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This chapter primarily presents the different researcher and other literatures from both foreign

and local researchers which have significant bearings on the variables included in the research.
In Australia, approximately 88% of the population owns a smartphone, thus making Australia
one of the foremost adopters of such technology . Other Western countries such as the United
States of America, for instance, have found approximately 64% of its population to use a
smartphone as of 2017 . Additionally, in developing countries such as India, smartphone
ownership rates were expected to reach 36% by 2018 , and 46.1% in Sub-Saharan Africa by the
end of the same year . Such high ownership rates in Australia and across the globe can be
attributed to scale manufacturing practices, socio-economic factors, and advancements in
technology over the years.
The current study investigated how mobile phone use affects where people look and how they
negotiate a floor based hazard placed along the walking path. Whilst wearing a mobile eye
tracker and motion analysis sensors, participants walked up to and negotiated a surface height
change whilst writing a text, reading a text, talking on the phone, or without a phone. Differences
in gait and visual search behavior were found when using a mobile phone compared to when
not using a phone.
When using a mobile phone, writing a text whilst walking resulted in the greatest adaptions in
gait and visual search behavior compared to reading a text and talking on a mobile
phone. Findings indicate that mobile phone users were able to adapt their visual search
behavior and gait to incorporate mobile phone use in a safe manner when negotiating floor
based obstacles. Many students perceived the cellphone primarily as leisure device and most
commonly use cellphones for social networking, surfing the internet watching videos and playing
games, thus constant usage and addiction to cellphone has affected the people
psychically, psychologically and socially excessive mobile phones use has been found to
associated with the health problems. Design usually uniqueness of mobile phones is one of its
primary success factors.
Key features of a mobile phone design elements may relate to physical design of the
handset, user input, mobile context, usability of the devise design of content and
others. Portability marks one of the most important features of design elements of mobile
phones. Finding an effective balance between portability and usability is one of the most
challenging tasks for modern mobile handset designers. On one hand, customers expect
conveniently usable keyboards and wide screen sizes from modern mobile phones so that the
device can be used with no or minimum strain eyes.
On the other hand, designing large keyboards and enlarging screen sizes in a mobile phone can
only be achieved by enlarging the physical size of the devise with negative implications on its
portability. Therefore, designers of mobile phones need to find an effective balance between
usability and portability. This initial stage in mobile phone design process involves the
formulation of initial ideas for the design. Product design specifications stage relates to the
market research and analysis of the problem.
During this stage data related to customer needs and wants in relation to mobile phone designs
are going to be collected and analyzed. Detail design stage involves designing all of the
dimensions and specifications of the product takin into account feedback obtained as a result of
initial testing. Further testing continues even after the launch of mass manufacturing of the
product, as this information can represent a highly valuable business intelligence to be used in
new product development.
‐ The research used a multiple regression analysis in an attempt to achieve the
objective. Practical implications ‐ This research should contribute significantly to academics and
educational developers in encouraging the students' use of personal technologies such as
smart phones and tablet PCs to enhance their learning process. "Brian Mullen from the book
"The Psychology of Consumer Behavior‟ consumer behavior is the decision maker or behavior
of the consumer in the market place of the services and goods. The behavior of consumer is
considered to be the study of why, when, where and how people prefer or prefer not to buy a
particular product.

It takes into consideration and mix together the basics of their economic status, their
psychology, the society and the social anthropology. It in short tries to recognize the decision of
the buyer either individually or collectively. The general definition of consumer behavior is that
one of the studies a marketer uses to understand a consumer better and forecast on how their
behaviors change when coming to buying decisions. consumer behavior is the sum of learned
values, customs and beliefs that serve to direct the members of a specific society.

According to From the application of psychology, sociology, and demographics, the marketers
can begin to understand why the consumers form attitudes and make decisions to purchase the
product. Consumer behavior is based on the consumer playing three different roles of
buyer, payer and user. Consumer behavior reflects totality on decision of consumers with
respect to the consumption, disposition and acquisition of
services, products, experiences, activities, ideas and people by units of decision
making. Barbara zarniawskas said that how fashion values, such as beautification, desirability
through symbolic interaction, and high variation, are increasingly visible in mobile phone design.

Our findings indicate that fashion values are visible in the design of mobile phones and are
accounted for in design. Fashionalization can thus be seen as emanating from institutions
related to clothing that extend to and become shared with the mobile industry, such as a shared
dependency on trend agencies for color selection and joint events. As such, there is a
categorization of areas, different for each brand, where users are clearly lacking security
mind, possibly due to lack of awareness. Such a categorization can help phone manufacturers
enhance their mobile phones in regards to security, preferably transparently for the user.

The findings suggest a significant relationship between the variables "brand attitude", "corporate
attitude", and "product choice". In addition, no significant relationship was found between
individual decision making processes and product choice. Harvey May as cited by Greg Hearn
stated that the mobile phone’s permeation into ‘everyday life’ through products, knowledge and
cultural processes. The convergence and blurring of industry boundaries increasingly see
entertainment, information and communication technologies and lifestyle products and services
combine.

The possibilities that digital economies provide in shaping our experiences - and how others
experience us - lend support to Featherstone’s comment that the ‘authentication of everyday
life’ has arrived. The resulting consumption is an experience economy, where a broad range of
mobile phone users, with or without technical savvy, expendable income and aesthetic
ambitions, can harvest from the ever-increasing palette of the digital domain. Throughout the
20th century, visions of utopia and dystopia have often run alongside such major developments
in technology, especially those that have the capacity or likelihood to transform and disturb
conceptions of the everyday. Outlining a number of current states of play and future scenarios
for the mobile phone in the everyday, we suggest that mobile phone analytics will shift from the
utopian and dystopian towards analyses by more conventional theoretical and methodological
tools and approaches found in media, cultural and policy studies, as well as in the social
sciences and other disciplines.

Smartphones are an integral part of people’s life. In this article, we will use the terms
"smartphone" and "mobile" interchangeably. What we have in mind whenever we say mobile is
a phone with access to the Internet. They are mobile phones highly advanced in terms of
technology, computing capabilities, and connectivity, with functions similar to those of
computers.

In fact, people prefer their smartphones to computers while surfing online . In 2016, the number
of smartphone users was estimated at reach2.08 billion . The digital divide between less
advanced economies and developed economies was 31 points in 2015 for smartphone
ownership. When asked, smartphone owners described their devices as "helpful “rather than
"annoying," "connecting" rather than "distracting," and representing "freedom “rather than
functioning as a "leash." According to a study done on students, using smartphones during
classes hampers the ability to concentrate and makes academic performance worse