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Transmission of Heat 183

Chapter

15
Transmission of Heat
Heat energy transfers from a body at higher (5) Conduction is a process which is possible in all
temperature to a body at lower temperature. The states of matter.
transfer of heat from one body to another may take
(6) When liquid and gases are heated from the top,
place by one of the following modes.
they conduct heat from top to bottom.
Conduction, Convection and Radiation
(7) In solids only conduction takes place
(8) In non-metallic solids and fluids the conduction
takes place only due to vibrations of molecules,
therefore they are poor conductors.
(9) In metallic solids free electrons carry the heat
energy, therefore they are good conductor of heat.

Conduction in Metallic Rod


When one end of a metallic rod is heated, heat flows
by conduction from the hot end to the cold end.
Radiation

A
Conduction Conductio
Hot end n Cold end
The process of transmission of heat energy in which
the heat is transferred from one particle to other
particle without dislocation of the particle from their Fig. 15.2
equilibrium position is called conduction. (1) Variable state : In this state Temperature of
every part of the rod increases
(1) Heat flows from hot end to cold end. Particles of
Heat received by each cross-section of the rod from
the medium simply oscillate but
hotter end used in three ways.
do not leave their place.
(i) A part increases temperature of itself.
(2) Medium is necessary for
conduction (ii) Another part transferred to neighbouring cross-
section.
(3) It is a slow process Fig. 15.1
(iii) Remaining part radiates.
(4) The temperature of the medium increases
1 2 3 4 5
through which heat flows
 1 > 2 > 3 > 4 > 5

Metallic rod
Hot Cold
Fig. 15.3
184 Transmission of Heat
   Changing (5) Law of thermal conductivity : Consider a rod
of length l and area of cross-section A whose faces are
maintained at temperature 1 and 2 respectively. The
(2) Steady state : After sometime, a state is curved surface of rod is kept insulated from surrounding
reached when the temperature of every cross-section of to avoid leakage
 of heat 
1 2
the rod becomes constant. In this state, no heat is Q Q
A Q
absorbed by the rod. The heat that reaches any cross-
section is transmitted to the next except that a small l
part of heat is lost to surrounding from the sides by Fig. 15.6
convection & radiation. This state of the rod is called
steady state. (i) In steady state the amount of heat flowing from
(3) Isothermal surface : Any surface (within a one face to the other face in time t is given by
conductor) having its all points at the same
KA( 1   2 ) t
temperature, is called isothermal surface. The direction Q
of flow of heat through a conductor at any point is l
perpendicular to the isothermal surface passing through
where K is coefficient of thermal conductivity of
that point.
Plane isothermal Cylinderical isothermal material of rod.
surfaces surfaces
Q
(ii) Rate of flow of heat i.e. heat current H
t
Q
A
Q KA(1   2)

l
(A) Heat flows
axially (iii) In case of non-steady state or variable cross-
section, a more general equation can be used to solve
(B) Heat flows
radially problems.
Spherical isothermal dQ d
surfaces   KA
S dt dx
(6) More about K : It is the measure of the ability
(C) Due to point source of heat of a substance to conduct heat through it.
(i) Units : Cal/cm-sec oC (in C.G.S.), kcal/m-sec-K (in
Fig. 15.4 3
M.K.S.) and W/m- K (in S.I.). Dimension : [MLT  1 ]
(4) Temperature gradient (T.G.) : The rate of
change of temperature with distance between two (ii) The magnitude of K depends only on nature of the
isothermal surfaces is called temperature gradient. material.
Hence   –  (iii) Substances in which heat flows quickly and
Heat Heat easily are known as good conductor of heat. They
A
possesses large thermal conductivity due to large
1 2 number of free electrons e.g. Silver, brass etc. For
x
l perfect conductors, K .
Fig. 15.5
(iv) Substances which do not permit easy flow of
heat are called bad conductors. They possess low
  thermal conductivity due to very few free electrons e.g.
(i) Temperature gradient =
x Glass, wood etc. and for perfect insulators, K  0.
(ii) The negative sign show that temperature  (v) The thermal conductivity of pure metals
decreases as the distance x increases in the direction of decreases with rise in temperature but for alloys
heat flow.
thermal conductivity increases with increase of
 1   2  temperature.
(iii) For uniform temperature fall 
l x (vi) Human body is a bad conductor of heat (but it is
(iv) Unit : K/m or °C/m (S.I.) and Dimensions a good conductor of electricity).
[L1 ]
Transmission of Heat 185
(vii) Decreasing order of conductivity : For some time) when the body is not in steady state (i.e., in
special cases it is as follows variable state)

(a) K Ag  K Cu  K Al It is defined as the ratio of the coefficient of thermal


conductivity to the thermal capacity per unit volume of
(b) K Solid  K Liquid  K Gas
mc
the material. Thermal capacity per unit volume =
(c) K Metals  K Non metals V
= c
Table 15.1 : Thermal conductivity of some material
(  = density of substance)  Diffusivity (D) =
Substanc Thermal Substance Thermal
e conductivity conductivi
ty
K
(W/m-K)
(W/m-K)
c
Aluminium 240 Concrete 0.9 Unit : m2/sec and Dimension : [L2T 1]
Copper 400 Water 0.6
Table 15.2 : Electrical Analogy for Thermal
Gold 300 Glass wool 0.04
Conduction
Iron 80 Air 0.024
Lead 35 Helium 0.14 Electrical conduction Thermal conduction

Glass 0.9 Hydrogen 0.17 Electric charge flows from Heat flows from higher
higher potential to lower temperature to lower
Wood 0.1-0.2 Oxygen 0.024
potential temperature
(7) Relation between temperature gradient
The rate of flow of charge is The rate of flow of heat
and thermal conductivity : In steady state, rate of
called the electric current, may be called as heat
dQ d
flow of heat   KA = – KA  (T.G.)  (T.G.) dq current
dt dx i.e. I 
dt dQ
1 dQ i.e. H 
 ( = constant) dt
K dt
Temperature difference between the hot end and The relation between the Similarly, the heat current
electric current and the may be related with the
the cold end in steady state is inversely proportional to potential difference is given temperature difference as
K, i.e. in case of good conductors temperature of the by Ohm's law, that is
cold end will be very near to hot end. V1  V2 1   2
I  H
In ideal conductor where K = , temperature R R
difference in steady state will be zero. where R is the electrical where R is the thermal
(8) Thermal resistance (R) : The thermal resistance of the conductor resistance of the conductor
resistance of a body is a measure of its opposition to the The electrical resistance is The thermal resistance may
flow of heat through it.
l l l
It is defined as the ratio of temperature difference to defined as R  be defined as R
A A KA
the heat current (= Rate of flow of heat)
where  = Resistivity and  where K = Thermal
  1   2 l
(i) Hence R 1 2   = Electrical conductivity conductivity of conductor
H KA(1   2) / l KA
   2 KA
dq V  V2  A dQ
I  1  (V1  V2H)  1  ( 1   2)
(ii) Unit : o
C  sec/ cal or K  sec/ kcal and dt R l dt R l
Dimension : [M 1 L2T 3 ]
Applications of Conductivity in Daily Life .
(9) Wiedmann-Franz law : At a given temperature
(1) Cooking utensils are provided with wooden
T, the ratio of thermal conductivity to electrical
handles, because wood is
conductivity is constant i.e., (K / T ) = constant, i.e., a
a poor conductor of heat.
substance which is a good conductor of heat (e.g., The hot utensils can be Wooden
silver) is also a good conductor of electricity. Mica is an handle
easily handled from the Frying pan
exception to above law. wooden handles and our Fig. 15.7
(10) Thermometric conductivity or diffusivity : hands are saved from
It is a measure of rate of change of temperature (with burning.
186 Transmission of Heat
(2) We feel warmer in a fur coat. The air enclosed in (i) Heat current : Heat current is the same in all
the fur coat being bad conductor heat does not allow Q
the body heat to flow outside. Hence we feel warmer in the conductors.i.e.,  H1  H 2  H 3......... H n
t
a fur coat.
K1A(1   2) K 2 A( 2   3)
(3) Eskimos make double walled houses of the 
blocks of ice. Air enclosed l1 l2
in between the double
K n A( n1   n)
walls prevents 
transmission of heat from ln
the house to the cold (ii) Equivalent thermal resistance :
surroundings.
R  R1  R2  .....Rn
Fig. 15.8
(iii) Equivalent thermal conductivity : It can be
For exactly the same reason, two thin blankets are calculated as follows
warmer than one blanket of their combined thickness.
From RS  R1  R2  R3  ...
The layer of air enclosed in between the two blankets
makes the difference. l1  l2  ...ln l l l
 1  2  .... n
(4) Wire gauze is placed over the flame of Bunsen Ks K1 A K 2 A KnA
burner while heating the
flask or a beaker so that the l1  l2  ......ln
Ks 
flame does not go beyond  l1 l l
the gauze and hence there  2  ........ n
K1 K 2 Kn
is no direct contact between
the flame and the flask. The (a) For n slabs of equal length
wire gauze being a good
n
conductor of heat, absorb Ks 
Fig. 15.9 1 1 1 1
the heat of the flame and    .....
transmit it to the flask. K1 K 2 K 3 Kn

Davy's safety lamp has been designed on this 2K1K 2


principle. The gases in the mines burn inside the gauze (b) For two slabs of equal length, Ks 
K1  K 2
placed around the flame of the lamp. The temperature
outside the gauze is not high, so the gases outside the (iv) Temperature of interface of composite bar
gauze do not catch fire. : Let the two bars are arranged in series as shown in the
figure.
(5) Birds often swell their feathers in winter. By 1  2
doing so, they enclose more air between their bodies
and the feathers. The air, being bad conductor of heat K1 K2
prevents the out flow of their body heat. Thus, birds feel l1 l2
warmer in winter by swelling their feathers. Fig. 15.11

Combination of Metallic Rods Then heat current is same in the two conductors.

Q K1A(1   ) K 2 A(   2)
(1) Series combination : Let n slabs each of cross- i.e.,  
sectional area A, lengths l1, l2, l3,......ln and t l1 l2
conductivities K1, K 2, K 3......K n respectively be K1 K
connected in the series 1  2  2
l l2
1 2 3 n – 1 n By solving we get  1
K1 K 2
K1 K2 Kn 
l1 l2
l1 l2 ln
Fig. 15.10 K11  K 2 2
(a) If l1 = l2 then  
K1  K 2
Transmission of Heat 187

1   2 the figure, then the ratio of thermal conductivities is


(b) If K1 = K2 and l1 = l2 then 
2 K1 : K 2 : K 3  l12 : l22 : l32
(2) Parallel Combination : Let n slabs each of  Thermal conductivity (K)  (Melted length l ) 2

length l, areas A1, A2, A3,.....An and thermal


Searle's Experiment
conductivities K1, K 2, K 3,.....
l
K n are connected in
1 2 It is a method of determination of K of a metallic
parallel then rod. 3 4
A1
K1 Steam
K2 A2
1 2
K3 A3
Water

A3
Kn l
Fig. 15.12

Steam Fig. 15.14


(i) Equivalent resistance :
1 1 1 1 1 (1) In this experiment a temperature difference
    .....
Rs R1 R2 R3 Rn (1   2) is maintained across a rod of length l and
area of cross section A. If the thermal conductivity of
R1R2
For two slabs Rs  the material of the rod is K, then the amount of heat
R1  R2 transmitted by the rod from the hot end to the cold end
(ii) Temperature gradient : Same across each KA( 1   2) t
slab. in time t is given by, Q ......(i)
(iii) Heat current : in each slab will be different.
l
Net heat current will be the sum of heat currents (2) In Searle's experiment, this heat reaching the
through individual slabs. i.e., other end is utilized to raise the temperature of certain
H  H1  H 2  H 3  ....H n amount of water flowing through pipes circulating
around the other end of the rod. If temperature of the
K (A1  A2  ..... An)(1   2)
water at the inlet is  3 and at the outlet is  4 , then
l
the amount of heat absorbed by water is given by,
=
K1 A1( 1   2) K 2 A2( 1   2) K A (   2) Q  mc( 4   3) ......(ii)
  ...  n n 1
l l l (3) Where, m is the mass of the water which has
absorbed this heat and temperature is raised and c is
K1A1  K 2 A2  K 3 A3  .....K n An
 K  the specific heat of the water
A1  A2  A3  .....An Equating (i) and (ii), K can be determined i.e.,
(a) For n slabs of equal area
K1  K 2  K 3  .....K n mc( 4   3) l
K K
n A (1   2) t
K1  K 2 (4) In numericals we may have the situation where
(b) For two slabs of equal area K .
2 the amount of heat travelling to the other end may be
required to do some other work e.g., it may be required
Ingen-Hauz Experiment
to melt the given amount of ice. In that case equation (i)
It is used to compare thermal conductivities of will have to be equated to mL.
different materials. If Hot
KA( 1   2) t
l1 , l2 and l3 are the water i.e. mL 
l
lengths of wax melted l1 l2 l3
on rods as shown in Growth of Ice on Lake
K1 K2 K3
(1) Water in a lake starts freezing if the atmospheric
Fig. 15.13
temperature drops below 0o C . Let y be the thickness
188 Transmission of Heat
of ice layer in the lake at any instant t and atmospheric
temperature is   oC .

(2) The temperature of water in contact with lower


surface of ice will be zero.
Mode of transfer of heat by means of migration of
(3) If A is the area of lake, heat escaping through ice
material particles of medium is called convection. It is of
KA[0  ( )]dt two types.
in time dt is dQ1 
y (1) Natural convection : This arise due to
(4) Suppose the thickness of ice layer increases by difference of densities at two places and is a
dy in time dt, due to escaping of above heat. Then consequence of
gravity because Convection
dQ2  mL   (dy
– A )L
°C Air current
on account of
y Ice gravity the hot
dy light particles rise
0°C up and cold
Wate
r heavy particles
4°C Fig. 15.16
try setting down.
Fig. 15.15
It mostly occurs on heating a liquid/fluid.
(2) Forced convection : If a fluid is forced to move
(5) As dQ1  dQ2 , hence, rate of growth of ice will
to take up heat from a hot body then the convection
be (dy / dt)  (K  / Ly) process is called forced
convection. In this case
So, the time taken by ice to grow to a thickness y is
Newton's law of cooling holds
L y L 2 good. According to which rate
t
K  0
y dy 
2K 
y of loss of heat from a hot body
due to moving fluid is directly
(6) If the thickness is increased from y1 to y2 proportional to the surface
area of body and excess Fig. 15.17
L y2 L

temperature of body over its
then time taken t  ydy (y22  y12)
K y1 2K  surroundings i.e.

(7) Take care and do not apply a negative sign for Q Q


 A(T  T0 )   h A(T  T0 )
putting values of temperature in formula and also do t t
not convert it to absolute scale.
where h = Constant of proportionality called
(8) Ice is a poor conductor of heat, therefore the rate convection coefficient, T = Temperature of body and T0
of increase of thickness of ice on ponds decreases with = Temperature of surrounding
time. Convection coefficient (h) depends on properties of
(9) It follows from the above equation that time fluid such as density, viscosity, specific heat and
taken to double and triple the thickness, will be in the thermal conductivity.
ratio of (3) Natural convection takes place from bottom to
top while forced convection in any direction.
t1 : t2 : t3 :: 12 : 22 : 32 , i.e., t1 : t2 : t3 :: 1 : 4 : 9
(4) In case of natural convection, convection
(10) The time intervals to change the thickness from currents move warm air upwards and cool air
0 to y, from y to 2y and so on will be in the ratio downwards. That is why heating is done from base,
t1 : t2 : t3 :: (12  02 ) : (22  12 ) : (32 : 22 ) while cooling from the top.
(5) Natural convection plays an important role in
 t1 : t2 : t3 :: 1 : 3 : 5 ventilation, in changing climate and weather and in
forming land and sea breezes and trade winds.
Convection
Transmission of Heat 189
(6) Natural convection is not possible in a gravity (12) Spectrum of these radiations can not be obtained
free region such as a free falling lift or an orbiting with the help of glass prism because it absorbs heat
satellite. radiations. It is obtained by quartz or rock salt prism
because these materials do not have free electrons and
(7) The force of blood in our body by heart helps in interatomic vibrational frequency is greater than the
keeping the temperature of body constant. radiation frequency, hence they do not absorb heat
(8) If liquids and gases are heated from the top (so radiations.
that convection is not possible) they transfer heat (from (13) Diathermanous Medium : A medium which
top to bottom) by conduction. allows heat radiations to pass through it without
absorbing them is called diathermanous medium. Thus
(9) Mercury though a liquid is heated by conduction
the temperature of a diathermanous medium does not
and not by convection.
increase irrespective of the amount of the thermal
Radiation radiations passing through it e.g., dry air, SO2 , rock

(1) The process of the transfer of heat from one salt (NaCl).
place to another place (i) Dry air does not get heated in summers by
without heating the absorbing heat radiations from sun. It gets heated
intervening medium is through convection by receiving heat from the surface
of earth.
called radiation. Fig. 15.18
(ii) In winters heat from sun is directly absorbed by
human flesh while the surrounding air being
(2) Precisely it is electromagnetic energy transfer in diathermanous is still cool. This is the reason that sun’s
the form of electromagnetic wave through any medium. warmth in winter season appears very satisfying to us.
It is possible even in vacuum e.g. the heat from the sun (14) Athermanous medium : A medium which
reaches the earth through radiation. partly absorbs heat rays is called a thermous medium
(3) The wavelength of thermal radiations ranges As a result temperature of an athermanous medium
from 7.8  107 m to 4  104 m . They belong to increases when heat radiations pass through it e.g.,
wood, metal, moist air, simple glass, human flesh etc.
infra-red region of the electromagnetic spectrum. That
is why thermal radiations are also called infra-red Colour of Heated Object
radiations.
When a body is heated, all radiations having
(4) Medium is not required for the propagation of
wavelengths from zero to infinity are emitted.
these radiations.
(1) Radiations of longer wavelengths are
(5) They produce sensation of warmth in us but we predominant at lower temperature.
can’t see them.
(2) The wavelength corresponding to maximum
(6) Every body whose temperature is above zero emission of radiations shifts from longer wavelength to
Kelvin emits thermal radiation. shorter wavelength as the temperature increases. Due
(7) Their speed is equal to that of light i.e. to this the colour of a body appears to be changing.

( 3  108 m/ s) . (3) A blue flame is at a higher temperature than a


yellow flame
(8) Their intensity is inversely proportional to the Table 15.3 : Variation of colour of a body on heating
square of distance of point of observation from the
Temperature Colour
source (i.e. I  1 / d 2 ).
525°C Dull red
(9) Just as light waves, they follow laws of reflection, 900°C Cherry red
refraction, interference, diffraction and polarisation. 1100°C Orange red
(10) When these radiations fall on a surface then 1200°C Yellow
exert pressure on that surface which is known as 1600°C White
radiation pressure.
Interaction of Radiation with Matter
(11) While travelling these radiations travel just like
photons of other electromagnetic waves. They manifest When thermal radiations (Q) fall on a body, they are
themselves as heat only when they are absorbed by a partly reflected, partly absorbed and partly transmitted.
substance.
(1) Q  Qa  Qr  Qt Q Qr

Qa

Qt
Fig. 15.19
190 Transmission of Heat

Qa Qr Qt (3) Monochromatic absorptance or spectral


(2)    a r  t  1 absorptive power (a) : It is defined as the ratio of the
Q Q Q
amount of the energy absorbed in a certain time to the
Qa total heat energy incident upon it in the same time,
(3) a  = Absorptance or absorbing power
Q both in the unit wavelength interval. It is dimensionless
and unit less quantity. It is represented by a.
Qr
r = Reflectance or reflecting power (4) Total absorptance or total absorpting
Q power (a): It is defined as the total amount of thermal
Qt energy absorbed per unit time, per unit area of the body
t = Transmittance or transmitting power for all possible wavelengths.
Q

(4) r, a and t all are the pure ratios so they have no a  0
a d
unit and dimension.
(5) Emissivity ( ) : Emissivity of a body at a given
(5) Different bodies
temperature is defined as the ratio of the total emissive
(i) If a = t = 0 and r = 1  body is perfect reflector
power of the body (e) to the total emissive power of a
(ii) If r = t = 0 and a = 1  body is perfectly black
e
body perfect black body (E) at that temperature i.e.  
E
(iii) If, a = r = 0 and t = 1  body is perfect
(  read as epsilon)
transmitter
(iv) If t = 0  r  a  1 or a  1  r i.e. good (i) For perfectly black body  = 1
reflectors are bad absorbers. (ii) For highly polished body  = 0
Emissive Power, Absorptive Power and Emissivity (iii) But for practical bodies emissivity ( ) lies
between zero and one (0 <  < 1).
If temperature of a body is more than it's
surrounding then body emits thermal radiation Perfectly Black Body
(1) Monochromatic Emittance or Spectral (1) A perfectly black body is that which absorbs
emissive power (e) : For a given surface it is defined completely the radiations of all wavelengths incident on
as the radiant energy emitted per sec per unit area of it.
the surface with in a unit wavelength around  i.e. lying (2) As a perfectly black body neither reflects nor
transmits any radiation, therefore the absorptance of a
 1  1
between     to     . perfectly black body is unity i.e. t = 0 and r = 0  a =
 2  2
1.
Spectral emissive power
(3) We know that the colour of an opaque body is
Energy the colour (wavelength) of radiation reflected by it. As a
(e ) 
Area time wavelength black body reflects no wavelength so, it appears black,
whatever be the colour of radiations incident on it.
Joule
Unit : and Dimension : (4) When perfectly black body is heated to a
2
m  sec Å suitable high temperature, it emits radiation of all
[ML1T 3 ] possible wavelengths. For example, temperature of the
(2) Total emittance or total emissive power sun is very high (6000 K approx.) it emits all possible
(e) : It is defined as the total amount of thermal energy radiation so it is an example of black body.
emitted per unit time, per unit area of the body for all (5) Ferry’s black body : A perfectly black body
possible wavelengths. can’t be realised in practice. The nearest example of an
 ideal black body is the Ferry’s black body. It is a doubled
e  0
e d
walled evacuated spherical cavity whose inner wall is
blackened. The space between the wall is evacuated to
Joule Watt prevent the loss of heat by conduction and radiation.
Unit : or and Dimension :
2
m  sec m2 There is a fine hole in it. All the radiations incident upon
[MT 3 ] this hole are absorbed by this black body. If this black
body is heated to high temperature then it emits

P
O

Fig. 15.20
Transmission of Heat 191
radiations of all wavelengths. It is the hole which is to If emissive and absorptive powers are considered
be regarded as a black body and not the total enclosure
 e 
for a particular wavelength ,    (E )black
a 
  
Now since (E)black is constant at a given
temperature, according to this law if a surface is a good
absorber of a particular wavelength it is also a good
emitter of that wavelength.
(6) A perfectly black body can not be realised in
practice but materials like Platinum black or Lamp black This in turn implies that a good absorber is a good
come close to being ideal black bodies. Such materials emitter (or radiator)
absorbs 96% to 85% of the incident radiations. Applications of Kirchoff's Law
Prevost Theory of Heat Exchange (1) Sand is rough black, so it is a good absorber and
hence in deserts, days (when radiation from the sun is
incident on sand) will be very hot. Now in accordance
with Kirchoff’s law, good absorber is a good emitter so
nights (when sand emits radiation) will be cold. This is
why days are hot and nights are cold in desert.
(2) Sodium vapours, on heating, emit two bright
yellow lines. These are called D1, D2 lines of sodium.
When continuos white light from an arc lamp is made to
(1) Every body emits heat radiations at all finite pass through sodium vapours at low temperature, the
temperature (Except 0 K) as well as it absorbs continuous spectrum is intercepted by two dark lines
radiations from the surroundings. exactly in the same places as D1 and D2 lines. Hence
sodium vapours when cold, absorbs the same
(2) Exchange of energy along various bodies takes wavelength, as they emit while hot. This is in
place via radiation. accordance with Kirchoff's law.
(3) The process of heat exchange among various (3) When a shining metal ball having some black
bodies is a continuous phenomenon.
spots on its surface is heated to a high temperature and
(4) At absolute zero temperature (0 K or – 273°C) is seen in dark, the black spots shine brightly and the
this law is not applicable because at this temperature shining ball becomes dull or invisible. The reason is that
the heat exchange among various bodies ceases. the black spots on heating absorb radiation and so emit
(5) If Qemission > Qabsorbed  temperature of body these in dark while the polished shining part reflects
decreases and consequently the body appears colder. radiations and absorb nothing and so does not emit
radiations and becomes invisible in the dark.
If Qemission < Qabsorbed  temperature of body
increases and it appears hotter. (4) When a green glass is heated in furnace and
taken out, it is found to glow with red light. This is
If Qemission = Qabsorbed  temperature of body
because red and green are complimentary colours. At
remains constant (thermal equilibrium)
ordinary temperatures, a green glass appears green,
Kirchoff's Law because it transmits green colour and absorb red colour
According to this law the ratio of emissive power to strongly. According to Kirchoff's law, this green glass, on
absorptive power is same for all surfaces at the same heating must emit the red colour, which is absorbed
temperature and is equal to the emissive power of a strongly. Similarly when a red glass is heated to a high
perfectly black body at that temperature. Hence temperature it will glow with green light.
e1 e2 E (5) A person with black skin experiences more heat
  ...  
a1 a2  A  Perfectlyblack bod
y
and more cold as compared to a person of white skin
because when the outside temperature is greater, the
e person with black skin absorbs more heat and when the
But for perfectly black body A = 1 i.e. E
a outside temperature is less the person with black skin
radiates more energy.
192 Transmission of Heat
(6) Kirchoff' law also explains the Fraunhoffer e    (T 4  T04 )
lines :

(i) Sun's inner most part (photosphere) emits


Rate of Loss of Heat (RH) and Rate of Cooling (RC)
radiation of all wavelength at high temperature. (1) Rate of loss of heat (or initial rate of loss
(ii) When these radiation enters in outer part of heat) : If an ordinary body at temperature T is
(chromosphere) of sun, few wavelength are absorbed by placed in an environment of temperature T0 (T0 < T)
some terrestrial elements (present in vapour form at then heat loss by radiation is given by
lower temperature) Q  Qemission Qabsorption A  (T 4  T04 )
(iii) These absorbed wavelengths, which are missing
appear as dark lines in the spectrum of the sun called (2) Rate of loss of heat
Fraunhoffer lines. dQ
(RH )   A  (T 4  T04 )
Chromospher dt
e (i) If two bodies are made of same material, have
same surface finish and are at the same initial
Radiations of
Photo wavelengths ranging
sphere 0 to   dQ 
Radiations having all
 
dQ  dt 1 A1
wavelengths except temperature then  A 
wavelengths absorbed by dt  dQ  A2
various elements in  
chromosphere  dt  2
Fig. 15.21
(3) Initial rate of fall in temperature (Rate of
(iv) During total solar eclipse these lines appear
cooling): If m is the body and c is the specific heat
bright because the gases and vapour present in the
then
chromosphere start emitting those radiation which they
had absorbed. dQ dT d (Q  mcT and
 mc.  mc
Stefan's Law dt dt dt
dT  d )
According to it the radiant energy emitted by a
perfectly black body per unit area per sec (i.e. emissive d (dQ / dt)
(i) Rate of cooling (Rc )  
power of black body) is directly proportional to the dt mc
fourth power of its absolute temperature, i.e. E  T 4 A 
 (T 4  T04 )
 E = T 4 mc
where  is a constant called Stefan’s constant A 
 (T 4  T04 ) ; where m = density () 
having dimension [MT 3 4
] and value V c
8 2 4
volume (V)
5.67 10 W / m K .
(ii) for two bodies of the same material under
(i) For ordinary body : e = E  T 4 identical environments, the ratio of their rate of cooling

(ii) Radiant energy : If Q is the total energy radiated (Rc )1 A V


is  1. 2
Q (Rc )2 A2 V1
by the ordinary body then e  T 4 
A t (4) Dependence of rate of cooling : When a body
Q  A T 4t cools by radiation the rate of cooling depends on
(i) Nature of radiating surface i.e. greater the
(iii) Radiant power (P) : It is defined as energy
emissivity, faster will be the cooling.
Q
radiated per unit area i.e. P   AT 4 . (ii) Area of radiating surface, i.e. greater the area of
t radiating surface, faster will be the cooling.
(iv) If an ordinary body at temperature T is (iii) Mass of radiating body i.e. greater the mass of
surrounded by a body at temperature T0, then Stefan's radiating body slower will be the cooling.
law may be put as
Transmission of Heat 193
(iv) Specific heat of radiating body i.e. greater the (1) Greater the temperature difference between
specific heat of radiating body slower will be cooling. body and its surrounding greater will be the rate of
(v) Temperature of radiating body i.e. greater the cooling.
temperature of body faster will be cooling. d
(2) If    0 ,  0 i.e. a body can never be
(vi) Temperature of surrounding i.e. greater the dt
temperature of surrounding slower will be cooling. cooled to a temperature lesser than its surrounding by
Table 15.4 : Comparison of rate of heat loss (RH) radiation.
and rate of cooling (Rc) for different bodies
(3) If a body cools by radiation from  1o C to  2o C
Body Condition Rate of heat Rate of
loss cooling d  1   2 1   2
dQ in time t, then  and    av  . The
RH  dT dt t 2
Rc 
dt dt Newton’s law of cooling becomes
d
or
dt 1   2  1   2 
 t   K  2  0 .
Two solid T, T0 , c,  are
RH  A  r 2    
sphere same A

Rc   This form of law helps in solving numericals.
V
(RH )1 r12 (4) Practical examples
 r2 1
(RH )2 r22   (i) Hot water loses heat in smaller duration as
r3 r
compared to moderate warm water.
Two solid T, T0 – same A
sphere of
RH  A  r 2 Rc  (ii) Adding milk in hot tea reduces the rate of
diff. V c
cooling.
material 1
 Cooling Curves
r c
Different T, T0, c,  - (1) Curve between log( –  0) and time
RH  A A
shape same Rc 
V d d

loge ( – 0)
bodies Amax  Plate
like cube, As  (   0)    Kdt
sphere
dt (   0)
Amin 
plate
sphere Integrating loge(   0 )   Kt  C
Bodies of T, T0, m, A are RH  same 1
different same but c Rc  loge(   0)   Kt  loge A
materials diff. for all. bodies c
O slope
This is a straight line with negative t
Newton's Law of Cooling (2) Curve between temperature of body and
Fig. 15.22

When the temperature difference between the body time


and its surrounding is not very large i.e. T – T0 = T then As loge(   0)   Kt  loge A 
T 4  T04 may be approximated as 4T03T
  0
loge   Kt
dT A A
By Stefan’s law,  [T 4  T04 ]
dt mc
 kt
    0  Ae
dT A dT
Hence  4T03T   T or 
dt mc dt which indicates temperature

d decreases exponentially with 0


  0
dt increasing time. 0 Time t
Fig. 15.23
i.e., if the temperature of body is not very different (3) Curve between the rate of cooling
from surrounding, rate of cooling is proportional to
temperature difference between the body and its (R) and body temperature ().
R
surrounding. This law is called Newton’s law of cooling. R  K (   0)  K  K  0
K0 

Fig. 15.24
194 Transmission of Heat
This is a straight line intercept (2) At a given temperature intensity of heat
radiation increases with wavelength, reaches a
R-axis at  K  0 maximum at a particular wavelength and with further
(4) Curve between rate of cooling (R) increase in wavelength it decreases.
E
and temperature difference between
R
body () and surrounding (0)

R  (   0 ) . This is a straight line m


O Fig. 15.27
passing through origin. ( – 0)
Fig. 15.25
(3) For all wavelengths an increase in temperature
Determination of Specific Heat of Liquid causes an increase in intensity.
If volume, radiating surface area, nature of surface,
(4) The area under the curve will represent the total
initial temperature and surrounding of water and given intensity of radiation at a particular temperature i.e.
liquid are equal and they are allowed to cool down (by
radiation) then rate of loss of heat and fall in
Area = E   E  d
temperature of both will be
T same. T From Stefan's law E = T4  Area under E -  curve
(A)  T4
Water Liquid Water (5) The energy (Emax) emitted corresponding to the
Water out
wavelength of maximum emission (m) increases with
in
   
fifth power of the absolute temperature of the black
1 2 1 2

t
1
t
2 body i.e., E max  T 5
Water circulation
Fig. 15.26 Wien's Displacement Law
According to Wien's law the product of wavelength
 dQ   dQ 
i.e.     corresponding to maximum intensity of radiation and
 dt  water  dt liquid temperature of body (in Kelvin) is constant, i.e.
(1   2) (   2)  mT  b  constant
(mWcW  W)  (ml cl  W) 1
t1 t2 where b is Wien's constant and has value
3
 mWcW  W   ml cl  W  2.89 10 m- K .
or    As the temperature of the body increases, the
 t1   t2 
wavelength at which the spectral intensity (E) is
W = mccc = Water equivalent of calorimeter, where maximum shifts towards left. Therefore it is also called
mc and cc are mass and specific heat of calorimeter.
Wien's displacement law.
If density of water and liquid is  and  respectively E
then mW  VW and ml  V l T3 > T2 > T1
T3
Specific heat of liquid T2 m3< m2 < m1

1  tl  T1
cl   (mWcW  W)  W
ml  tW  m  
3 m2 m1

Fig. 15.28
Distribution of Energy in the Spectrum of Black Body
A perfectly black body emits radiation of all possible This law is of great importance in ‘Astrophysics’ as
wavelength. through the analysis of radiations coming from a distant
Langley and later on Lummer and Pringsheim star, by finding  m the temperature of the star
investigated the distribution of energy amongst the
different wavelengths in the thermal spectrum of a T( b /  m) is determined.
black body radiation. The results obtained are shown in
figure. From these curves it is clear that Law of Distribution of Energy (Plank's Hypothesis)
(1) At a given temperature energy is not uniformly (1) The theoretical explanation of black body
distributed among different wavelengths. radiation was done by Planck.
Transmission of Heat 195
(2) According to Plank's atoms of the walls of a
uniform temperature enclosure behave as oscillators, 1/ 4
each with a characteristic frequency of oscillation.  1.5  108  2 1.4  103 
(3) These oscillations emits electromagnetic      ~
 5800K
radiations in the form of photons (The radiation coming
 7  105  5.67 108 
 
out from a small hole in the enclosure are called black
body radiation). The energy of each photon is h. Where As r  1.5  108 km, R  7 105 km,
 is the frequency of oscillator and h is the Plank's
constant. Thus emitted energies may be h, 2h, 3h ... cal kW
S2 2
 1.4 2 and
nh but not in between. cm min m
According to Planck's law W
8hc 1   5.67 10 8
E  d  d m2 K 4
5 [ehc / KT  1]
This result is in good agreement with the
where c = speed of light and k = Boltzmann's
experimental value of temperature of sun, i.e., 6000 K.
constant. This equation is known as Plank's radiation
law. It is correct and complete law of radiation
(4) This law is valid for radiations of all wavelengths
ranging from zero to infinite.

 hc 
(5) For radiations of short wavelength    
 KT 
Planck's law reduces to Wien's energy distribution law  Glass and water vapours transmit shorter
A  B / T
E  d  e d wavelengths through them but reflects longer
5 wavelengths. This concept is utilised in Green house
effect. Glass transmits those waves which are emitted
 hc 
(6) For radiations of long wavelength     by a source at a temperature greater than 100°C. So,
 KT 
heat rays emitted from sun are able to enter through
Planck's law reduces to Rayleigh-Jeans energy glass enclosure but heat emitted by small plants
8KT growing in the nursery gets trapped inside the
distribution law E  d  d
4 enclosure.
 Suppose two metallic rods are first connected in
Temperature of the Sun and Solar Constant
series then in parallel.
If R is the radius of the sun and T its temperature,
1
then the energy
1 emitted
2 by the sun per sec through
1 in accordance
radiation Series 2
with 2 will be given
Stefan’s law
1 2
by Paralle
(i) (ii)l
4 2 4
P  AT  4R T
If Qs heat flows in time ts in series combination
In reaching earth this energy will spread over a
sphere of radius r (= average distance between sun and and Q p heat flows in time tp in parallel combine,
earth); so the intensity of solar radiation at the surface
of earth (called solar constant S) will be given by Qp tp Rs
then  
Qs ts Rp
P 4R 2T 4 r
S 
4r 2 4r 2 R R
Eart If Rods are identical then RS  and Rp  2R 
Sun h 2
1/ 4
 r  S  2
i.e. T    
 R    Fig. 15.29 Qp t 
 4  p 
Qs  ts 
 If temperature of a body becomes 1 to 2 in t time
and it becomes 2 to 3 in next time then use
196 Transmission of Heat

2 0 3 0
 (0 = temperature of enviroment)
1   0  2   0
 Newton's law of cooling can be used to compare
the specific heat of the two liquids.
If equal masses of two liquids having same surface Conduction
are and finish cools from same initial temperature to
same final temperature with same surrounding then 1. In which case the thermal conductivity increases
from left to right [NCERT 1974, 76; AFMC 2000]
t1 K 2 C1 (a) Al, Cu, Ag (b) Ag, Cu, Al
 
t2 K1 C2 (c) Cu, Ag, Al (d) Al, Ag, Cu
 Radiations from sun take 8 min and 20 sec to 2. Which of the following cylindrical rods will conduct
reach earth. most heat, when their ends are maintained at the
same steady temperature [CPMT 1981; NCERT
 Suppose temperature of a body decreases 1°C to 1973, 81;
2°C in time t1 and 2°C to 3°C in time t2 in the same MP PMT 1987; CBSE PMT 1995]
invirment
(a) Length 1 m; radius 1 cm
If (1 – 2)  (2 – 3) then t2 > t1
(b) Length 2 m; radius 1 cm
 Green glass is a good absorber of red light and a (c) Length 2 m; radius 2 cm
good reflector of green light. Consequently at lower
(d) Length 1 m; radius 2 cm
temperature it is a good emitter of red light.
3. The heat is flowing through two cylindrical rods of
Hence Green Red same material. The diameters of the rods are in
Also Yellow Blue the ratio 1 : 2 and their lengths are in the ratio 2 :
1. If the temperature difference between their
 While solving the problems of heat flow, ends is the same, the ratio of rate of flow of heat
through them will be
remember the following equation
[NCERT 1982; CBSE PMT 1995; EAMCET 1997]
e.g. If we are interested in finding the mass of ice
(a) 1 : 1 (b) 2 : 1
which transfoms into water in unit time. For this we
will take (c) 1 : 4 (d) 1 : 8
100°
4. Two identical square rods of metal are welded end
T.D. dm C L, K, A ice
 Lf. (0°C) to end as shown in figure (i), 20 calories of heat
R dt flows through it in 4 minutes. If the rods are
welded as shown in figure (ii), the same amount of
dm T.D.
  heat will flow through the rods in
dt (L f )(R)
[NCERT 1982]
 Confusion
The rate of cooling has been used in many books, 0oC 100oC
with double meanings. At some places. Rate of 0oC 100oC
(i) (ii)
dQ
cooling  and at other places, rate of cooling
dt (a) 1 minute (b) 2 minutes

d (c) 4 minutes (d) 16 minutes


 . Our suggestion is that look for the units, if
dt 5. For cooking the food, which of the following type
the rate of cooling is in cal/m in or J/sec etc., then it of utensil is most suitable
[MNR 1986; MP PET 1990; CPMT 1991;
dQ
is . But if rate of cooling is in °C/min it means SCRA 1998; MP PMT/PET 1998, 2000; RPET 2001]
dt
(a) High specific heat and low conductivity
d
. (b) High specific heat and high conductivity
dt
(c) Low specific heat and low conductivity
Transmission of Heat 197
(d) Low specific heat and high conductivity