56 min

We first compute the closed loop time constant. Here we choose aggressive tuning, which is computed
as:
τC = larger of 0.1τP or 0.8θP = larger of 0.1(1.6) or 0.8(0.56) = 0.45 min.

Substituting this closed loop time constant and the above FOPDT model parameters into the IMC tuning
correlations of Eq. 3 yields the following tuning values:

1 ⎛ 1.6 ⎞
KC = ⎜ ⎟ = 16.9 %/min τI = 1.6 min
0.094 ⎝ 0.56 + 0.45 ⎠

A reverse acting controller is required because KC is positive. Because the PI controller has integral
action, the bias value is not entered but is automatically initialized by our instrumentation to the current
value of the controller output at the moment the loop is closed.

innovative solutions from the process control professionals


PI Controller Design From P-Only Set Point Data
Process: Gravity Drained Tank Cont.: PID ( P= RA, I= ARW, D= off, F = off)

2.8
PV/Setpoint 2.6
2.4
2.2
2.0
1.8

65
Controller Output

60
55
50
45

5 10 15 20 25 30
Time (mins)
Tuning: Gain = 16.9, Reset Time = 1.60, Sample Time = 1.00

Figure 5 – Performance of PI controller in tracking set point steps

The performance of this controller in tracking set point changes is pictured in Fig. 5. Although good or
best performance is decided based on the capabilities of the process, the goals of production, the impact
on downstream units and the desires of management, Fig. 5 exhibits generally desirable performance.
That is, the process responds quickly, shows modest overshoot, settles quickly, and displays no offset.
Compare this to Fig. 3, that shows P-Only performance for the same control challenge.

INTERACTION OF PI TUNING PARAMETERS

One challenge of the PI controller is that there are two tuning parameters to adjust and difficulties can arise
because these parameters interact with each other. Figure 6 shows a tuning map that illustrates how a
typical set point response might vary as the two tuning parameters are changed.

The center of Fig. 6 shows a set point step response that is labeled as the base case performance. It is
important to recognize that this base case plot will not be considered by some to be the "best" performance.
What is best must be determined by the operator or engineer for each implementation. Some require no
overshoot while others will tolerate some overshoot in exchange for a faster set point response. In any
event, the grid shows how a set point step response changes as the two tuning parameters are doubled and
halved from a base (here defined as desired) tuning.

innovative solutions from the process control professionals


PI Controller Tuning Map

2.0 K C

KC

Base Case
Perform ance

0.5 K C

0.5 τ I τI 2.0 τ I

Figure 6 - How PI controller tuning parameters impact set point tracking performance

The plot in the upper left of the grid shows that when gain is doubled and reset time is halved, the controller
produces large, slowly damping oscillations. Conversely, the plot in the lower right of the grid shows that
when controller gain is halved and reset time is doubled, the response becomes sluggish. This chart is called
a tuning map because, in general, if a controller is behaving poorly, you can match the performance you
observe with the closest picture in Fig. 6 and obtain guidance as to the appropriate tuning adjustments
required to move toward your desired performance.

CONCLUSIONS
Understanding the dynamic behavior of a process is essential to the proper design and tuning of a PID
controller. The recommended design and tuning methodology is to:
™ step, pulse or otherwise perturb the controller output near the design level of operation,
™ record the controller output and measured process variable data as the process responds, and
™ fit a first order plus dead time (FOPDT) dynamic model to this process data,
™ use the dynamic model parameters in a correlation to compute P-Only, PI, PID and PID with Filter
™ controller tuning values,
™ test your controller to ensure satisfactory performance.

innovative solutions from the process control professionals


LITERATURE CITED

1. Cooper, Douglas, “Practical Process Control Using Control Station,” Published by Control Station,
Inc, Storrs, CT (2004).

____________________________________________________________________________________

For more information about model-based tuning techniques and technologies, please feel free to contact us at:

Control Station, Inc.


One Technology Drive
Tolland, Connecticut 06084
877-LOOP-PRO (877-566-7776)
www.controlstation.com

innovative solutions from the process control professionals


PID Control - Practical Process Control Training Page 1 of 2
Saint Louis - Phase II Process Control Training

Practical Process Control Training - PID


Control
Industrial training services offered by BIN in conjunction with Control Station
Saint Louis, MO. Schedule: Sept 7 - 8, 2006, All training courses offered as On-Site Training too.

Day 1 Training ...


 Lecture
 Fundamentals of Process Dynamics
and Control
 Proportional Control
 Integral Action and PI Control
 A Formal Approach to Controller
Design Using Design Tools
 Controller Performance Criteria
 Derivative Mode and PID Control
 PID Control with Derivative Filter
 Demonstration
 Modeling Process
Dynamics Using Control Station
 Implementation of
P-Only Controllers
 Adaptive PI Control of Nonlinear The Practical Process Control Training course (more than just a PID tutorial, will
Processes give you a firm foundation in Process Control and PID control tuning.
 PID Control of Tank Level
 PID with Filter Control of Heat Top companies maintain their competitive advantage by maximizing productivity
Exchanger Temperature and minimizing costs - by optimizing and controlling critical processes. Training is
 Workshop an essential element in equipping engineers for success and achieving that advantage.
 Exploring Dynamics of the Gravity
Drained Tanks
 P-Only Control of Tank Level
 The Hazard of Tuning PI Controllers
by Trial and Error
 PI Control of Heat Exchanger
Temperature
 PID Control of Heat Exchanger The Practical Process Control curriculum is how top companies empower their
Temperature human resources and to maximize the return on their capital investments. Practical
 PID with Filter and Control of the Process Control Training has helped process technicians and engineers to understand
Multi-Tanks Process and apply innovative control techniques.

How do top companies like Holcim (US) (cement), Lafarge North America (cement),
Day 2 Training ... Honeywell (chemicals), Westinghouse Savannah River (power), ChevronTexaco
(petroleum), Genzyme (biotech/pharmaceutical), and Owens Corning (chemicals)
 Lecture maintain their competitive advantage? Attend PID Control workshop and learn
 Using Control Station with Real proven techniques that will improve your bottom-line performance.
Processes
 Cascade Control Receive hands-on instruction and gain the confidence you need to solve complex
 Feed Forward Control process control challenges. With real world examples and the PID control tuning
 Dynamics of Non-Self Regulating simulation software, you will gain a clear understanding of the 'how and why'
(Integrating) Processes changing PID parameters effect the process Take the guess work out of PID control
 Demonstration tuning.
 Simulation and Control of Heat
Exchanger using Custom Process
“Control Station equipped my team with the training they needed to succeed. They
 Single Loop Control of the Jacketed
kept [it] simple and straightforward, focusing on techniques that could be applied
Reactor
immediately on the plant floor” E&I Supervisor- Magnesium Elektron

http://www.bin95.com/PID_Process_Control_PRINT.htm 6/18/2006
PID Control - Practical Process Control Training Page 2 of 2

 Feed Forward Control of an Ideal “Control Station’s ‘case study’ approach to teaching the subject was unique.
Process Learning by doing helped me understand the topics as they were presented.”
 Controlling a Non-Self Regulating Process Engineer - International Flavor & Fragrances
(Integrating) Custom Process
 Workshop
 Modeling and Simulation of Single This more advanced seminar is part of Business Industrial Network's Phase II
Loop Processes Training (Phase I training is our PLC Troubleshooting course), and is also offered as
 Cascade Control of the Jacketed On-Site Training.
Reactor
 Feed Forward Control of the Jacketed Both of these courses offer information your people will actually use out on the
Reactor shop floor.
 Modeling and Control of the Pumped
Tank Process Course Location ...

We are a Strategic Training The Microsoft Building


Partner for the Association for
Facilities Engineering (AFE) and 3 Cityplace Drive
provide AFE members a 10%
discount. Saint Louis, MO. 63141

Note: Loaner laptops will be Click picture online for location details >>
available . We will be using
laptops to work with the Software This seminar/workshop will be held in the state of
specifically designed to help users the art training facility located in the Microsoft
learn process control training. building next to Business Industrial Network's HQ offices.

Recommended Lodging ...


Drury Inn & Suites just 1/2 mile down the road at ...
Register TODAY because 11980 Olive Blvd, Creve Coeur, Missouri, 63141
seating is limited!
Discount code provide after registration.
All trademarks and trade names are property of their respective owners.

http://www.bin95.com/PID_Process_Control_PRINT.htm 6/18/2006
Industrial Process Control Training - Saint Louis MO Page 1 of 1
Saint Louis, MO.

Industrial Process Control


Training
Saint Louis, MO. Schedule: Sept 7-8, 2006
All training workshops offered as On-Site Training too, contact us for details.

Seminar Fee ... Authorizing Manager:


$1450 PID course per Name
attendee. Group discounts may Title: Email:
apply. 10% discount to AFE
members! (not to be used with Company Name:
other discounts)

Registration Methods ... Address:


1) Online (This page) City: Zip: State/Prov:
2) Fax (860) 875-1749
3) Phone (877) 566-7776 Phone: Fax:
4) Mail this form to ...
Control Station, Inc. 2 Day Process Control (PID) Workshop Date: n
i September 07-08, 2006 - ($1450)
j
k
l
m
One Technology Drive
Tolland, CT. 06084 Seminar Attendees:
5) Email all form information to
Name: Title:
Training@bin95.com
Name: Title:
Seminar Location ... ** Group discount for 2 or more attendees **

Name: Title:
The Microsoft Building
Name: Title:
3 Cityplace Drive,
Saint Louis, MO 63141 Payment Method: Amount to be charged per attendee - for two or more attendees PID course will be
discounted to $1250 per attendee!
Located at our new state of the art
training facility located in the Please enter your credit card information below before submitting this secure form. You will also need to submit
Microsoft building 2nd floor, this form with contact information above filled out when paying with Check.
across the street from Business
Industrial Network offices. c Visa g
d
e
f
g c MasterCard g
d
e
f c AMX g
d
e
f c Check Enclosed (pay to Control Station Inc.)
d
e
f
Card Number:
Accommodations ...
Expiration Date: Card Code?:
Drury Inn & Suites
11980 Olive Blvd Name on Card:
Creve Coeur, Missouri, 63141
Signature:
Hotel website link is online
Hotel Phone :
(314) 989-1100 Group discount for PID course, is $200 off list price per attendee. Two or more attendees
qualifies for the group discount. If AFE member, indicate so in name field. (US$1125, per
Schedule ... AFE attendee) Cancellations may apply fees to other training classes.

8:00am - Class Starts Registrants may receive additional information and updates via their email address. Lunch and snacks
12:00 - 1:00pm Lunch provided! Seminar Ends 4:30 Friday, please book travel accordingly. (Sat. recommended) All trademarks and
4:30 - Class Ends trade names are property of their respective owners.

http://www.bin95.com/Saint_Louis_PID_registration_PRINT.htm 6/18/2006