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COMPORTEMENT CINEMATIQUE

- MODELISATION DES SYSTEMES


D’UN MECANISME -

CINEMATIQUE DU CONTACT PONCTUEL


Exercice 1 : SYSTÈME DE DISTRIBUTION D’UN MOTEUR 4 TEMPS

Exercice 2 : BANC DE TESTS DE PNEUMATIQUES


Question 1 : Dessiner les figures de changement de base correspondant aux différents
mouvements entre les solides, en indiquant sous chacune d’entre elles le vecteur
rotation correspondant.
Les figures de changement de base, qui vont servir tout au long des calculs qui vont suivre,
doivent être parfaitement réalisées. Elles sont élaborées, à partir de la description littérale du
paramétrage du système, de la façon suivante :
- placer le vecteur commun aux deux bases (orienté vers nous) ;
- dessiner, sous frome d’un « L », et compléter de manière directe (règle des 3 doigts de la
main droite) la base de référence du mouvement considéré ;
- dessiner, en la décalant dans le sens trigonométrique d’un angle ( ≈ 20° ), et compléter de
manière directe la base en mouvement ;
- indiquer le paramètre du mouvement ;
- rajouter des indications sur les vecteurs unitaires qui sont égaux.

Question 2 : Déterminer le vecteur vitesse de glissement au point de contact I .


JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG
Vitesse de glissement ⇒ Vpo int de contact ∈1er solide en contact / 2ème solide en contact
Il ne faut jamais (sauf s’il s’agit d’un contact avec le solide référence fixe) essayer de calculer
un vecteur de glissement directement, il faut utiliser la relation de composition des vecteurs
vitesse.
JJJJJJG JJJJJJJG JJJJJJJG JJJJJJG JJJJJJJG JJJJJJJG JJJJJJG
VI∈2/1 = VI∈2/3 + VI∈2/0 + VI∈0/1 = VI∈2/3 + VI∈2/0 − VI∈1/0
Pour déterminer les différents termes de cette composition de vecteurs vitesse, Il faut utiliser la
relation du champ des vecteurs vitesse en passant par des points « biens définis
géométriquement ».
JJJJJJJG JJJJJJJG JJG JJJJJG
VI∈2/3 = VC∈2/3 + IC ∧ Ω2/3

G

0 (C est situé sur l’axe de rotation du Mvt 2/3)


G G G
= r ⋅ z ∧ β ⋅ u = r ⋅ β ⋅ v
JJJJJJJG JJJJJJJJG JJG JJJJJG
VI∈2/0 = VH ∈3/0 + IH ∧ Ω3/0

G

0 (H est situé sur l’axe de rotation du Mvt 3/0)


G JJG G G
= (r ⋅ z − d ⋅ u ) ∧ α ⋅ z = d ⋅ α ⋅ v
JJJJJJG JJJJJJJG JJG JJJJJG
VI∈1/0 = VO∈1/0 + IO ∧ Ω1/0

G
0 (O est situé sur l’axe de rotation du Mvt 1/0)
G G G
= −d ⋅ u ∧ θ ⋅ z = d ⋅ θ ⋅ v
JJJJJJG G
( )
donc: VI∈2/1 = r ⋅ β + d ⋅ (α − θ ) ⋅ v

Sciences Industrielles pour l’Ingénieur Page 1/4 06/01/2012


Corrigé TD 13 - Comportement cinématique des systèmes CPGE 1ère année

Question 3 : En déduire la relation entre θ , α , β et les dimensions du système.


On souhaite qu’il y ait RSG au point de contact entre le pneu et le plateau tournant, donc :
JJJJJJG G
VI ∈2/1= 0 ⇒ r ⋅ β + d ⋅ (α − θ ) = 0

Exercice 3 : SYSTÈME D’OUVERTURE DE PORTE D’AUTOBUS


Question 1 : Déterminer et tracer la direction du vecteur vitesse de glissement au point C.
Le vecteur vitesse de glissement est porté par le plan tangent commun aux deux solides au point
de contact.
JJJJJJJG
Question 2 : Proposer et mettre en œuvre une démarche permettant de déterminer VD ∈3/1 .

Question 3 : Conclure quant au respect du critère de la fonction FC4.


JJJJJJJG
Résultat : VD∈3/1 ≈ 140 mm ⋅ s −1

Exercice 4 : COMPORTEMENT D’UN VÉHICULE EN VIRAGE


Question 1 : Exprimer R1 et R2 en fonction de R et v.
v v
R1 = R − et R 2 = R +
2 2
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG
Question 2 : Donner la relation entre Ωroue1/ châssis , Ωchâssis / chaussée et Ωroue1/ chaussée .
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG
Ωroue1/ chaussée = Ωroue1/ châssis + Ωchâssis / chaussée
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG
Question 3 : En déduire l’expression de Ωroue1/ chaussée . On notera ω1 la valeur algébrique de
la vitesse de rotation de la roue 1 par rapport au châssis.
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJG G
Ωroue1/ chaussée = ω1 ⋅ x1 + ω ⋅ z
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG
Question 4 : Donner la relation entre VC1∈roue1/ châssis , VC1∈châssis / chaussée et
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG
VC1∈roue1/ chaussée .
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG
VC1∈roue1/ chaussée = VC1∈roue1/ châssis + VC1∈châssis / chaussée

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Corrigé TD 13 - Comportement cinématique des systèmes CPGE 1ère année
JJG JJG JJJG
Question 5 : Exprimer, dans la base B1 = ( x1; y1; z1) liée à la roue 1, le torseur cinématique de la
roue 1 par rapport à la chaussée {Vroue1/ chaussée } au point C1.
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJG G
⎧⎪ Ωroue1/ chaussée ⎫⎪ ⎧⎪ ω1 ⋅ x1 + ω ⋅ z ⎫⎪
{V roue1/ chaussée = ⎨V }
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG ⎬ = ⎨ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG ⎬
C1 ⎪⎩ C1∈roue1/ chaussée ⎪⎭ C1 ⎪⎩VC1∈roue1/ chaussée ⎪⎭
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG
Avec VC1∈roue1/ chaussée = VC1∈roue1/ châssis + VC1∈châssis / chaussée
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG G
Or VC1∈roue1/ châssis = 0 car C1 est sur l’axe de rotation du Mvt roue1/chassis
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJJG JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJG G JJG
Et VC1∈châssis / chaussée = VI∈châssis / chaussée + C1I ∧ Ωchâssis / chaussée = −R1 ⋅ x1 ∧ ω ⋅ z = R1 ⋅ ω ⋅ y1
 G

0
Donc :
JJG G
⎧⎪ω1 ⋅ x1 + ω ⋅ z ⎫⎪
{V roue1/ chaussée = ⎨

} ⋅ ω ⋅
JJG ⎬

C1 ⎩ R 1 y 1 ⎭
Question 6 : En déduire, en traduisant cette condition de roulement sans glissement au point
H1 , une expression de ω1 en fonction de R, r, v et ω .
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG G
Il y a roulement sans glissement au point H1 si : VH1∈roue1/ chaussée = 0
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG
Or VH1∈roue1/ chaussée = VH1∈roue1/ châssis + VH1∈châssis / chaussée
Avec
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJJJJG JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG G JJG JJG
VH1∈roue1/ châssis = VC1∈roue1/ châssis + H1C1 ∧ Ωroue1/ châssis = r ⋅ z ∧ ω1 ⋅ x1 = r ⋅ ω1 ⋅ y1

G

0
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJJJJG JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG
VH1∈châssis / chaussée = VC1∈châssis / chaussée + H1C1 ∧ Ωchâssis / chaussée
Et JJG G G JJG
= R1⋅ ω ⋅ y1 + r ⋅ z ∧ ω ⋅ z = R1⋅ ω ⋅ y1
JJG JJG G 1 ⎛ v⎞
Donc r ⋅ ω1 ⋅ y1 + R1 ⋅ ω ⋅ y1 = 0 ⇒ r ⋅ ω1 + R1 ⋅ ω = 0 ⇒ ω1 = − ⋅ ⎜ R − ⎟ ⋅ ω
r ⎝ 2⎠

Question 7 : Donner, en faisant une étude similaire du comportement cinématique de la roue


2, une expression de ω2 en fonction de R, r, v et ω .
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG
Ωroue2/ chaussée = Ωroue 2/ châssis + Ωchâssis / chaussée
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJG G
Ωroue2/ chaussée = ω2 ⋅ x2 + ω ⋅ z
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG
VC 2∈roue 2/ chaussée = VC 2∈roue 2/ châssis + VC 2∈châssis / chaussée
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJG G
⎧⎪ Ωroue2/ chaussée ⎫⎪ ⎧⎪ ω2 ⋅ x2 + ω ⋅ z ⎫⎪
{V roue2 / chaussée = ⎨V }
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG ⎬ = ⎨ JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG ⎬
C2 ⎩ C2 ∈roue 2/ chaussée ⎪
⎪ ⎭ C2 ⎪⎩VC2 ∈roue2/ chaussée ⎪⎭
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG
Avec VC 2∈roue 2/ chaussée = VC 2∈roue 2/ châssis + VC 2∈châssis / chaussée
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG G
Or VC 2∈roue 2/ châssis = 0 car C est sur l’axe de rotation du Mvt roue2/chassis
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJJG JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJG G JJG
Et VC 2∈châssis / chaussée = VI ∈châssis / chaussée + C2I ∧ Ωchâssis / chaussée = −R 2 ⋅ x2 ∧ ω ⋅ z = R 2 ⋅ ω ⋅ y 2
 G

0
Donc :

Sciences Industrielles pour l’Ingénieur Page 3/4 06/01/2012


Corrigé TD 13 - Comportement cinématique des systèmes CPGE 1ère année
JJG G
⎧⎪ω2 ⋅ x2 + ω ⋅ z ⎫⎪
{V roue2 / chaussée = ⎨

} ⋅ ω ⋅
JJG ⎬

C2 ⎩ R 2 y 2 ⎭
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG G
Il y a roulement sans glissement au point H2 si : VH2 ∈roue 2/ chaussée = 0
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG
Or VH2 ∈roue 2/ chaussée = VH2 ∈roue 2/ châssis + VH2 ∈châssis / chaussée
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJJJJJG JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG G JJG JJG
Avec VH2 ∈roue1/ châssis = VC2 ∈roue 2/ châssis + H2C2 ∧ Ωroue 2/ châssis = r ⋅ z ∧ ω2 ⋅ x2 = r ⋅ ω2 ⋅ y 2

G

0
JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG JJJJJJG JJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG
VH2 ∈châssis / chaussée = VC2 ∈châssis / chaussée + H2C2 ∧ Ωchâssis / chaussée
Et JJG G G JJG
= R2 ⋅ ω ⋅ y2 + r ⋅ z ∧ ω ⋅ z = R2 ⋅ ω ⋅ y2
JJG JJG G 1 ⎛ v⎞
Donc r ⋅ ω2 ⋅ y 2 + R1⋅ ω ⋅ y 2 = 0 ⇒ r ⋅ ω2 + R 2 ⋅ ω = 0 ⇒ ω2 = − ⋅ ⎜ R + ⎟ ⋅ ω
r ⎝ 2⎠
Question 8 : Conclure quant à la nécessité d’intégrer un différentiel sur le train arrière d’un
véhicule de type propulsion.
Si on veut assurer le RSG aux 2 points de contact entres les roues
arrières et le sol, et ainsi améliorer le contrôle de la trajectoire
du véhicule et limiter l’usure des pneus, il faut que ω2 ≠ ω1 .
L’utilisation d’un différentiel sur le train reliant les deux roues
motrices est donc indispensable.

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