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1 A notice of readiness indicating that the vessel will be ready to load in 2

hours from the moment it is tendered:


can be a valid notice of readiness
0
can be a valid notice of readiness if this is the custom of the port
0
is not a valid notice readiness
1
can be a valid notice of readiness if it is sent during holiday
0

2 A ship employed by a port charterparty can be considered an arrived ship:


once the ship is within port limits or at usual waiting place or where she is ordered
by port authorities
1
once the ship is anchored in the road of nominated port and is ready in al respects
to start loading or discharging operations
0
only when the ship is within fiscal, commercial and administrative limits of the port
mentioned in the ch/p
0
only when the ship is withing port limits and is at immediate and effective disposal
of the charterers0

3 A ship employed on a berth charterparty can be considered an arrived ship:


once she is in all respects ready for berthing
0
once she is alongside at nominated berth
1
once she drops anchor within the port limits
0
once her notice of readiness is accepted
0

4 A ship has on board two cargoes covered by two different charterparties and
one of them is overstowing the other. On arrival at the discharging port master
tenders in the same time two notices of readiness and discharging commence with
the cargo loaded on top. In respect of the cargo understowed can be said that:
laytime will start imediately the cargo becomes free for discharging
0
laytime will start on commencement of discharging operation
1
laytime will start as per ch/p, depending on time notice was readiness was tendered
0
laytime will start in the same time for both cargoes
0

5 A ship is employed on a berth charperty and a proper WIBON clause is


incorporated. On arrival at loading port the intended berth was free, but due to fog
vessel was unable to proceed to that berth for 3 days. Under these circumstances
when the ship can be considered an arrived ship?

1
on arriving at usual waiting place, waiting for berthing
0
once the vessel is at the intended berth
1
once vessel has pilot on board
0
imediately the berth is accessible
0

6 A ship is employed on a berth charperty and a proper WIBON clause is


incorporated. On arrival at loading port the intended berth was not free and anyhow
due to fog vessel would have been unable to proceed to that berth for 3 days, even
if she was free. Under these circumstances when the ship can be considered an
arrived ship?
on arriving at usual waiting place, waiting for berthing
1
once the vessel is at the intended berth
0
once vessel has pilot on board
0
imediately the berth is accesssible
0

7 A ship is employed on a berth charperty and a proper WIBON clause is


incorporated. On arrival at loading port the intended berth was not free and she
eventualy became free two days after vessels arrival. Shortly after the berth
became available, navigation was suspended due to fog and vessel had to wait
three days before she was berthed. Under these circumstances:

Laytime started after master tendered notice of readiness on vessel's berthing at


intended berth and was running continously up to the end of loading or discharging
operation. 0
Laytime started as per ch/p, after master properly tendered notice of readiness and
it was not interrupted by any event up the completion of loading or discharging
operation 0
Laytime started as per ch/p after master properly tendered notice of readiness on
arrival at usual waiting place and it was only interrupted for vessels shifting from
anchorage to the loading or discharging berth
0
Laytime started as per ch/p, after master properly tendered notice of readiness on
arrival at usual waiting place and it was interrupted once the berth became free and
restarted after the vessel was berthed.
1

8 A ship needs some urgent spare parts and require help from a ship belonging
to the same shipowner which is in the same region at sea. The spare parts can only
be delivered if the two ships come one close to the other. Under these
circumstances

2
it is always good to help ships belonging to the same owners and operation can go
forward without any approval from the underwriters
0
the operation can only be carried out if the charterers of the vessel deviating from
the usual navigation route approve deviation
0
it is forbiden to carry out this operation without prior approval from the underwriters
1
this operation can be done at owners risk and expenses and there is no need for
any approval from the insurance company
0

9 A ship with cargo on board is drifting without engine power in mid ocean and
master is requesting towage. Would this action be considered a General Average
Act?
Yes, this action can be considered General Average, as sooner or later vessel may
be in danger 1
No, this action can not be considered General Average as there is no immediate
danger 0
This action can be considered general average only if weather forecast is not
favourable 0
No, this action can not be considered general average as it is owners fault that
engine is not working0

10 A veesel is entitled to tender NOR if:


repairs are underway for hatchcover of hold number 2
0
repairs of main engine are under way
1
minor repairs have to be made in each hold
0
discharging is finished and cleaning is under way
0

11 A vessel employed on condition SSHEX EIU, arrives at loading port on a Friday


late evening and laytime starts as from Monday morning. If during weeked work is
carried out, then:

actual time used will count only if there is a special provision that time used before
commencement of laytime will count
1
actual time used will never count as Saturdays, Sundays and holidays are excluded
from laytime if work is carried out during this period
0
actual time used will only count if shippers agree to change loading conditions from
EIU to UU 0
master is allowed not to start loading operation, unless shippers confirm that actual
time used will count as laytime
0

3
12 A vessel is employed for loading a cargo from "one safe port Galatzi" and due
to congestion port authorities order the vessel to drop anchor at Sulina bar and wait
for a free berth. Under these circumstances the vessel is arrived ship
once the vessel drops anchor at Sulina road
1
once the vessel is berthed at loading or discharging berth
0
once the vessel arrives at Galatzi road
0
once the vessel enter the administrative, fiscal and commercial area of Galatzi port
0

13 A vessel is fixed to load 3000 metric tons with a loading rate of 1000 metric
tons per weather working days SSHEX EIU (Time from Friday 17.00 hours up to
Monday 08.00 hours not to count even if used). Laytime starts on Thurdays at 14.00
hours and loading is completed on Saturday at 17:00 hours. If despatch agreed is
USD 4000 per day or pro rata for all time saved what would be the total despatch
payble to the charterers?
14,000 USD 1
12,000 USD 0
7,500 USD 0
10,000 USD 0

14 A vessel is fixed to load 3000 metric tons with a loading rate of 1000 metric
tons per weather working days SSHEX EIU (Time from Friday 17.00 hours up to
Monday 08.00 hours not to count even if used). Laytime starts on Thurdays at 14.00
hours and loading is completed on Saturday at 17:00 hours. If despatch agreed is
USD 4000 per day or pro rata for for working time saved what would be the total
despatch payble to the charterers?
14,000 USD 0
10,000 USD 0
7,500 USD 1
12,000 USD 0

15 A vessel with 3 holds and 5 hatches (each of the holds 2 and 3 have two
hatches) has to load 12000 metric tons and after completion of loading cargo
distribution per hold is as follows: H1:3500 metric tons; H2:4900 metric tons;
H3:4600 metric tons. If loading rate is 500 metric tons per hatch per weather
working day, laytime allowed is
4 days 19 hours 12 minutes
1
4 days 21 hours 36 minutes
0
4 days 19 hours
0
4 days 19 hours 10 minutes
0

16 A vessel with 3 holds and 5 hatches (each of the holds 2 and 3 have two
hatches) has to load 15000 metric tons and after completion of loading cargo
distribution per hold is as follows: H1:4000 metric tons; H2:5800 metric tons;

4
H3:5200 metric tons. If loading rate is 500 metric tons per hatch per weather
working day, laytime allowed is:
10 days
0
6 days
1
5 days 19 hours 12 minutes
0
6 days 12 hours
0

17 A vessel with 3 holds and 5 hatches (each of the holds 2 and 3 have two
hatches) has to load 15000 metric tons and after completion of loading cargo
distribution per hold is as follows: H1:4000 metric tons; H2:5800 metric tons;
H3:5200 metric tons. If loading rate is 500 metric tons per working hatch per
weather working day, laytime allowed is:
6 days
0
5 days 19 hours 12 minutes
1
11 days 14 hours 24 minutes
0
5 days 19 hours
0

18 According to VOYLAYRULES 93 "clear days" shall mean


that the day on which the notice is given and the day on which the laytime expires
are not included in the laytime calculations even if work is carried out during these
days 0
consecutive days commencing at 0000 hours on the day on which a notice is given
and ending at 2400 hours on the last of the number of days stipulated.
0
consecutive days commencing at 0000 hours on the day following that on which a
notice is given and ending at 2400 hours on the last of the number of days
stipulated. 1
consecutive days commencing from the hour NOR was tendered and ending after
number of days stipulated in the text of te laytime clause in the charterparty
0

19 According to VOYLAYRULES 93 despatch for all time saved should mean that
despatch money shall be payable from the time of completion of loading or
discharging to the departure of the vessel including periods excepted from laytime
0
despatch money shall be payable from the time of pilot boarding for departure at
load or discharge ports to the expiry of laytime including periods excepted from
laytime 0

5
despatch money shall be payable from the time of completion of loading or
discharging to the the expiry of laytime including periods excepted from laytime
1
despatch money shall be payable from the time of completion of loading or
discharging to the the expiry of laytime excluding periods excepted from laytime
0

20 According to Voylayrules 93 the word "Demurrage" shall mean


a variable daily amount payable to the owner in respect of delay to the vessel
beyond the laytime, for which the owner is not responsible
0
an agreed amount payable to the owner in respect of berthing delay for which the
owner is not responsible
0
an agreed amount payable to the owner in respect of delay to the vessel beyond
the laytime, for which the owner is not responsible
1
an agreed amount payable to the owners in respect of not loading the vessel within
the laytime, for which the charterer is not responsible
0

21 According to Voylayrules93 "reversible laytime" shall mean


an option given to the charterer to compensate any time saved at loading or
discharging port with any time excess time used at discharging or at loading port
0
an option given to the charterer to use discharging terms and conditions at loading
port and loading terms and conditions at discharging port in order to reduce
demurrage 0
that separate calculations are to be made for loading and discharging and that any
time saved in one operation is to be set off against any excess time used in the
other 0
an option given to the charterer to add together the time allowed for loading and
discharging and to calculate laytime as they are a single operation
1

22 According to VOYLAYRULES93 "weather working days" shall mean


a working day of 24 consecutive hours except for any time when weather prevents
the loading or discharging of the vessel or would have prevented it, had work been
in progress. 1
a working day or part of' a working day during which it is or, if the vessel is still
waiting for her turn, it would he possible to load/discharge the cargo without
interference due to the weather. If such interference occurs (or would have occurred
if work had been in progress), there shall be excluded from the laytime a period
calculated by reference to the ratio which the duration of the interference bears to
the time which would have or could have been worked but for the interference.
0
a working day of 24 consecutive hours including any time when weather prevents
the loading or discharging of the vessel or would have prevented it, had work been
in progress. 0

6
a working day or part of' a working day during which it is or it would be, if vessel is
waiting for her turn, impossible to load/discharge the cargo due to the weather
0

23 According to VOYLAYRULES93 "working days, weather permiting" shall mean


a working day of 24 consecutive hours except for any time when weather would
have prevented the loading or discharging of the vessel
0
a working day of 24 consecutive hours except for any time when weather prevents
the loading or discharging of the vessel
1
a working day of 24 consecutive hours except for any time when weather prevents
the loading or discharging of the vessel or would have prevented it, had work been
in progress. 0
a day of 24 consecutive hours except for any time when weather prevents the
loading or discharging of the vessel
0

24 According with Gencon 94 standard form laytime shall commence


at 14.00 hours, if notice of readiness is given up to and including 12.00 hours, and
at 08.00 hours next working day if notice given during office hours after 12.00
hours. 0
at 13.00 hours, if notice of readiness is given during stevdoring company office
hours , and at 06.00 hours next working day if notice given outside office hours
0
at 13.00 hours, if notice of readiness is given up to and including 12.00 hours, and
at 06.00 hours next working day if notice given during office hours after 12.00
hours. 1
at 13.00 hours, if notice of readiness is accepted up to and including 12.00 hours,
and at 06.00 hours next working day if notice accepted during office hours after
12.00 hours. 0

25 According with VOYLAYRULES 93 the word "berth" shall mean


the place where loading or discharging operation are normally carried out, even if at
anchorage or at buoy
0
the specific place within a port where the vessel is to load or discharge
1
the specific place within or outside a port where the vessel is to load or discharge
0
the place of loading or discharging nominated in a charterparty
0

7
26 According with VOYLAYRULES 93 the word "port" shall mean
a well defined area, within which vessels load or discharge cargo whether at berths,
anchorages, buoys, or the like, and which is situated within commercial, fiscal and
administrative area of a port authority0
an area, within which vessels load or discharge cargo whether at berths,
anchorages, buoys, or the like, and shall also include the usual places where vessels
wait for their turn or are ordered or obliged to wait for their turn situated a
reasonable distance from that area 0
an area, within which vessels load or discharge cargo whether at berths,
anchorages, buoys, or the like, and shall not include the usual places where vessels
wait for their turn or are ordered or obliged to wait for their turn no matter the
distance from that area 0
an area, within which vessels load or discharge cargo whether at berths,
anchorages, buoys, or the like, and shall also include the usual places where vessels
wait for their turn or are ordered or obliged to wait for their turn no matter the
distance from that area 1

27 Although at common law oral Notice of Readiness is acceptable, almost


always the charterparty privides for tendering NOR in writing. In this context "in
writing" shall mean
certain visibly expressed form of reproducing words and should be limited to
standard forms, letters, telex, fax, cable and e-mail if same are acceptable by
legislation of flag state 0
any visibly expressed form of reproducing words; the medium of transmission shall
include electronic communications such as radio communications,
telecommunications and VHF 0
any visibly expressed form of reproducing words; the medium of transmission shall
include electronic communications such as radio communications and
telecommunications. 1
only hand signed and stamped documents are acceptable as in this way there is a
clear and unquestionable proof that they are not false notices send on behalf of the
master by the owners 0

28 Are the vessels required by law to be H&M or P&I insured?


Yes, owners are under a common law obligation to have H&M and P&I insurance
0
Owners are under an obligation to have only H&M insurance
0
Owners are under an obligation to have only P&I insurance
0
Owners are under no obligation to have H&M and/or P&I insurance
1

29 As a general rule, damages resulting from a collision between two ships are
covered:
100 % by H&M insurers
0
80% by H & M insurers and 20% by P&I insurers
0

8
75% by H & M insurers and 25% by P&I insurers
1
25% by H & M insurers and 75% by P&I insurers
0

30 Assuming that a Notice of Readiness is accepted by a charterer or his agent,


when will laytime commence if charterparty contain a Notice of Readiness clause ?
once the Notice of Readiness is accepted
0
according with charterparty stipulations
1
once the Notice of Readiness is given
0
once loading commences 0

31 Can there be General Average where a time chartered ship is in ballast?


Only if the the charterer has some hire to pay
0
No, since there is no cargo on board there is not a common adventure
0
Depends on the circumstances an accident occurs in
0
Yes, since bunker is owned by the time charterers
1

32 Can there be General Average where a voyage chartered ship is in ballast?


No, since there is no other party with property at risk
1
Depends on the circumstances an accident occurs
0
Yes, if vessel is deliberely grounded to save her from total loss
0
Yes, if all conditions of a general average are met
0

33 Demurrage start counting


after master send a notice to charterers informing them that vessel is on demurrage
0
once laytime has expired 1
next working day after laytime expires
0
once laycan has expired
0

34 Despatch is payable
always when loading or discharging is completed prior to expiration of laytime
0
whenever demurrage are agreed
0

9
only if charterparty contains a special provision
1
whenever charterers require owners to pay for time saved
0

35 Do ship's masters and crew have an insurable interest in a maritime


adventure?
No, they have no insurable interest since they do not own the vessel or the cargo
0
Yes, they have an insurable interest if they are shareholders of the company owning
the ships 0
Yes, they have an insurable interest in respect of their wages
1
Yes, they have an insurable interest in respect of their jobs
0

36 Does the shipowner have a lien for General Average contributions?


Yes, he has a common law lien on cargo in his possesion for its contribution to a
General Average1
Yes, he only has a contractual lien on cargo in his possesion for its contribution to a
General Average0
Yes, he has a lien on cargo General Average contributions, no matter if cargo is or
not in his possesion0
Yes, he is entitled to put lien on cargo for its contribution to a General Average at
first port of refuge0

37 How are General Average losses paid for?


Every party to a common adventure is covering its own looses if they are below the
deductible, otherwise they are shared equaly between all involved parties
0
They are equitably shared by all parties to the common adventure, each
contributing in proportion to its percentage of the total values involved
1
They are equally shared by all parties to the common adventure, each contributing
with the same percentage from the loss involved
0
They are dependent on the local or international law applicable to the contracts of
carriage involved0

38 How can a master determine whether his ship is an arrived ship?


By asking port authorities what is berthing time and droping anchor where ordered
by port authorities0
By tendering Notice of Readiness on droping anchor and waiting to see if shippers
or receivers will accept such notice
0
By checking the wording of the charterparty to see if it is a port charterparty or a
berth charterparty and checking the ship's position
1
By asking charterers when they can accept the Notice of Readiness and tendering it
once it is required by charterers
0

10
39 How do shipowners obtain cover against third party liability?
by procuring a special insurance for these kind of claims
0
by entering their ships with H&M insurance company
0
by entering their ships with a P&I club
1
by procuring a FD&D insurance cover
0

40 How is "working day" defined by VOYLAYRULES93?


A working day is a day or part of the day not expressly excluded from laytime
0
A working day is a day not expressly excluded from laytime
1
A working day is a day when work is carried out
0
A working day is a day which can not be considered a holiday
0

41 How is a "holiday" defined by VOYLAYRULES93?


A holiday is a day other than the normal weekly day(s) of rest, or part thereof, when
by local law or practice the relevant work during what would otherwise be ordinary
working hours is not normally carried out.
1
A holiday is a day other than the normal weekly day of rest, when either by local
law or practice the work is not carried out and which is so recorded in the yearly
BIMCO Holiday Callendar 0
A holiday is any day of the week including the normal weekly day(s) of rest, or part
thereof, when by local law or practice the relevant work during what would
otherwise be ordinary working hours is not normally carried out
0
A holiday is a day other than the normal weekly day(s) of rest, or part thereof, when
by local law or practice work is not normally carried out and can be decutected from
laytime if time is not used. 0

42 How is laytime calculated in containerised liner trade?


Laytime is calculated according with Booking Note
0
There is no laytime in container trade
1
Laytime is claculated according with custom of the port
0
Laytime is calculated based on vessel's capacity to load or discharge
0

43 How is the expression "Weather working days of 24 hours" defined by


VOYLAYRULES93?

11
Above expression shall mean a working day of 24 working hours except for any time
when weather prevents the loading or discharging of the vessel if the vessel is a
loading or discharging berth 0

Above expression shall mean a period of 24 working hours except for any time
when weather allows the loading or discharging of the vessel or would have allowed
it, had work been in progress. 0

Above expression shall mean a working day of 24 consecutive hours except for any
time when weather prevents the loading or discharging of the vessel or would have
prevented it, had work been in progress.
1
Above expression shall mean that if at the loading or discharging port working time
is of 8 hours per day then a weather working day of 24 hours can be considered like
3 normal weather working days. 0

44 How is the term "day" defined by VOYLAYRULES93?


Day shall mean a period of twenty-four consecutive hours running from 0000 hours
to 2400 hours. Any part of a day shall be counted as a day.
0
Day shall mean a continuous period of 24 hours which, unless the context otherwise
requires, runs from comencement of laytime.
0
Day shall mean a period of twenty-four consecutive hours running from 0000 hours
to 2400 hours. Any part of a day shall be counted pro rata.
1
Day shall mean a period of twenty-four working hours running from 0000 hours to
2400 hours. Any part of a day shall be counted pro rata.
0

45 How is the term "running day" or "consecutive day" defined by VOYLAYRULES


93?
Day shall mean a period of twenty-four consecutive hours running from 0000 hours
to 2400 hours. Any part of a day shall be counted as a day.
0
Day shall mean a continuous period of 24 hours which, unless the context otherwise
requires, runs from comencement of laytime.
0
Day shall mean a period of twenty-four consecutive hours running from 0000 hours
to 2400 hours. Any part of a day shall be counted pro rata.
1
Day shall mean a period of twenty-four working hours running from 0000 hours to
2400 hours. Any part of a day shall be counted pro rata.
0

12
46 How should a master react when his ship is in a position of peril?
he should wait in the hope that the situation may improve
0
he should act with urgency in the interests of safety and pollution prevention
1
he should contact immediately the owners and wait for their decision
0
he should act in the interests of all parties involved in a common adventure
0

47 If a charterparty provides for a Notice of readiness to be tendered, but does


not provide for laytime commencement then
laytime will start once Notice of readiness is properly tendered
1
laytime will start once Notice of readiness is accepted
0
laytime will start once loading or discharging operation commences
0
laytime will start as per custom of port
0

48 If a notice of readiness is tendered before the vessel is in every way ready for
loading or discharging and it is accepted by the shippers
a new notice of readiness is required when the vessel is actualy ready
0
no further notice of readiness is required
1
a "without prejudice" notice is required
0
it is master's option if he tenders a new notice of readiness or not
0

49 If a vessel completes loading before expiry of laytime and she is delayed


another 2 days due to a dispute between master and charterers over cargo
documents then
owners are entitled to damages for detention for all time lost
1
owners are entitled to damages for detention only after expiry of laytime
0
owners are entitled to demurrage only after expiry of laytime
0
owners are not entitled to any compensation
0

50 If a vessel is employed for loading a cargo from berth 35 at Constanta port.


Under these circumstances the vessel is considered an arrived ship
when the vessel enter the administrative, legal and fiscal area of the port of
Constanta 0
13
once the vessel drops anchor at Constanta port road
0
once the vessel is berthed at berth 35 at Constanta port
1
once the pilot is on board and the vessel proceed to berth 35
0

51 If a vessel is fixed for L/C 10/20 December 2006 and she arrives at loading
port on 8th December 2006. Under these circumstances:
the master can not tender NOR before 10th December even if the vessel is in all
respects ready to load before
0
the master can tender NOR anytime after arrival, if the vessel is in all respects
ready to load 1
the master can tender NOR on 10th December after passhing hold inspection
0
the master can tender NOR anytime between 10 and 20 December as this the
agreed Lay Can 0

52 If a vessel is found unfit for loading after berthing and charterer require her
to vacate that berth, the master
should agree to vacate the berth and in the same time inform P&I correspondent
0
should not agree to this unless there is a clause in the charterparty giving the
charateres the right to order the vessel off the berth, in which case the order should
come from charterers to the master via the owners
1
should comply with charterers request as vessel can not load
0
should ask charterers to gurantee that vessel will berth again once the holds are
clean and dry 0

53 If a vessel is insured the assured is required


to carry on his activities without fear for any loss as the insurance company has to
cover any loss 0
to carry on his activities with great care in order to avoid any risk for damages or
looses 0
to carry on his activities as a prudent uninsured person
1
to ask always for underwriters permission when he feels like the risk is higher than
usual 0

54 If a vessel is on demurrage for 3 days and 8 hours and demurrage rate is USD
9000 per day and pro rata, then demurrage payable to the owners is:
USD 27,000 0
USD 30,000 1
USD 36,000 0
USD 33,000 0

55 If a vessel is on demurrage for 3 days and 8 hours and demurrage rate is USD
9000 per day, then demurrage payable to the owners is:
USD 27,000 0
14
USD 36,000 1
USD 30,000 0
USD 33,000 0

56 If a vessel is on despatch for 2 days and 12 hours and despatch rate is USD
5000 per day and pro rata, then despatch payable to the charterers is
USD 12,500 1
USD 10,000 0
USD 15,000 0
USD 13,000 0

57 If a vessel is on despatch for 2 days and 12 hours and despatch rate is USD
5000 per day then despatch payable to the charterers is
USD 12,500 0
USD 10,000 1
USD 15,000 0
USD 13,000 0

58 If a vessel is sailing toward a breaking up port and she is lost on the way, the
underwriters will pay to the owners
market value of the vessel at the time of loss
0
scrap value of the vessel 1
value mentioned on the insurance policy
0
a negociated value between owners and underwriters
0

59 If an insured loss occurs before a policy has been drawn up and signed, are
the underwriters liable to pay a claim?
No, one of the documents required to get a claim paid is the policy and if same is
not signed claim can not be settled
0
Yes, once an agreement is made the underwriters have to cover all insured losses
1
No, without a signature it can not be a valid insurance policy
0
Depends on the applicable law and only a court of law can say if underwriters are
liable or not 0

60 If contract of carriage is silent on procedure and rules aplicable to a General


Average situation then
General average is settled in accordance with the rules aplicable in the country
where the voyage starts0

15
General average is settled in accordance with the rules aplicable in the first port of
refuge0
General average is always settled in accordance with the latest version of York-
Antwerp rules 0
General average is settled in accordance with the rules aplicable in the country
where the voyage terminates
1

61 If deck cargo has to be jettisoned as a General Average act, what is the cargo
owners's position under the York-Antwerp Rules?
The cargo owners position is the same like the cargo was loaded under deck and
they contribute to General Average or receive contribution from the other parties to
the adventure if their cargo is lost or is saved during a Gereal Average operation
0
Unless the cargo is carried on deck in accordance with a recognised custom of the
trade, the cargo owner will have no claim under York-Antwerp Rules to a General
Average contribution from the other parties to the adventure
1
The cargo owners will neither contribute to General Average or receive contribution
from the other parties to the adventure if their cargo is lost or is saved during a
Gereal Average operation 0
The cargo owner will have no claim under York-Antwerp Rules to a General Average
contribution from the other parties to the adventure no matter if cargo is loaded on
the deck with a recognised custom of the trade or not
0

62 If despatch is payable and there is no provision about the method of


calculation then:
despatch is payable for working time saved
0
owners have the right to decide what method is to be used
0
charterers have the right to decide what method is to be used
0
despatch is payable for all time saved
1

16
63 If loading or discharging rate is "1000 metric tons per weather working days
SSHEX unless used" then:
time used before commencement of laytime will count
0
Saturdays, Sundays and holidays are excluded even if work is carried on during
these days 0
only actual time used on Saturdays, Sundays and holidays will count as laytime
1
time lost due to bad weather will count as laytime or time on demurrage
0

64 If the abbreviation "EIU" is used in a clause related to loading or discharging


of the cargo then:
actual time used during the excepted periods, after commencement of laytime,
shall count as loading or discharging time
0
actual time used during the excepted periods, after commencement of laytime,
shall not count as loading or discharging time
1
if work is carried out for a certain number of hours during an excepted day, only
actual time used shall count as loading or discharging time
0
if work is carried out for a certain number of hours during an excepted day, entire
day shall count as loading or discharging time
0

65 If the abbreviation "SHEX" is used in a clause related to loading or


discharging of the cargo, then
Saturdays and holidays are not counted as laytime
0
Sundays and holidays are not counted as laytime
1
Sundays and holidays are counted as laytime
0
Saturdays or Sundays and holidays are not counted as laytime
0

66 If the abbreviation "SHINC" is used in a clause related to loading or


discharging of the cargo, then
Saturdays and holidays are counted as laytime
0
Sundays and holidays are counted as laytime
1

17
Sundays and holidays are not counted as laytime
0
Saturdays or Sundays and holidays not counted as laytime
0

67 If the charterparty is silent on counting shifting time from anchorage to


loading or discharging berth and laytime has commenced, then
shifting time is counted as laytime
1
shifting time is excluded from laytime
0
half of the shifting time is counted as laytime
0
shifting time is always excluded from laytime
0

68 If the charterparty is silent on counting shifting time from anchorage to


loading or discharging berth and on arrival, the vessel is proceeding straigth to that
berth, then shifting time is counted as: laytime
0
shifting time is excluded from laytime
1
half of the shifting time is counted as laytime
0
shifting time is always counted as laytime
0

69 If the expression "unless used" is used in a clause related to loading or


discharging of the cargo then
actual time used during the excepted periods, after commencement of laytime,
shall count as loading or discharging time
1
actual time used during the excepted periods, before or after commencement of
laytime, shall count as loading or discharging time
0
if work is carried out for a certain number of hours during an excepted day, all day
shall count as loading or discharging time
0
actual time used during the excepted periods, after commencement of laytime,
shall not count as loading or discharging time
0

70 If there is no provision in the charterparty about the method of calculating


laytime at loading and discharging ports then
laytime is calculated separately for ports of loading and discharging
1
laytime is calculated as reversible laytime as this is good for all parties involved
0
laytime is calculated based on charterers right to average laytime
0
arbitartors will decide what is most appropiate method of calculating laytime
0
18
71 In a multiport discharge, is it necessary to note a sea protest at each
discharge port?
perhaps, depending on local law 1
no, sea protest can be noted at any discharge port
0
only at first port, if there is only one charterer
0
yes, it is compulsory to note a sea protest at every port of call
0

72 In addition to the shipowners, who should the master notify whenever his
vessel is in a position of peril?
H&M and P&I insurers
0
the nearest coastguard station or coast radio station in the Coastal State
1
the maritime administation of the flag state
0
P&I club corespondent in the nearest coastal state
0

73 In voyage charter instructions, abbreviation "DHDATSBE" shall mean:


that despatch is half of the demurrage and it will be calculated for all time saved at
both loading and discharging ports
1
that despatch is half of the demurrage and it will be calculated for all working time
saved at both loading and discharging port
0
that demurrage is half of despatch and it will be calculated for all time saved at
both loading and discharging ports
0
that despatch is half of the demurrage and it will be calculated for actual time saved
at both loading and discharging ports
0

74 In voyage charter instructions, abbreviation "DHDWTSBE" shall mean:


that despatch is half of the demurrage and it will be calculated for all time saved at
both loading and discharging ports
0
that despatch is half of the demurrage and it will be calculated for all working time
saved at both loading and discharging port
1
that despatch is half of the demurrage and it will be calculated for weather working
time saved at both loading and discharging ports
0
19
that despatch is half of the demurrage and it will be calculated for actual time saved
at both loading and discharging ports
0

75 In voyage charter instructions, abbreviation "FDBE" shall mean


that at both loading and discharging port there will be no demurrage payable to the
owners 0
that at both loading and discharging port there will be no detention payable to the
owners 0
that at both loading and discharging port there will be no despatch payable to the
charterers 1
that at both loading and discharging port there will be no despatch payable to the
shippers or receivers0

76 In what way are P&I Clubs concerned with salvage?


P&I clubs are involved in salvage cases since they pay the salvage reward
0
P&I clubs are involved in salvage cases if there is risk of General Average
0
P&I clubs are involved in salvage cases if there is risk of pollution
1
P&I clubs are not involved in salvage cases since salvage is covered by H&M
insurance 0

77 Lloyds' Corporation is
the biggest insurance company in the world
0
a company offering logistic and financial support to Lloyds' Syndicates
1
both an insurance company and an insurance exchange
0
a coffee house where traders and insurers meet and do business together
0

78 On what basis do the parties to a common adventure contribute to General


Average?
Parties to a common adventure contribute to General Average according to their
sound market value at the time of departure from last loading port
0
Parties to a common adventure contribute to General Average according to their
sound market value at the termination of the adventure
1
Parties to a common adventure contribute to General Average according to their
sound market value at the time of general average act
0

20
Parties to a common adventure contribute to General Average according to their
sound market value after temporary repairs.
0

79 Refrigerating machinery of a reefer vessel breaks down during a loaded


voyage through tropical waters and master decide to put the vessel into a port of
repairs. This action will
be considered General Average since the cargo, the freight and the ship will be able
to continue the voyage after repairs
0
not be considered General Average since only the cargo and freight are at risk
1
be considered General Average since the danger of cargo damage is real and
substantial 0
be considered General Average only if H&M insurers agree with this
0

80 Salvage apply to
agreements voluntarily entered in to save property from vessels that already sunk
0
agreements voluntarily entered in to provide harbour tugs
0
agreements voluntarily entered in to to tow vessels broken down that are not in
danger 0
agreements voluntarily entered in to save vessels not having cargo on board
1

81 Ships C and D are in collision with cargo looses of $ 0.5 milion and $ 0.3
million respectively. Ship C is deemed 60% liable and ship D is 40% liable. Both
cargoes are fully insured. Under these circumstances the the insurers of ship C will
pay to underwriters of the cargo on board ship D:
$ 0.12 milion
1
$ 0.18 milion
0
$ 0.3 milion 0
$ 0.2 milion 0

82 Ships C and D are in collision with cargo looses of $ 0.5 milion and $ 0.3
million respectively. Ship C is deemed 60% liable and ship D is 40% liable. Both
cargoes are fully insured. Under these circumstances the the insurers of ship D will
pay to underwriters of the cargo on board ship C:
$ 0.12 milion
0
$ 0.18 milion
0
$ 0.3 milion 0
$ 0.2 milion 1

21
83 Statement of Facts is a
document drawn up by the stevedoring company listing the working and non
working periods together with reasons for work interruptions from the moment the
vessel start loading or discharging 0
document drawn up by shipowners or charterers which details the time worked
together with the laytime used and compare the latter with time allowed and based
on this calculate either the demurrage or despatch.
0
document drawn up by ship's agent and signed by master and stevedoring
company which details the time worked together with the laytime used and
compare the latter with time allowed 0
document drawn up by ship's agent and signed by the master and the stevedoring
company listing all events with impact on loading or discharging operations from
arrival up to departure 1

84 Statement of Facts is drawn up by:


the master and is countersigned by the stevedoring company and ship's agent
0
ship's agent and is countersigned by charterers and shipowners
0
ship's agent and is coutersigned by the stevedoring company and the master
1
the stevedoring company and is countersigned by the master
0

85 The charterer is under an obligation to load or discharge as fast as possible in


the circumstances prevailing at the time of loading or discharging if the vessel is
employed on condition
Custom of the port 0
Customary quick dispach 1
As fast as the vessel can receive or deliver
0
As fast as the charterers can receive or deliver
0

86 The main particularity of commencement of laytime in a tanker charterparty


is that:
laytime usually commences at 07.00 next working day subject to weather
permitting 0
laytime usually commences on expiration of a certain number of hours after
tendering notice of readiness
1

22
laytime usually commences on expiration of a certain number of days after
tendering notice of readiness
0
at 13.00 hours, if notice of readiness is given during office hours , and at 06.00
hours next working day if notice given outside office hours
0

87 Time between the moment Notice of Readiness is tendered and


commencement of laytime is known as
Lay time 0
Free time 1
Shifting time 0
Dead time 0

88 Time used for loading or discharging before commencement of laytime is


always counted as laytime
0
is never counted as laytime
0
is counted as laytime only if there is a special provision in chartereparty
1
is counted as laytime only if shippers do not ask for despatch money
0

89 Under what rules is General Average usually adjusted?


Hamburg Rules
0
Hague or Hague-Visby Rules
0
York-Antwerp Rules
1
York - Hamburg Rules
0

90 What are the main functions of a P&I club?


To insure member shipowners and operators against third party liabilities not
covered by their hull and machinery policies and to compensate members against
them 1
To insure member cargo owners against shipowners liabilities not covered by their
cargo insurance policies and to compensate members against them
0
To offer member shipowners and operators alternative to their hull and machinery
policies and to help them reduce insurance costs
0
To offer freedom of operation to member shipowners and operators and allow them
to carry on their activities without fear of losses
0
23
91 What can be said about the relationship between "despatch for all time
saved" and "despatch for working time saved"?
despatch for all time saved is always higher than despatch for working time saved
0
despatch for all time saved is equal or higher than despatch for working time saved
1
despatch for all time saved is always lower than despatch for working time saved
0
despatch for all time saved is equal or lower than despatch for working time saved
0

92 What can be the result of a laytime calculation?


Result of a laytime calculation can be either demurrage or despatch
0

Result of a laytime calculation can be demurrage, despatch or time used can be


equal with time allowed
1
Result of a laytime calculation can either be positive or negative depending who is
calculating 0

Result of a laytime calculation can be despatch is charterers make calculatios or


demurrage if owners make calculations
0

93 What do you understand by "charterers right to average laytime"?


It means that charterer has the liberty to add together loading and discharging time
and make the calculations like loading and discharging are a single operation
0
It means that charterer has the liberty to add together loading and discharging time
and divide it at two and thereafter to calculate laytime
0
It means that separate calculations are to be made for loading and discharging and
that any time saved in one operation is to be set off against any excess time used in
the other 1
It means that separate calculations are to be made for loading and discharging and
that any despatch resulting from one operation is to be set off against any
demurrage paid in the other 0

94 What do you understand by abbreviation "IUATUTC?" If Used, Actual


Time Used to Count

24
It means that in case work is carried out before commencement of laytime actual
time used before commencement of laytime will not count as laytime
0
It means that in case work is carried out before commencement of laytime actual
time used before commencement of laytime will count as laytime
0
It means that in case some periods are excluded from laytime and work is carried
out during this period actual time used will not count as laytime
0
It means that in case some periods are excluded from laytime and work is carried
out during this period actual time used will count as laytime
1

95 What do you understand by abbreviation "Wibon"? Whether in Berth or


Not
It means that if no loading or discharging berth is available on her arrival, the
vessel, on reaching any usual waiting-place at or off the port, shall be entitled to
tender notice of readiness from it and laytime shall commence in accordance with
the charter party. 1

It means that if no loading or discharging berth is available on her arrival, the


vessel, on reaching any usual waiting-place within the port, shall be entitled to
tender notice of readiness from it and laytime shall commence in accordance with
the charter party. 0

It means that if no loading or discharging berth is reachable on her arrival the


vessel, on reaching any usual waiting-place at or off the port, shall be entitled to
tender notice of readiness from it and laytime shall commence in accordance with
the charter party. 0

It means that if loading or discharging berth is free but vessel can not berth on her
arrival the vessel, on reaching any usual waiting-place at or off the port, shall be
entitled to tender notice of readiness from it and laytime shall commence in
accordance with the charter party. 0

96 What do you understand by abbreviation "Wiccon"? Whether in Customs


Clearance or Not
It means that the vessel can tender the notice of readiness even if coustom
formalities have not been completed
1

It means that the vessel can only tender the notice of readiness if custom
formalities has been completed
0

It means that the vessel can tender the notice of readiness even if free practique
has not been obtained
0
It means that the vessel can tender notice of readiness even if custom formalities
are not completed, but if latter on custom clearance is not obtained notice of
readiness will be considered invalid 0

25
97 What do you understand by abbreviation "Wifpon"? Whether in Free
Pratique or Not
It means that the vessel can tender notice of readiness even if free practique is not
obtained, but if latter on free practique is not obtained, notice of readiness will be
considered invalid 0

It means that the vessel can only tender the notice of readiness if free practique has
been obtained0

It means that the vessel can only tender the notice of readiness if coustom
formalities have been completed
0

It means that the vessel can tender notice of readiness even if free practique has
not been obtained1

98 What do you understand by abbreviation "Wipon"?


It means that master can tender notice of readiness only if the vessel is within the
port limits, is waiting at usual waiting place and where she was ordered by port
authorities 0

It means that master can tender notice of readiness even if the vessel is not within
the port limits, but is waiting at usual waiting place or where she was ordered by
port authorities 1

It means that master can tender notice of readiness if the vessel is not within the
port limits, but she can arrive at usual waiting place or where she will be ordered by
port authorities within maximum 2 hours0

26
It means that master can tender notice of readiness if the vessel is arriving within
the port limits before charterers require the vessel to proceed to the berth
0

99 What do you understand by abbreviation "WWWW " in the context of


tendering notice of readiness?
It means that notice of readiness can only be tendered once the vessel is within the
port limits or at usual waiting place or where she was odered by port authorities, in
a berth and with free practique and custom clearance obtained
0

It means that notice of readiness can be tendered if the vessel is withinn the port
limits or at usual waiting place or where she was ordered by port authorities no
matter if free parctice or custom clearance has been obtained or not
1

It means that notice of readiness can be tendered if the vessel is within the port
limits or at usual waiting place or where she was ordered by port authorities no
matter if she is in a berth of not but free practice and custom clearance has been
obtained 0

It means that only in a berth charterparty notice of readiness can be tendered if the
vessel is within the port limits or at usual waiting place or where she was ordered by
port authorities no matter if free parctice or custom clearance has been obtained or
not 0

100 What do you understand by calculable laytime?


It means that, according to custom of the port, an expert will calculate how many
days are allowed to the charererer or his agents for completion of loading or
discharging. 0

It means that laytime for loading or disching is calculated by division of vessels


deadweight cargo capacity to the agreed loading or discharging rate
0

It means that laytime for loading or disching is calculated by division of quantity of


cargo loaded or discharged to the agreed loading or discharging rate
1

It means that laytime for loading or disching is calculated by division of ship's


displacement the agreed loading or discharging rate
0

101 What do you understand by laydays?


The period during which the ship is obliged by the charterparty to present herself at
the loading port, and during which the charterers are not obliged to accept the ship
for loading. 0

The period during which the ship is oblidged by the charterparty to present herself
at the discharging port, and during which the charterers are obliged to accept the
ship for discharging. 0

27
The period during which the ship is obliged by the charterparty to present herself at
the loading port, and during which the charterers are obliged to accept the ship for
loading. 1

The period during which the ship is obliged by the charterparty to present herself at
the loading port, and during which the charterers are obliged to complete loading
operations. 0

102 What do you understand by term "EXCEPTED" or "EXCLUDED" used in a


laytime clause?
It means that the days specified do not count as laytime unless loading or
discharging is carried out on them
0
It means that the days specified count as laytime if loading or discharging is carried
out on them.0
It means that the days specified count as laytime only if loading or discharging is
carried out on them.0
It means that the days specified do not count as laytime even if loading or
discharging is carried out on them.
1

103 What does "Indemnity" mean in the term "Protection and Indemnity"?
protection against thirst party liabilities not covered by hull and machinery policies
0
compensation to shipowners for sums paid out in claims against them
1
compensation for exposure to the one fourth of collision liability that London hull
and machinery underwriters traditionally do not cover
0
compensation to shipowners for all looses that may apear during a maritime
adventure 0

104 What does "Protection" mean in the term "Protection and Indemnity"
Protection against vessel's arrest for right or wrong cargo claims for which owners
are responsible0
Protection from exposure to the three fourths of collision liability that London hull
and machinery underwriters traditionally do not cover
0
Protection from exposure to the one fourth of collision liability that London hull and
machinery underwriters traditionally do not cover
1

28
Protection against claims made by third parties as a result of some accidents on
boart 0

105 What does the expression "ready to load" means?


It means that the vessel should be ready either phisically or legaly
0
It means that the vessel should be ready both phisically and legaly
1
It means that the vessel should have at least 2 holds ready for loading on berthing
0
it means that the vessel is in every way fit for the voyage
0

106 What happens after General Average Bonds, Guarantees and Deposits are
collected?
Cargo is retained under owners custody till settlement
0
Vessel is free to leave the port
0
Cargo is delivered to the receivers
1
Vessel will start discharging of the cargo
0

107 What happens if Notice of Readiness is tendered whilst at anchor, before a


required hold survey is made, and the ship then fails the survey
A new Notice of readiness is tendered immediately after inspection if master
consider at least one hold is ready for loading
0
No further Notice of readiness is required as in this way owners loose the right to
cclaim demurrage for time lost
0
No further Notice of Readiness is required as anyhow time lost will not count
0
A new Notice of readiness will have to be tendered once the holds pass another
survey 1

108 What is "particular average"?


every damage to a property generated by a maritime peril and for which
master/crew is not responsble0
only damages suffered by a vessel or cargo as a result of a maritime accident
0
a fortuitous partial loss caused by a peril insured against
1
a intentional partial loss caused by a peril insured against
0
29
109 What is a "Notice of readiness"?
A notice given to the charterer, shipper, receiver or any other persons as required
by the charterparty that the vessel will arrive at the port or berth and will be ready
to load or discharge as the case may be.0
A notice given to shipowners agent at loading or discharging port that the vessel
has arrived at the port or berth and is in all respects ready to load or discharge as
the case may be. 0
A notice given to the charterer, shipper, receiver or other persons as required by
the charterparty that the vessel has arrived at the port or berth and is ready to load
or discharge as the case may be. 1
A notice given to the shipowners for further forwarding to charterer, shipper,
receiver or other persons as required by the charterparty that the vessel has arrived
at the port or berth and is ready to load or discharge as the case may be.
0

110 What is a call in the context of P&I insurance?


a premium levied on P&I Club's members by the club managers
1
an indemnity paid by P&I Club to its members for damages suffered
0
a fixed premium paid for entering the vessel in to a P&I Club
0
a fixed premium paid for releasing the vessel from a P&I club
0

111 What is a deductible in a hull and machinery policy?


a claim value or threshold which must be reached before any claim will be met by
the insurer 1
a claim value or threshold which must not be passed before any claim will be met
by the insurer 0
a variable amount which is deducted from any insurance claim paid by the insurer
0
an amount which is deducted from insurance claim and which is negotiable for
every casualty 0

112 What is a deductible in a P&I club policy?


a compulsory minimum charge payable by the shipowners to their P&I club for each
loss they recover under an insurance policy
0
a compulsory excess applied by the club, so that the cargo owner has to bear the
first part of each claim himself
0
a compulsory excess applied by the club, so that the owner has to bear the first part
of each claim himself
1
a maximum amount covered by P&I clubs, so that the owner has to bear all
amounts over the stated maximum
0
30
113 What is a general average act?
A general average act is any extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure that is incurred
in time of peril for the purpose of preserving the property from peril in a common
adventure and which is equally shared by all interested parties.
0

A general average act is any sacrifice or expenditure that is voluntarily and


reasonably incurred in time of peril no matter what is the actual outcome of the
maritime expedition. 0

A general average act is any extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure that is


voluntarily and reasonably incurred in time of peril for the purpose of preserving the
property from peril in a common adventure1

A general average is any sacrifice or expenditure that is voluntarily and reasonably


incurred for the purpose of protecting the ship and the cargo on board against perils
in a common adventure 0

114 What is a General Average Adjuster?


a person usually appointed by shipowners or insurers for adjusting and providing
the general average statement showing contribution and compansation of every
party involved 1

a person always appointed by court for adjusting and providing the general average
statement showing contribution and compensation for every interested party
involved 0

a person usually appointed by shipowners or insurers for calculation of losses


involved in a maritime disaster and contribution of each party involved in the
common adventure 0

a person usually appointed by shipowners or insurer for establishing the reasons for
a general average situation and deciding who is responsible and who will pay the
losses 0

31
115 What is a General Average loss?
A partial loss incurred through a deliberate act performed with the intention of
protecting owners interests involved in a voyage from a danger which threatens the
vessel 0

A partial loss incurred through a fortuitous act performed with the intention of
protecting all the interests involved in a voyage from a danger which threatens
them all 0

A partial loss incurred through a deliberate act performed with the intention of
protecting all the interests involved in a voyage from a danger which threatens
them all 1

A partial or total loss incurred through a deliberate act performed with the intention
of protecting all the interests involved in a voyage from a danger which threatens
them all 0

116 What is a sea protest or maritime protest?

A solemn declaration made by a charterer under oath before a notary public to the
effect that the loss, damage or delay to the ship or its cargo have been caused by
circumstances beyond the charterers' control.
0

A letter of protest sent to charterers for non loading properly the cargo and for this
reason may be some loss, damage or delay to the ship or its cargo during the
course of the voyage 0

A solemn declaration made by a shipmaster under oath before a notary public to


the effect that the loss, damage or delay to the ship or its cargo have been caused
by circumstances beyond the master's control.
1

A declaration registered by the master in the deck log book to the effect that he is
exonerating the ship from any claims for loss, damage or delay that have been
caused by circumstances beyond the master;s control.
0

32
117 What is a time-sheet?
A time sheet is a document drawn up by shipowners or charterers which details the
time worked together with the laytime used and compare the latter with time
allowed and based on this calculate either the demurrage or despatch.
1

A time sheet is a document drawn up by master after completion of the voyage to


evaluate if the charterers have detained the vessel more that allowed by the
charterparty and in this case demurrage is due.
0

A time sheet is a document drawn up by ship brokers at the end of the voyage to
record the time not worked and reason for not working which is used to calculate
either the demurrage or despatch amounts due to owners or charterers as the case
may be. 0

A time sheet is a document drawn up by ship's agent at loading or discharging port


to record the time worked and not worked and which is used to calculate either the
demurrage or despatch amounts due to owners or charterers as the case may be.
0

118 What is a waranty in insurance law?


a term of the policy which when breached allow the underwriter to get
compensation from the assured0
a promise by the underwriter that something will or will not be done, or that some
obligation will be fulfilled.
0
a promise by the assured that something will or will not be done, or that some
obligation will be fulfilled.
1
a term of the policy which when breached allow the assured to get compensation
from the underwriter0

119 What is an Act of God?


all natural events including wind and waves
0

33
some unforseen and unpreventable natural event
1
an event produced without fault of the owner or master
0
an unavoidable accident of the sea
0

120 What is an Average Guarantee?


A signed undertaking given by the cargo receivers stating that, in return for delivery
to the or their order of the goods noted in the bond, they agree to pay the proper
proportion of any General Average charges.
0
A cargo underwriter's signed guarantee, given in consideration of delivery of the
goods to their consignee without collection of a General Average deposit.
1
A letter of guarantee given by the cargo underwriters for not keeping the owners
responsible for any General Average damages to cargo
0
A ship underwriter's signed guarantee, given in consideration of releasing the vessel
to its owners without collection of a General Average deposit.
0

121 What is barratry?


A wrongful act wilfully commited by the charterers or crew to the prejudice of the
owner or receiver0
A negligent act commited by the master or crew to the prejudice of the owner or
charterer. 0
A wrongful act wilfully commited by the master or crew to the prejudice of the
owner or charterer.1
A wrongful act wilfully commited by the owners or crew to the prejudice of the
owner of goods 0

122 What is cancelling date?


The final day of laydays, after which, if the ship presents herself at the loading port,
charterers have the option to cancel the charterparty.
1
The final day of laydays, after which, if the ship presents herself at the discharging
port, charterers have the option to cancel the charterparty.
0
The final day of laytime, after which, if the ship fails to complete loading operation,
charterers have the option to cancel the charterparty.
0
The final day of laydays, after which, if the ship presents herself at the loading port,
owners have the option to cancel the charterparty.
0

123 What is despatch or despatch money?

34
A monetary reward payable by owners to charterers for completion of cargo
operations before the laytime has expired
1
A monetary reward payable by charterers to owners for completion of cargo
operation before laytime has expired
0
A monetary reward payable by owners to charterers for completion of cargo
operations after the laytime has expired
0
A monetary reward payable by owners to agents for completion of cargo operations
before the laytime has expired
0

124 What is laytime?


The period of time agreed between the shipowner and the charterer during which
the owner must make and keep the ship available for loading and/or discharging
without payment additional to the freight.1

The period of time agreed between the shipowner and the charterer during which
the owner must make and keep the ship available for loading and/or discharging
with some payment additional to the freight.0

The period of time during which the vessel is obliged to present herself at the
loading or discharging port, and during which charterers are obliged to accept the
ship for loading or discharging. 0

The period of time agreed between the shipowner and the charterer during which
the charterer is performing the loading and/or discharging operation and during
which owner must make and keep the ship available.
0

125 What is meant by "utmost good faith"?


It means that the assured must disclose to the insurer, before the contract is
concluded, every material circumstance which is known to the assured.
1

It means that the assured must disclose to the insurer, after the contract is
concluded, every material circumstance which is known to the assured.
0

It means that the insurer must disclose to the assured, before the contract is
concluded, every material circumstance which is known to the insurer.
0

It means that the assured must have some legal relationship to the subject matter
insured, and must stand to benefit by its preservation or lose by its loss or damage
0
35
126 What is Sue and Labour Clause in a hull and machinery insurance policy?
a clause that provides that the assured has no duty to take all reasonable steps to
avert or minimize any loss for which a claim would be payable under the policy. In
return, most costs incurred in taking such steps are recoverable from the
underwriters. 0

a clause that provides that the assured has the duty to take all reasonable steps to
avert or minimize any loss for which a claim would be payable under the policy. In
return, most costs incurred in taking such steps are recoverable from the
underwriters. 1

a clause that provides that the assured has the duty to take all reasonable steps to
avert or minimize any loss for which a claim would be payable under the policy. In
return, most costs incurred in taking such steps are not recoverable from the
underwriters. 0

a clause that provides that the underwriter has the duty to take all reasonable steps
to avert or minimize any loss for which a claim would be payable under the policy.
In return, most costs incurred in taking such steps are recoverable from the
assured. 0

127 What is the difference between expressions "per working hatch" and "per
workable hatch"
"per working hatch" means that laytime is calculated basis number of holds under
loading and "per workable hatch" means that laytime is calculated basis number of
holds available 0
the difference is not significant and only an arbitrator can decide the fine line of
demarcation between the two expressions
0
there is no difference between the two expressions
1
there is a difference but for charterparty purposes it is not important
0

128 What is the difference between expressions "weather working days of 24


hours" and "weather working days of 24 consecutive hours" according to
VOYLAYRULES 93?
There are significant differences as according first expression a working day of 24
hours can extend itself over more days if work program at the port is less than 24
hours 0

36
There is no difference
1
There is a sensible difference, but only an arbitrator can decide it
0
There are significant differences as according first expression a working day of 24
consecutive hours can extend itself over more days if work program at the port is
less than 24 hours 0

129 What is the difference between the effect of a breaching a warranty in marine
insurance law and in carriage of goods law?

Whereas in carriage of goods law breach of a warranty only allows the injured party
to sue for damages, in insurance law breach of a warranty gives the insurer the
right to regard the contract as discharged1

In both carriage of goods law and insurance law breach of a warranty allows the
injured party either to sue for damages or gives him the right to regard the contract
as discharged depending on the gravity of the breach
0

Whereas in insurance law breach of a warranty only allows the injured party to sue
for damages, in carriage of goods law breach of a warranty gives the insurer the
right to regard the contract as discharged
0

In neither carriage of goods law or insurance law breach of a warranty allows the
injured party to regard the contract as discharged no matter how serious is the
breach 0

130 What is the General Average position where deck cargo has been saved by a
General Average act?
If deck cargo is saved by a General average act, the owner of the deck cargo will
have to pay a bonus to the owners on cargo delivery
0
If deck cargo is saved by a General Average act, the owner of the deck cargo will be
liable to make a General Average contribution
1
If deck cargo is saved by a General Average act, the owner of the deck cargo will
not be liable to make a General average contribution
0
Only if deck cargo is loaded in accordance with the custom of the trade, the owner
of the deck cargo will be liable to make a General Average contribution
0

37
131 What is the General Average position where the jettisoned cargo was
wrongfully stowed on deck?
The shipowner will be liable for all losses to the goods owner
1
The cargo owners will participate to general average losses
0
The cargo owners will pay a smaller general average contribution
0
If cargo is loaded legally or wrongfully on deck General average position does not
change 0

132 What is the latest version of York - Antwerp Rules?


1994 0
1990 0
2004 1
2006 0

133 What is the level of damages for detention?


The level of damages for detention is always equal with the level of demurrage
0
The level of damages for detention is always higher than the level of demurrage
0
The level of damages for detention is determined by market potential of the vessel
at the time of occurrence
1
The level of damages for detention is determined by level of Baltic Dry Cargo Index
at the begining of voyage
0

134 What is the meaning of "average" in the context of insurance?


a loss generated by a maritime peril
0
a partial or total loss of a property exposed to maritime perils
0
a partial loss of a property exposed to maritime perils
1
a partial loss incurred through deliberate act performed with the intention of
protecting all interests involved in a maritime expedition
0

135 What is the meaning of "indemnity" in an insurance context?

To indemnify is to either replace goods lost or to offer financial compensation at


assured option 0
To indemnify is to replace goods damaged or lost and if same is not possible to offer
financial compensation
0
To indemnify is to make good a loss suffered, not by replacement of the subject
matter lost, but by a financial payment
1
To indemnify is to either replace goods lost or to offer financial compensation at
underwriters option0
38
136 What is the purpose of Rule Paramount according to York-Antwerp 1994
Rules?
According to Paramount Rule allowance for sacrifice or expenditure is only accepted
if it is reasonably made or incurred
1
Paramount Rule refers only to Hague Visby Rules and it is not applicable to General
Average 0
According to Paramount Rule allowance for sacrifoice or expenditure is accepted
even if it is not reasonably made or incurred
0
According to Paramount Rule master is under a duty to contact all the parties
involved before declaring General Average
0

137 What is the SCOPIC Clause ?


The Special Compensation P&I Clause, a suplementary clause to LOF 95 and 2000
contracts that provides for a alternative method of assessing Special Compensation
instead of method in Article 14 of the International Salvage Convention, 1989
1
The Special Compensation P&I Clause, a suplementary clause to LOF 95 and 2000
contracts that provides for a alternative method of assessing Special Compensation
instead of method in Article 14 of the International Salvage Convention, 1910
0
The Special Compensation P&I Clause, a suplementary clause to LOF 95 and 2000
contracts that provides for a suplimentary method of assesing Special
Compensation instead of method in Article 14 of the International Salvage
Convention, 1989 0
The Special Compensation P&I Clause, a suplementary clause to LOF 95 and 2000
contracts that provides for a discriminatory method of assessing Special
Compensation instead of method in Article 14 of the International salvage
Convention, 1989 0

138 When a master is not sure if a notice of readiness is valid or not


he should continue tendering "without prejudice notices" whenever the situation is
changing 1
he should wait and see if the first notice is accepted and only if is not accepted to
tender another one0
he should ask a lawyer about validity of the notice of readiness
0
he is not required to send a new notice of readiness
0

139 When a ship is disabled, but plenty of nearby ships are willing to assist, why
is the master required to contact the owners if he has time to do so?
master is not required to contact the owners as he is the one ultimately responsible
for vessel and crew
0

39
the owners should first get the approval for H&M and P&I insurers before deciding
what offer they will accept
0
the owners may be able to arrange cheaper towage services on a contractual basis
1
the owners should contact all vessels offering assitance and negociate the salvage
0

140 When and where should General Average be declared?


Before delivery of cargo to receivers at destination port
1
After delivery of cargo to receivers at destination port
0
Before delivery of the cargo to receivers at any intermediate port
0
Before delivery of the cargo to receivers at the port of refuge
0

141 When considering whether to engage salvage assistance, what consideration


should be uppermost in the mind of the master of a disabled ship, in addition to any
threat to life, the ship and the cargo?
the need to comply with requirements of safety management systems
0
the need to avoid the vessel being reported as total loss
0
the need to protect the interests of the H&M and P&I inrurers
0
the need to avoid or reduce the risk of harm to the marine environment
1

142 When should a master extend his initial sea protest?


in maximum 48 hours after noting intial sea protest 0
on completion of discharging operation at the last port of call after he see what are
the cargo damages0
when the relevant facts come to light e.g. when a surveyor report has been
received 1
when he receives a notice of claim from the shippers and based on the notice, he
should protect the owners
0

143 When should a shipmaster note a sea protest following a heavy weather
voyage?
whenever he has some indications that receivers will lodge a claim against the
vessel for possible cargo damage
0
40
as soon as possible after arrival in port and where there may be cargo damage,
preferably before breaking bulk
1
before vessel departure from the port or immediately a cargo damage is discovered
during discharging operation
0
as soon as the vessel pass a bad weather area, the master is under an obligation to
note a sea protest0

144 When the YORK-ANTWERP Rules apply to General Average settlement?


Always when cargo is carried on sea and country where setlement is made has
ratified York Antwerp Rules
0
Whenever the cargo is carried by sea and a bill of lading or a charter party is issued
0
Only when the York - Antwerp Rules are incorporated into the contract of carriage
1
Only when charterer is based in a country that has ratified the York - Antwerp rules
0

145 Where (or before whom) can a sea protest be noted?


before a responsible maritime authority at registration port or before the consul of
the flag state 0
before authorised person under local law to adminsiter oaths and take sworn
declarations at first port of call
1
before authorised person under local law to adminsiter oaths and take sworn
declarations at closest place after the event
0
before any maritime authority able to check the correctness of master declarations
at first port of call0

146 Where a master of a perfectly sound loaded ship prudently decides to run for
shelter from an approaching storm, this action
can be considered General Average, since the master is avoiding a real and
substantial peril 0
can not be considered General Average, since the measure is purely a precaution of
a prudent seaman1
can be considered Particular Average, since the master is avoiding the damage of
the vessel 0
can be considered Particular Average only if the vessel and/or cargo are partly
damaged 0

147 Where a ship is in danger, is the master of a vessel rendering assistance


under any obligation to save the ship as well as the crew?
No, shipmaster is under no statutory obligation to save the ship or the crew 0
Yes, shipmaster is under a statutory obligation to save the ship and the crew 0
No, shipmaster is under a statutory obligation to save human lives only 1
No, shipmasters are under a statutory obligation to save the ship only 0

41
148 Where there is a fire in a cargo on board a ship and it is extinguished by
releasing CO2, which of the below is considered particular average?
damage done by CO2 0
fire damaged cargo 1
both fire damaged cargo and CO2 damaged cargo 0
either damaged cargo and CO2 damaged cargo at assured option 0

149 Which of the below statements are NOT in accordance with IWL?
some areas of the world are open for navigation all the year 0
some areas of the world are closed for navigation all the year 0
some areas of the world are open for navigation part of the year and closed for
navigation for the rest of the year
0
every area of the world is open for navigation part of the year 1

150 Which party is responsible for obtaining cargo insurance?


The seller of the goods 0
Either the seller or the buyer of the goods, depending on the terms of sale 1
The buyer of the goods 0
Either the seller or the buyer of the goods, depending on the Bill of Lading
ownersship 0

151 Who is allowed to obtain insurance at Lloyd's?


insurance brokers 0
shipowners 0
Lloyd's Insurance brokers 1
cargo owners 0

152 Why is often important to tender Notice of Readiness before weekend?


This is important because quite often charterers want to see the vessel arriving
before they go for weekend
0
This is important because charterparty may be cancelled if Notice of Neadiness is
not tendered before weekend
0
This is important because in many ports shifting expenses are lower during
weekend 0
This is important because quite often Notice of Readiness can be tendered only
during office working time and in this way at least few hours are saved
1

153 Why owners prefer to use York - Antwerp 1994 Rules instead of York Antwerp
2004 Rules?
42
York-Antwerp 2004 Rules are too new on the market and there are not enough
cases to understand how they are interpreted
0
York-Antwerp 2004 Rules are more favourable to the shipowner in terms of what
costs can be claimed in General Average
0
York-Antwerp 2004 Rules are less favourable to the shipowner in terms of what
costs can be claimed in General Average
1
There is no difference between York-Antwerp 2004 Rules and York-Antwerp 1994
Rules in terms of what costs can be claimed in General Average 0

154 Why should the right to "extend sea protest at a time and place convenient"
be reserved?
because it is always good to wait and see what will be the claim and based on it to
modify some documents in order to protect owners interest
0
because it may be difficult to ascertain whether there will be a claim or not from
receivers side when first noting sea protest, and further facts may have to be added
to the original protest 0
because it may be impossible to ascertain the full extent of the loss or damage
when first noting sea protest, and further facts may have to be added to the original
protest 1
because it is always good to wait and see if there will be a claim and thereafter to
ask for instructions from a lawyer about what documents should be preserved and
what documents to be destroyed0

155 You are the master of a ship in danger sending out a SOS message and the
only vessel offering her services to save your crew, cargo and vessel is asking for a
very high price. Under these circumstances you will
accept the service without thinking about money, as anyhow the reward for salvage
will be established by the court
1
continue negotiations and only if you reach an agreement accept the salvage
0
contact imediately the owners, inform them about the the offer and wait for their
instructions 0
not accept the offer and wait for the next vessel to reply to your SOS message
0

156 A loaded bulk carrier receives a call for assisance from a vessel that has
suffered a major engine breakdown in mid Atlantic. Which of the below should be
the bulk carrier master's considerationd before offering a tow?
whether contract of carriage gives his vessel the liberty to tow
1
whether sufficient bunker is on board
1
wether the value of the vessel requesting the tow, plus her cargo, if any, is likely to
be enough value to merit a salvage service
1

43
none of the above, since master is under an obligation to reply to a call for
assitance 0

157 A valid notice of readiness is clearly mentioning that


the ship is an arrived ship 1
the ship is seaworthy from technical point of view
0
the ship is in every way ready to start loading or discharging
1
the ship will be ready to start loading or discharging before berthing
0

158 A veesel is employed to load a cargo from berth 35 at Constanta port and
that berth is not free on vessels arrival. If charterparty is including the expression
"weather in berth or not", master is entitled to tender NOR
once the vessel is within commercial, administrative or fiscal area of Constanta port
1
once the vessel is berthed at berth 35
0
once the vessel has pilot on board and is on her way to berth 35
0
once the the vessel arrives at usual waiting place or where port authorities instruct
her to wait 1

159 A vessel is employed for loading, under the same charterparty, from two
ports for discharging at three ports. If the charperparty is silent on procedure for
tendering Notice of readiness then
master is under an obligation to tender Notice of Readiness only at first loading port
1
master is under an obligation to tender Notice of Readiness at all ports of call
1
master is under an obligation to tender Notice of Readiness at all loading ports
0
master is under an obligation to tender Notice of Readiness at first loading and first
discharging port0

160 A vessel with various cargoes on board including 5 containers on deck


collides with a tanker. During collission 2 containers slip into the sea and there is
cargo damage at hold number 1. In order to avoid sinking the master decide to run
aground and during the manouevre another container is jettisoned and the vessel
loose the starboard anchor. After grounding temporar repairs are carried out and
vessel proceed to a refuge port where she is docked. Under these circumstances
below expenses and sacrifices are considered general average
44
the two containers lost lost durin collision
0
cargo damage to hold number 1
0
temporrar repairs while aground 1
lost anchor 1

161 A vessel with various cargoes on board including 5 containers on deck


collides with a tanker. During collission 2 containers slip into the sea and there is
cargo damage at hold number 1. In order to avoid sinking the master decide to run
aground and during the manouevre another container is jettisoned and the vessel
loose the starboard anchor. After grounding temporar repairs are carried out and
vessel proceed to a refuge port where she is docked. Under these circumstances
below expenses and sacrifices are considered particular average

container jettisoned
0
cargo damage to hold number one
1
temporary repairs t the ship
0
the 2 containers lost during collision
1

162 Assessment of premium for a H&M insurance can iniatially be divided into
below distinct two elements
the total loss element
1
the general average element
0
the salvage element
0
the particular average element
1

163 By including a demurrage clause in a charterparty


charterers interests are satisfied as even if he fail to load the vessel in time agreed
they are allowed to complete loading in exchange of a fixed penalty
1
owners interests are satisfied as if the vessel delays more than the charterparty
provides for, they are allowed to a daily compensation
1
only owners interests are satisfied as they are not loosing anything while charterers
are paying more money
0

45
only charterers interests are satisfied as owners may loose next employment due to
charterers failure to load in time
0

164 Damages for detention are paid


if laytime has expired and demurrage has not been provided for
1
after the number of allowed demurrage days has passed and further delays occurs
1
if indeterminate laydays have been agreed and reasonable time for loading or
discharging has expired1
if the owners are unreasonably preventing cargo operation due vessel deficiencies
0

165 Demurrage is counted


continously from the moment laytime expires up to completion of loading
1
without alowing for laytime exceptions like weather, holidays etc
1
allowing bad weather time to be deducted from the laytime
0
in the same way like laytime for porst of loading and ports of discharging
0

166 Demurrage is NOT payble if:


vessel is under hatch cover repairs for holds already loaded
0
vessel is shifted at anchorage by port authorities to wait for cargo
0
ship's cranes are damaged and owners do not agree to pay for shore cranes
1
vessel is bunkering and this operation prevents loading or discharging operations
1

167 Demurrage is ussualy paid


per running day or pro rata
1
per working day or pro rata
0
per weather working day or pro rata
0
per consecutive day or pro rata
1

168 Hull and machinery insurance can be considered null if


vessel is engaged in unlawful ventures
1
damage or loss is generated by fault or privity of the shipowners
1
vessel is employed without charterparties
0
46
there is a breach of an express guarantee
1

169 If a vessel arrives at loading port on a Friday late evening, laytime start as
from Monday morning and work is carried out during the weekend then
actual time used will count only if the vessel is employed on condition SSHEX UU
0
actual time used will count even if there is a provision that time used before
commencement of laytime will count
1
actual time used will count if the vessel is employed on condition SSHEX EIU, if
there is a provision that time used before commencement of laytime will count
1
actual time used will count only if the vessel is employed on condition SSHEX EIU
0

170 If charterparty is silent on procedure of tendering Notice of Readiness then


NOR can be tendered by delivery of a printed form or letter
1
NOR can be tendered by telex or fax
1
NOR can be tendered by regular mail from last port of call
0
NOR can be tendered by VHF
0

171 If the expression "WEATHER PERMITTING" is included into a laytime clause for
a gearless vessel then
time lost due to lack of cargo will be counted as laytime even if it is raining
1
time lost due to break down of shore cranes will be counted as laytime even if it is
rainning 1
time lost due to lack of cargo will not be counted as laytime if it is raining
0
time lost due to break down of shore cranes will not be counted as laytime if it is
rainning 0

172 If the expression "WEATHER WORKING DAY" is included into a laytime clause
for a gearless vessel then
time lost due to lack of cargo will be counted as laytime even if it is rainning
0
time lost due to break down of shore cranes will be counted as laytime even if it is
rainning 0
time lost due to lack of cargo will not be counted as laytime if it is rainning
1
time lost due to break down of shore cranes will not be counted as laytime if it is
rainning 1

173 If the port of refuge is not the same like the port of repairs then
if the weather is good and distance short owners can risk and send her at sea
0

47
additional insurance would be required
1
insurers' surveyor and possibly class surveyor, would normally attend the vessel
before she departs for repair port
1
master will make a complete survey before the vessel departs for repair port
0

174 In what circumstances might a Constructive Total Loss be declared?


a ship was reasonably abandoned on account of its actual total loss appearing to be
unavoidable 1
a ship could not be preserved from actual total loss without expenditure which
would exceed its value had the expensiture been incurred
1
a ship was badly damaged and underwriters do not consider worth to spend money
on repairs 0
a ship was so badly damaged that the cost of repairs exceed the value of the
repaired vessel 1

175 In what circumstances might a shipowner loose his P&I club cover?
if he fails to keep his ship in good condition
1
If he has too many claims in one year
0
if he fails to report accidents immediately
0
if he fails to keep the vessel in class
1

176 In what circumstances might an Actual Total Loss be declared?


when a ship was so badly damaged that the costs of repais would exceed the value
of the repaired vessel
0
when a ship or cargo is totally destroyed by fire
1
when a ship or cargo is sunk in the water so deep that it would be technically
impossible to recover the property
1
when a ship is ashore in a position from which it would be technically impossible to
recover the property
0
177 In which of below circumstances should a shipmaster note a sea protest?
after the ship has been damaged from any cause
1
after every case of general average
1
after wind and/or sea conditions the ship have encountered may have damaged the
cargo 1
whenever the master suspect a possible damage to the cargo
0

178 Laytime is also influenced by


48
Strike clauses
1
Ice clauses 1
Stevedore damage clauses
0
War cancelling clauses
0

179 The purpose of General Average is to:


split losses incurred for the common good equitably over all the interests which
benefit 1
Give the master of the ship freedom of action in attempting to save the ship and the
cargo from danger without having to worry about who would have to pay
1
Calculate correctly the looses each party have suffered in a general average
incident or accident 0
Give the master the freedom of trowing the cargo over board to save the ship and
the crew from danger without paying any compensation to the cargo owners .
0

180 The reward for salvage depends on


the degree of danger to the salvage ship
1
the value of the property saved
1
the risk and danger to the property saved
1
the age of the salvage vessel
0

181 The two main alternative methods of calculating despatch are:


despatch for quick loading or discharging
0
despatch for working time saved
1
despatch for laydays saved
0
destaptch for all time saved
1

182 The underwriters may have the right to cancel the policy of insurance
if they are not informed about change of crew agency
0
change of classification society
1
change, supension, discontinuance or withdrawal of class by the classification
society 1

49
change of ownership, management or flag
1

183 The York Antwerp Rules set down a system that:


dictates the precise circumstances and conditions which must arise for General
Average 1
states what losses and expenditures are permitted reimbursment under General
Average 1
states that the rules are always applicable in a General Average incidents or
accidents 0
explain how contributions are calculated and paid by the parties to General Average
1

184 Under the York-Antwerp Rules, which of the below can be considered
necessary elements for a loss to be regarded as general Average?
The sacrifice or expenditure must be extraordinary
1
the sacrifice or expenditure must be reasonable
1
the incident which leads to general average is not the result of a fault
0
the act must be intentional or voluntary
1

185 Under the York-Antwerp Rules, which of the below can be considered
necessary elements for a loss to be regarded as general Average?
the action taken must be for the common safety
1
the act must be inevitable
0
there must be a peril
1
the sacrifice or expenditure must be ordinary
0

186 What actions might qualify as General Average acts?


wetting previously undamaged cargo while extinguishing a fire
1
taking a tow to a port of refuge after a major machinery failure
1
putting into a port of refuge to effect some minor repairs
0
extinguishing a fire 1

187 What are the different types of salvage?


contractual salvage
1

50
cargo salvage
0
forced salvage
0
common law salvage
1

188 What are the forms of general average securities acceptable in shipping
practice ?
General Average Guarantee
1
General Average Deposit 1
General Average Security 0
General Average Bond
1

189 What are the two kinds of incurance policy available on H&M insurance
market?
mixed policy 0
time policy 1
bareboat policy
0
voyage policy
1

190 What are the various categories of marine insurance losses?


total losses 1
general average losses
0
partial losses
1
accidental losses 0

191 What cover would hull and machinery insurance normally give a shipowner?
Cover against actual total loss or constructive total loss of his ship's hull, machinery
and equipment1
cover against three-fourths of his liability to owners of other vessels with which the
ship colides 1
cover against liability for general average charges
1
cover against liability for cargo damage generated by the ship
0

192 What cover would hull and machinery insurance normally give a shipowner?
cover against accidental damage to his ship's hull, machinery and equipment
1
cover against liability for crew death on board the ship
0

51
cover against three-fourths of liability to owners of cargoes on board vessels with
which his ship collides
1
cover against liability for salvage charges
1

193 What forms can General Average take?


sacrifices 1
expenditures
1
losses 0
loss of income
0

194 What outlays might qualify as General Average expenditure?


damages to the ship or cargo due to efforts to extinguish a fire
0
salvage costs
1
port charges at the port of refuge
1
master's and crew's wages while a ship is being repaired
1

195 What sacrifices might qualify as General Average sacrifices?


jetison of cargo, when it is carried in accordance with a recognised custom of the
trade 1
damages to the ship or cargo due to efforts to extinguish a fire
1
cost of discharging a cargo in order to refloat a stranded ship
0
slipping an anchor and cable to avoid a collision
1

196 What should the master do if the charterers refuse to acknowledge receipt of
his Notice of Readiness?
Make daily attempts to have the notice the notice accepted
1
Send a letter of protest to charterers or their agents
1
Consult owners' P&I club correspondent
1
Ask owners agent to accept notice on charterers behalf
0

197 What types of insurance are in common place in the shipping industry?
Hull & Machinery Insurance
1
Protection and Indemnity Insurance
1
Third party liability insurance
0
52
Cargo Insurance 1

198 Which of below can be considered areas of average?


Collision Average 0
Particular Average 1
Total Average
0
General Average 1

199 Which of below clauses can be considered a calculable laytime?


4000 metric tons per day 1
8 running days
0
1000 metric tons per hatch per day
1
4 weather working days
0

200 Which of below documents are required for drawing up a "Time Sheet"?
Charterparty terms 1
Statement of Facts 1
Notice of readiness 1
Cargo manifest
0

201 Which of below losses are marine insurers not liable for under Marine
Insurance Act 1906?
looses atributable to negligence of the Master, officers, Crew or Pilots
0
losses atributable to wilful misconduct of the assured
1
loses generated by inherent vice or nature of the subject matter insured
1
losses generated by ordinary wear and tear, ordinary leakage or breakage
1

202 Which of below perils is a shipowner insured against under a hull and
machinery policy that incorporates the Institute Time Clauses - Hulls?
loss or damage caused by perils of the sea, rivers, lakes or other navigable waters
1
loss or damage caused by violent theft by persons from outside the vessel
1
loss or damage caused by accidents in loading, discharging or shifting cargo or fuel
1
loss or damage caused by ordinary wear and tear, ordinary leakage
0

203 Which of below perils is a shipowner insured against under a hull and
machinery policy that incorporates the Institute Time Clauses - Hulls?
53
loss or damage caused by negligence of Master, Officers, Crew and Pilots
1
loss or damage caused by negligence of repairerers or Charterers, provided such
repairers or charterers are not an Assured under the Policy
1
loss or damage caused by negligence of repairerers or Charterers, provided such
repairers or Charterers are an Assured under the Policy
0
loss or damage caused by piracy
1

204 Which of the below are damages recovered from insurers as particular
average?
heavy wether damage
1
grounding /stranding damage
1
jettison damage 0
collision damage 1

205 Which of the below are risks covered by P&I Clubs?


Liability for Property Damage
1
Wreck removal
1
Loss of insured vessel
0
Non contact damage to other ships
1

206 Which of the below can be considered conditions for commencement of


laytime?
Vessel to be an arrived ship
1
Vessel to be ready from all points of view to commence loading or discharging
1
Notice of readiness to be accepted
0
Notice of readiness to be tendered
1

207 Which of the below can be considered examples of lack of utmost good faith?
a shipowner not disclosing that a vessel failed a special survey
1
a shipowner not disclosing that a vessel had a minor engine problem
0
a shipowner breaching the warranty to sail in convoy
0

54
a shipowner not disclosing that vessel has no statutory certificates
1

208 Which of the below can be considered features of Lloyd's Open Form?
Basically it is a "No Cure, No pay" contract
1
Terms are negotiable
0
LOF terms can be agreed by radio, simply by reference
1
Potential reward is negotiable
0

209 Which of the below can be considered principles of marine insurance?


Insurable interest 1
Indemnity 1
Utmost good faith 1
Prudent uninsured 0

210 Which of the below clauses can be considered as fixed laytime?


5 total weather working day
1
400 metric tons per working hatch per weather working day
0
Customary quick despach 0
7 clear days 1

211 Which of the below clauses can be considered as indefinite laytime?


500 metric tons per hatch per day
0
laydays as per custom of port
1
10 clear days
0
customary quick dispatch 1

212 Which of the below risks are covered by P&I clubs


liabilities in respect of stowaways and persons saved at sea
1
ships General Average expenses not recoverable from H&M underwriters
1
three forths of the collision liabilities
0
excess collision liability
1

213 Which of the below statements about P&I insurance are true?
Protection offered is mutual, each member being in the same time insurer and
assured 1
55
Protection offered is similar with other forms of insurance, the assured paying a
fixed insurance premium and he is indemnified for his losses
0
Policy year starts on 20th February, 12.00 GMT hours
1
Policy year starts on 1st January, 12.00 GMT hours
0

214 Who should the Notice of Readiness be addressed to?


charterers 1
charterers' agents 1
shipowners agent 0
shipowners 0

215 Who would normally be the parties to a common adventure in General


Average?
cargo owners
1
insurers
0
crew 1
shipowners 1

216 "CONLINEBILL 2000" standard form has 3 boxes markes with (*). By filling in
those boxes the bill of lading becomes a
"charterers' bill of lading" 0
owners are relieved from responsibility for inland transportation
0
the bill of lading becomes a "through bill of lading"
1
the bill of lading becomes a "shipped bill of lading"
0

217 A "clean" bill of lading is a


bill of lading issued in accordance with requirements of a Letter of credit and which
is always accepted by the banks.
0
bill of lading which bears no superimposed clauses or notations which expresely
declare the defective condition or contradicts the quantity, weight or number (as
the case may be) of the cargo. 1
bill of lading which bears superimposed clauses or notations which expresely
declare the defective condition or contradicts the quantity, weight or number (as
the case may be) of the cargo. 0
bill of lading which is issued in accordance with requirements of the charterparty
and with instructions from shippers, charterers and receivers
0

218 A bareboat chartered ship is employed on a time charter and a subsequent


voyage charter. Which of the below is the party responsible for vessels
seaworthiness
56
Head owner 0
bareboat charterer 1
time charterer
0
voyage charterer 0

219 A bill of lading function as a receipt of the freight if


expression "freight prepaid" is included in the bill of lading
1
expression "freight payable as per charterparty" is included in the bill of lading
0
expression "freight pre payable" is included in the bill of lading
0
expression "freight to be paid" is included in the bill of lading
0
220 A bill of lading issued "to order", without naming any other person or firm,
has to be first indorsed by:
the charterer
0
the notify party
0
the shipper 1
the receiver 0

221 A cargo can be considered delivered


on discharging from the vessel
0
after the cargo has been stored in a terminal belonging to the stevedoring company
0
on handing it over to the consignee or his receiver
1
after the cargo pass ship's rail at discharging port
0

222 A charter-party is a document setting down rights and obligations of


shipowner and bill of lading holder
0
shipowner and charterer 1
shipowner and shipper
0
shipowners and receiver 0

223 A loading or discharging port for a vessel employed on a voyage charter must
be a safe port
always
0
on nomination
1
on charterparty date
0

57
at the time the vessel arrives
0

224 A master had inspected a parcel of iron rods in coils and found some rusty.
Nonetheless, he negligently failed to instruct the mate to clause the mate's receipts
accordingly and shippers presented for signature "clean on board" bills of lading.
Under these circumstances:
the master is entitled to sign bills of lading with remarks
0
the master is entitled to show that cargo is not clean
0
the master is obliged to sign "clean on board" bills of lading
1
the master can ask for an independent survey and his decision is final
0

225 A ship has discharged a cargo of coal and is about to sail. If the shipowners
are still owed freight, how can their lien on the cargo be exercised after she has
sailed?
Ship's agent can keep constructive possesion of the coal in a storage area hired for
that purpose until the freight is paid, the cost beeing for the shipowners' account
0
Ship's agent can take property of the coal and keep in a storage area hired for that
purpose until the freight is paid or sell it
0
Master has to instruct the receivers to keep the cargo on the quay and not to sell it
before owners confirt that their claim for freight has been settled in full
0
Ship's agent can keep constructive possesion of the coal in a storage area hired for
that purpose until the freight is paid, the cost beeing for the consignee's account
1

226 A ship was due to load at two very sentitive cargoes: onion and chocolate,
and due to limited space in holds she loaded both cargoes in the same hold. Due to
smell, chocolate arrived in a damaged condition at discharging port and charterers
considered that the vessel was not seaworthy. In which of the below situations will
charterers claim succed on grounds of unseaworthiness?

if chocolate was loading before onion


0
if onion was loaded before chocolate
1
if chocolate and onion were loading in the same time
0
in both situations 0

227 A ship with a deadweight cargo capacity of 10,800 tons is employed to load
""min/max 10,000/11000 mts steel plates". Under these circumstances charterer is
under an obligation to load

10.500 metric tons 0


58
9500 metric tons 0
10,000 metric tons 0
10,800 metric tons 1

228 A ship with a deadweight cargo capacity of 10,800 tons is employed to load
"10,000 mts steel plates 5pct molchop". Under these circumstances charterer is
under an obligation to load
10.500 metric tons 0
9500 metric tons 1
10,000 metric tons 0
10,800 metric tons 0

229 A ship with a deadweight cargo capacity of 10,800 tons is employed to load
"10,000 mts steel plates 5pct moloo". Under these circumstances charterer is under
an obligation to load
10.500 metric tons 1
9500 metric tons 0
10,000 metric tons 0
10,800 metric tons 0

230 A shipowner pay his expenses in EUROs and he enters into a time charter
agreement with hire payable in USD. When do you think the owner should include in
to the charter-party a clause against currency fluctuations?
When it is expected that exchange rate between euro and usd will increase
1
When it is expected that exchange rate between euro and usd will decrease
0
When it is expected that exchange rate between euro and usd will remain the same
0
Never, as usualy the currency fluctuations can not be predicted with enough
accuracy 0

231 A through bill of lading is


a document which provides evidence of a contract of carriage from one place to
another in separate stages of which at least one is road transit
0
a document which provides evidence of a contract of carriage from one place to
another in separate stages of which at least one is sea transit
1
a document which provides evidence of a contract of carriage from one place to
another with the same vessel or by the same carrier
0
a contract of carriage from one place to another in separate stages of which at least
one is sea transit0

232 A time charter for one single voyage is known as


Round Trip Charter 0
Trip Charter 1
Time Charter for one voyage
0

59
Head Charter
0

233 A vessel employed to load 5000 metric tons steel plates 5 % molchop is
described in a charter-party as having a DWCC of 5250 metric tons. If on the way to
the loading port the price of the bunker is better than market price
the owners are entitled to take as much bunker as they want if the vessel is able to
load minimum 4750 metric tons of cargo
0
the owners are not entitled to bunker the vessel if after bunkering vessel's cargo
capacity is below 5250 mts
1
the owners are entitled to bunker the vessel only if bunker on board is not enough
for safe completion of the present voyage
0
the owners can take as much bunker as they want if vessel's cargo capacity is
between 4750 and 5250 metric tons and charterers are informed about this before
commencement of loading 0

234 A vessel is employed on a lumpsum basis and due to an excepted peril one
third of the cargo is lost during the voyage. What is the freight charterer has to pay?
Charterer has to pay only two thirds of the agreed lumpsum freight
0
Charterer has to pay agreed lumpsum freight
1
Charterer can compensate the freight to be paid with value of lost cargo
0
Charerer will ask for arbitration before paying any freight
0

235 A vessel is employed under a voyage charter which clearly stipulates that
only clean cargo is to be loaded. On arrival at loading port master submit to the
shippers a letter with his preliminary remarks and a notice of protest stating that
only clean cargo has to be loaded. Shippers accept all master's remarks and insist
that all cargo be loaded. Under these circumstances

the master should load all the cargo as long as shippers accept on the bill of lading
all master's remarks about cargo condition
1
the master should load only clean cargo in order to avoid breaching charter-party
terms and conditions0
the master should ask for charterers permission to load all cargo and has to insist
on a letter of indemnity
0
the master should ask for P&I correspondent advise and his decision is final and
master has to follow it0

236 According to Hague rules the carrier shall properly and carefully load, handle,
stow, carry, keep, care for and discharge the goods carried. In this context, do the
words "properly and carefully" imply the same degree of care as exercising due
diligence?

60
Yes - the same degree of care
0
No - a greater degree of care.
1
No - a lower degree of care
0
can not be said as it depends on particular circumstances of the case
0

237 According to Hague rules"ship" means


any vessel used in the carriage of goods
0
any vessel used in the carriage ofgoods or passengers by sea
0
any vessel used in the carriage of goods and passengers by sea
1
any vessel used in the carriage of goods by sea, rivers, lakes
0

238 According to Hague Visby Rules the carrier is entitled to limit his liability for
loss or damage to the cargo to
666,67 Special Drawing Rights per package or 2 Special Drawing Rights per
kilogram at carriers option0
666,67 Special Drawing Rights per package or 2 Special Drawing Rights per
kilogram, which ever if the higher
1
666,67 Special Drawing Rights per package or 2 Special Drawing Rights per
kilogram, which ever if the lower
0
835 Special Drawing Rights per package or 2,5 Special Drawing Rights per kilogram,
which ever if the higher
0

239 According to Hamburg rules the carrier is able to limit his liability for delay in
delivery of the cargo
to an amount equivalent to two times the freight payable for the goods delayed, but
not exceeding the total freight payable under the contract of carriage of goods by
sea. 0

to an amount equivalent to two and a half times the freight payable for the goods
delayed, but not exceeding the total freight payable under the respective voyage
0

to an amount equivalent to two and a half times the freight payable for the goods
delayed, but not exceeding the total freight payable under the contract of carriage
of goods by sea. 1

to an amount equivalent to two and a half times the freight payable for the goods
delayed, but not exceeding one half of total freight payable under the contract of
carriage of goods by sea. 0

61
240 According to Hamburg rules the carrier is entitled to limit his liability for loss
or damage to the cargo to
835 Special Drawing Rights per package or 2,5 Special Drawing Rights per kilogram
at carriers option0
835 Special Drawing Rights per package or 2,5 Special Drawing Rights per kilogram,
which ever if the higher
1
835 Special Drawing Rights per package or 2,5 Special Drawing Rights per kilogram,
which ever if the lower
0
835 Special Drawing Rights per package or in carriers' option 2,5 Special Drawing
Rights per kilogram0

241 According to Hamburg rules, the signature on the bill of lading may be:
in handwriting, printed in facsimile, perforated, stamped, in symbols, or made by
any other mechanical or electronic means, if not inconsistent with the law of the
country the cargo is loaded from. 0
in handwriting, printed in facsimile, perforated, stamped, in symbols, or made by
any other mechanical or electronic means, if not inconsistent with the law of the
country cargo is delivered to. 0
in handwriting, printed in facsimile, perforated, stamped, in symbols, or made by
any other mechanical or electronic means, if not inconsistent with the law of the
country the bill of lading is issued 1
in handwriting, printed in facsimile, perforated, stamped, in symbols, or made by
any other mechanical or electronic means, if not inconsistent with the law of the
country the shipowner is registered 0

242 According with Cancelling Clause of Gencon 94 standard form should the
owners anticipate that, despite the exercise of due diligence, the vessel will not be
ready to load by the cancelling date, they shall notify the charterers thereof without
delay stating the expected date of the vessel readiness to load and asking whether
charterers will exercise their option for cancelling the charter-party or agree a new
cancelling date. Such option must be declared by the charterers

within 48 running hours after the old cancelling date


0
within 48 running hours after the receipt of the owners notice
1
within 48 working hours after the receipt of the owners notice
0
within 48 running hours before cancelling date
0

243 According with Cancelling clause of Gencon 94 standard form should the
vessel not be ready to load (whether in berth or not) on the cancelling date
the charterers should have the option of cancelling the charter- party
1
the owners should have the option of cancelling the charter-party
0
the charterers should nominate a new cancelling date acceptable to the owners
0

62
the owners should stop the vessel and wait for a new cancelling date
0

244 According with deviation clause from GENCON 94 the vessel


has the liberty to call at any port or ports in any order, for reasonable purpose, to
sail without pilots, to tow and/or assist Vessels in all situations, and also to deviate
for the purpose of saving life 0

has the liberty to call at any port or ports in any order, for any purpose, to sail
without pilots, to tow and/or assist Vessels in all situations, and also to deviate for
the purpose of saving life and/or property.1

has to get charterers approval before calling at any port or ports in any order,
sailing without pilots, towing and/or assisting Vessels in all situations, and also
deviating for the purpose of saving life and/or property.
0

is under an obligation to call at any port or ports charterers instruct her to proceed,
in any order, for any purpose, to sail without pilots, to tow and/or assist Vessels in
all situations, and also to deviate for the purpose of saving life and/or property.
0

245 According with Gencon 94 standard form the cargo shall be brought into
holds, loaded, stowed and/or trimmed, tallied, lashed and/or secured and taken
from the holds and discharged by
the owners, free of any risk, liability and expense whatsoever to the charterers
0
the shippers or receivers, free of any risk, liability and expense whatsoever to the
owners 0
the charterers, free of any risk, liability and expense whatsoever to the owners
1
either the charterers or the owners, free of any risk, liability and expense
whatsoever to the other party
0

246 According with Gencon 94 standard form the freight is paybale on


highest between intaken or delivered quantity
0
intaken quantity 1
delivered quantity 0
lowest between intaken or delivery quantity
0

247 According with Gencon 94 standard form, if the charterers do not reply within
48 runnig hours after the receipt of owners notice of missing the cancelling date,
the charter-party is deemed to be ammended and the new cancellind date is
the seventh day after the date the notice was sent
0

63
the seventh day after the new readiness stated in the owners notification
1
the seventh day after the expiration of the 48 runnig hours allowed for charterers to
declare their option
0
the seventh day after the cancelling date missed by the vessel
0

248 According with Hague Rules definition of "goods" includes ?


goods, wares, merchandises and articles of any kind whatsoever, except live
animals and cargo which by the contract of carriage is stated as being carried on
deck and is so carried 1

goods, wares, merchandises and articles of any kind whatsoever, except live
animals and cargo which by the charterparty the owners have the liberty to carry on
deck at their option 0

goods, wares, merchandises and passengers of any kind whatsoever, except live
animals and cargo which by the contract of carriage is stated as being carried on
deck and is so carried 0

goods, wares, merchandises and articles of any kind whatsoever, except live
animals and cargo which by the contract of carriage the owners have liberty to
carry on deck 0

249 According with Lien clause from Gencon 94 standard form the owners shall
have a lien on cargo and on all subfreights payable in respect of the cargo for
freight, deadfreight, demurrage, claims for damages and for all other ammounts
due under the charterparty including costs of recovering same
1

freight, deadfreight, demurrage and damages for detention


0

freight, deadfreight, demurrage, claims for damages, cargo contribution to general


average and for expenses incurred by the shipowner in protecting the cargo
0

freight, deadfreight, demurrage, claims for damages and for all other ammounts
due under the charterparty excluding costs of recovering same
0

250 Acording with common law a vessel is seaworthy if she is


fit to both ordinary and extraordinary perils of the sea
0
fit to perform the voyage under good weather conditions
0
fit to encounter the ordinary perils of the sea
1

64
fit to encounter any extraordinar perils of the sea
0

251 After one of the set of original bills of lading is presented to the master and
delivery is made in exchange of this bill, what happens to the other bills in the set
they may still be presented to the master for delivery
0
they become null and void
1
they are still valid and can be used to transfer the property in the goods
0
they are destroyed by the master
0

252 Are the shipowners of a time chartered vessel entitled to put lien on a cargo
carried by the vessel under a voyage charter for non payment of hire?
The shipowners are entitled to put lien on cargo as they have all the rights to
recover the hire 0
The shipowners have no right to put lien on cargoes carried by the vessel, as
voyage charterer most probably paid all freight to time charter
1
The shipowners are entitled to put lien on cargo as by the time charter they usually
have the right to recover any subfreights due to time charterer
0
The shipowners are entitled not to discharge the cargo before they are paid the hire
in full 0

253 As a general rule, the bill of lading has to be issued to


the owner of the cargo
0
the exporter or freight forwarder
0
the person in possesion of mate's receipt
1
the person a charterparty has been made with
0

254 Before proceeding on a voyage, the master of a time chartered vessel


decides to disregard charterers orders as to the specific course of the voyage and to
follow a route which he considers preferable. Under these circumstances:
the master is entitled to proceed like this, as the master is the one deciding about
all navigation aspects
0
the master is entitled to proceed like this, as he is the one responsible for the safety
of the ship/crew and cargo
0
the master has to follow charterers orders, as they refer to the commercial
operation of the vessel 1
the master has to follow always charterers orders in a time charter otherwise,
vessel will be placed off-hire
0

65
255 Can a time charterer have a master dismissed?
the charterparty always give the time charterer the power to change the master
0
the charterparty may require owners to investigate complains by charterers
regarding the master, and replace him if required
1
the time charterers have no right to claim anything against the master, since he is
employed and paid by the shipowners
0
the time charterers can replace the master with another one if they pay for his
salary 0

256 Cargo manifest is


a document prepared on board the ship for statistical purposes and future reference
for new masters0

a document drawn up by ship's agent at load port, containing detailed description of


the cargo loaded, used for custom and administrative purposes at load and
discharging ports 1

a list of all cargoes and stores on board prepared by the master before vessel
arrives at discharging port for custom and administrative purposes
0

a document drawn up by ship's agent at each port of call, containing detailed


description of the cargo loaded and discharged, used for custom and administrative
purposes at load and discharging ports0

257 Delivery of cargo at destination can be made against:


A letter of indemnity signed by the shippers
0
A copy of the original Bill of lading
0
An original bill of lading
1
All original bills of lading issued
0

258 Dry cargo market can be considered


a monopolistic market
0
an oligopolistic market
0
66
close to perfect competitive model
1
a mixture between monopolistic and perfect competive model
0

259 For a dry cargo vessel employed under a time charter, speed and bunker
consumption are usually guaranteed
if wind force is below 4 on Beaufort Scale
1
for every kind of weather 0
if wind force is below 7 on Beaufort Scale
0
if sea grade is below 5 on Douglas Scale
0

260 For a time chartered vessel to be considered off-hire


it is enough that charterers consider her off-hire
0
it is required that charterers obtain an arbitration award
0
it is required that reasons for off-hire are mentioned in an off-hire clause
1
it is always required that owners agree with charterers allegations
0

261 For a vessel employed into a time charter risks for delay due to bad weather,
port congestion and strikes in port are
for owners account 0
for time charterers account
1
shared between owners and charterers
0
for voyage charterers account
0

262 For owners it is recommended to conclude a time charter agreements if


freight market is expected to rise
0
freigh market is expected to remain constant
0
freight market is expected to decrease
1
it is hard to estimate what the market will be
0

263 Generally, at whose risk is a deck cargo carried?


at shipper's risk
1
67
at carrier's risk
0
at master's risk
0
at crew's risk
0

264 Hague - Visby rules do not apply:


bills of lading relating to carriage of goods between ports in the same country
1
bills of lading relating to carriage of goods between ports in two different states if
the bill of lading is issued in a contracting state
0
bill of lading relating to carriage of goods between ports in two different states if
carriage is from one port in a contracting state
0
bills of lading that provides legislation of any state giving effect to the Rules is to
govern the contract of carriage
0

265 Hague rules apply


from tackle at loading port to delivery at discharging port
0
from taking that cargo into owners custody at load port to final delivery at
discharging port 0
from taking that cargo into owners custody at load port to tackle at discharging port
0
from tackle to tackle
1

266 How are deleted words from stardard charterparty form treated from legal
point of view?
they are considered valid if one of the parties demonstrates that they were deleted
by mistake 0
they are considered as not being there and they will never be taken into
consideration 0
they are considered as not beeing there, but they will be taken into consideration if
without them one or more clauses are not making sense
1
they are considered valid if they were deleted by mistake by the broker issuing the
charter-party 0

267 How are the shipbrokers paid for their services?


they are entitled to a commission, called brokerage, from the gross freight or hire
earned which is paid by the party they represent
0
they are entitled to a commission, called brokerage, from the gross freight or hire
earned, which is normally paid by the charterers
0

68
they are entitled to a commission, called brokerage, from the gross freight or hire
earned, which is normally paid by the shipowners
1
they are entitled to a fee which is always payable by the party they represent
during negotiations0

268 How can a carrier ensure that, as well as his lien for freight, he has also a lien
for deadfreight and demurrage?
By obtaining a court order to allow him to put lien on cargo at the discharging port
for these amounts0
By simply exercising his common low right for putting lien on cargo for deadfreight
and/or demurrage due and not paid
0
By inserting a Lien Clause in the contract of carriage expressly stating that he has a
lien for these amounts
1
By inserting a clause stating that deadfreight and demurrage are payable before
completion of discharging
0

269 How do owners of a time chartered ship ensure that they will have the
oportunity to carry out proper maintenance and repairs during a lengthy period time
charter?
by stopping the vessel when repairs are required
0
by employing repair teams on board during voyages
0
by inserting into charterparty a drydocking clause
1
by asking for charterers permission to carry out repairs and maintenance
0

270 How do you define bill's of lading function as a document of title?


The true owner of the bill of lading can deliver it to another person for some
valuable consideration and in this way the ownership of the goods is transferred
1
The true owner of the bill of lading can deliver it to another person without valuable
consideration and in this way the ownership of the goods is transferred
0
The holder of the bill of lading can deliver it to another person for some valuable
consideration and in this way the ownership of the goods is transferred
0
It enables the shipowner to transfer the ownership during the voyage, make it
possible for the owner to raise finance on the security of the goods while in transit
0
69
271 How is the hire paid under a bareboat charter-party?
hire is paid when charterers receive the freight for every voyage perfomed
0
hire is paid in advance according with charater-party terms
1
hire is paid at the end of each period agreed by both parties
0
hire is paid in advance at the beginning of each year
0

272 How is the hire usually paid for a vessel under time charter?
Hire is usually paid at internvals of 15 or 30 days
0
Hire is usually paid in advance for 15 or 30 days
1
Hire is ussualy paid in 5 days after owners require payment
0
Hire is usually paid at the end of every 15 or 30 days
0

273 How many "non negotiable" copies of a bill of lading can be issued?
Maximum 6 non negotiable copies of a bill of lading can be issued
0
As many as the shippers require
1
As many as the master decides and his decision is final
0
Every copy of the original bill of lading can be considered a non negotiable copy of
the bill of lading0

274 How many days on demurrage are allowed according with GENCON 1994
standard form?
maximum 10 working days
0
there is no express provision for maximum number of demurage days
1
as many as required to complete loading operation as long charterers pay
demurrage 0
10 running days
0

275 How many INCOTERMS are there?


Twelvee 0
Thirteen 1
Forthteen 0
ten 0

276 How many original Bills of Lading can be issued?


70
A bill can be issued in as many originals as required by the shippers with the only
condion that number of originals is clarly inserted into the bill of lading.
1
Maximum three original bills of lading can be issued, no matter what the shippers or
charterers are requesting, in order to avoid fraudulent practices.
0
Only one original bill of lading can be issued, all other bills should marked "Copy
non negotiable", in order to protect the true holder of the bills of lading
0
Number of original bills of lading issued depends on the custom at loading and
discharging ports and master has to follow that custom
0

277 How might a shipowner fixing his ship on time charter seek to protect himself
from action by the ITF?
by employing non union stevedoring companies if the vessel call countries where
ITF rules are strictly followed ( Scandinavian countries, Australia etc.)
0
by prohibiting the time charterer from sending the vessel to countries where ITF
rules are strictly followed ( Scandinavian countries, Australia etc.)
1
by discharging the cargo using crew services if the vessel call countries where ITF
rules are strictly followed ( Scandinavian countries, Australia etc.)
0
by fixing the cargo only on liner out basis if the vessel call countries where ITF rules
are strictly followed ( Scandinavian countries, Australia etc.)
0

278 If a bareboat chartered vessel is seriously damaged who pays for repairs to
bring the vessel to a seaworthy condition?
Disponent owners 1
Head owners
0
Charterers have the option to declare the vessel total loss
0
Depends who is the party responsible for the damage
0

279 If a charterparty bill of lading is issued, the bill of lading can be considered a
contract of carriage if

71
it is in the hands of the charterer
0
it is in the hands of the shipper who is also the charterer
0
it is in the hands of a bona fide third party
1
it is in the hands of the receiver who is also the charterer
0

280 If a charterparty contains a clause setting minimum and maximum quantity


of cargo to be loaded without naming the party having the option to choose
between them
it is clear that
the charterer has the option to choose the quantity of cargo to be loaded which
anyhow should be between the minimum and maximum quantity mentioned in the
charterparty 0

that the owner has the option to choose the quanitity of cargo to be loaded based
vessel's deadweight cargo capacity and on vessel' trim and stability
0

the charterer has to load the vessel up to her deadweight cargo capacity while the
shipowner guarantee that vessel will load at least minimum quantity without
requiring more than maximum quantity mentioned
1

the shipowner has to load the vessel up to her deadweight cargo capacity while the
charterer guarantee he will have available for loading at least minimum quantity
without promising more than maximum quantity mentioned
0

281 If a charter-party contains abbreviation "1 GSB AAAA" it means that the
vessel
will be operated at one good safe anchorage which is always accessible and where
she will lay always afloat
0
will be operated at one or more good safe berths which are always accessible and
where she will lay always afloat
0
will be operated at one good safe berth which is always afloat and where cargo
holds should be always accessible
0
will be operated at one good safe berth which is always accessible and where she
will lay always afloat1

282 If a liner vessel is under loading operation and cargo booked has not yet
arrived the master
should wait for the cargo in order not to loose freight
0
should load whatever cargo is available and sail in order not to delay ship's
schedule 0
72
should continue loading operation and if cargo can not be loaded he will sand to the
shippers a deadfreight letter
1
should wait for instructions from the shippers
0

283 If a master is forced to sign a "clean on board" bill of lading, when he


considers that it should have been claused, he should:
ask for a letter of indemnity not to be kept responsible for cargo damages
0
issue a letter protest and send it to shippers/receivers/P&I club
1
stop the vessel outside the port and ask for a new bill to be issued
0
issue a letter of protest and sent it to BIMCO/International Maritime Bureau
0

284 If a master sign a bill of lading and according with charterparty terms and
conditions freight is payable 100% after signing, but before releasing of Bs/L then
master can hand bills to the agents and agents will decide when to release it
0
master has to prepare a letter instructing the agent not to release the bills before
he receive confirmation from the owners that freight has been received
1
master has to prepare a letter instructing the agent not to release the bills before
he receive confirmation from the charterers that they have paid the freight
0
master has no obligation to instruct the agents, as it is operational department
obligation to instruct the agents properly
0

285 If a mate's Receipt has been claused by the ship, e.g. with remarks about rust
on steel plates, what may a master expect to see when presented with the Bill of
Lading for signature?
a bill of lading marked "clean on board" based on a letter of indemnity from the
shippers 0
remarks with similar implications even if wording is different
0
exactly the same remarks on the face of the Bill of Lading
1
exactly the same remarks on the back of the Bill of Lading
0

286 If a persons hands over to the master at destination an original bill of lading
endorsed in full then
73
master is under an obligation to deliver the goods to that person
0
master is under an obligation to deliver the goods to that person only after he
proves that he is the legal representative of the receiver
1
master is not under an obligation to deliver the goods to that person before all
original bills of lading are presented to him
0
master is under an obligation to deliver the goods to that person only if he waits a
reasonable period to see if somebody else is asking for the cargo
0

287 If a tanker is employed at WS120 and according with WORLD SCALE the
freight between the two ports is USD 15$ per metric ton, then freight owners will
receive will be
USD 18 per metric ton
1
USD 12 per metric ton
0
USD 15 per metric ton
0
USD 17,8 per metric ton
0

288 If a tanker is employed at WS80 and according with WORLD SCALE the freight
between the two ports is USD 18$ per metric ton, then freight owners will receive
will be
USD 18$ per metric ton
0
USD 21,6$ per metric ton 0
USD 14,4$ per metric ton 1
USD 14,6 per metric ton
0

289 If a time chartered vessel is not in the same good order and condition at
redelivery, who will be liable for the cost of repairs
owners
0
charterers 1
insurance company
0
stevedores 0

290 If a vessel arrives at destination with minor damages to the cargoes carried
and charterers can demonstrate that owners are responsible for the damages then
charterers are entitled to compensate the estimated value of damages with the
freight due 0
charterers have to pay the freight without any deductions
1
charterers have to pay only for sound cargo delivered and balance can be kept as
guarantee for settlement of damages
0
74
charterers are entitled not to pay the freight before cargo claim is settled
0

291 If a vessel arrives at discharging port and she can not proceed to the
discharging berth without first lightening, the master
has to follow custom of the port and accept lightening
0
he is entitle to refuse to the enter the port, unless there is a specific agreement to
the contrary 1
he is required to wait a reasonable period of time and after that he can sail to the
next port of call0
he is required to follow charterers orders, as they would be responsible for any
damages to the vessel0

292 If a vessel is chartered on a chain of bareboat, time and voyage charters who
is the party entitled to receive the freight?
bareboat charterer 0
ship owner 0
time charterer
1
voyage charterer 0

293 If a vessel is employed on Gross Terms who is paying for lashing, dunnaging
and securing expenses?
shipowners 1
charterers 0
they are shared between shipowners and charterers
0
shippers 0

294 If a vessel is employed on voyage charter and suppose all other elements are
constant, in which of below situations freight will be lower
employement of LILO terms
0
employement of LIFO terms
0
employement of FILO terms
0
employement of FIO terms
1

295 If a vessel is employed to load up to ”full and complete cargo capacity” it


means that
charterers are under an obligation to load her up to her maximum deadweight
cargo capacity 0
both owners and charterers have fulfiled their obligation if a cargo corectly stowed
either fills in vessels deadweight cargo capacity or volumetric capacity
1
75
both owners and charterers have fulfiled their obligation if a cargo corectly stowed
fills in both vessels deadweight cargo capacity or volumetric capacity
0
charterers are under an obligation to load her up to her maximum volumetric
capacity of vessels holds0

296 If a vessel is loading a cargo which can be described as being in apparent


good order and condition and at destination it is delivered in the same apparent
good order and condition but damaged inside the packs then
owners have to prove that cargo was not damaged due to their fault
0
owners are responsible for the damage as the cargo was under their custody
0
owners are not under any circumstances responsible as the cargo was delivered in
the same good order and condition
0
owners can only be responsible if the bill of lading holder prove that the damage
was generated by owners fault
1

297 If a vessel is loading a cargo which can be described as being in apparent


good order and condition and at destination it is delivered without being in apparent
good order and condition then
owners are responsible for the damages, unless they can prove that cargo was not
damaged by their fault
1
owners are always responsible as cargo was under their custody
0
owners can not be responsible if they prove that in fact cargo was damaged prior to
shipment 0
owners can only be responsible if cargo owners prove that cargo was damaged due
to owners fault0

298 If a vessel is loading more lots of cargo and shippers demand one bill of
lading for each lot, what would be the date of the bills of lading issued
date of completion loading for all cargo
0
date of completion loading for each lot
1
date of sailing from loading port
0
any date required by the shippers
0

299 If a vessel is unable to continue her voyage due to a major engine breakdown
and charterers decide (even if owners are willing to continue the voyage) to take
delivery of the cargo at an intermediate port then
76
owners are entitled to freight without any deductions
0
owners are entitled to a pro rata freight
1
owners are not entitled to freight, as freight is only payable at destination
0
owners are entitled to put lien on cargo for payment of full freight
0

300 If a vessel under discharging in Galati will be delivered into a time charter
"DLOSP Sulina” it means that
vessel will be delivered when she pass Sulina Pilot Station on her way out of the
port 0
vessel will be delivered when she drops last river pilot and takes sea pilot
0
vessel will be delivered when she gets out of commercial, fiscal and administrative
area of the port of Sulina
0
vessel will be delivered when she drops last sea pilot at Sulina and proceeds to the
sea 1

301 If a vessel will be de delivered into a time charter "APS Constanta” it means
that
vessel will be delivered when she takes pilot at Constanta and proceeds to loading
berth 0
vessel will be delivered when she drops pilot at Contanta on her way out of the port
0
vessel will be delivered when she arrives at Constanta Pilot Station
1
vessel will be delivered when she is within administrative, fiscal and commercial
area of the port of Constanta
0

302 If a vessel will be delivered into a time charter "DOP Constanta” it means that
vessel will be delivered when she takes pilot at Constanta and proceeds to loading
berth 0
vessel will be delivered when she gets out of commercial, fiscal and administrative
area of the port of Constanta
0
vessel will be delivered when she pass Constanta Pilot Station on her way out of the
port 0
vessel will be delivered when she drops pilot at Contanta on her way out of the port
1

77
303 If all other terms of the fixture are the same when do you expect the freight
to be higher?
if the vessel is employed of free in and out terms
0
if the vessel is employed of free in and liner out terms
0
if the vessel is employed of liner in and liner out terms
1
if the vessel is employed of liner in and free out terms
0

304 If by mistake master release a bill of lading marked "freight prepaid" to the
shippers without making sure that owners have received the freight
owners have the right to put lien on cargo if freight is not paid before delivery of the
cargo 0
owners are entitled to put lien on cargo if freight is not paid as per charterparty
0
owners are obliged to deliver the goods at destination if bill of lading is in the hands
of an innocent third party
1
owners can discharge the cargo at loading port if freight is not paid
0

305 If during a loaded voyage, a port of call is planned for bunkers which needed
for the next voyage, but not present one, what special clause should be in the
contract of carriage?
A Standard Bunker Clause
0
P&I Bunker Deviation Clause
1
P&I Deviation Clause
0
A Standard Deviation Clause
0

306 If expression "freight deemed earned discountless and non returnable on


signing bills of lading vessel and or cargo lost or not lost" which is the party
required to insure the freight
charterers 1
shipowners 0
exporters 0
both shipowners and charterers
0

307 If expression LINNER TERMS is included in to a charter-party then


charterers will cover cargo loading expenses while shipowners will cover all cargo
discharging expenses0

78
charterers will cover all cargo loading and discharging expenses
0
shipowners will cover cargo loading expenses while charterers will cover all cargo
discharging expenses0
shipowners will cover all cargo loading and discharging expenses
1

308 If loading and discharging ports are nominated after the fixture is concluded,
who is the party responsible to ascertain the safety of the ports?
both shipowners and charterers
0
most probably, shipowners
0
charterers 1
master
0

309 If loading and discharging ports are nominated at the time of fixture who is
the party responsible to ascertain the safety of the ports?
most probably, charterers 0
most probably, shipowners
1
both shipowners and charterers
0
always charterers 0

310 If master sign a bill of lading which is marked "freight payable as per charter-
party" then
master can release bills to the shippers unless he is instructed otherwise by the
owners 0

master has no obligation in this respect, it is operational department obligation to


instruct the agents properly
0

master has prepare a letter instructing the agent not to release the bills before he
receive confirmation from the charterers that they have paid the freight
0

master has to prepare a letter instructing the agent not to release the bills before
he receive confirmation from the owners that freight has been received
1

311 If one of the abbreviations FIO, FIOS, FIOT is included in to a charter-party


then
charterers will cover cargo loading expenses while shipowners will cover all cargo
discharging expenses0
shipowners will cover cargo loading expenses while charterers will cover all cargo
discharging expenses0
charterers will cover all cargo loading and discharging expenses
1

79
shipowners will cover all cargo loading and discharging expenses
0

312 If Paramount Clause is incorporated into the charter-party and some of the
express terms of the charter-party are in contradiction with Hague or Hague-Visby
rules
express terms of the charterparty have priority of interpretation
0
Hague or Hague Visby provisions have priority of interpretation
1
it is for the arbitrators to decide which terms have priority of interpretation
0
parties under an obligation to negotiate which terms have priority of interpretation
0

313 If the charterparty is silent on quantity, freight is payable then freight is paid
on
nett weight 0
teoretical weight 0
gross weight 1
bill of lading weight
0

314 If the charterparty is silent on the quantity freight is payable then freight is
payable
on quantity ascertained at loading port
0
on quantity ascertained at discharging port
0
on lowest between the quantity ascertained at loading and the quantity ascertained
at discharging port1
on highest between the quantity ascertained at loading and the quantity
ascertained at discharging port
0

315 If the charter-party stipulate that the vessel will load a certain type of cargo
then
the charterer can load any other cargo as long as its stowage factor is not higher
and he pays the freight agreed in the charter-party
0

the charterer is under an obligation to load the cargo mentioned in the charterparty
no matter what is her apparent order and condition
0

the charterer has the liberty to load any similar cargo as long as the cargo stowage
factor is not higher than the stowage factor of the cargo mentioned in the charter-
party and it is not dangerous for ship, crew and the other cargo on board
0

the charterer is under an obligation to load the cargo mentioned in the charterparty
and the cargo has to be in the condition mentioned in the charter-party or in
80
accordance with custom of the port at loading port
1

316 If the clause "freight deemed earned discountless and non returnable on
signing bills of lading vessel and/or cargo lost or not lost" is included into
charterparty then
freight is paybale even if the vessel and/or cargo is lost after completion of loading
0
freight is payable even if the the vessel and/or cargo is lost after signing bill of
lading 1
freight is payable only if the vessel and/or cargo is lost after release of bill of lading
0
freight is payable only on vessel's arrival at discharging port and commencement of
discharge 0

317 If the master delivers the cargo to a holder of one original bill of lading,
although another person is the lawful holder of the bill of lading:
the owners are responsible for wrong delivery of the cargo
0
the owners are exempted from any liability
1
the owners may be liable for missdelivery
0
the owners can be liable if Hague Rules apply
0

318 If the number of the original bills of lading issued is inserted into the bill of
lading then Master can deliver the cargo:
only if all original are presented
0
only if at least two originals are presented
0
against a non negotiable copy of the bill of lading
0
against one of the original bills of lading issued
1

319 If the shipowners is wrongfully stowing cargoes on deck


he is still entitled to limit his liability according with either Hague or Hamburg Rules
0
he is only responsible if the damage was caused by his fault
0
he is responsible for any cargo damage, no matter how it was caused
1
he is only responsible if the cargo owners can prove that damage is a consequence
of deck stowage0

320 If the shipper does not demand a bill of lading, according to Hague Rules
the carrier is bound to issue one based on information from Mate's receipt
0
81
the carrier is not bound to issue a bill of lading at all
1
the carrier is bound to issue a bill of lading before vessel arrives at discharging port
0
the carrier is bount to issue a bill of lading at receivers' request
0

321 If the true receiver presents to the master one of the set of original Bills of
Lading and master has no reason to put lien on cargo then:
master release the cargo and return original bill of lading to the receiver
0
master release the cargo and retain on board a copy of original bill of lading
0
master do not release the cargo before charaterer instruct him to do so
0
master release the cargo and retain the original bill of lading
1

322 If there is no special provision about bill of lading form


only BIMCO approved forms must be used
0
shippers can present any form as along as it in accordance with the custom of the
trade 0
there is no restriction on bill of lading form
1
it is compulsory to be prinded on a A4 paper
0

323 If there is no special provision in a marine bill of lading about transhipment of


the cargo then:
transhipment of the cargo is always acceptable
0
it is for forbiden to tranship the cargo
1
transhipment is allowed only if it is done at usual transhipments ports
0
transhipment is allowed as along as owners assume full liability
0

324 If, by mistake, port of discharging mentioned into the Bill of Lading released
to bona fide third party is Bucharest, while the charterparty is clearly showing
Constanta as discharging port then:
carrier is under an obligation to transport the cargo only up to Constanta, as
Bucharest is not a port0
carrier is under an obligation to transport the cargo up to the closest sea or river
port to Bucharest0
carrier is under an obligation to transport the cargo up to its final destination,
Bucharest 1
carrier is entitled to recover any extra expenses from the bill of lading holder
0

82
325 In a bareboat charter bunker expenses are covered by
shipowner 0
bareboat charterer 1
depends on charter-party terms and conditions
0
both shipowner and bareboat charterer
0

326 In a bareboat charter P&I and H&M expenses are covered by


shipowners 0
charterers 1
shipowners for P&I insurance and charterers for H&M insurance
0
charterers for P&I insurance and shipowners for H&M insurance
0

327 In a consecutive voyage charter-party the cancelling clause apply


to every voyage performed
0
only to first and last voyage
0
only to first and second voyage
0
only to first voyage 1

328 In cargo shipping context, who is the notify party?


the party whom the carrier is instructed to tender notice of readiness at discharging
port 0
the party whom the carrier is instructed to notify when the goods have arrived at
their destination1
the first consignee is always the notify party and arrival notices should be given to
him 0
the party whom the carrier is instructed to deliver the goods when goods have
arrived at their destination
0

329 In case master discovers, after signing Bills of lading, that there was a
mistake in his draft survey calculations he can:
use his correct draft survey figures to show the true quantity loaded no matter who
the holder of the bill of lading is.
0
use his correct draft survey figures to show the true quantity loaded only if the bill
of lading is still in the hands of the shipper
1

83
use his correct draft survey figures to show the true quantity loaded only if the bill
of lading is in the hands of a bona fide third party
0
not use his correct draft survey calculations to show the true quantity loaded
0

330 In case master of a bareboat chartered vessel, which is further employed by


a time charter and a subsequent voyage charter, signs the bills of lading then most
probably the carrier will be:
the bareboat owner
1
the head owners 0
the time charter owners 0
the voyage charter owners
0

331 In case Mate's receipts are claused in respect of cargo condition then:
Master will sign "Clean on board" bills of lading only if shippers and receivers sign a
Letter of Indemnity0
It is master's option to include them or not into the bill of lading
0
All remarks must be included into the Bills of Lading
1
Only remarks accepted by the charterers can be included into Bills of lading
0

332 In case owners, at charterers' request, agree to discharge the cargo at


another port than the one mentioned into the bill of lading:
The master can release the cargo against one copy of the original bill of lading
0
The master can release the cargo against one original bill of lading
0
The master can release the cargo against full set of original bills of lading
1
The master can release the cargo against presentation all original and "not
negotiable" copies issued0

333 In consecutive voyage chartering freight in payable


on number of theoretical voyages that can be performed
0
for each voyage performed by the ship
1
on both number of voyages performed and their duration
0
in owners option either on number of voyages performed or on voyage duration
0

334 In interpreting the phrase “so near as she may safely get” the word safely
refers to:
the safety of the cargo
0
84
the safety of the ship
1
the safety of both: ship and cargo
0
the safety of the discharge operation
0

335 In liner trade, the contract of carriage between carrier and owner of the bill of
lading other than the shipper is
Booking note
0
Charterparty 0
Bill of lading 1
Charterparty Bill of Lading
0

336 In the absence of agreement to the contrary, freight is payable


on vessel's arrival at discharging port
0
only on delivery of the goods at port of discharge
1
only after delivery of the goods at port of discharge
0
before signing and releasing bills of lading
0

337 In the liner shipping one of the main features is the existence of conferences.
A conference is a
a regular and international meeting of all carriers operating scheduled liner services
between
some designated ports, with the purpose of discussing problems of mutual interest
0

a group of carriers, which are operating scheduled liner services between


designated ports, joined together for the purpose of establishing common freight
rates 1

a company which is operating scheduled liner services between designated ports


and maintain fixed freight rates for a long period of time
0

structure gathering together all liner shipping companies with the only purpose of
limiting competition and increasing freight rates
0

338 In voyage chartering, what is the preliminary or approach voyage?


the previous voyage
0
the voyage to the lading port
1
the first trial voyage
0
85
the voyage from one loading port to another loading port
0

339 In which of the below delivery terms the costs are transferred from the seller
to the buyer on passing ship's rail at loading port?
FOB 1
CIF 0
DES 0
FCA 0

340 In which of the below situations the master can be considered agent from
necesity of the cargo owner?
vessel has on board refrigerating cargoes
0
vessel has on board refrigerating cargoes and ships refrigerating machines do not
work 0
vessel has on board refrigerating cargoes, ships refrigerating machines do not work
and master is unable to get instructions from shippers
0
vessel has on board refrigerating cargoes, ships refrigerating machines do not work
and master is unable to get instructions from shippers
1

341 In which of the below types of charter-parties are the disponent owners NOT
entitled to employ a bareboat chartered vessel?
bareboat charter-parties 1
time charter-parties
0
consecutive voyage charter-parties
0
contracts of affreightment
0

342 INCOTERMS have been issued by :


Baltic and International Conference, Copenhagen
0
International Maritime Organisation, London
0
International Chamber of Commerce, PARIS
1
International Association of Traders, Bruxelles
0

343 Is it permissible for a time charterer to redeliver a vessel without holds/tanks


beeing cleaned?
Under no circumstances a vessel can be redeliered dirty
0

If agreed, yes. A sum in compensation to the owners will normally be provided for in
the timecharter1

86
Yes, always vessel will be delivered dirty as she would be in the same condition if
she was under a voyage charter employement
0

Depends on what is the redelivery point as crew can clean it up if the ballast voyage
is longer 0

344 Is the disponent owner entitled to borrow money and mortgage the bareboat
chartered ship?
The disponent owner is entitled to borrow money and mortgage the ship, as he has
vessel's possesion during the charter-party
0
the disponent owner is not entitled to borrow money and to mortgage the ship, as
he is not the owner of the ship
1
the disponent owner can borrow money and mortgage the ship only if the next
freight is higher than the loan
0
the disponent owner is entitled to borrow money and mortgage the ship if the
charter-party contains a special provision
0

345 Is the shipper always the seller or the exporter of the goods?
Yes, always the seller is the shipper
0
No, the shipper is always the stevedoring company
0
No, many sellers employ a freight forwarder to organise the shipment
1
Yes, since the leter of caredit is in his favour he has always to be the shipper
0

346 Letters of indemnify for discharging the cargo without presentation of


originals:
are considered a fraudulent practice and can never be accepted by the owners
0
although sometimes they can be considered fraud, they are accepted as a
commercial solution 1
can only be accepted if shippers or charterers or receivers bank sign them
0
can only be accepted if owner has a long standing commercial relation with the
receivers 0

347 Liner shipping can be considered


a market dominated in the same time by monopol and perfect competition
0
a perfect competitive market
0

87
an oligopolistic market
0
a monopolistic market
1

348 Loading and discharging expenses are for charterers account if the vessel is
employed on
FILO terms 0
FIO terms 1 Free In and
Out
LIFO terms 0
LILO terms 0

349 Loading and discharging expenses are for owners account if vessel is fixed on
LILO terms 1 Last In, Last Out
FIOS terms 0
LIFO terms 0
FILO terms 0

350 Minimum content of a bill of lading is mentioned into


Hague Rules 0
Hague-Visby Rule 0
Hamburg Rules 1
York-Antwerp Rules 0

351 On 15th December 2006 a ship is employed to discharge a cargo at


Taganrog, in the Azov Sea, or so near as she may safely get. On arrival, in mid
January, the Sea of Azov is closed by ice and it is estimated that the vessel may
only proceed to the discharging port at the beginning of February. Under these
circumstances the master is:

entitled to discharge the cargo at the nearest safe port


0

bound to wait until beginning February and then to proceed to Taganrog


1

required to ask charterers for instructions and in case no instructions received to


proceed to the nearest safe port
0

required to wait few days and then make a decision 0

352 On 15th December 2006 a ship is employed to discharge a cargo in a safe


port in Black Sea, including Azov Sea ports, at charterers option, or so near as she
88
may safely get. On passing Bosphorus Charterers have nominated Taganrog and
vessel arrived arrival, in mid January, the Sea of Azov is closed by ice and it is
estimated that the vessel may only proceed to the discharging port at the beginning
of February. Under these circumstances the master is:

entitled to discharge the cargo at the nearest safe port


0

bound to wait until beginning February and then to proceed to Taganrog


0

required to ask charterers for instructions and in case no instructions received to


proceed to the nearest safe port
1

required to wait few days and then make a decision 0

353 One of the main problems in chartering is the drafting of various clauses by
non legal and non native english speakers. In order to reduce litigation, instead of
amending standard clauses the drafters of standard forms have
forbidden amendments
0
recommended that only lawyers to amend the standard clauses
0
drafted some clauses with options and parties only choose the option they need
1
drafted all clauses with options and parties only choose the option they need
0

354 Outturn report is a


document prepared by the insurance company of the cargo in which the condition
of cargo discharged from a vessel is noted along with any discrepancies in the
quantity compared with the vessel’s manifest.
0
document prepared by the custom at discharging port in which the condition of
cargo discharged from a vessel is noted along with any discrepancies in the
quantity compared with the bill of lading. 0

detailed report prepared by the master at discharging port to explain why there are
discrepancies in the form of over, short and damaged cargo as compared to the bill
of lading 0

written statement by a stevedoring company in which the condition of cargo


discharged from a vessel is noted along with any discrepancies in the quantity
compared with the vessel’s manifest. 1

355 Remarks on the Mate's receipts on cargo quantity and cargo condition have
to be included into bill of lading
1
can be included into bill of lading
0

89
are included into bill of lading if letter of credit allow them
0
are included into bill of lading if charerparty allow them
0

356 The fundamental difference between a seawaybill and a bill of lading is:
Seawaybill is not a document of title
1
Seawaybill is used only on short distance
0
Seawaybill is used only in container trade
0
Seawaybill is not always negotiable
0

357 The Hague or Hague - Visby Rules apply


to contracts of carriage covered by seawaybills or any other similar document of
title , is so far e as such documents refer to carriage of goods by sea
0

to contracts of carriage covered by a bill of lading or any charter party, in so far as


the as such documents refer to carriage of goods by sea
0

to contracts of carriage covered by a bill of lading or any similar ducument of title,


in so far as the as such documents refer to carriage of goods by sea
1

to contracts of carriage covered by a bill of lading or any similar ducument of title,


in so far as the as such documents refer to carriage of goods by sea, land and rail
0

358 The level of deadfreight due is calculated


by multiplying difference between minimum quantity charterer is an under an
obligation to load and quantity loaded with the unit freight
0

by multiplying difference between maximum quantity charterer is allowed to load


and quantity loaded with the unit freight
0

by deducting from extra income that could have been obtained if charterers were
loading minimim quantity they were under an obligation to load the extra expenses
90
owners would have made to obtain that income
1

by deducting from extra income that could have been obtained if owners were
loading maximum quantity the vessel is able to load the extra expenses owners
would have made to obtain that income0

359 The main particularity of a "charterparty" bill of lading is that


loading and discharging charges are almost always for charterers account and this
is made clear by the bill's of lading terms, conditions, liberties and exceptions
0

usually makes references to the carrier's standard terms and conditions of carriage
and same can be obtained from its office at charterer's request
0

usually sets out some fairly basic provisions about carriage but otherwise
incorporating in general terms, some or all of the provisions of a pre-existing
agreement 1

usually sets out in full the contract of carriage between the bill of lading holder
(except the shipper) and the carrier under the bill of lading.
0

360 The main particularity of a liner bill of lading is that


usually sets out some fairly basic provisions but otherwise incorporating in general
terms, some or all of the provisions of a pre-existing agreement
0

usually makes references to carrier's standard terms and conditions which can be
obtained from its office
0

loading and discharging charges are almost always for owners account
0

usually sets out in full the contract between the bill of lading holder (except the
shipper) and the carrier under the bill of lading.
1

361 The master of a demise chartered ship


is the servant of the charterers
1
is the servant of the owners
0
is the servant of both owners and charterers
0
91
is the servant of the charterers, but has to follow also orders from owners
0

362 To preserve his lien what must a shipowner to?


to keep actual possesion of the goods
1
to sell the goods 0
to take property for a short time 0
to instruct receivers not to sell them further
0

363 Under FIOS terms responsibility for stowage rest with the charterers. Under
which of the below situations will the owners be liable for stowage?
Charter-party contains a clause stating that stowage is done under master's
supervision 0
Charter-party contains a clause stating that stowage is done under master's
direction and supervision0
Charter-party contains a clause stating that stowage is done under master's
responsibility 1
All of the above
0

364 Under what circumstances is deck cargo excluded from cover by the Hague
Visby Rules?
where there is a statement on the face of the bill of lading issued to the shipper that
the goods may be carried on deck, and the goods are, in fact stowed on deck
0

where there is a statement on the face of the bill of lading issued to the shipper that
the goods are shipped on deck, and the goods are, in fact, stowed on deck
1

where there is a statement on the face of the bill of lading issued to the shipper that
the goods are shipped on deck, even if the goods are, in fact stowed under deck
0

where there is a statement on the back of the bill of lading issued to the shipper
that the goods can be shipped on deck, and the goods are, in fact, stowed on deck
0

365 Under what circumstances is the master allowed to issue a second set of Bills
of Lading?
Master will issue a second set of Bills of Lading if the true holder of the bill of lading
declares that he lost the first set.
0
92
Master will only issue a second set of bills of lading if the first set is returned to the
master. 1

Master will issue a second set of bills of lading if the shippers are promising to
return the first set.0

Master will issue a second set of bills o lading if the shippers guarantee they will
destroy the first set0

366 Usually mate's receipt for the cargo loaded are signed
before commencement of loading
0
after completion of loading
1
during loading part of the cargo
0
before vessels' departure 0

367 What are INCOTERMS?

A set of uniform rules which codify the interpretation of trade terms defining the
obligations and rights of the seller and buyer in sale of goods transactions
0

A set of uniform rules which codify the interpretation of trade terms defining the
obligations and rights of the owner and charterer in international sale of goods
transactions 0

A set of uniform rules which codify the interpretation of trade terms defining the
obligations and rights of the shipper and receiver in international sale of goods
transactions 0

A set of uniform rules which codify the interpretation of trade terms defining the
obligations and rights of the seller and buyer in international sale of goods
transactions 1

368 What are the bareboat owners options if after an inspection the vessel is
found with serious technical deficiencies?

the owners have no legal right to interfere, charterers will be responsble if at the
end of the contract the vessel is not redelivered in the same good order and
condition as on delivery 0

the owners will start legal proceeding against the charterers


0
93
the owners will put charterers on notice to rectify deficiences and if same are not
rectified will withdraw the vessel from charterers service
1

the owners will inform port state control in the next port of call and ask them to
arrest the vessel until deficiences are rectified
0

369 What are the functions of maritime arbitrators?


to decide matters in dispute between two parties to a shipping-related contract, as
an alternative to litigation
1
to decide matters in dispute between two parties to a shipping-related contract,
when no acceptable solution is found in a court of law
0
to mediate matters in dispute between two parties to a shipping-related contract, as
an alternative to litigation
0
to decide terms of the contract of carriage if parties in dispute do not find a mutual
solution 0

370 What are the functions of shipbrokers in the dry cargo and tanker market?
to negociate the terms and conditions of a charterparty and to ask for approval
from owners or charterers before signature
0
to settle disputes arrising from agreements between shipowners and charterers
0
to supervise performance of agreements between shipowners and charterers
0
to find employment for ships and to find suitable sea transport for the carriage of a
cargo 1

371 What are the main responsabilities of the seller and buyer when goods are
sold on a CIF basis?

The buyer must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the
named destination, but the risk of loss or of damage to the goods is transferred
from the buyer to the seller when goods pass the ship's rail at the loading port
0

The seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the
named destination, but the risk of loss or of damage to the goods is transferred
from the seller to the buyer when goods pass the ship's rail at the loading port
1

The seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the
named destination, but the risk of loss or of damage to the goods is transferred

94
from the seller to the buyer when goods pass the ship's rail at the discharging port
0

The buyer must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the
named destination, but the risk of loss or of damage to the goods is transferred
from the buyer to the seller when goods pass the ship's rail at the loading port
0

372 What are the main responsibilities of the seller when goods are sold "FOB
Constanta"?
The seller must bear all costs and risks until the goods have passed the ship's rail at
the loading port (Constanta)
1
The buyer must bear all costs and risks until the goods have passed the ship's rail
at the loading port (Constanta)
0
The seller must bear all costs while the buyer must bear all risks until the goods
have passed the ship's rail at the loading port (Constanta)
0
The buyer must bear all costs while the seller must bear all risks until the goods
have passed the ship's rail at the loading port (Constanta)
0

373 What are the options available to a party to a charter-party if the other party
breach a condition?
she can repudiate the contract and claim damages
1
she can only claim damages
0
she can either reputiate the contract or claim damages
0
she can only claim damages if cargo condition was affected
0

374 What are the options available to a party to a charter-party if the other party
breaches a warranty?
she can repudiate the contract and claim damages
0
she can claim damages
1
she can either repudiate the contract or claim damages
0
she can only claim damages if cargo condition is affected on delivery
0
95
375 What are the points that can not miss from a delivery/redelivery clause in a
time charterparty?

A clear identification of loading and discharging ports


0
A clear description of bunker consumption and speed
0
A clear description of on-hire and off-hire procedure
0
A clear identification of delivery and redelivery points
1

376 What are the possible consequences for the owners or carrier of deviating
from the contracted voyage?
They would be liable for cargo loss, damage and delay, but they would be able to
limit their liability according to the Hague or Hague-Visby Rules, as well as common
law 0

They would still be able to invoke all defences under the Hague or Hague-Visby
Rules, as well as common law, and avoid liability for cargo loss, damage and delay
0

They would be deprived of all defences under the Hague or Hague-Visby Rules, as
well as common law, to liability for cargo loss, damage and delay, and would
consequently be greatly exposed to claims1

They would be deprived of all defences under the Hague or Hague-Visby Rules, as
well as common law, to liability for cargo loss, damage and delay, and would also
loose their insurance cover even if deviation was not authorised by them
0

377 What can be said about the relationship between unit costs and ships
deadweight if there are modern cargo handling equipments available in ports
unit costs is increasing while deadweight is increasing
0
unit cost is decreasing while deadweight is increasing
1
unit cost is not dependent on deadweight
0
unit cost is always constant
0

378 What can owners do if time charterers do not pay hire in time?

They should send to the charterers a notification after due date and if the charterers
do not pay during grace period, owners can withdraw the vessel from time
charterers' service 1

96
They should send to the charterers a notification before due date and if the
charterers do not pay during grace period, owners can withdraw the vessel from
time charterers' service 0

They should send to the charterers at least 3 notifications after due date and if the
charterers do not pay, owners can withdraw the vessel from time charterers' service
0

They should wait at least 10 days before they send to the charterers a notification
to pay and if the charterers do not pay, owners can withdraw the vessel from time
charterers' service 0

379 What can the master do when loading or discharging operations are very
slow?
as long as demurage is paid there is no problem and he should not interfere
0
he should inform the owners about the cause of slow loading or discharging
0
he should send letters of protest to all parties involved
1
he should ask crew to participate in loading or discharging operation
0

380 What cargoes can charterers load on a vessel under time charter?
Any lawful cargoes 0
Lawful cargoes except those specifically excluded by charterparty
1
Any cargoes the vessel is built to carry as long as they are not dangerous
0
Any cargoes charterers consider suitable, as they will be responsible if vessel is
redelivered in a damaged condition
0

381 What do you understand by "back freight"?


all expenses incurred by the carrier to return his vessel to original load port if he is
not able to find suitable employment
0

all expenses incurred by the carrier to protect the cargo if he is prevented from
delivering the cargo at the agreed destination for some reason beyond his control
1

all expenses incurred by the carrier to protect the cargo if he is forced to put lien on
cargo at discharging port due to non receipt of freight and demurrage at loading or
discharging ports 0

all expenses incurred by the carrier to return the cargo at the loading port if by
some reasons vessel is unable to continue her voyage up to final destination
0
97
382 What do you understand by "Ballast Bonus" in a time charter?
It means that if the vessel will ballast for long time between loaded legs owners are
entitled to a compensation for all their extra expenses for loss of time and money
0

It means that if the vessel is far away from delivery point charterers agree to
compensate owners for the long ballast trip with an agreed amount to cover part of
owners expenses 1

It means that if the vessel is far away from delivery point charterers agree to
compensate owners for all expenses for the long ballast trip up to delivery point
0

It means that if the vessel is far away from delivery point charterers agree to
compensate owners for the long ballast trip with a daily amount which is lower than
agreed daily hire 0

383 What do you understand by "lawful merchandise"?


It means that the vessel can carry cargoes that can be loaded, carried and
discharged without breaking the regulations at loading port, discharging port and
regulations of the flag state 1

It means that the vessel can carry cargoes that can be loaded, carried and
discharged without breaking all international rules and regulations
0

It means that the vessel can carry cargoes that can be loaded, carried and
discharged without breaking the regulations of all ports the vessel would call before
arriving at discharging port 0

It means that the vessel is entitled to carry any cargo that is not officialy declared
unlawful by a specialised agency of United Nations or by International Maritime
Organisation 0

384 What do you understand by "rye terms" clause in context of cargo quality?
according to this clause the buyer can request a price discount if cargo quality is
not in accordance with contractual quality
1

according with this clause the buyer is entitled to reject the cargo if cargo quality is
not in accordance with contractual quality
0

according with this clause the cargo is sold on "as is" basis
0

98
according with this clause the quality of cargo will be determined after delivery and
buyer has the right to buy it or not
0

385 What do you understand by "sound delivered" clause in context of cargo


quality?
according to this clause the buyer can request a price discount if cargo quality is
not in accordance with contractual quality
0

according with this clause the buyer is entitled to reject the cargo if cargo quality is
not in accordance with contractual quality
1

according with this clause the cargo is sold on "as is" basis
0

according with this clause the quality of cargo will be determined after delivery and
buyer has the right to buy it or not
0

386 What do you understand by "tel quel" clause in context of cargo quality?
according to this clause the buyer can request a price discount if cargo quality is
not in accordance with contractual quality
0

according with this clause the buyer is entitled to reject the cargo if cargo quality is
not in accordance with contractual quality
0

according with this clause the cargo is sold on "as is" basis
1

according with this clause the quality of cargo will be determined after delivery and
buyer has the right to buy it or not
0

387 What do you understand by "to order" Bill of lading ?


A bill of lading which can be transferred from one person to another by orders from
the shipper or the person who issued it at shippers' request
0

A bill of lading stating that the goods are consigned to a specified person and
master is obliged to deliver the goods to that person and only this person is allowed
to give orders for delivery of the cargo 0

A bill of lading not mentioning anything abouth the consignee and where the holder
can insert his name and thereafter give orders in respect of cargo delivery
0

99
A bill of lading issued to order of a not named or named entity (bank, consignee,
shipper) which can be transferred to third party by endorsment
1

388 What do you understand by "turn time"?


it means that the vessel has to be operated into a certain period of time after arrival
0
it means that the vessel has to wait until the ship under loading operation is
completing loading 0
it means that the vessel has to wait for berthing a certain period of time, and this
time is not counted as laytime
1
it means that the vessel has to wait for berthing a certain period of time, and this
time is counted as laytime
0

389 What do you understand by abbreviation "BWAD"?


the fact that water density at respective port of call is higher than sea water density
0
the fact that water density at respective port of call is between sea water density
and fresh water density
1
the fact that water density at respective port of call is variable
0
the fact that water density at respective port of call can not be precisely measured
0

390 What do you understand by abbreviation "CHABE"?


it means that charterers have the right to appoint t loading and discharging ports
0
it means that charterers have the right to nominate agents that will be appointed by
the owners at loading and discharging ports
1
it means that owners have the right to nominate agents that will be appointed by
the charterers at loading and discharging ports
0
it means that owners have the right to nomitate what agents will be appointed at
loading and discharging ports
0

391 What do you understand by abbreviation "ILOHC"?


It means that charterers have the option to redeliver the vessel not cleaned against
payment of a lumpsum amount
1
It means that owners have the option to deliver the vessel not cleaned against
payment of a lumpsum amount
0

100
It means that owners have the option to redeliver the vessel not cleaned against
payment of a lumpsum amount
0
It means in case charterers redeliver the vessel cleaned they are entitled to receive
a lumpsum amount0

392 What do you understand by lumpsum freight ?


An agreed amount paid to the charterer for the use of the whole, or part, of a ship
to carry cargo on a given voyage
0

An agreed daily amount paid to the shipowner for the use of the whole, or part, of a
ship to carry cargo on a given voyage
0

An agreed amount calculated by multiplying vessel deadweight with a unit freight


0

An agreed amount paid to the shipowner for the use of the whole, or part, of a ship
to carry cargo on a given voyage
1

393 What do you understand by straight bill of lading?


A bill of lading issued to order of a not named or named entity (bank, consignee,
shipper) who is entitled to endorse the bill
0

A bill of lading stating that the goods are consigned to a specified person and
master is obliged to deliver the goods to that person
1

A bill of lading not mentioning anything abouth the consignee and where the holder
can insert his name and ask for delivery of cargo
0

A bill of lading issued to order of the shipper and which can be endorsed in full in
favour of the true owner of the cargo
0

394 What documents should the master expect to be given by an on-hire


surveyor at the commencement of a time charter?

a full packing list with cargoes to be loaded after completion of survey report and a
proposed stowage plan
0
a detailed survey report with surveyor's findings about vessels hull, machinery and
bunaker on board0

101
a delivery certificate confirming date and time of hand-over, bunkers on board and
conditions of holds/tanks
1

a delivery certificate confirming name of owners, name of time charterers and


duration of the contract0

395 What inspections are normal at redelivery at the end of a time charter?
on hire survey
0
detailed survey of hull and machinery
0
off hire survey
1
detailed survey of open spaces
0

396 What inspections of a vessel will a time charterer always make on delivery?
a full inspection of the hull an ship's equipments
0
a short visit in all compartments to check if they are proper maintained
0
on hire survey
1
off hire survey
0

397 What is "bunker adjustment factor"


a system of stabilizing the freight when there are sudden and unexpected changes
in the cost of bunker1
a system of increasing the freight when there are unexpected changes in the cost of
bunker 0
a system of stabilizing the freight when there are sudden and unexpected changes
in the bunker consumption
0
a system of stabilizing the profit by including all extra bunker consumption in the
freight 0

398 What is "currency adjusment factor"?


a system of protecting the shippers when their expenses are expressed in other
currency than the currency they pay the freight and there is a sudden and
unexpected change in the exchange rate 0

102
a system of converting the freight into a currency favourable to the shipowners
0

a system of protecting the owners against sudden and unexpected changes in the
exchange rate of currency the owners earn their freight
0

a system of protecting the owners when their expenses are expressed in other
currency than the currency they earn their income and there is a sudden and
unexpected change in the exchange rate1

399 What is a "RIDER"?


one or more clauses agreed between shipowners and charterers that suplement a
standard charter-party form
1

ammendments made to one or more standard clauses and agreed by shipowners


and charterers 0

one or more clauses agreed between shipowners and charterers after signature of a
charter-party0

one or more clauses agreed between shipowners and charterers that replace
clauses from a standard charter-party form
0

400 What is a bank doing on receipt of a claused bills of lading instead of "clean
on board" bill of lading required by the letter of credit?

the bank is releasing the money and keep the seller responsible for any claims at
discharging port0

the bank is refusing payment under leter of credit and ask the buyer for instructions
1

the bank is only paying part of the letter of credit amount and keeping the balance
as guarantee 0

the bank is not entitled to study the bills of lading, they only have to pay the seller
for deliverying the goods
0

401 What is a carrier?


a person who is the temporar owner of the vessel performing the carriage from one
place to another0

a person who owns the vessel performing the carriage from one place to another
0

a person who agrees to carry goods from one place to another


1

103
a person who enter into a charter party agreement as shipowner
0

402 What is a charter party?


an approved standard agreement containing the express terms of an agreement for
the charter of a ship.
0
a document containing the express and implied terms of an agreement for the
charter of a ship 0
a document containing the express terms of an agreement for the charter of a ship.
1
a document containing the express terms of an agreement for the hire of a ship.
0

403 What is a charterparty bill of lading?


A bill of lading that can replace a charterparty
0
A bill of lading having the same terms and conditions like a charterparty
0
A bill of lading used only when the vessel is employed on a charterparty clearly
mentioning that all bills will be subject to charterparty
0
A bill having clauses that incorporate all terms, conditions, liberties and exceptions
of a charterparty1

404 What is a contract of affreightment in modern shipping terms?


An agreement between a shipper and a carrier, for the carriage of a large number of
containers between specific places, over a specified period of time, by vessels of a
type and size nominated by the carrier and accepted by the shipper
0

An agreement between a charterer and a shipowner, for the carriage of a not clear
defined quantity of named goods between specific places, after a specified period of
time, by vessels of a type and size specified by the charterers, but which are
nominated b the owners 0

An agreement between a charterer and a shipowner, for the carriage of a large


quantity of named goods between specific places, over a specified period of time,
by vessels of a type and size specified by the charterers, but which are nominated b
the owners 1

405 What is a contract of affreightment in the legal sense often used in maritime
law textbooks written by lawyers?

charterers, but which are nominated b the owners


0
any contract of carriage by sea
1
either a voyage charter or a time charter agreement
0
104
a bill of lading
0

406 What is a dirty Bill of lading?

A bill of lading issued by the agents on other form than the standard and
recomended BIMCO form.0
A bill of lading containing false information about the cargo or the
shippers/receivers . 0
A bill of lading which contains remarks about the defective order or condition or
shortage of the goods loaded
1
A bill of lading which contains modified or added clauses to the conditions of
carriage 0

407 What is a foul Bill of lading?


A bill of lading issued by the agents on other form than the standard and
recomended BIMCO form.0
A bill of lading containing false information about the cargo or the
shippers/receivers . 0
A bill of lading which contains remarks about the defective order or condition or
shortage of the goods loaded
1
A bill of lading which contains modified or added clauses to the conditions of
carriage 0

408 What is a freight forwarder?


a firm specialising in paying the freight for and on behalf of the charterers and
preparing the logistic process
0
a firm which contract with the carrier for the carriage of goods by sea and arrange
loading and/or discharging operations
0
a firm specialising in the export and/or import of goods on behalf of exporters or
importer and is usually acting as a shipper
1
a firm specialising in the export and/or import of goods on behalf of shipowners and
is usually acting as shipper
0

409 What is a Letter of Credit?

An undertaking issued by a bank, on behalf of the buyer, to the seller (exporter), to


pay for goods, provided that the seller presents documents which comply fully with
the terms and conditions of the letter of credit
1
105
An undertaking issued by a bank, on behalf of the seller, to the buyer (importer), to
pay for goods, provided that the buyer presents documents which comply fully with
the terms and conditions of the letter of credit
0
An undertaking issued by an insurer, on behalf of the buyer, to the seller (exporter),
to pay for goods, provided that the seller presents documents which comply fully
with the terms and conditions of the letter of credit
0
An undertaking issued by a bank, on behalf of the buyer, to the seller (exporter), to
pay for goods, provided that the seller presents documents including a valid bill of
lading of lading or a negotiable seawybill
0

410 What is a private carrier?


a carrier who is transporting cargoes only for his own interest and from time to time
for close charaterers
0
a carrier who restricts his strict liability by contracting out of his common law
obligations 1
a carrier who reduce his liability by contracting out of Hague or Hague Visby
obligations 0
a carrier who has his own vessels and operate them as he wishes
0

411 What is a safe berth?


a berth which, during the relevant period of time, the ship can reach, remain at and
depart from without, even if there is some abnormal occurrence, being exposed to
danger which cannot be avoided by good navigation and seamanship.
0

a berth which the ship can always reach, remain at and depart from without, in the
absence of some abnormal occurrence, being exposed to danger which cannot be
avoided by good navigation and seamanship.
0

a berth which, during the relevant period of time, the ship can reach, remain at and
depart from without, in the absence of some abnormal occurrence, being exposed
to danger which cannot be avoided by good navigation and seamanship.
1

a berth which, during the relevant period of time, the ship can reach, remain at and
depart from without, on all weather conditions, being exposed to danger which
cannot be avoided by good navigation and seamanship.
0

412 What is a shipmaster's legal position in relation to a time charterer?


The master should follow time charterer's instructions in so far as they relate to the
administrative activities of the ship
0

106
The master should follow time charterer's instructions in so far as they relate to the
commercial activities of the ship
1
The master should follow time charterer's instructions in so far as they relate to the
management of the ship
0
The master should always ask owners for instructions when he receives orders from
the time charterer0

413 What is a shipped Bill of Lading?

a bill of lading issued when part of the goods are loaded on board the ship
0
a bill of lading issued when goods have been loaded on board a ship
1
a bill of lading issued before the vessel sails from the loading port
0
a bill of lading issued issued when the carrier receive the goods into his care, before
loading into onto the ship
0

414 What is a time charter?


a contract for hire of a named vessel, with or without crew, for a specified period of
time 0
a contract for hire of a named vessel together with services of the crew for a
specified period of time1
a contract for hire of vessel which will be nominated at a latter stage for certain
period of time 0
a contract for carriage of a cargo from one place to another where freight is paid
per day 0

415 What is an accomplished Bill of lading?


One of the set of original Bills of Lading which has been surrendered to the ship's
master at the loading port, allowing the shipper to load and deliver of the cargo to
the carrier 0

Full set of original Bills of Lading which has been surrendered to the ship's master at
the discharge port, allowing the receiver to take delivery of the cargo
0

One of the set of original Bills of Lading which has been surrendered to the ship's
master at the discharge port, allowing the legal holder to take delivery of the cargo
1

One of the set of original Bills of Lading which has been surrendered to the bank,
allowing the legal holder to get paid for delivering the cargo to the carrier and
complying with Letter of credit 0

416 What is freight?

107
The agreed rate payable to the shipowner for the carriage of goods from the port of
shipment to the agreed destination.
1
The agreed rate payable to the shipowner for carriage of goods from the port of
shipment to any port of discharge
0
The agreed rate payable to the shipowner for carriage of goods from port of
shipment to a place situated as near as possible to the port of discharge
0
The agreed rate payable to the shipowner for renting the ship for a certain period of
time to the charterer
0

417 What is happening if a clause from the rider is in contradiction with a clause
from the standard form?

the clause from the rider has priority of interpretation over the clause from the
standard form 1

the clause from the standard form has priority of interpretation over the clause from
the rider 0

none of the clauses have priority of interpretation and master should ask for
instruction from charterers
0
either the owners or the charterers should refer the case to arbitration for a decision
over interpretation
0

418 What is happening if a time chartered vessel is withdrawn from the service of
time charters in the middle of a voyage and "freight prepaid" bills have been
released?

The owners have the right to discharge the cargo at the nearest port if they are not
paid the outstanding hire in full
0
The owners have to deliver the cargo as per voyage charter party no matter if they
are paid or not1
The owners have to perform the voyage up to the end, but they will not deliver the
cargo unless outstanding hire is paid in full
0
the owners have the right to return to the loading port and discharge the cargo if
they are not paid0

419 What is meant by "inherent vice in the goods"?

a natural tendency of the goods to deteriorate if they are not proper looked for
0
108
a hiden deficiency of the goods not discoverable at first sight
0
a natural tendency of the goods to deteriorate without human negligence
1
a natural tendency of the goods to loose weight during the carriage
0

420 What is probably the most commonly defined trading area in time charters
for a vessel trading worldwide?
withing Institute Navigation Limits
0
between good and safe ports
0
within Institute Warranty Limits
1
outside Institute Warranty Limits
0

421 What is stale bill of lading ?

a bill of lading which was presented to the bank after expiry of the date of the credit
or 21 days after signature if a date of expiry is not mentioned
1
a bill of lading which was issued by a party having not authority to sign on behalf of
the carrier 0
a clause bill of lading which was presented to the bank and the bank is not sure if it
affects the interest of the receivers or not
0
a bill of lading which was presented to the bank after expiry of last day of shipment
or 21 days after signature if last day of shipment in not mentioned
0

422 What is tally sheet?


Tally sheet is the document issued by persons recording cargo coming into or going
out of a ship 1
Tally sheet is the document issued always by stevedoring company recording cargo
available for loading or received into their custody
0
Tally sheet is the document issued by persons recording cargo condition at loading
or discharging ports0
Tally sheet is the document issued by persons recording number and condition of
cargo loaded or discharged
0

423 What is the carrier's lien?

109
The right of the carrier to retain possesion of the cargo carried as a security for the
performance of an obligation under contract, or to secure satisfaction of a claim.
1

The right of the carrier to sell the the cargo carried in order to cover his unpaid
expenses for the performance of an obligation under contract, or to settle an old
claim. 0

The right of the carrier to retain possesion of the cargo carried as a security for a
future performance of an obligation under contract, or to secure a possible future a
claim. 0

The right of the carrier to retain property of the cargo carried as a security for the
performance of an obligation under contract, or to secure satisfaction of a claim.
0

424 What is the criterion used by banks when they analyze a claused bills of
lading?
they have to take into consideration shippers' interests
0
they have to take into consideration shipowners' interests
0
they have to take into consideration receivers' interests
1
they have to take into consideration charterers' interests
0

425 What is the deadweight of a capesize vessel?


between 70,000 and 150,000 dwt
0
between 80,000 and 180,000 dwt
1
between 120,000 and 180,000 dwt
0
between 110,000 and 220,000 dwt
0

426 What is the deadweight of a handymax vessel?


between 28,000 and 45,000 dwt 0
between 35,000 and 42,000 dwt 0
between 38,000 and 52,000 dwt 0
between 38,000 and 48,000 dwt 1

427 What is the deadweight of a handysize vessel?


between 18,000 and 35,000 dwt 1
between 18,000 and 45,000 dwt 0
between 22,000 and 35,000 dwt 0
between 38,000 and 45,000 dwt 0

428 What is the deadweight of a Panamax vessel ?


between 35,000 and 75,000 dwt 0
between 45,000 and 90,000 dwt 0
110
between 50,000 and 80,000 dwt 1
between 80,000 and 120,000 dwt
0

429 What is the deadweight of a supramax vessel?


between 48,000 and 58,000 dwt 0
between 45,000 and 56,000 dwt 0
between 52,000 and 58,000 dwt 1
between 38,000 and 58,000 dwt 0

430 What is the difference between a common law lien and a contractual lien?
There is no difference as both common law and contractual lien have to be
incorporated by a term expressed in the contract in order to offer effective
protection 0

A common law lien does not need to be expressely stated in the contract, whereas a
contractual lien is one incorporated by a term expressed in the contract
1

A common law lien needs to be expressely stated in the contract, whereas a


contractual lien needs not to be incorporated by a term expressed in the contract
0

The difference is not very important as in a contract of carriage of goods by sea all
that matters is the express provision of the contract in respect of lien
0

431 What is the difference between delivery terms FOB and CIF in respect of the
moment risks are transferred from the seler to the buyer?

Under FOB delivery risks are transferred from buyer to seller on passing ships rail at
loading port while under CIF delivery risks are transferred on passing ship's rail at
discharging port 0

Under FOB delivery risks are transferred from buyer to seller on completion of
loading while under CIF delivery risks are transferred on completion of discharging
0

Under FOB delivery risks are transferred from buyer to seller on passing ships rail
while under CIF delivery risks are transferred on cargo delivery
0

there is no difference
1

432 What is the golden rule on international trade from point of view of country
were the traders are based?
to export on CIF terms and import on FOB terms
1

111
to export on FOB terms and import on CIF terms
0
to export and import on CIF terms
0
to export and import on FOB terms
0

433 What is the importance of expression "freight prepaid" in a bill of lading ?


It means that freight has to be paid before commencing loading operations
0
It means that freight has to be paid before signing charterparty
0
It means that freight has to be paid before releasing bill of lading
1
It means that freight has to be paid before delivery of the cargo
0

434 What is the last version of INCOTERMS?


INCOTERMS 2007 0
INCOTERMS 1990 0
INCOTERMS 2000 1
INCOTERMS 2004 0

435 What is the main benefit to the buyer when he buys on an FOB basis?

he can sell the goods after arrival at discharging port


0
he can sell the goods after passing ships rail at loading port
0
he can sell the goods once he has received the documents
1
he can buy the goods once he has received the documents
0

436 What is the main concern of an owner chartering his ship on a charter by
demise?

the owner is mainly concerned with charterers competence in fixing the ship
profitably 0
the owner is concerned with vessel performing voyages with required speed and
without extra bunker consumption
0

112
the owner is mainly concerned with charterers competence in maintaining the ship
in a good technical condition
1
the owner is mainly concerned with crew competence in performing their job
0

437 What is the main particularity of a Time Charter ?

Vessel is from all points of view under charterers control for a long period of time
0

Vessel is from administrative point of view under charterers direct control for a
limited period of time0

vessel is from commercial point of view under charterers direct control for a limited
period of time1

vessel is from both commercial and administrative point of view under charterers
direct control for a limited period of time
0

438 What is the meaning of the word "about” when it is used to describe vessels
deadweight cargo capacity?

always a tolerance of 5 % is considered acceptable


0
always a tolerance of 10 % is considered acceptable
0
it depends on ship's size, but generally a tolerance of 5 % is considered acceptable
1
only for small vessel a certain tolerance is acceptable
0

439 What is the name of the document used to charter space on a liner vessel?
Booking Note
1
Charter-party
0
Book of Lading
0
Bill of Lading 0

440 What is the purpose of a Letter of Credit?


to enable the seller to take control of the goods soon after the shipment
0
to enable the seller to receive payment for the goods soon after the shipment
1
113
to enable the seller to receive payment for the goods before shipment on board the
vessel 0
to guarantee to the seller that he will receive payment for the goods before delivery
0

441 What is the purpose of the "Paramount Clause" in a bill of lading?


Incorporates the Hague or Hague-Visby Rules
1
Incorpoatres the Hamburg Rules 0
Incorporates either Hague, Hague-Visby or Hamburg Rules depending on the port
cargo is loaded.0
Incorporates either Hague, Hague-Visby or Hamburg Rules
0

442 What is the recommended INCOTERMS 2000 delivery term for a shipper
having the obligation to load the cargo on board a RO-RO vessel?
FOB 0
FAS 0
FCA 1 (Free
Carrier)
FAC 0

443 What is the relationship between Bill of lading and Letter of Credit?

Bill of lading has to be in strict conformity with Letter of Credit requirements, any
discrepancy can delay or refuse payment
1
Letter of credit has to be issued in strict conformity with content of the Bill of Lading
and in this way there in no discrepancy
0
Bills of lading has to be issued in accordance with Letter of Credit, but almost
always discrepancies are accepted if they are not too serious
0
Bills of Lading and Letters of Credit are different documents and there is no
relationship between them0

444 What is the usual loading rate in the liner trades?

In liner trades loading is usually arranged by shipowners and usual loading rate is
"as fast as the vessel can receive"
1
In liner trades loading is usually arranged by the charterers and usual loading rate is
in accordance with custom of the port
0
In liner trades loading is usually arranged by shipowners and usual loading rate is
"2000 metric tons per running day"
0

114
In liner trades loading is usually arranged by the charterers and usual loading rate is
in accordance with charter-party terms and conditions
0

445 What is the value in law of a letter of indemnity for issuing "clean on board"
bills of lading while mate's receipts are claused ?

Such a letter of indemnity has no value in law and most jurisdictions treat is as null
and void and contrary to public order
1
By such a letter of indemnity shippers guarantee that if the carrier will held liable
for damages he will be reimbursed for the amount paid
0
By such a letter of indemnity shippers guarantee that if there are any claims, they
will settle the claim directly with the receivers
0
By such a letter of indemnity receivers can not consider responsible the carrier and
they have to sue shippers
0

446 What kind of marking is recommended for explosives?


neutral
0
original
0
resistant 0
special
1

447 What security does a bank involved in a Letter of Credit transaction have in
return for the sum advanced?
It can ask for a mortgage on the cargo or on other proprty belonging to the buyer
0
It has possesion of the "to order" bill of lading and thus has constructive possession
of the goods 1
It has property of the bill of lading and can sell the goods if payment is not done in
time 0
It advances money only to the customers known as good performers
0

448 What ship costs might be paid by a voyage charterer instead of the
shipowner?

cargo handling costs when the ship is employed on FIO basis


1
cargo handling costs when the ship is employed on LILO basis
0
canal tools 0
agency fees 0

115
449 What should a master do if his ship is delayed on a delivery voyage?

Stop the vessel and wait for charterers to decide if they cancel the charterparty or
not 0
Continue with all despatch to the delivery place and check with owners for
instructions 1
Give false information to charterers about vessel's arrival date
0
Reduce speed and wait for charterers to decide if they cancel the carterparty or not
0

450 What should a master of a tanker which has just completing loading do if the
ship's cargo figure is greater than the shipper?
Enter the shipper's figures on the Bill of Lading
1
Enter the ship's figure on the Bill of lading
0
Issue a letter of protest to the shippers
0
ask for an independent survey
0

451 What should an agent nominated by the voyage charterers, but appointed by
the owners do when there is a dispute between shipowners and voyage charterers?
he should do whatever is required to protect charterers interests
0
he should remember that his primary responsibility is to serve the shipowners
1
he should refuse to act as agent anymore and ask shipowners and charterers to
nominate their own agents
0
he should act as an independent observer and leave the shipowners and charterers
to solve their problems
0

452 What statement normally appears in the title of a sea waybill?


"NEGOTIABLE SEA WAYBILL"
0
"NON NEGOTIABLE SEA WAYBILL"
1
"ORIGINAL SEA WAYBILL" 0
"PARTLY NEGOTIABLE SEA WAYBILL"
0

453 What would be the legal effect of a failure by the carrier to show that he
exercised due diligence to make the vessel seaworthy?
if a cargo owner can show that his loss was caused by a failure of the carrier to
exercise due diligence to make the vessel seaworthy, the carrier will still be able
limit his liability 0

116
even if a cargo owner can show that his loss was caused by a failure of the carrier
to exercise due diligence to make the vessel seaworthy, the carrier will still be able
limit his liability 0

even if a cargo owner can not show that his loss was caused by a failure of the
carrier to exercise due diligence to make the vessel seaworthy, the carrier will not
be able limit his liability 0

if a cargo owner can show that his loss was caused by a failure of the carrier to
exercise due diligence to make the vessel seaworthy, the carrier will not be able
limit his liability 1

454 When are Letters of Indemnity for cargo condition and quantity an acceptable
practice in the shipping industry?
They are not an acceptable practice and their use can be considered a fraudulent
practice. 1
They can be accepted when remarks on bills of lading are minor and in this way
clients are satisfied.0
They can be accepted only when there is a long trading relation between charterers
and owners. 0
They can be accepted only when there is a long trading relation between shippers
and owners. 0

455 When cargo is stowed on deck at shippers risk


the carrier is not responsible for any cargo damage
0
the carrier is responsible if cargo damage is generated by lack of seaworthiness
1
the carrier is responsible for any cargo damage
0
the degree of responsibility is the same no matter if cargo was stowed on or under
deck 0

456 When fixing a ship, the freight has been agreed as " USD 40 per weight or
measurement". What would be the freight payable if the vessel loads a cargo of
3000 metric tons and 2800 cubic meters?
USD 120,000
1
USD 112,000
0
USD 116,000
0
USD 125,000
0

117
457 When fixing a ship, the freight has been agreed as " USD 40 per weight or
measurement". What would be the freight payable if the vessel loads a cargo of
3000 metric tons and 5000 cubic meters?
USD 120,000
0
USD 200,000
1
USD 140,000
0
USD 160,000
0

458 When freight level is negotiated basis 0/0 it means that


port expenses are covered by the owner
0
port expenses are covered by the charterer
1
port expenses at loading are covered by the charterer and port expenses at
discharging are covered by the owner
0
port expenses at loading are covered by the owner and port expenses at
discharging are covered by the charterer
0

459 When freight level is negotiated basis 1/1 it means that


port expenses at one loading and one discharging ports are paid by the charterer
0
port expenses at one loading and one discharging ports are paid by the owner
1
port expenses at loading are covered by the charterer and port expenses at
discharging are covered by the owner
0
vessel is only entitled to call at one loading and one discharging ports
0

460 When INCOTERMS apply to a international sale of goods transaction?


when parties agree to incorporate them into an international sale contract
1
always when a international sale contract is concluded
0
when one of the parties to a contract is based in a country where rules apply
0
when more means of transportations are used and at least one is sea transport
0

461 When is the master under un obligation to deliver the goods at destination if
the vessel has no reason to put lien on cargoes?
Immediately after berthing and completion of arrival formalities
0
After custom clearance has been obtained
0

118
After presentation of an original bill of lading
1
After presentation of all set of original bills of lading
0

462 When is the shipper entitled to demand issuing of a bill of lading according to
Hague Rules?
only after the cargo has been loaded on board the ship
0
after the carrier has received the goods into his charge
1
after the cargo is stored into custom's custody
0
after the carrier inspect the goods on loading berth
0

463 When the word "about" is used in a time charterparty to describe the speed
then
medium speed, under good weather, during each voyage should be equal with the
speed mentioned in the charterparty
0
medium speed, under good weather, during each voyage can be lower with 0.5
Knots than the speed mentioned in the charterparty
1
medium speed, under good weather, during each voyage can be lower with 1 Knot
than the speed mentioned in the charterparty
0
speed can never be lower with more than 0.5 Knots than the speed mentioned in
the charterparty0

464 Where a ship is time chartered, which ship costs are generally paid by the
time charterer?
operating costs
0
operating and voyage costs
0
voyage costs
1
capital costs 0

465 Where no bills of lading have been issued

119
the master is entitled to deliver the cargo as required by the charterer
0
the master is required to deliver the cargo to the entity mate's receipt has been
issued to 1
the master is required to deliver the goods to the holder of mate's receipt no matter
if he is the original shipper or not
0
the master is entitled to keep the goods until one original bill of lading is issued
0

466 Where there is a doubt over who the carrier is what should the master of a
time chartered vessel do?
assume that time chartererers are legally the carrier and wait for their instructions
0
assume that owners are legally the carrier and take care of the cargo and
documentation accordingly1
assume that voyage charterers are legally the carrier and wait for their instruction
and then ask owners for approval
0
assume that either owners and time charterers can be considered carriers and ask
both of them for instructions
0

467 Which are the two most important INCOTERMS in sea transport?
FCA and DES 0
FAS and CFR 0
FOB and CIF 1
EXW and DDU
0

468 Which of below can NOT be considered delivery terms belonging to Group "D"
of INCOTERMS 2000
DEQ 0
DPT 1
DES 0
DDP 0

469 Which of below is the contract of carriage in liner trades between shipper and
the carrier?
Bill of lading 0
Booking note
1
Depends on terms of the fixture
0
charter-party
0

120
470 Which of the below can be considered shipowner's usual basic obligations
under a voyage charter-party?
to provide a seaworthy ship suitable for the carrying the intended cargo
1
to bring the ship to the agred loading port by the agreed date
0
to load the cargo supplied by the shippers
0
to deliver cargo as instructed by the charterers
0

471 Which of the below clauses can transform the bill of lading into a "foul Bill of
Lading"
Free in and out
0
General average to be settled in accordance with York Antwerp rules
0
Unproper packing 1
Cargo condition unknown 0

472 Which of the below clauses refering to packing are used when the value of
packing is included in the price of the cargo?
Netto 0
Netto plus packing 0
Brutto/netto 1
Brutto 0

473 Which of the below documents are used for drawing up bills of lading for
general cargoes?
Statement of facts 0
draft survey reports
0
Mate's receipts
1
Preloading survey reports 0

474 Which of the ship's expenses mentioned below are covered by the time
charterer?
crew expenses
0
bunker used during off - hire periods
0
class inspections 0
canal expenses
1

475 Who do you expect to be the charterer when the goods are sold on CIF basis?
the seller 1
the buyer 0
the shipper 0
the freight forwarder
0
121
476 Who do you expect to be the charterer when the goods are sold on DES
basis?
the seller 1 (Delivered Ex Ship) - Livrat
franco nava
the buyer 0
the shipper 0
the freight forwarder 0

477 Who do you expect to be the charterer when the goods are sold on FOB
basis?
the seller 0
the buyer 1
the receiver 0
the freight forwarder
0

478 Who earns the salvage reward if a bareboat chartered vessel is earning
salvage?
Shipowners 0
bareboat charterers
1
it is shared between shipowners and bareboat charterers
0
H&M insurers of the vesel 0

479 Who is covering canal transit expenses and who is bearing risks of delay for a
vessel under time charter?
Canal Transit expenses are covered by the charterers and risks for delay are on
owners account 0
Canal transit expenses and risks for delay are shared 50/50 between owners and
charterers 0
Canal transit expenses and risks for delay are covered by the charterers
1
Canal transit expenses are covered by the owners and risks for delay are on
charterers account 0

480 Who is covering dunnaging, lashing and securing expenses in liner trades?
charterers 0
shipowners 1
shippers 0
freight forwarders 0

481 Who is entitled to sign the bill of lading according with Hamburg rules?
Only master or vessel's agent at loading port.
0
Any person having authority from the carrier
1
Any person having authority from the shipowner
0
122
Master and any person agreed by the shipowner
0

482 Who is the legal carrier under a time charter if the bills are signed by the
master
shipowners 1
time charterers
0
voyage charterers 0
disponent owners 0

483 Who is the ship's agent principal?


the party who proposed the agent to the shipowners
0
the party who appointed the agent and will be paying the agency fee
1
always the headowner is the ship's agent principal
0
either the shipowners or the charterers depending on charterparty terms
0

484 Who is usually appointing and who is paying the stevedoring company in liner
trades?
stevedoring company is appointed and paid by the owners
1
stevedoring company is appointed and paid by the charterers
0
stevedoring company is appointed by the owners, but is paid by the charterers
0
stevedoring company is appointed by the charterers, but is paid by the owners
0

485 Who is usually signing from ship's staff daily tally reports?
the master 0
ship's tally clerk
0
duty officer or chief mate 1
supercargo 0

486 Why are the lines of most standard charter-party forms numbered?
to make sure that somebody has not deleted some lines
0
to make easier the process of amending the standard clauses
1
to make easier the process of inserting new clauses
0
to make easier the process of reading the charter-party
0

487 Why do deck cargo warrant a special agreement between shipper and carrier
under Hague Visby Rules?

123
Because of the special risks to which goods stowed on deck are exposed
1
Because at the time of adoption of the rules, vessels were not very strong
0
Because cargoes carried on deck make the vessel unseaworthy
0
Because vessel's stability can be compromised by loading cargo on deck
0

488 Why is a lien clause included into a contract of carriage?


to give the owners the opportunity to recover the common law expenses made by
the owners which are due and not paid before delivery of the cargo
0

to give the owners the opportunity to recover some of the amounts mentioned in
lien clause, due and not paid before delivery of the cargo
1

to give the owners the opportunity to recover all of the amounts due to them and
not paid before and after delivery of the cargo
0

to give the charterers the opportunity to recover some of the amounts due to them
by the owners and not paid before vessel sailing from discharging port
0

489 Why is it important for the number of signed original Bills of lading to be
shown?

to deliver the cargo only against presentation of all originals


0
to reduce the risk of fraud
1
to know how many receivers will ask for delivery of cargo
0
to reduce the risk of loosing part of them
0

490 Why sometimes freight is not payable 100% before delivery of the cargo?
Because sometimes cargo is damaged during voyage and charterers want to
compensate damages with balance freight
0
Because sometimes cargo is delivered with significant delays and charterers want
to compensate loss of market value with balance freight
0
Because sometimes vessels are employed with despatch and charterers want to
compensate despatch with balance freight
1
Because vessels are employed with demurrage and charterers want to pay this
amount together with balance freight
0

124
491 Will the master of a bareboat chartered vessel maintain communication with
the head owners?

Master will only maintain communication with disponent owners


0
Master will always report to head owner vessel's position and next emloyement
0
Master will reply to head owners requirements either direct or via his disponent
owners 1
Master is not allowed to communicate with the head owner
0

492 A bill of lading can accomplish his function of document of title if the carrier
accurately describe the quantity and condition of the cargo on loading
1
guarantee that the cargo will be delivered in the same condition as on loading
0
deliver the cargo without delay
0
do not deliver the cargo without presentation of original bill of lading
1

493 A ship with deadweight cargo capacity of 32,800 metric tons has loaded
32.500 metric tons and no cargo is available. Under these circumstances master is
required to issue a dead freight letter if vessel was employed on expression
31,000 metric tons 5% moloo
1
31,000 metric tons 5 pct molchop
0
min/max 32,000/33,000 metric tons
1
33,000 metric tons 5% lchop
0

494 A ship with deadweight cargo capacity of 35,000 metric tons has loaded
32.500 metric tons and no further cargo is available. Under these circumstances
master is required to issue a dead freight letter if vessel was employed on
expression
31,000 metric tons 5 percent more or less in owners option
1
34,000 metric tons 5 percent more or less in charterers option
0
min/max 33,000 metric tons
1
min/max 32,000/33,000 metric tons
1

495 A vessel employed into a time charter contract is considered off-hire if


vessel proceed to shelter due to bad weather
0
ship's cranes are out of order and they are required for loading
1
125
on sailing vessel has no chief mate and she is not allowed to sail
1
repairs at main engine are carried out during loading operation
0

496 According to Hague Visby Rules the carrier is entitled to deviate from the
usual route
for saving life or property at sea
1
for attempting to save life or property at sea
1
for any reasonable purpose
1
for any kind of repairs
0

497 According to Hamburg rules the carrier is entitled to carry cargo on deck
if such carriage is in accordance with an agreement with the shipper
1
if it is clearly mentioned on the bill of lading that cargo is carried on deck
0
if such carriage is required by statutory rules or regulations
1
if such carriage is in accordance with the usage of the particular trade
1

498 Acording to Hague Rules, the carrier is discharged from all liability in respect
of loss or damage to the cargo
unless suit is brought within one year after delivery of the goods
1
unless claim is made within one year after delivery of the goods
0
unless suit is brought within one year after discharge of the goods
0
unless suit is brought within one year after date when the goods should have been
delivered. 1

499 Acording to Hamburg rules, the carrier is not entitled to the benefit of the
limitation of liability if it is proved that the loss, damage or delay in delivery of the
cargo

resulted from an act or omission of the carrier done with the intent to cause such
loss, damage or delay
1
resulted from negligence or omission of the carrier or his servants done without
intent to cause such loss, damage or delay
0

126
resulted from an act or omission of the carrier done without knowledge that such
loss, damage or delay would probably result.
0

resulted from an act or omission of the carrier done with knowledge that such loss,
damage or delay would probably result.
1

500 Based on how the box "consignee" of a bill of lading is filled in, bills of lading
can be classified as:
Bearer Bills of Lading
1
Order Bills of Lading
1
Straight Bills of Lading
1
Liner Bills of Lading 0

501 Endorsement of a Bill of lading can be made:


In blank
1
In empty 0
In full 1
In black
0

502 For a vessel under time charter, commercial activities for which master
should follow charterers instructions include
voyage orders
1
sending messages to various parties involved
1
issuing bills of lading
1
change of incompentent crew
0

503 Freigh can be calculated


per metric or long or short ton of cargo
1
per deadweight all told
0
per cargo measurement or volume
1
ad valorem 1

504 Freight can be calculated


per weight or measurement
1
127
as a lumpsum amount
1
per gross or net tonnage 0
per displacement 0

505 Hague rules do NOT apply


when carriage is covered by a charteparty bill of lading
0
when carriage is covered by a charterparty
1
when carriage is covered by a seawaybill
1
when carriage is covered by a bill of lading
0

506 Hague rules do NOT apply


to carriage of goods by road
1
to carriage of goods by rail
1
to carriage of goods by sea
0
to carriage of goods by river
1

507 Hague Visby rules apply if


Bills of lading is issued in a country where Hague Visby rules have been ratified
1
Cargo is discharged in a country where Hague Visby rules have been ratified
0
Paramount clause is incorporated into Bill of Lading
1
Cargo is loaded from country where Hague Visby rules have been ratified
1

508 How long may the hire period be under a time charter?
for just a single voyage
1
for several voyages
1
a period of months or even years
1
only for minimum 3 years 0

509 How may a bill of lading be considered a receipt for freight?


if bill of lading is marked "freight prepaid"
1
if bill of lading is marked "freight paid"
1
if bill of lading is marked "freight prepayable"
0
128
if bill of lading is marked "freight collect"
0

510 If a charter-party does not specifically exclude dangerous cargoes the owner
can refuse to load them if
the cost of implementing safety measures is very high
1
the crew is refusing to participate in the process of loading and discharging
0
it is impossible to safely carry them up to final destination
1
the extra expenses involved are higher than the bugdeted expenses
0

511 If shippers have loaded dangerous cargo without owners consent, but with
master's approval
the owners have no mean of recourse against charterers
0
the owners have the option to terminate the charter-party and ask for damages
1
the owners have the option of keeping the charter valid and ask for a higher freight
1
the owners are under an obligation to carry the cargo up to its final destination
without extra freight0

512 In a contract of carriage of goods by sea, in respect of what claims has the
carrier a common law possesory lien?
unpaid freight
1
demurrage or detention
0
general average charges 1
money spent in protecting the cargo
1

513 In a nutshell, what are the carrier's basic obligations under the Hague Visby
rules?
to exercise due diligence to make the ship seaworthy
1
to properly and carefully load, handle, stow, carry, keep, care for and discharge the
cargo 1
to present for loading a seaworthy ship and in every way fit for the voyage
0
to issue, on demand of the shipper, a bill of Lading after receiving the goods into his
charge 1

514 In a nutshell, what three things do the carrier's rights and immunities under
the hague Visby rules concern?
carriers exceptions to liabilities
1
carriers right in respect of dangerous goods
1
129
carriers right in respect of deck cargo
0
carriers right to deviate
1

515 In case a cargo is transported from port A, via port C, to port B and providing
all ports are situated in different countries and all countries have ratified Hague-
Visby Rule then:
Hague - Visby rules apply continously from port A to port B
0
Hague-Visby Rules apply if carriage from port A to port B is covered by only one bill
of lading 1
Hague-Visby Rules apply even if carriage from port A to port B is covered by two
ladings bills of lading0
Hague-Visby rules do no apply while cargo is in transit in port C if carriage is
covered by two bills of lading
1

516 In the law relating to contracts of carriage of goods by sea the terms as
classified as
conditions 1
warranties 1
innominate terms 1
indefinite terms
0

517 In which of the below circumstances it would be appropriate for a master to


issue a letter of protest?
when there is a discrepancy between ship's and shore cargo figures
1
when dock workers are misusing ship's equipment
1
after every case of General Average
0
after the ship has been damaged from any cause
0

518 In which of the below circumstances it would be appropriate for a master to


issue a letter of protest?
when cargo is loaded too fast or too slow
1
after the ship has been damaged from any cause
0
when stevedores are damaging the ship
1
after an accident at sea
0

130
519 In which of the below delivery terms the risks are transferred from the seller
to the buyer on passing ship's rail at loading port?
FOB 1
CFR 1 CFR (Cost and Freight) - Cost si navlu: vanzatorul angajeaza nava, o
incarca si o duce in portul de destinatie convenit.
DEQ 0
FCA 0

520 In which of the below situation a ship can be considered unseaworthy if the
contract of carriage is governed by Hague - Visby Rules
the ship is listed 8 degrees on port side on sailing
1
the vessel has no chief officer and the position is required by safe maning certificate
1
during the voyage one of the seamen forget a light turned on inside the hold and
the cargo is partly damaged
0
on departure from bunkering port, the vessel has serious engine problems
1

521 In which of the below situations a vessel may be held to be unseaworthy


vessels sailed from last port without statutory certificates
1
vessel holds are not properly fitted for the cargo
1
vessel has unproperly qualified master or officers
1
vessel doesn't carry latest version of charts
0

522 The aims of an on-hire survey are


to determinethe quality of bunker on delivery
0
that holds/tanks are fit for commencement of loading
1
the level of maintenance of machinery and equipments
0
the general condition of the vesssel
1

523 The general rule in maritime transportation is that cargo is carried below
deck. Which of the below can be considered exceptions from this rule?
there is a special provision in the contract of carriage allowing the shipowner to load
cargoes on deck1
such cargoes are usually caried on deck
1
ship's stability require some cargo to be loaded on deck
0

131
carriage of containers
1

524 The Hague Visby Rules will not normally cover cargo shipped on deck. Under
what circumstances will the Hague Visby rules cover a deck cargo?
If cargo is stowed on deck and Bill of Lading is clearly mentioning that cargo is
stowed on deck 0
If cargo which should have been stowed under deck is stowed on deck
1
If a bill of lading in respect of cargo which should have been shipped on deck does
not clearly mention the deck carriage on its face
1
If that type of cargo is usually carried on deck and Bill of Lading in clearly
mentioning that cargo is stowed on deck
0

525 Under certain circumstances, Hague rules do not apply to ordinary


commercial shipments made in the ordinary course of trade and
where there is no justification for any special agreement
0
where the character or condition of the property to be carried are such as
reasonably to justify a special agreement.
1
where the circumstances, terms and conditions under which the carriage is to be
performed are such as reasonably to justify a special agreement.
1
where the both the character of the property and circumstances under which the
carriage is to be performed do not justify a special agreement
0

526 Under the Hague Visby Rules the carrier or the ship will NOT be responsible
for loss or damage arising from:
act, neglect or default of the carrier, master, mariner, pilor or the servants of the
carrier in navigation or management of the ship
0
act, neglect or default of the master, mariner, pilor or the servants of the carrier in
navigation or management of the ship
1
act, neglect or default of the master, mariner, pilor or the servants of the carrier in
navigation or management of the cargo
0
saving or atempting to save life or property at sea
1

527 Under the Hague Visby Rules the carrier or the ship will NOT be responsible
for loss or damage arising from:
act, neglect or default of the carrier, master, mariner, pilor or the servants of the
carrier in navigation or management of the ship
0
fire, even if caused by actual fault or privity of the carrier
0
132
dangers and accidents of the sea or other navigable waters
1
insufficiency or inadequacy of the marks
1

528 Under the Hague Visby Rules the carrier or the ship will not be responsible for
loss or damage arising from:
act, neglect or default of the master, mariner, pilor or the servants of the carrier in
navigation or management of the cargo
0
act of public enemies
1
quarantine regulations
1
act, neglect or default of the carrier, master, mariner, pilor or the servants of the
carrier in navigation or management of the ship
0

529 War Cancelling clauses are usually used in


voyage charter-parties
0
time charter-parties
1
bareboat charter-parties 1
consecutive voyage charter-parties
1

530 What are the documents usualy required by a sale contract, involving
maritime transportation, to prove the quantity of cargo loaded
Seaway bill 1
Bill of Lading 1
Mate's receipt
0
Draft survey report 0

531 What are the international uniform rules used for interpretation of trade
terms defining obligations and right of seller and buyer in an international sale of
goods transactions?
Hague Rules 0
INCOTERMS 1
RAFTD 1 (Revised American Foreign
Trade Definitions)
UNCITRAL 0

532 What are the main features of maritime lien that distinguish it from a
possessory lien?

a maritime lien is a lien against the property whereas a possessory lien is a lien
against the person1
133
a maritime lien is a lien against the person whereas a possessory lien is a lien
against the property0
possessory lien is dependent on possession of the property whereas maritime lien is
not dependent on possession
1
possessory lien is not dependent on possession of the property whereas maritime
lien is dependent on possession
0

533 What are the main groups of ship costs?


capital costs 1
running costs
1
voyage costs
1
variable costs
0

534 What are the main requirements of packing that are important in maritime
transportation?
to be original
0
to be esthetic
0
to be light 1
to be resistant
1

535 What are the major types of lien of importance to seafarers?


possesory liens
1
cargo liens 0
property liens
0
maritime liens
1

536 What are the three internationally agreed rules defining the basic contractual
obligations, right and immunities of sea carriers and cargo shippers where a Bill of
Lading or Sea Waybill is issued?
Hague Rules 1
Hague Visby Rules 1
York Antwerp Rules 0
Hamburg Rules
1

537 What are the traditional forms of employment for merchant ships?
on contracts of affreighment markets
0
134
on liner services 1
on voyage and time charter markets
1
on bareboat charter markets
0

538 What are two options available for payment of freight according with Gencon
94 standard form?
prepaid
1
payable after delivery
0
payable as per charter-party
0
on delivery 1

539 What do you understand by a "bearer" Bill of lading?


A "bearer" bill of lading is a bill of lading that has the words "to bearer" or "to
holder" in the consignee space or after indorsment
1
A "bearer" bill of lading can be a bill of lading stating that the goods are consigned
to a specified person and the bearer can take delivery of the cargo
0
A "bearer" bill of lading is a bill of lading issued to order of a not named or named
entity (bank, consignee, shipper) which can give orders for delivery to third party
0
A "bearer" bill of lading can be a bill of lading with consignee space left blank and in
this way can pass from hand to hand
1

540 What documents are typically required to be obtained by the seller under the
terms of a Letter of Credit?
a set of original, "clean on board" Bills of Lading made out "to order"
1
a commercial invoice
1
a preloading survey of the cargo
0
a certificate of insurance 1

541 What forms do seaworthiness take in carriage of goods law ?


fittedness for the intended voyage
1
fitted for encountering all sea perils
0
cargoworthiness 1
technical seaworthiness
1

542 What is deadfreight?

135
A sum of liquidated damages charged by the shipowner to the charterer for his
failure to load the vessel up to her maximum deadweight cargo capacity
0
A sum of liquidated damages charged by the shipowner to the charterer for failure
to load the maximum quantity of cargo shipowner is entitled to require
1
A sum of liquidated damages charged by the shipowner to the charterer for their
failure to load the minimum quantity of cargo they are under obligation to provide
1
A sum of liquidated damages charged by the charterer to the shipowner for failure
to load the maximum quantity of cargo charterer is entitled to offer
0

543 What kind of deviations would probably be regarded in law as unjustifiable?


taking a route which is not the custom of the trade, for purely private reasons
1
deviation due to the default of the charterers
0
putting into an intermediate port or place for stores or provisions which are not
essential to the safe completion of the voyage
1
putting into a port for bunkers for a future voyage when there is no clause in the
contract of carriage allowing it
1

544 What ship costs can be clasified as voyage costs?


pilotage 1
towage
1
repairs during the voyage 0
berth charges
1

545 What ship costs can be classified as capital costs?


purchase costs
1
leasing charges
1
interest charges
1
insurance charges 0

546 What ship costs can be classified as operating costs?


drydocking and survey
1
repairs and maintenance 1
insurance premiums
1
costs of bunker fuel
0

547 What ship costs can be classified as operating costs?


136
Crewing 1
water and lube oil 1
provisions and stores
1
heavy fuel 0

548 What ship costs can be classified as voyage costs?


canal tools 1
port charges 1
P&I insurance
0
water and lube oil 0

549 What types of carriers are on the shipping market?


liner carriers 0
common carriers 1
private carriers
1
tramp carriers
0

550 When a vessel is delivered into a time charter contract one of the objectives
of "on-hire" survey is to determine the quantity of bunker on board at delivery time
due to the fact that
it is important to know if vessel has enough bunker up to next usual bunkering
place 0
it is always good to know what bunker the vessel has on board at beginning of a
voyage 0
vessel has to be redelivered with almost same quantity of bunker as on delivery
1
bunker used from delivery time is for charterers' account
1

551 When assessing the condition of the cargo the master should be concerned of
quality of the cargo 0
condition of packing
1
external condition of the cargo
1
condition of the cargo inside packs
0

552 When is the shipowner entitled to freight without deductions?


When goods arrive at destination with minor damages
1
When goods arrive at destination such badly damaged that they are
unmerchantable in the sense that they no longer answer to their commercial
description 0
only part of the goods arrive at destination
0

137
only part of the goods arrive at destination and freight is agreed on lumpsum basis
1

553 Where the Hague Visby Rules apply, the carrier must before and at the
beginning of the voyage exercise due diligence to:
make the ship seaworthy 1
properly lash the cargo loaded on deck
0
make all parts of the ship in which goods are carried fit and safe for their reception,
carriage and preservation
1
properly man, equip and supply the ship
1

554 Which of below can be considered maritime liens?


salvor's lien on ship and/or her cargo for his reward
1
master's lien on the ship for his wages
1
carrier's lien on cargo for non payment of freight
0
bunker supplier's lien on the ship for payment of bunker
1

555 Which of below can be considered particularities of liner navigation?


service consists in repeated sailings at regular intervals between the same
designaed ports 1
freight rates vary in the same manner like stocks and bonds change prices in the
security markets0
loading and discharging costs are usually included in the freight
1
procurement of cargo is handled through brokers who represent the shipowners
0

556 Which of below can be considered particularities of tramp navigation?


service consists in repeated sailings at regular intervals between the same
designated ports 0
freight rates vary in the same manner like stocks and bonds change prices in the
security markets1
loading and discharging costs are usually included in the freight
0
procurement of cargo is handled through brokers who represent the shipowners
1

557 Which of below can NOT be considered delivery terms belonging to Group "C"
of INCOTERMS 2000
CFR 0
CAF 1
CIP 0
138
CPD 1

558 Which of below can NOT be considered delivery terms belonging to Group "F"
of INCOTERMS 2000
FOB 0
FIO 1
FAS 0
FAC 1

559 Which of below clauses you would expect to see both in sale contract and in a
voyage charter-party?
loading and discharging clauses
1
commencement of laytime clauses
1
payment of freight clauses
0
general average clauses
0

560 Which of below remarks should be used in a bill of lading contain if cargo has
been shipped on deck?
shipped on deck at shippers' risks
1
carriers' right to load cargo on deck
0
carried on deck without liability to carrier for loss or damage, howsoever caused
1
cargo can be loaded on deck at shippers' risk
0

561 Which of below standard form of bills of lading are usually used in multimodal
transportation?
"CONLINEBILL"
1
any bill of lading 0
COMBIDOC 1
CONGENBILL 0

562 Which of the below abbreviations are used when loading costs are covered by
one party and discharging costs by the other?
FIO 0
FILO 1 "free in liner
out"
LINNER TERMS
0
LIFO 1

563 Which of the below abbreviations refer to splitting of loading and discharging
expenses in a voyage charter agreement?
FOB 0

139
FIOS 1 Free in and out
stowed
LILO 1 Liner in, liner out
FLT 1 FULL LINER
TERMS

564 Which of the below are standard time charter forms?


Baltime
1
NYPE 1
Coaltime 0
Linertime 1

565 Which of the below can be considered advantages of arbitration over


litigation for the disputing parties?
expert knowledge of arbitrators
1
lower costs 1
more publicity
0
faster settlement 1

566 Which of the below can be considered carriers' responsabilities before and at
the beginning of the voyage according to Hague Rules?
to exercise due diligence to make the ship seaworthy
1
to make the ship seaworthy and prepare her for the voyage
0
to exercise due diligence to properly man, equip and supply the ship
1
to select with great care the crew, equipments and all suplies for the voyage
0

567 Which of the below can be considered common law obligations of all sea
carriers?
to provide a vessel which is seaworthy for the purpose of the contract (when the
contract is made)1
the carriers vessel must not deviate from the contract route or the usual route
unjustifiably 1
to exercise due diligence to make the vessel seaworthy before the commencement
of the voyage0
to ensure that the vessel will be ready to load the cargo and proceed on the voyage
with reasonable despatch
1

568 Which of the below can be considered examples of unseaworthiness?


inadequate bunkers
1
incompetent or insufficient crew 1
140
accidents after commencement of the voyage
0
failure to hold necessary class documents
1

569 Which of the below can be considered forms of calculating the freight
freight ad valorem 1
freight per weight 1
freight per distance
0
lumpsum freight 1

570 Which of the below can be considered forms of calculating the freight ?
freight per weight 1
freight per measurement 1
lumpsum freight 1
freight per time
0

571 Which of the below can be considered forms of setting the freight?
per cargo weight 1
per number of days
0
according to Word Scale 1
per deadweight all told
0

572 Which of the below can be considered functions of a bill of lading?


receipt for the goods, issued by the carrier;
1
evidence of the terms and conditions of contract of carriage;
1
duplicate of the true contract of carriage
0
document of title for the goods, proving the ownership
1

573 Which of the below charterers obligations can be considered implied in any
contract of carriage?
to nominate loading and discharging ports in their geographic order
1
to load only cargoes that are suitable for the vessel employed
0
to present for signature bills of lading that are in accordance with charter-party
terms 1

141
to have the cargo ready for loading, before vessels arrival at loading port
0

574 Which of the below charter-parties are approved?


accepted charter-parties 0
adopted charter-parties
1
recommended charter-parties
1
agreed charter-parties
1

575 Which of the below clauses can be considered as implied in a contract of


carriage of goods by sea?
payment of freight clause 0
seaworthiness clause
1
deviation clause 1
discharge port nomination clause
0

576 Which of the below clauses can transform a bill of lading for steel cargoes
into a "foul bill of lading"
10 bundles missing 1
weight unknown 0
cargo rust stained 1
condition unknown 0

577 Which of the below clauses in respect of freight payment can be accepted in
the charterparty?
Freight payable within 3 banking days from signing/releasing bills of lading marked
"freight payable as per charter party"
1
Freight payable within 3 banking days from releasing bills of lading marked "freight
prepaid" 0
Freight payable within 3 banking days after true and right delivery of the cargo
0
Freight payable before releasing bills of lading market "freight prepaid"
1

578 Which of the below clauses in respect of freight payment can be accepted in
the charterparty?
Freight payable within 3 banking days after true and right delivery of the cargo
0
Freight payable within 3 banking days from releasing bills of lading marked "freight
prepaid" 0
Feight payable before breaking bulk
1
Freight payable at destination
1

142
579 Which of the below delivery terms are used only in maritime transportation?
CFR 1
CPT 0
FAS 1
DDP 0

580 Which of the below delivery terms are used only in maritime transportation?
FOB 1
FCA 0
DES 1
DDU 0

581 Which of the below documents are used for drawing up bills of lading for bulk
cargoes?
tally reports 0
draft survey reports
1
Mate's receipts
1
preloading survey reports 1

582 Which of the below exclussions from liability are allowed for a common law
carrier, i.e. the common law exceptions?
Act of God 1
act, neglect or default of the master, mariner, pilor or other servant of the carrier
0
Jettisson or other proper General Average sacrifice
1
negligence of the consignor
1

583 Which of the below expressions are usually used into a bill of lading in
respect of payment of freight?
Freight prepaid
1
Freight payable as per charterparty
1
Freight pre payable
0
Freight payable at destination
1

584 Which of the below expressions, related to freight payment, are acceptable in
a bill of lading?
Freight prepaid
1
Freight payable as per Charterparty
1
Freight collect
1
Freight pre payable
0
143
585 Which of the below expressions, related to freight payment, are acceptable in
a bill of lading?
Freight paid 1
Freight payable at destination
1
Freight to be paid 0
Freight payable after delivery
0

586 Which of the below factors can have an influence on the freight rate?
Charterparty form 0
Bill of Lading form 0
Type of cargo
1
Port expenses
1

587 Which of the below factors can influence the level of freight?
Geographic area of operation
1
Anticipated weather in the area of operation
1
bunker price 1
sudden change of weather during the voyage
0

588 Which of the below factors can influence the level of freight?
Charterparty form 0
Political situation in the area where port of loading and/or port of discharging are
situated 1
Change of political situation in the area where port of loading and/or port of
discharging are situated after charter-party date
0
inclusion of weekends and holidays in laytime
1

589 Which of the below factors have an impact on freight?


distance between loading and discharging ports
1
port expenses
1
bunker price 1
loading and discharging rates in a FIO fixture
0

590 Which of the below factors have an impact on freight level?


sudden change of weather after charter-party date
1
distance between ports
1
bunker price 1
144
change of bunker price during voyage
0

591 Which of the below obligations of the shipowners can be considered as


implied in any contract of carriage governed by Hague Rules?
to arrive at loading port before cancelling date
0
to exercise due diligence to make the vessel seaworthy before and at the beginning
of the voyage1
to exercise due diligence to make the vessel seaworthy during the voyage
0
to perform the voyage within a reasonable time
1

592 Which of the below standard charter-parties forms are used for demise
chartering?
Texacodemise
0
Baltime
0
Barecon 1
Shelldemise 1

593 Which of the below standard charter-parties forms are used for transportation
of coal cargoes?
Coalvoy
0
Medcon 1
Medcoal 0
Baltcon
1

594 Which of the below standard charter-parties forms are used for transportation
of general cargoes?
Baltimore Form C 0
Gencon
1
Synacomex 0
Multiform 1

595 Which of the below standard charter-parties forms are used for transportation
of grain ore cargoes?
Austral
1
Norgrain 1
Synacomex 1
Norvgrain 0

596 Which of the below standard charter-parties forms are used for transportation
of iron ore cargoes?
Australore 0
145
C(ore) 7
1
Nipponore 1
Stemmor 1

597 Which of the below standard charter-parties forms are used for transportation
of petroleum products?
Bptankvoy 0
Mobilvoy 1
Intertankvoy 1
Afratankvoy 0

598 Which of the below standard charter-parties forms are used for transportation
of timber cargoes?
Medwood 0
Nanywood 0
Blackseawood
1
Nubaltwood 1

599 Which of the below statements are correct in respect of Bill's of lading
function as a receipt for the goods loaded or received for shipment?
Bill of lading is conclusive evidence that cargo has been shipped on board or
received for shipment in the quantity and condition stated therein if the bill of
lading is in the hands of the shippers 0
Bill of lading is prima facie evidence that cargo has been shipped on board or
received for shipment in the quantity and condition stated therein if the bill of
lading is in the hands of the shippers 1
Bill of lading is conclusive evidence that cargo has been shipped on board or
received for shipment in the quantity and condition stated therein if the bill of
lading is in the hands of a bone fide third party1
Bill of lading is prima facie evidence that cargo has been shipped on board or
received for shipment in the quantity and condition stated therein if the bill of
lading is in the hands of a bona fide third party0

600 Which of the ship's expenses mentioned below are covered by the time
charterer?
P&I insurance premiums 0
bunker expenses 1
port expenses
1
H&M insurance premiums 0

601 Abrevierea "1 GSPB AAAA" inserata intr-un contract de navlosire inseamna:
Ca nava va opera intr-un singur port si o singura dana, portul si dana sa fie
accesibile in momentul sosirii navei la operare
0
Nava va opera intr-un port si dana sigura nedepasind pe durata stationarii pescajul
maxim permis0
Nava va opera fara costuri suplimentare intr-un port si o dana sigura, portul fiind tot
timpul accesibil iar nava sa ramana in stare de plutire tot timpul
1
146
602 Acreditivul se defineste ca:

Forma a creditului documentar, prin care o banca comerciala, in baza unui contract
incheiat cu clientul sau, I-si ia obligatia de a plati o suma de bani beneficiarului
indicat, pana la termenul stabilit, in schimbul unor documente comerciale indicate
in avizul de deschidere a acreditivului 1

Forma a incasoului documentar prin care clientul transmite bancii sale documente
care atesta indeplinirea obligatiilor care I-au revenit in baza unui contract comercial,
documente pentru care banca primitoare le remite spre incasare unor banci
corespondente dupa ce aceasta solicita contravaloarea lor
0
Forma de plata in comertul international utilizata de clientii unei banci pentru
derularea unui contract international de vanzare
0

603 Atunci cind intr-un contract de navlosire se inscrie cuvintul “about” cu privire
la viteza navei:
viteza medie a navei pe durata voiajului trebuie sa fie egala cu viteza inscrisa in
contract 0
viteza medie a navei pe durata voiajului poate sa fie mai redusa cu 0,5 Noduri decit
viteza inscrisa in contract
1
viteza medie a navei poate fi mai mare sau mai mica decit cea inscrisa in contract
cu pana la 1 Nod0
viteza navei trebuie nu fie nici un moment mai redusa decit viteza inscrisa in
contract 0

604 Bunurile fungibile sunt acele bunuri care:


Au unele calitati intrinseci care nu le permit inlocuirea unora cu altele
0
Se pot schimba unele cu altele raportul de echivalenta stabilindu-se prin cantarire,
numarare, masurare1
Au valoarea stabilita la bursa de valori sau pe alte piete de valori mobiliare legal
recunoscute 0
605 Cand decade carausul din dreptul la limitarea raspunderii conform regulilor
de la Hamburg :
Cand pierderea, avarierea sau intarzierea livrarii a rezultat dintr-o actiune de
omisiune comisa cu intentie;
1
Cand pierderea, avarierea sau interzierea in livrare a rezultat din culpa
comandantului; 0
Cand pierderea, avarierea sau intarzierea in livrare a rezultat din forta majora ;
0

606 Cand este indreptatit armatorul sa retraga o nava din "BARE BOAT"?
Cand disponent owner-ul are intarzieri repetate in plata chiriei
0

147
Cand nu a fost platita chiria la termenii prevazuti in contract si la notificarile
armatorului in legatura cu acest fapt navlositorul a continuat sa nu-si onoreze
principala obligatie 1
Cand comandantul navei nu este multumit de prestatia disponent owner-ului si face
cunoscut acest lucru armatorului
0

607 Cand este preferata modalitatea de plata prin credit documentar fata de
incaso documentar?
Platile efectuate prin credit documentar sunt mai accesibile participantilor la
contractul de vanzare internationala
0
Creditul documentar prin acreditiv este in avantajul vanzatorului
0
Creditul documentar fata de incaso-ul documentar nu are nevoie de garantii de
depozitare pana la efectuarea platilor fapt ce genereaza riscuri in plus
1

608 Cand o nava este in "time charter" si navlositorul este nemultumit de


prestatia comandantului poate sa:
Schimbe imediat comandantul
0
Sa informeze armatorul care prompt va investiga cele reclamate si in caz ca le
gaseste intemeiate va proceda in consecinta
1
Sa adopte masuri administrative impotriva comandantului si apoi sa-l informeze pe
armator despre acest lucru
0

609 Cand se admit "scrisori de garantie" in legatura cu cantitatea si/sau starea si


conditia aparenta a marfurilor incarcate?
Nu se admit astfel de scrisori. O astfel de fapta constituie o frauda maritima
1
Cand continutul unei astfel de scrisori a fost garantat de catre o banca reputabila
0
Cand se primeste ordin scris din partea navlositorilor
0

610 Cand se aplica Regulile York-Anvers?


Se vor aplica obligatoriu tuturor conosamentelor indiferent daca au sau nu inclusa o
clauza in acest sens
0
Se vor aplica numai daca partile au prevazut expres acest lucru in contractul de
navlosire sau in conosament
1

Se vor aplica numai la cererea uneia dintre partile implicate in avaria comuna
0

611 Cand se considera o nava sosita?


148
Momentul cand o nava se considera sosita intr-un port trebuie explicit si fara
posibilitati de interpretare (inserat in contract)
1
Cand o nava a sosit in port, a acostat si ia fost acceptat notice-ul
0
Cand o nava a ancorat in rada unui port
0

612 Cand se poate exercita de catre armator "dreptul de retentie" pe marfa


pentru neplata chiriei pentru o nava in "time-charter"?
Pentru neplata chiriei armatorul nu are dreptul de retentie asupra marfurilor, el fiind
un tert in contractul de navlosire
1
Dreptul de retentie se poate exercita dupa ce armatorul a trimis navlositorului
preavizarile necesare0
Dreptul de retentie al armatorului pentru neplata chiriei se poate exercita in primul
port de operare fara precizari prealabile
0

613 Cand sunt necesare operatiuni de amarare, asigurare, fardare, cine suporta
costul lor in transportul de linie?
Costul unor astfel de operatiuni este suportat de navlositor
0
Amararea, asigurarea si /sau fardarea este ceruta de armator, costul fiind suportat
tot de el 1
Costul este suportat atat de armator cat si de navlositor in proportii egale
0

614 Cand trebuie sa se semneze la nava ordinul de incarcare?


Poate sosi oricand dar nu dupa terminarea incarcarii
0
Inainte de inceperea incarcarii
1
Nu are importanta momentul cu conditia ca marfurile sa fie in buna stare
0

615 Caracterul de extraneitate al unui contract de vanzare internationala este dat


de:
Desfasurarea contractului intre parteneri din tari diferite marfa urmand a trece una
sau mai multe frontiere, iese de sub incidenta unui sistem de drept national
1
Inserare in contract a unor clauze standard care se utilizeaza in contracte indiferent
de tara unde se desfasoara contractul
0
Trecerea marfi peste granita mai multor tari si supunerea contractului dispozitiilor
Camerei de Comert International de la Paris
0
616 Care a fost solutia adoptata pentru a depasi o parte din problemele ce pot
aparea din amendarea clauzelor standard:

149
Au fost interzise amendamentele
0
Amendamentele se fac doar de catre specialisti
0
Unele clauze sunt prezentate in mai multe variante standard
1
617 Care a fost una din cele doua revolutii tehnice din transportul maritim in
ultima jumatate a secolului XX?
Inlocuirea motoarelor cu abur cu motoare diesel?
0
Introducerea paletizarii si containerizarii?
1
Cresterea capacitatii de transport a navelor?
0

618 Care a fost una din cele doua revolutii tehnice din transportul maritim in
ultima jumatate a secolului XX?
Cresterea numarului de nave pe plan mondial?
0
Dezvoltarea infrastructurilor portuare?
0
Dezvoltarea transportului de marfuri in vrac?
1

619 Care din urmatoarele afirmatii sunt corecte?


Transportul maritim costier se afla in competitie cu transportul feroviar si
transportul rutier 1
Transportul maritim costier nu se afla in competitie cu transportul feroviar si
transportul rutier 0
Transportul maritim costier este parte integranta a sistemului de transport feroviar
0

620 Care din urmatoarele aspecte trebuie sa faca parte din clauza de determinare
a cantitatii de marfa intr-un contract de vanzare cumparare internationala?
Locul si momentul determinarii cantitatii de marfa
1
Modul de transport al marfii
0
Persoana care va stabili cantitatea de marfa
0

621 Care din urmatoarele cheltuieli sunt suportate de armator in cazul


contractului de navlosire pe timp?
Cheltuieli de asigurare H&M+P&I
1
Cheltuieli cu combustibilul
0
150
Cheltuieli portuare 0

622 Care din urmatoarele cheltuieli sunt suportate de navlositor in cazul


contractului de navlosire pe timp?
Cheltuieli de asigurare H&M si P&I
0
Cheltuieli cu combustibilul
1
Cheltuieli cu echipajul
0

623 Care din urmatoarele conditii de livrare se folosesc foarte des in transportul
maritim?
CPT; DEQ 0
FOB; CIF 1
DDP; DDU 0

624 Care din urmatoarele grupe de nave poate fi considerata ca fiind Panamax?
35-75,000 twd
0
45.000-90.000 twd 0
50-80,000twd
1

625 Care din urmatoarele modalitati de stabilire a staliilor se incadreaza in


categoria staliilor fixe?
5 total weather working day
1
400 metric tons per working hatch per weather working day
0
Customary despach
0

626 Care din urmatoarele modalitati de stabilire a staliilor se incadreaza in stalii


nedefinite?
500 metric tons per hatch per day
0
laydays as per custom of port
1
10 clear days
0

151
627 Care dintre urmatoarele afirmatii este in discordanta cu prevederile Institute
Waranties Limits?
in unele zone ale globului navigatia este permisa tot timpul anului
0
in unele zone ale globului navigatia este interzisa tot timpul anului
0
In unele zone ale globului navigatia este permisa o parte din an si este interzisa in
restul anului 0
in orice zona a globului navigatia este permisa cel putin o parte dintr-un an
1

628 Care dintre urmatoarele poate fi considerata o forma de stabilire a navlului?


Pe unitatea de greutate (navlul pe tona)
1
Navlul calculat in functie de durata voiajului
0
Navlul se poate calcula functie de tipul de contract de navlosire utilizat
0

629 Care dintre urmatoarele poate fi considerata o forma de stabilire a navlului?


Functie de modalitatea de angajare
0
Navlul calculat pe unitatea de volum
1
Functie de dorintele armatorului 0

630 Care dintre urmatoarele poate fi considerata o forma de stabilire a navlului?


Navlul se poate calcula conform dorintelor navlositorului
0
Navlul se stabileste conform pietei de valori mobiliare
0
Navlul se poate calcula pe colet
1

631 Care dintre urmatoarele poate fi considerata o forma de stabilire a navlului?


Navlul se poate calcula global pe intreaga nava (LUMPSUM)
1
Navlul conform ratei indicate de BIMCO
0
Navlul se poate calcula conform intelegerilor internationale
0

632 Care dintre urmatoarele poate fi considerata o forma de stabilire a navlului?


Prin referinta la Word Scale
1
Prin referinta Word Bulk Scale
0
Prin referinta la Baltic Freight Future Exchange
0

152
633 Care este al cincilea caz de neaplicare a regulilor de la Haga :
Nu se aplica "transporturilor terestre";
1
Nu se aplica transporturilor combinate;
0
Nu se aplica transporturilor pe apa;
0

634 Care este al doilea caz de neaplicare a regulilor de la Haga :


Transporturilor cu caracter obisnuit
0
Transporturilor de marfuri periculoase;
0
Transporturilor cu caracter exceptional;
1

635 Care este al treilea caz de neaplicare a regulilor de la Haga :


Regulile nu se aplica "cabotajului national";
1
Regulile nu se aplica "cabotajului international";
0
Regulile nu se aplica unui transport dintr-un port apartinand unei tari care a aderat
la regulile de la Haga intr-un port apartinand unei tari care nu a aderat la aceste
reguli; 0

636 Care este continutul dosarului de avarie comuna ?


Protestul de mare, lista avariilor, raportul de constatare a bunei stari de
navigabilitate a navei 0
Documente pentru determinarea cauzelor avariei, pentru determinarea avariilor,
pentru determinarea cheltuielilor, pentru determinarea contributiei
1
Fotografii ale navei inainte si dupa incident, marturii ale mebrilor echipajului,
documente contestatoare eliberate de autoritatile portuare vizitate de nava dupa
avarie 0

637 Care este diferenta dintre conditiile de livrare FOB si CIF din punct de vedere
al momentului in care riscurile trec de la vanzator la cumparator?

in conditia de livrare FOB riscurile trec de la vanzator la cumparator in momentul in


care marfurile trec peste copastia navei in portul de incarcare pe cand in cazul
conditiei CIF riscurile trec la momentul in care nava a ajuns in portul de descarcare
0

in conditia de livrare FOB riscurile trec de la vanzator la cumparator in momentul in


care marfurile strec peste copastia navei in portul de incarcare pe cand in cazul
conditiei CIF riscurile trec la momentul in care marfa trece peste copastia navei in
portul de descarcare 0

in conditia de livrare FOB riscurile trec de la vanzator la cumparator in momentul in


care marfurile trec peste copastia navei in portul de incarcare pe cand in cazul
153
conditiei CIF riscurile trec in momentul in care marfa a fost preluata de primitor
0

nu exista nici un fel de diferenta


1

638 Care este diferenta intre un conosament si un "MULTIDOC"?


MULTIDOC-ul nu are functia de titlu de credit reprezentativ
0
Conosamentul insoteste marfurile numai in transportul pe mare pe cand
"MULTIDOC-ul" insoteste marfa si pe transportul rutier si/sau feroviar
1
Nu exista diferente intre aceste doua documente
0

639 Care este documentul utilizat in contractul multimodal care indeplineste


functiile
conosamentului
"MULTIDOC" 1
SEA-WAYBILL
0
GEN-NAYBILL
0

640 Care este explicatia urmatoarei expresii prescurtata uzual in contractele de


navlosire "SHEX"?
In stalii se include toate zilele lucrate din saptamana
0
In stalii nu se include zilele de duminica si zilele de sarbatori legale
1
In stalii se include zilele de duminica si sarbatori legale
0

641 Care este explicatia urmatoarei expresii prescurtata uzuala in contractele de


navlosire "EIU"?
Timpul exceptat folosit va fi contat la jumatate din timpul folosit
0
Daca operatiunile de incarcare sau descarcare se desfasoara in perioadele excluse
de timp acestea nu se vor conta ca stalii
1
Daca operatiunile de incarcare sau descarcare se desfasoara in perioadele excluse
de timp acestea vor conta ca stalii
0

642 Care este explicatia urmatoarei expresii prescurtata uzuala in contractele de


navlosire "SHINC"?
In stalii se includ toate zilele lucrate din saptamana
0

154
In stalii se includ zilele de duminica si sarbatori legale
1
In stalii nu se includ zilele de duminica si sarbatori legale
0

643 Care este explicatia urmatoarei expresii prescurtata uzuala in contractele de


navlosire "UU"?
Timpul efectiv lucrat, dupa inceperea staliilor, in perioade exceptate se va conta ca
timp de stalii1
Timpul efectiv lucrat, dupa inceperea staliilor, in perioade exceptate nu va conta ca
timp de stalii0
Timpul efectiv lucrat dupa inceperea staliilor va fi contat ca stalii numai daca
prevede uzul portului0

644 Care este intelesul clauzei "rye terms" cu privire la calitatea marfii?
Conform acestei clauze cumparatorul poate pretinde vanzatorului o bonificatie,
daca starea calitativa la sosirea marfii nu corespunde cu calitatea prevazuta in
contract 1
Conform acestei clauze cumparatorul poate refuza marfa daca starea calitativa la
sosirea marfii nu corespunde cu calitatea prevazuta in contract
0
Conform acestei clauze cumparatorul accepta marfa asa cum este
0

645 Care este intelesul clauzei "sound delivered" cu privire la calitatea marfii?
Conform aceste clauze cumparatorul poate pretinde vanzatorului o bonificatie, daca
starea calitativa la sosirea marfii nu corespunde cu calitatea prevazuta in contract
0
Conform acestei clauze cumparatorul poate refuza marfa daca starea calitativa la
sosirea marfii nu corespunde cu calitatea prevazuta in contract
1
Conform acestei clauze cumparatorul accepta marfa asa cum este
0

646 Care este intelesul clauzei "tel quel" cu privire la calitatea marfii?
Conform aceste clauze cumparatorul poate pretinde vanzatorului o bonificatie, daca
starea calitativa la sosirea marfii nu corespunde cu calitatea prevazuta in contract
0
Conform acestei clauze cumparatorul poate refuza marfa daca starea calitativa la
sosirea marfii nu corespunde cu calitatea prevazuta in contract
0
Conform acestei clauze cumparatorul accepta marfa asa cum este
1

647 Care este intelesul cuvantului ”about” in cazul in care se foloseste la


inscrierea in contract a capacitatii de incarcare a navei sau a capacitatii
volumetrice:
in orice imprejurare inseamna ca se se considera acceptabila o toleranta pozitiva
sau negativa de 5%0
155
in orice imprejurare inseamna ca se se considera acceptabila o toleranta pozitiva
sau negativa de 10%0
intelesul acestui cuvant depinde de marimea navei, insa in general se considera
acceptabila o toleranta pozitiva sau negativa de 5 %
1
doar pentru navele mici, inseamna ca se considera acceptabila o oarecare toleranta
pozitiva sau negativa
0

648 Care este interpretarea urmatoarei prescurtari uzuala in contracte de


navlosire "Wibon"?
Conform acestei expresii timpul de stalii va conta numai din momentul in care nava
se afla in dana acceptata de incarcatori la operare
0
conform acestei expresii timpul de stalii va incepe sa curga numai dupa o inspectie
a navlositorului care va declara nava apta chiar daca nava se afla la dana sau nu
0
Conform acestei expresii timpul de stalii va incepe a se conta chiar daca dana de
incarcare/descarcare mentionata in contract nu este disponibila.
1

649 Care este interpretarea urmatoarei prescurtari uzuala in contracte de


navlosire "wiccon"?
Conform acestei expresii nava este considerata apta de incarcare/descarcare numai
daca formalitatile vamale au fost efectuate
0
Conform acestei expresii nava poate inainta NOR indiferent daca a obtinut sau nu
libera practica 0
Conform acestei expresii nava poate inainta NOR indiferent de faptul ca s-au
incheiat sau nu formalitatile vamale
1

650 Care este interpretarea urmatoarei prescurtari uzuala in contracte de


navlosire "Wifpon"?
Conform acestei expresii nava este considerata sosita si poate transmite NOR
numai daca a obtinut libera practica
0
Conform acestei expresii nava este considerata apta pentru incarcare numai dupa
ce a obtinut libera practica
0
Conform acestei expresii nava poate inainta NOR indiferent daca a obtinut sau nu
libera practica 1
651 Care este interpretarea urmatoarei prescurtari uzuala in contracte de
navlosire "Wipon"?
Conform acestei expresii nava va fi considerata sosita si timpul de stalii poate
incepe sa curga doar daca nava este in port
0
Conform acestei expresii nava poate transmite NOR imediat dupa sosire la orice loc
uzual de asteptare din port sau din afara portului
1

156
Conform acestei expresii nava poate transmite NOR numai daca este in limitele
legale, administrative si fiscale ale portului
0

652 Care este modalitatea de angajare a navei cand costul operatiunilor de


incarcare si descarcare sunt in contul navlositorului?
Angajarea LINNER TERMS 0
Angajarea FI/LO
0
Angajarea FIO
1

653 Care este modalitatea de angajare a navei in care costul operatiunilor de


incarcare si descarcare este in contul armatorului?
LINNER TERMS
1
FIOST 0
FIOS (LASHING, SECURING, DUNNAGED
0
654 Care este modalitatea de plata a chiriei pentru o nava in time/charter?
Chiria se plateste anticipat la fiecare 15 sau 30 zile conform prevederilor
contractuale 1
Chiria se plateste la fiecare sfarsit de luna pentru luna in curs
0
Chiria se plateste de catre navlositor ori de cate ori solicita armatorul
0

655 Care este momentul inceperii staliilor potrivit clauzei "Timpul de stalii" din
contractul GENCON 1994 ?
Staliile pentru incarcare si descarcare vor incepe la orele 12.00 daca NOR este dat
pina la orele 08.00 in urmatoarea zi lucratoare daca NOR este dat dupa orele 18.00.
0
Staliile pentru incarcare si descarcare vor incepe la ora 14.00 daca NOR este dat
inainte de prinz si la ora 08.00 in urmatoarea zi lucratoare daca NOR este dat in
timpul orelor de birou de dupa amiaza.0
Staliile pentru incarcare si descarcare vor incepe la ora 13.00 daca NOR este dat
inainte de prinz si la ora 06.00 in urmatoarea zi lucratoare daca NOR este dat in
timpul orelor de birou de dupa amiaza.1
656 Care este norma de incarcare in transportul cu navele de linie?
In conditiile de linie navele opereaza "atat de repede cat nava poate
incarca/descarca" 1
Navele opereaza conform capacitatii de operare a portului unde incarca sau
descarca 0
Nava va opera conform normei de incarcare, descarcare inscrisa in contract
0
657 Care este numele de cod pentru contractele de inchiriere a navei nude?
WELCON 0
MERSEYCON 0
BARECON 1

157
658 Care este particularitatea conosamentului "CONLINEBILL 2000"?
Este un conosament care se foloseste numai in transportul multimodal
0
Acest tip de conosament nu se mai foloseste fiind retras din "FORMS OF APPROVED
DOCUMENTS"0
Contine trei rubrici (cu 2 asterix-uri) care odata completate transforma acest
conosament in THROUGH BILL OF LADING
1
659 Care este primul caz de neaplicare a regulilor de la Haga :
Regulile de la Haga nu se aplica contractelor pe baza de conosamente;
0
Regulile de la Haga nu se aplica contractelor pe baza de Charter Party;
1
Regulile nu se aplica contractelor pe baza de Charter Party cand se emit
comasamente 0

660 Care este principala caracteristica a unui TIME/CHARTER?


Nava ramane tot timpul si din toate punctele de vedere in subordinea navlositorului
0
Nava este subordonata navlositorului numai in ceea ce priveste asigurarea unei
bune stari de navigabilitate pe toata perioada de inchiriere
0
Gestionarea comerciala a navei este in sarcina navlositorului in limitele prevederilor
contractuale1

661 Care este procedura de indeplinit la neplata chiriei?


Daca navlositorul nu s-a achitat la termenul prevazut prin contract de principala
obligatie de a plati chiria armatorul este dator sa-l instiinteze despre acest lucru si
sa astepte pina la expirarea perioadei de gratie, iar daca navlositorul nu plateste sa
rezilieze contractul 1

Armatorul are dreptul sa astepte 10 zile consecutiv fata de termenii prevazuti in


contract dupa care se aplica procedura legala de reziliere a contractului
0

Daca navlositorul nu plateste chiria in avans la termeni prevazuti in contract,


armatorul va notifica de cel putin 3 ori navlositorul si daca acesta nu a platit dupa
aceste notificari poate sa rezilieze contractul0
662 Care este procedura pe care o indeplineste armatorul unei nave in "time-
charter" cand navlositorul nu plateste chiria stabilita prin contract.
Armatorul va rezilia imediat fara proceduri prealabile contractul si va retrage nava
din "time-charter"0

Dupa preavizarile necesare, armatorul va duce pe cheltuiala lui marfa la destinatie,


va intocmi un "statement" cu documente justificative pentru toate cheltuielile
facute in locul navlositorului si va recurge la arbitraj
1

Armatorul va tine raspunzator navlositorul si va duce marfurile la destinatie pe


cheltuiala lui 0
663 Care este regimul juridic al cuvintelor radiate ale unui contract de navlosire?

158
Ele se iau in considerare atunci cand una dintre parti poate dovedi ca s-au radit din
greseala 0
Ele se considera ca si cand nu ar fi existat si nu se iau in considerare in nici o
imprejurare 0
Ele se considera ca si cand nu ar fi existat si se iau in considerare doar in situatia in
care fara ele una sau mai multe clauze nu ar avea sens
1

664 Care este relatia intre continutul conosamentului si prevederile acreditivului?


Intre elementele cuprinse in conosament si prevederile acreditivului trebuie sa fie o
perfecta concordanta, orice nepotrivire putand da nastere la amanarea sau chiar la
refuzul platii de catre banca1

Intre elementele cuprinse in conosament si prevederile acreditivului nu trebuie sa


fie nici o legatura, cel din urma reflectand modalitati de plata ale contractului de
vanzare internationala 0

Intre elementele cuprinse in conosament si prevederile acreditivului trebuie sa fie o


oarecare concordanta, dar se permit si variatii ale conosamentului de la continutul
acreditivului daca acestea sunt in favoarea vinzatorului
0

665 Care este semnificatia angajarii BSS 0/0


D/A-ul in portul/porturile de incarcare si descarcare este suportat de navlositor
1
D/A-ul in porturile de incarcare sau descarcare este suportat de navlositor
0
D/A-ul in porturile de incarcare/descarcare este suportat in proportii egale de
armator/navlositor0
666 Care este semnificatia angajarii BSS 1/1?
Un port de incarcare, unul de descarcare D/A-ul va fi suportat de navlositor
0
Un port de incarcare un port de descarcare D/A-ul va fi suportat de armator
1
La incarcare D/A-ul va fi suportat de armator iar la descarcare de navlositor
0

667 Care este semnificatia clauzei CIF?


Obliga pe armatorul navei pe care se incarca marfurile sa suporte cheltuielile de
incarcare, descarcare si asigurare a marfii.
0
Clauza se regaseste in contractele comerciale de vinzare internationala, stabilind ca
in pretul marfii se include navlul si asigurarea.
1
Obliga pe vinzator sa suporte toate cheltuielile legate de livrarea marfurilor pina in
portul de descarcare.
0

668 Care este semnificatia clauzei LINNER TERMS intalnita in contractele de


navlosire?
Toate cheltuielile de incarcare, descarcare, stivuire si amarare a marfurilor cad in
sarcina armatorului.1
159
Cheltuielile legate de incarcarea si descarcarea marfurilor sint in sarcina
navlositorului. 0
"Vinzatorul marfurilor va suporta toate cheltuielile legate de incarcarea si
descarcarea lor." 0

669 Care este semnificatia clauzelor FIO, FIOS, FIOT dintr-un Ch/P?
Prezenta acestor clauze intr-un contract de navlosire obliga pe navlositor sa suporte
cheltuielile de incarcare stivuire si rujare a marfurilor, iar pe armator sa suporte
cheltuielile de descarcare. 0
Inserarea acestor clauze pune in sarcina armatorului toate cheltuielile de incarcare,
stivuire si amarare a marfurilor.
0
Toate cheltuielile de incarcare, descarcare stivuire si/sau rujare a marfurilor vor fi in
contul navlositorului.
1

670 Care este semnificatia expresiei "indiferent daca este in dana sau nu"
(WHETHER IN BERTH OR NOT)?
Inseamna ca daca dana de incarcare sau descarcare nu este disponibila la sosirea
navei, nava poate transmite NOR in momentul in care ajunge in orice loc uzual de
asteptare si timpul de stalii va incepe sa curga in conformitate cu prevederile
contractului de navlosire. Timpul de stalii sau contrastalii se va intrerupe in
momentul in care dana devine disponibila si va reincepe atunci cind nava este gata
de incarcare sau descarcare in dana.
1

Staliile vor incepe sa curga indiferent daca nava este in dana sau nu.
0

Inseamna ca daca dana de incarcare sau descarcare nu este disponibila la sosirea


navei, nava poate transmite NOR in momentul in care ajunge in orice loc uzual de
asteptare si timpul de stalii va incepe sa curga in conformitate cu prevederile
contractului de navlosire. Timpul de stalii sau contrastalii nu se va intrerupe in
momentul in care dana devine disponibila ci se va conta pina la finaliyarea
operatiunilor de incarcare sau descarcare.
0

671 Care este semnificatia expresiei "stalii reversibile"?


Navlositorul are optiunea de a aduna timpul de stalii alocat pentru incarcare cu cel
alocat pentru descarcare si apoi poate efectua calculele
1
160
Se vor face calcule separate pentru incarcare si descarcare si perioada de timp
folosita peste timpul alocat in cazul uneia dintre operatiuni poate fi compensata cu
orice perioada de timp salvata in cazul celeilalte operatiuni
0

Se vor face calcule separate pentru timpul alocat incarcarii si descarcarii


0

672 Care este semnificatia expresiei "to average laytime"?


Navlositorul are optiunea de a aduna timpul de stalii alocat pentru incarcare cu cel
alocat pentru descarcare si apoi poate efectua calculele
0

Se vor face calcule separate pentru timpul alocat incarcarii si descarcarii


0

Se vor face calcule separate pentru incarcare si descarcare si perioada de timp


folosita peste timpul alocat in cazul uneia dintre operatiuni poate fi compensata cu
orice perioada de timp salvata in cazul celeilalte operatiuni
1

673 Care este socotita "regula de aur" a comertului international pe mare?


Export CIF, import CIF
0
Import FOB, export CIF
1
Import CFR, export FOB
0

674 Care reguli reglementeaza avaria comuna?


Regulile de la Hamburg
0
Regulile de la Haga si Haga-Visby
0
Regulile York-Anvers
1

675 Care sint expresiile referitoare la costul operatiunilor de incarcare, descarcare


si stivuire care se regasesc intr-un contract de navlosire?
FOB, CIF, FIOS si LINNER TERMS.
0
FIO, FIOS, FIOT, FILO, LIFO, LILO
1
C AND F, FOB, FIOS, FIOL. 0

676 Care sint obiectivele asigurarii P & I ?


Asigurarea marfurilor transportate, corpului navei si a anumitor responsbilitati ale
armatorilor atunci cind acestia sunt considerati vinovati pentru pierderi si avarii
0

161
asigurarea raspunderilor armatorului cu privire la corpul navei si la marfurile
transportate. 0

asigurarea armatorilor impotriva responsabilitatilor legale, contractuale,


extracontractuale si a altor responsabilitati ale armatorilor.
1

677 Care sint obligatiile carausului inainte de inceperea calatoriei conform


regulilor de la Haga ?
Punerea navei in buna stare de navigabilitate : armarea, echiparea si
aprovizionarea in mod corespunzator a navei si curatarea hambarelor si/sau a altor
spatii ale navei unde urmeaza sa se incarce marfuri pentru transport.
1
Punerea navei in buna stare de navigabilitate legala si contractuala.
0
Amararea, echiparea si aprovizionarea corespunzatoare a navei : curatarea
hambarelor si/sau a puntilor navei.
0

678 Care sint obligatiile carausului inainte si la inceperea calatoriei conform


regulilor de la Haga ?
Carausul va depune toate diligentele rezonabile pentru angajare si incarcare unor
marfuri corespunzatoare din toate punctele de vedere.
0
Carausul va depune toate diligentele rezonabile pentru punerea navei in buna stare
de navigabilitate si armarea, echiparea si aprovizionarea navei in mod convenabil.
1
Carausul va insarcina pe navlositori cu pregatirea navei pentru calatorie cu tot ce
este necesar conform conventiilor internationale in vigoare.
0

679 Care sint uzantele uniforme internationale referitoare la conditiile de livrare a


marfurilor in contractul comercial de vinzare internationala?
Regulile de la Haga.
0
INCOTERMS, RAFTD si Regulile de la Hamburg.
0
INCOTERMS si RAFTD
1

680 Care sunt caracteristicile avariei particulare?

162
Sa egalizeze pierderile provocate cu intentia de a le face rezonabile fata de toate
partile interesate, sa-i dea Comandantului libertatea de actiune in incercarea de a
salva nava sau marfurile aflate in pericol0

Accidentul este consecinta unui pericol maritim, a fortei majore sau a viciului
propriu al navei, vicii ale incarcaturii, daunele si cheltuielile se refera numai la nava
sau numai la incarcatura 1

Daunele si cheltuielile se refera numai la nava sau numai la incarcatura, clauza


"New Jason" face ca o avarie particulara produsa din neglijenta Comandantului sa
devina avarie comuna 0

681 Care sunt cele mai uzuale clauze inserate in conosament cu privire la plata
navlului?
In conosament nu se inscriu clauze cu privire la plata navlului
0
Cele mai uzuale clauze cu privire la plata navlului inserate in conosament sunt:
"FREIGHT PREPAID", "FREIGHT PAYABLE AS PER CH/P"
1
Cele mai uzuale clauze cu privire la plata navlului inserate in conosament sunt:
"FREIGHT PREPAYABLE", "FREIGHT PAYABLE AS PER AGREEMENT"
0

682 Care sunt cerintele pe care trebuie sa le indeplineasca ambalajul marfii?


Sa fie usor, rezistent, estetic
1
Sa fie originar, vizibil
0
Sa fie usor, estetic, originar
0

683 Care sunt clauzele inscrise in conosament care limiteaza raspunderea


armatorului fara a transforma conosamentul in "FOUL"?
Clauzele referitoare la descrierea marfii
0
Clauza "se spune de catre incarcator ca ar contine…"
1
Clauze referitoare la modalitatea de plata a navlului
0

684 Care sunt clauzele inscrise in conosament care limiteaza responsabilitatile


armatorului fara a transforma conosamentul in "FOUL"?
Clauzele referitoare la costul operatiunilor de incarcare/descarcare
0
Clauzele referitoare la responsabilitatile armatorului
0
Clauzele "incarcat in stare si conditie aparent buna"
1

163
685 Care sunt clauzele inscrise in conosament, care limiteaza responsabilitatea
armatorului fara a transforma conosamentul in "FOUL"?
Clauza"greutatea, masura, marcajul, numarul, calitatea, continutul si valoarea
necunoscuta" 1
Clauza referitoare la modalitatea de semnare a conosamentului
0
Clauzele referitoare la porturile de incarcare/descarcare
0

686 Care sunt clauzele referitoare la "DESPATCH"care pot fi inserate intr-un


contract de navlosire
DESTACH-ul se va calcula conform normelor portuare
0
Clauzele: DHDATSBE si DHDWTSBE
0
DHDATSBE, DHDWTSBE, FDBE
1

687 Care sunt conditiile ce trebuie indeplinite pentru ca staliile sa conteze?


Nava sa fie sosita, nava sa fie gata de operare inainte de inaintarea NOR, notice of
readiness sa fie inaintat
1
Nava sa fie in dana, NOR inaintat, nava in libera practica
0
Nava sa fie in port sau dana, NOR inaintat, libera practica obtinuta
0

688 Care sunt conditiile de livrare conform INCOTERMS 2000 incluse in grupa "F"?
FOB,FAS,FIOS,FCR 0
FIOT, FOT, FAS
0
FOB, FAS, FCA
1

689 Care sunt conditiile de livrare, conform INCOTERMS 2000, incluse in grupa
"C"?
CFR,CIF,CIP,CPT
1
C&F, CIF, CPT
0
CIF, CFO, CAF
0

690 Care sunt conditiile de livrare, conform INCOTERMS 2000, incluse in grupa
"D"?
DEQ, DEP, DDU, DDP
0
164
DES, DDU,DAF, DNP
0
DAF, DDU, DDP, DES, DEQ (Delivered at Frontier),(Delivered Duty
(Un)Paid), (Delivered Ex Ship), (Delivered Ex Quay)
1

691 Care sunt conditiile pe care o nava trebuie sa le indeplineasca pentru ca


staliile sa inceapa sa curga?
Nava sa fie sosita si gata din toate punctele de vedere pentru operatiuni
0
Nava sa fie acostata si NOR-ul acceptat
0
Nava sa fie sosita si sa fie gata din toate punctele de vedere pentru operatiuni si sa
existe o notificare scrisa ca cele doua conditii au fost indeplinite
1

692 Care sunt conventiile internationale ale caror cerinte trebuie satisfacute de o
nava pentru a fi in "buna stare de navigabilitate"?
BIMCO si IMO
0
BIMCO, IMO si SOLAS
0
SOLAS, LOAD LINE, ILO si MARPOL
1
693 Care sunt factorii care pot influenta valoarea navlului?
Tipul de contract de navlosire utilizat
0
Tipul de conosament utilizat
0
Natura marfurilor 1

694 Care sunt functiile conosamentului?


dovada a preluarii marfurilor spre transport, dovada a existentei contractului de
transport si titlu de valoare reprezentativ al marfii
1
Functie paralela cu contractul de transport, poate fi utilizat ca singur document de
transport, titlu probatoriu, titlu de credit reprezentativ
0
Atesta existenta contractului de transport, mijloc de transfer al dreptului de
proprietate asupra marfii0
695 Care sunt modalitatile de angajare a navei cand costul operatiunilor de
incarcare si descarcare sunt impartite intre parteneri:
FIOST 0
FI/LO si LO/FI 1
LINNER TERMS
0

696 Care sunt modalitatile de plata a navlului?


Freight prepaid, freight payable at destination, freight as per ch/p
1

165
Freight payable after signing B/L, freight payable after releasing B/L
0
Freight payable at destination, freight as per ch/p, freight prepayable
0

697 Care sunt obiectivele unei inspectii "on hire"?


Stabilirea conditiilor fizice si tehnice ale navei, determinarea cantitatilor de
combustibil existente la bordul navei si determinarea capacitatii navei de a incepe
incarcarea imediat dupa livrare 1
Stabilirea calificarii si competentei echipajului, determinarea starii tehnice a navei
deoarece nava va trebui relivrata in aceeasi stare in care a fost livrata
0
Inspectia va stabili starea financiara a navei si daca nava are de primit contrastalii
de la navlositorii precedenti
0

698 Care sunt prevederile ale CONVENTIEI KYOTO/SEPT-1974 referitoare la


transportul marfurilor sub sigiliul naval:

Ca orice container poate circula pe mare numai daca sigiliul naval este sub controlul
Comandantului0

Containerele vor purta o placuta care sa ateste ca sigiliile sunt in concordanta cu


prevederile CONVENTIEI

1
Sigiliul naval se putea rupe oricand pe durata transportului daca Comandantul
banuieste ca in container sunt marfuri de contrabanda
0
699 Care sunt principalele caracteristici ale unui contract "BARECON"?
Armatorul preda navlositorului gestiunea nautica si comerciala a navei
transformandu-l in ceeace se numeste "disponent owner"
1
Armatorul preda navlositorului in intregime gestiunea economica a navei
0
Armatorul transfera navlositorului dreptul de proprietate asupra navei cu toate
prerogativele ce decurg din acest drept
0

700 Care sunt principalele categorii de raspunderi ale armatorului asigurate de


Cluburile P&I?
Raspunderi privind neglijenta comerciala a Comandantului sau prepusilor sai
0
Raspunderi izvorate din incalcarea cu sau fara buna stiinta a unor clauze
contractuale a ofiterilor navei sau a Comandantului
0
Raspunderi cu privire la peroanele aflate la bord, raspunderi cu privire la marfa,
raspunderi cu privire la alte nave si instalatii portuare, raspunderi cu privire la
poluare 1

701 Care sunt principiile asigurarii maritime?


166
Interesul asigurabil, maxima buna credinta, despagubirea
0
Interesul asigurabil, maxima buna credinta, despagubirea, subrogarea, prudenta
neasiguratului 1
Interesul asigurabil, maxima buna credinta, despagubirea, subrogarea
0

702 Care sunt recomandarile BIMCO in legatura cu activitatea comandantului


cand nava este in "time charter"?
Nu sunt recomandari speciale
0
Comandantul va satisface cu intreaga lui competenta ordinele armatorului si
navlositorului 0
Comandantul va actiona la bordul navei cu toata competenta si puterea fizica la fel
cum ar actiona cand nava este exploatata de propriul armator
1

703 Care sunt reglementarile internationale referitoare la transportul de marfuri


pe mare pe baza de conosamente?
Regulile de la Haga, Haga - Visby si Hamburg
1
Regulile stabilite de BIMCO
0
Regulile YORK-ANVERS si regulile Haga Visby
0

704 Care sunt sursele de informatii pentru completarea conosamentului?


Marcajul marfii, rapoartele zilnice ale stivatorilor, contractul de transport maritim,
istoricul operatiunilor, lista de incarcare
0
Informatiile furnizate de incarcator, raportul de inspectie a marfii, certificatul de
origine/calitate, rapoartele de determinare a cantitatii de marfa, ordinul de embargo
1
Contractul de navlosire, navlositorul, primitorul, inspectorul P&I
0

705 Care sunt tipurile de contracte utilizate in practica comerciala pentru


inchirierea navei in Charter by Demise?
Gencon
0
Baltime
0
Barecon 1

706 Care sunt tipurile de contracte utilizate in practica comerciala pentru


inchirierea navei in time-charter?
Intertankvoy-76, Interconsec-76, Intercoa-80, Medcon, Welcon, Coastcon, Baltcon,
Polcoalvoy 0
Baltime, Nype-93, Linertime, Gastime, Supplytime, Intertanktime, Coasthire
1

167
Synacomex, Graintime, Baltimore, Nubalttime
0
707 Care sunt tipurile de contracte utilizate in practica comerciala pentru
transportul carbunelui?
Medcon, Welcon, Coastcon, Baltcon, Polcoalvoy
1
Gencon, Scancon, Britcon, Nuvoy
0
Orevoy, Genorecon, Nipponore, Murmapatit
0

708 Care sunt tipurile de contracte utilizate in practica comerciala pentru


transportul cerealelor?
Medcon, Welcon, Coastcon, Baltcon, Polcoalvoy
0
Gencon, Scancon, Britcon, Nuvoy
0
Synacomex, Grainvoy, Baltimore
1

709 Care sunt tipurile de contracte utilizate in practica comerciala pentru


transportul cherestelei?
Medcon, Welcon, Coastcon, Baltcon, Polcoalvoy
0
Blackseawood, Nubaltwood, Nanyozal
1
Intertankvoy-76, Interconsec-76, Intercoa-80
0

710 Care sunt tipurile de contracte utilizate in practica comerciala pentru


transportul marfurilor generale?
Medcon, Welcon, Coastcon, Polcoalvoy
0
Gencon, Multiform, Nuvoy 1
Synacomex, Grainvoy, Baltimore
0

711 Care sunt tipurile de contracte utilizate in practica comerciala pentru


transportul minereului?
Medcon, Welcon, Baltcon, Polcoalvoy
0
C(ore) 7, Scanore, Britore, Nuvoy
0
Orevoy, Stemmor, Nipponore, Murmapatit
1

712 Care sunt tipurile de contracte utilizate in practica comerciala pentru


transportul produselor petroliere?
Intertankvoy 87, Asbatankvoy, Beepeevoy, Shellvoy
1
Gencon, Scancon, Britcon, Nuvoy
0
168
Orevoy, Genorecon, Nipponore, Murmapatit
0

713 Care sunt unitatile de calcul al navlului?


Tona metrica, navlu global
0
Unitate de greutate, unitate de volum, colet, navlu global, unitate de timp
1
Unitate de greutate, unitate de volum
0

714 Cat prevede CSC ca poate circula un container daca nu are afectata structura
de rezistenta?
Un container fara avarii poate circula 30 de luni dupa care va fi supus unei inspectii
de registru 1
Un container poate circula 24 de luni fara inspectii ale unui registru
0
2 ani daca nu este avariat 0

715 Cate categorii de avarii intalnim in transportul de marfuri pe mare?


Avarii daune, avarii comune si avarii cheltuieli
0
Avarii comune si avarii particulare
1
Avarii particulare si avarii daune
0

716 Ce atribute dau regulilor INCOTERMS caracterul de uzante uniforme


internationale?
Aplicarea lor numai cand partile au facut referire in mod expres la ele in continutul
contractului si libertatea participantilor de a le aplica in intregime a anula ceeace nu
agreeaza si a le completa cu ce doresc
1
Aplicarea lor tuturor contractelor de vanzare internationala si respectarea intocmai
a prevederilor lor0
Aplicarea lor unui contract nunai daca partile nu au stabilit reglementari prin alte
uzante cum ar fi RAFTD-41
0

717 Ce categorii de marfuri poate transporta o nava in "time-charter"?


Orice categorie de marfuri
0
Marfuri legale cu exceptia celor prevazute explicit in contract
1
Orice marfuri cu exceptia marfurilor periculoase
0
169
718 Ce clauza inscrisa in conosament afecteaza conosamentul ca document de
plata?
Clauza referitoare la conditiile de livrare a marfurilor
0
Clauza referitoare la avaria comuna
0
Mentiuni facute de comandant referitoare la starea si conditia aparenta a marfii
1

719 Ce clauza inscrisa in conosament afecteaza conosamentul ca document de


plata?
Clauza referitoare la numarul de colete incarcate la bordul navei
1
Clauze referitoare la costul operatiunilor de amarare/stivuire si/sau fardare
0
Clauze referitoare la schimbarea portului de incarcare
0

720 Ce clauze sunt avantajoase in contractul comercial de vinzare internationala


pentru o tara care dispune de o flota marititima?
CIF pentru cumparari si FOB pentru vinzari.
0
FIOS si LINER TERMS.
0
CIF pentru vinzari si FOB pentru cumparari.
1

721 Ce conosamente se folosesc in transportul de linie?


Se folosesc conosamente CONGENBILL si conosamente COMBIDOC
0
Numai conosamente elaborate de companiile ce deservesc liniile de navigatie
0
Se folosesc conosamente CONLINEBILL sau conosamente elaborate de companiile
ce deservesc liniile de navigatie
1

722 Ce conosamente standard se utilizeaza in transportul multimodal si


containerizat?
Conosamentul "CONLINEBILL" si "CONGENBILL"
0
Orice conosament publicat in "FORMS OF APPROVED DOCUMENTS"
0
"CONLINEBILL" si "COMBIDOC"
1

723 Ce contine lista de incarcare la o nava specializata numai in transportul


containerelor?
In astfel de cazuri nu este nevoie de lista de incarcare
0

170
Lista va cuprinde descrierea detaliata a marfurilor din container
0
Lista de incarcare a incarcatorului va cuprinde numerele de identificare pentru toate
containerele ce urmeaza a se incarca
1

724 Ce cuprinde masa pasiva (debitoare)?


Masa pasiva cuprinde toate bunurile salvate cu exceptia navlului si care au profitat
de sacrificiul sau cheltuieli facute in mod voluntar pentru salvarea comuna
0

Masa pasiva (debitoare) include toate bunurile salvate (nava, navlul si incarcatura)
deci toate elementele care au profitat de sacrificiul sau cheltuielile facute in mod
voluntar pentru salvarea comuna
1
Masa pasiva (debitoare) cuprinde toate bunurile salvate (nava, navlu, incarcatura)
pentru care participanti la expeditia maritima nu au polite de asigurare sau pe care
nu le pot recupera de la partea vinovata
0

725 Ce diferente exista intre expresiile "working days of 24 hours" si "working


days of 24 consecutive hours" conform VOYARULES 93:
Exista diferente semnificative in sensul ca in conformitate cu prima expresie o zi de
24 ore lucratoare poate reprezenta 3 zile in care se lucreaza cate 8 ore pe zi
0
Nu exista nici un fel de diferenta intre cele 2 expresii
1
Exista diferente juridice care nu intereseaza personalul de la bordul navei
0

726 Ce documente sunt folosite pentru intocmirea "Time Sheet"?


Conosamentul si contractul de navlosire
0
Istoricul operatiunilor de incarcare/descarcare, NOR si contractul de navlosire
1
Raportul zilnic de lucru al stivatorilor si contractul de navlosire
0

727 Ce efect are introducerea clauzei "PARAMOUNT" intr-un conosament?


Supune conosamentul regulilor de la Haga sau Haga Visby.
1
Supune conosamentul regulilor de la Hamburg.
0
Supune conosamentul fie regulilor de la Haga fie regulilor de la Hamburg in functie
de tara in care are loc incarcarea
0

728 Ce este "manifestul marfii"?


Este un document care se intocmeste de catre nava pentru a fi folosit in vama
0
171
Documentul, intocmit de agentul navei, care descrie marfurile incarcate intr-un port
si care serveste la vama in porturile de incarcare si descarcare
1
Documentul care se intocmeste pentru a descrie marfurile de la bord si care este
transmis direct de la vama din portul de incarcare la vama din portul de descarcare
0

729 Ce este "navlul"?


Suma platibila carausului de catre navlositor pentru transportul si sosirea marfurilor
la destinatie fara a-si pierde valoarea comerciala si gata de a fi livrate posesorului
conosamentului 1
Suma platibila navlositorului de catre incarcator pentru transportul si sosirea
marfurilor la destinatie fara a-si pierde valoarea comerciala si gata de a fi livrate
posesorului conosamentului 0
Suma platibila armatorului de catre navlositor pentru transportul marfurilor la
destinatie sau cit mai aproape de destinatie
0

730 Ce este "OUTTURN REPORT"?


Este un document in care se fac mentiuni referitoare la cantitatea de marfa
descarcata si la starea si conditia in care a aceasta a fost descarcata
1
Documentul care descrie in detaliu toate evenimentele legate de descarcarea
marfurilor in portul de destinatie
0
Documentul intocmit de comandantul navei prin care este descrisa starea marfurilor
la descarcare0
Este documentul care evidentiaza integritatea cantitativa si calitativa a marfurilor
descarcate 0

731 Ce este "rata navlului" (FREIGHT RATE)?


Suma de bani stabilita per tona, metru cub sau colet ori per tona registru a navei,
ce urmeaza a se plati pentru transportul marfurilor pe mare sau fluvii.
1
Suma de bani conform pietii navlurilor la un moment dat pentru anumite categorii
de marfuri. 0
Suma globala pe care o plateste navlositorul armatorului la deadweight-ul maxim la
linia de vara 0
732 Ce este "STATEMENT OF FACTS"?
Este un document intocmit de stivatorii care fac un istoric al operatiunilor de
incarcare/descarcare0

Istoricul evenimentelor care duc la intreruperea curgerii staliilor


0

Documentul intocmit de agent care evidentiaza toate evenimentele de la sosirea


navei pana la plecarea ei
1

172
733 Ce este "tona de navlu" (FREIGHT TON)?
Unitate de masura pentru volum si greutate egala cu un metru cub sau o tona
folosita la determinarea navlului si armatorul are dreptul de a stabili navlul fie pe
volum fie pe greutate 1
"Unitate de masura si greutate egala cu 45 p.c. (1,15 m.c.)/2,245 libre folosita in
calcularea navlurilor."0
"Unitate de masura pentru volum si greutate egala cu 40 p.c. (1,12m.c.)/2,240 libre
folosita in calcularea navlurilor."
0

734 Ce este avaria comuna (GENERAL AVERAGE) ?


Un prejudiciu cauzat de o forta majora,tuturor participantilor la un contaract,
acoperita proportional de toate partile participante la expeditie.
0
Un prejudiciu material sau o cheltuiala extraordinara produsa in timpul unui
contract de transport de marfuri pe mare, avind drept cauza forta majora.
0
Pierderea partiala din expeditia maritima, provocata pentru a preveni pierderea
intregii expeditii, putind consta din sacrificiul proprietatii sau cheltuieli facute pentru
salvarea expeditiei. 1

735 Ce este barateria (BARRATRY)?


"Act ilegal si fraudulos comis de comandant si echipaj prin care se aduc prejudicii
armatorului ori navlositorului."
1
Preluarea fara drept a controlului unei nave pentru a fi folosita in benficiu propriu.
0
Atacarea navei de catre persoane inarmate in scopul insusirii prin forta a bunurilor
aflate pe nava.0
736 Ce este coeficientul de contributie la avaria comuna?
Coeficientul de contributie este stabilit prin negociere directa intre partile implicate
0
Raportul dintre masa debitoare si masa creditoare reprezinta coeficientul de
contributie 0
Raportul dintre masa creditoare si masa debitoare reprezinta coeficientul de
contributie 1

737 Ce este contractul “slothire”?


Este contractul prin care se inchiriaza containere de catre incarcator
0
Este contractul prin care un incarcator inchiriaza de la armator o parte din spatiul
de transport exprimat in containere pe care il foloseste pentru a-si transporta
marfurile proprii sau il subinchiriaza 1

173
Este contractul prin care un navlositor inchiriaza tot spatial de transport al unei
nave exprimat in containere pe care il foloseste pentru transportul marfurilor proprii
sau pentru transportul altor marfuri
Este contractul standard folosit pentru inchirierea containerelor
0

738 Ce este foaia de pontaj?


Documentul pe care persoana din echipaj desemnata il completeaza evidentiind
numarul de colete incarcate si locul unde se incarca
1
O foaie tipizata pe care se inscrie numarul de echipe care lucreaza si utilajele lor
0
Un document care evidentiaza natura si calitatea marfurilor incarcate
0

739 Ce este navlul (FREIGHT)?


Pretul marfurilor transportate.
0
Suma de bani pe care navlositorul o plateste armatorului pentru marfurile
transportate. 1
Suma platita zilnic de navlositor armatorului pentru perioada de inchiriere a navei.
0

740 Ce este o clauza tipizata?


O clauza formulata astfel de IMO
0
O clauza cu acelasi continut cuprinsa atat in Ch/P cat si Bs/L
0
O clauza tiparita in "FORMS OF APPROVED DOCUMENTS" editata de BIMCO si care
are un nume de cod1
741 Ce este placuta de securitate C.S.C?
O placuta fixata pe usa frontala care atesta ca respectivul container rezista la
solicitari statice in terminal si dinamice in timpul transportului pe mare
0
O placuta fixata provizoriu pentru a putea fi utilizata in scopuri normale la nevoie
0
O placuta fixata permanent intr-un loc vizibil, care certifica construirea containerului
conform Conventiei pentru Securitatea Containerelor
1

742 Ce este un "conosament cu remarci" (FOUL BILL OF LADING)?


Un conosament redactat sub alta forma decit cea standardizata si tipizata.
0
Un conosament cu stersaturi si modificari in continut.
0
Un conosament care contine o clauza din care sa rezulte ca marfa nu a fost
incarcata in conditii bune.1
174
743 Ce este un "conosament direct" (THROUGH BILL)?
Un conosament folosit pentru transportul terestru al marfurilor.
0
Un conosament care acopera transportul marfurilor pe intreaga perioada de tranzit,
incluzind transportul terestru si aerian.
1
Un document utilizat pentru transportul direct al marfurilor de la cumparator la
vinzator 0
744 Ce este un "RIDER" la contractul de navlosire?
Este partea din contract negociata si inscrisa ca atare in continuarea contractului
standard 1
Modificarile facute de parti la clauzele standard in urma negocierii a formularului
standard 0
Este continuarea contractului cu clauze standard din "FORMS OF APPROVED
DOCUMENTS" 0
745 Ce este un "time-sheet"?
Un document intocmit separat de armator si navlositor prin care se evidentiaza
zilnic curgerea staliilor1
Documentul intocmit la bordul navei de catre camandant prin care se urmareste
derularea conform clauzelor a operatiunilor de incarcare/descarcare
0
Document intocmit de agentul navei prin care se evidentiaza momentul si durata
contrastaliilor sau despatch-ului
0

746 Ce este un BROKER?


Un agent (cu comision sau remuneratie stabilita) care se ocupa de cumpararea ori
vinzarea de bunuri, marfuri, titluri negociabile, sau negociaza rata unui navlu,
asigurari, etc. Vinzarile sau negocierile le efectueaza in numele celui pe care il
reprezinta 1
Persoane fizice sau juridice care se ocupa de tranzactii maritime, incheind in
numele lor contracte comerciale, contracte de navlosire sau de asigurare.
0
Un agent (cu comision sau remuneratie stabilita) care se ocupa de cumpararea ori
vinzarea de bunuri, marfuri, titluri negociabile, sau negociaza rata unui navlu,
asigurari, etc. Vinzarile sau negocierile le efectueaza in nume propriu
0

747 Ce este un CHARTER PARTY?


Ch/P este un contract de vinzare internationala.
0
Ch/P este un contract prin care vinzatorul marfurilor se obliga sa transporte pina la
destinatie, conform clauzelor inserate,marfurile incredintate.
0
Documentul prin care se stabilesc drepturile si obligatiile armatorului si
navlositorului cu privire la punerea unei nave sau a spatiului de transport al unei
nave la dispozitia navlositorului 1
748 Ce este un conosament imbatranit?
Un conosament care dupa semnare nu a fost depus la data extrema pentru
depunere sau in lipsa acestei date in termen de 21 de zile dupa semnare.
1

175
Conosament imbatranit este acel conosament care nu a fost eliberat de catre
caraus in termen de 3 zile de la semnare si care poate deveni inutilizabil pentru
incarcator. 0
Un conosament imbatranit este un termen care nu se foloseste in transportul de
marfuri pe mare pe baza de conosamente.
0
749 Ce este un dispasor (AVERAGE ADJUSTER)?
Persoana numita de catre oficialitati pentru a stabili masa pasiva (totalitatea
bunurilor salvate care sint indreptatite sa primeasca despagubiri de la asiguratori)si
masa activa (totalitatea cheltuielilor facute pentru salvarea comuna).
1

Persoana numita de catre armator sau agentul armatorului avind ca sarcina sa


determine cauzele avariei comune si sa stabileasca procentul de contributie la
avaria comuna. 0

Persoana fizica sau juridica numita de o autoritate internationala in vederea stabilirii


masei pasive si active, precum si a cotelor de participare la avaria comuna.
0

750 Ce este un operator de transport multimodal conform prevederilor


"CONVENTIEI DE LA GENEVA"?
O persoana fizica sau juridica specializata in transportul multimodal
1
O firma de transport care are legaturi cu firme specializate in transport rutier sau
feroviar 0
Firmele care angajeaza nave si/sau vagoane pentru transportul marfurilor
0

751 Ce factori influenteaza valoarea navlului?


Prevederile clauzelor din contractul de navlosire, modalitatea de angajare a navei,
timpul de stalii, natura marfurilor
0
Distanta dintre porturi, natura marfurilor, zona geografica, situatia geopolitica a
porturilor de operare, modalitatea de angajare a navei (fios, linner), modalitati de
plata a cheltuielilor portuare (D/A) 1
Prevederile clauzelor din contractul de navlosire, distanta dintre porturi, natura
marfurilor, zona geografica
0

752 Ce factori pot influenta valoarea navlului?


Momentul inceperii curgerii staliilor
0
Situatia geopolitica in porturile de operare
1
Tipul de contract de navlosire utilizat
0

753 Ce fel de marcaj se foloseste in cazul materialelor explozive?

176
neutru
0
original
0
rezistent 0
special
1

754 Ce inseamna "navlu platibil la destinatie" (FREIGHT PAYABLE AT


DESTINATION)?
Navlu platibil la sosirea navei in porturile de destinatie indiferent de prevederile
conosamentului, cind expresia se insereaza in Ch/P.
0
Clauza din conosament sau Ch/P conform careia navlul se plateste in portul de
descarcare si, in general, numai daca marfurile au ajuns fara a-si pierde valoarea
comerciala. 1
Plata navlului la sosirea navei in ultimul port de descarcare, indiferent de starea
marfurilor 0

755 Ce inseamna cuvintul sarbatoare (HOLIDAY)?


Inseamna o zi pe saptamina sau parte(ti) din aceasta in care lucrul pe nava in mod
normal ar trebui sa aiba loc dar este suspendat la locul incarcarii/descarcarii din
motive de lege locala sau practica locala.1
Sarbatoare inseamna acea zi in care conform calendarului BIMCO, in portul
respectiv lucrul nu se executa din motive de lege locala sau practica locala.
0
Sarbatoare inseamna duminicile sau alte zile in care conform uzurilor de port lucrul
nu se executa.0
756 Ce inseamna expresia "navlul platit anticipat" (FREIGHT PREPAID)?
"Navlul platit in portul de incarcare inainte de inceperea incarcarii."
0
Navlul platit in momentul incheierii contractului de navlosire.
0
Navlul platit inainte de eliberarea conosamentelor originale
1

757 Ce inseamna expresia "port sigur" (SAFE PORT)?


Inseamna un port care, pe timpul respectivei perioade de timp, nava poate sosi,
intra, ramine sau pleca din el, in absenta unor intimplari anormale, fara a fi expusa
vreunui pericol care nu poate fi evitat printr-o buna navigatie sau practica
marinareasca 1
"Port sigur" inseamna un loc amenajat, inscris in documentele nautice, utilizat de
nave ca loc de operare, fara a exista posibilitatea avarierii navelor.
0
Inseamna un port in care, pe timpul respectivei perioade de timp, nava poate intra,
ramine sau pleca din el, fara a fi expusa vreunui pericol chiar in imprejurari
deosebite 0

758 Ce inseamna expresia "WEATHER WORKING DAY"?


O zi lucratoare de 24 de ore consecutive cu exceptia perioadelor de timp in care
incarcarea sau descarcarea este impiedicata de contitiile meteorologice sau ar fi
177
fost impiedicata daca s-ar fi desfasurat.
1
o zi lucratoare de 24 de ore consecutive in care perioadele de timp cit vremea
impiedica efectiv operatiunile de incarcare sau descarcare nu se conteaza ca stalii
0
O zi lucratoare pe durata careia se pot executa operatii de incarcare/descarcare
permise de uzul portului.
0

759 Ce inseamna expresia WWWW inserata intr-un contract in legatura cu N.O.R?


Ca NOR poate fi inaintat fara ca nava sa fie in port sau dana
0
Ca NOR poate fi inaintat indiferent daca nava este in port/dana si indiferent daca a
obtinut libera practica si permis vamal (CUSTOM CLEARANCE)
1
NOR poate fi inaintat numai daca nava este in port, dana, a obtinut libera practica si
permis vamal0
760 Ce intelegeti prin expresia "No cure - No Pay"
conform acestei expresii operatiunile de salvare sunt remunerate doar in cazul in
care acestea au success
1
conform acestei expresii navlositorul plateste pentru operatiunile de salvare doar
daca nava este salvata
0
conform acestei expresii se remunereaza si situatiile in care nava nu este salvata
0
conform acestei expresii armatorul plateste doar daca nava este salvata fara a fi
avariata 0

761 Ce inteles are expresia "UNLESS USED"?


Se intelege faptul ca in situatia in care staliile au inceput si nava desfasoara
operatiuni de incarcare sau descarcare in perioadele exceptate timpul astfel utilizat
se va conta ca stalii 1
Se intelege faptul ca perioadele efectiv lucrate in zile exceptate se vor conta ca
stalii 0
Expresia se insereaza pentru a anula anumite prevederi ale uzurilor portuare
potrivit carora pe vreme nefavorabila curgerea staliilor se intrerupe.
0
762 Ce mentiuni speciale trebuie sa cuprinda protestul de mare intocmit in urma
unei avarii comune?
Protestul de mare chiar si in cazul unei avarii comune nu trebuie sa cuprinda
mentiuni speciale 0
Protestul de mare in cazul unei avarii comune va fi intocmit conform procedurii
standard cu mentiunea expresa ca se declara avarie comuna
1
In cazul unei avarii comune protestul de mare va contine in mod explicit valoarea
masei active si a masei pasive si va face referire la obligatia partilor de a participa
la acoperirea avariei commune 0

763 Ce pagube acopera asigurarea "CASCO"?


178
Acopera toate pagubele care se pot produce la marfa pe timpul transportului
0
Acopera eventualele pagube pricinuite navei ca urmare a accidentelor si pericolului
marii in timpul navigatiei si exploatarii navei
1
Acopera toate eventualele pagube sau avarii produse navei in timpul navigatiei, de
greselile Comandantului si/sau echipajului
0

764 Ce poate rezulta din intocmirea time-sheet-ului?


Ca nava s-a incadrat in termenii contractuali
0
Numarul de zile de contrastalii sau despatch
1
Timpul economisit la sfarsitul incarcarii/descarcarii
0

765 Ce prevad regulile de la HAMBURG referitor la marfurile incarcate pe punte?


In situatia in care carausul si incarcatorul au convenit ca marfurile vor fi sau ar
putea fi transportate pe punte, carausul trebuie sa insereze in conosament o
declaratie care sa mentioneze ca marfurile au fost incarcate pe punte.
1
Marfurile se pot incarca pe punte fara o intelegere prealabila intre incarcator si
caraus, dar cu inserarea acestui fapt in conosament.
0
Daca carausul si incarcatorul au convenit ca marfurile vor fi sau ar putea fi
transportate pe punte, se poate face acest lucru fara inserarea unei mentiuni in
acest sens in conosament. 0

766 Ce prevede "Clauza de avarie comuna" din GENCON 1976?


Avaria comuna va fi solutionata conform legislatiei nationale din tara unde se
produce avaria. 0
Avaria comuna va fi solutionata prin arbitraj.
0
Avaria comuna va fi solutionata in conformitate cu regulile YORK - ANVERS 1974.
1

767 Ce prevede "Clauza de deviere" din GENCON 1994?


Nava nu are voie sa devieze de la ruta normala sub nici o forma.
0
Nava are libertatea sa faca escala in orice port sau porturi in orice ordine, pentru
orice scop, sa navige fara pilot, sa remorcheze si/sau sa asiste nave in toate
situatiile si de asemenea sa devieze in scopul salvarii de vieti si/sau bunuri.
1
Nava are libertatea sa faca escala in orice port sau porturi in orice ordine, pentru
orice scop, sa navige fara pilot, sa remorcheze si/sau sa asiste nave in toate
situatiile si de asemenea sa devieze numai in scopul salvarii de vieti omenesti pe
mare. 0

768 Ce prevede "clauza de retentie" din GENCON 1994?


179
Armatorul are dreptul de retentie pe marfa si pe orice subnavlu platit in legatura cu
marfa pentru navlu, contrastalii, navlu mort, despagubiri pentru retinere si pentru
orice sume datorate in baza contractului de navlosire inclusiv costurile de
recuperare a acestora 1
Armatorul are dreptul de retentie pe marfa pentru navlu, navlu mort, contrastalii si
avarii la nava.0
Armatorul nu poate sub nici un motiv sa retina marfurile navlositorului.
0

769 Ce prevede "Clauza de reziliere" din GENCON 1994?


Daca nava nu este gata sa incarce (fie ca este in dana sau nu) la data de reziliere
mentionata in contract navlositorul are optiunea de a rezilia contractul.
1
Daca nava nu este gata sa incarce la data stabilita, navlositorul va avea optiunea de
a asteapta 10 zile sosirea navei si dac acaeasta nu soseste sa rezilieze contractul.
0
Navlositorul trebuie sa astepte fara nici o pretentie pina cind nava va fi oprita sa
incarce. 0

770 Ce prevede clauza "dreptul de retentie" inserata intr-un contract de


navlosire?
Armatorul are dreptul de retentie asupra marfurilor pentru orice avarie produsa lor
de companiile de stivadori
0
Armatorul are dreptul de retentie asupra marfurilor pentru navlu, navlu mort si
contrastalii neplatite1
Armatorul are dreptul de retentie asupra marfurilor dupa ce un tribunal s-a
pronuntat in ceeace priveste vina navlositorului pentru neplata navlului, navlului
mort si contrastaliilor 0

771 Ce prevede contractul GENCON 1994 referitor la repartizarea costurilor si


riscurilor cu privire la incarcarea marfurilor?
Marfa sa fie adusa la copastie in asemenea mod incit sa permita navei sa o incarce
cu propriul ei ganci. Navlositorul sa asigure si sa plateasca muncitori necesari pe
cheu iar nava sa incarce marfurile la bord.0
Marfa sa fie adusa la nava si incarcata pe cheltuiala armatorului.
0
Marfa sa fie adusa in magaziile navei, incarcata, stivuita si/sau rujata, numarata,
amarata si/sau asigurata de catre navlositori fara nici un fel de risc, cheltuiala si
raspundere pentru armatori 1
772 Ce prevede GENCON 1994 referitor la cheltuielile de incarcare /descarcare in
legatura cu coletele cu o greutate mai mare de doua tone ?

Nu exista astfel de prevederi in GENCON 1994


1
Armatorul va fi raspunzator si va suporta cheltuielile pentru incarcarea coletelor mai
mari de doua tone.
0
Orice piese si/sau colete de marfa peste doua tone greutate, vor fi incarcate,
stivuite si descarcate de navlositor pe riscul si cheltuiala lor.
0
180
773 Ce prevede regula de interpretare (YORK-ANVERS) ?
Odata ce s-a stipulat in contract ca o avarie comuna va fi reglementata conform
regulilor YORK-ANVERS, orice alta prevedere contrara din legislatia nationala sau
internationala referitoare la avariile comune va fi nula.
1
Prevede aplicarea regulilor YORK-ANVERS in conformitate si cu prevederile legale
nationale, acestea din urma avind prioritate fara de regulile York-Antwerp.
0
Un act de avarie comuna este fi reglementat numai Regulile YORK-ANVERS si orice
alta prevedere a legislatiei nationale si internationale cu privire la acest aspect este
nula 0

774 Ce reprezinta asigurarile P&I?


Forma de asigurare mutuala si non-profit prin care armatorul isi asigurara
responsabilitatile fata de avariile provocate unor terti
1
Asigurari ale marfurilor pentru transport
0
Asigurari privind avariile la corpul navei in cazul in care acestea nu sunt recuperate
de la partea vinovata
0

775 Ce reprezinta caracterul sinalagmatic al unui contract de vanzare cumparare


internationala?
Caracterul sinalagmatic inseamna ca fiecare participant la contract are
responsabilitati reciproce pentru realizarea contractului
0
Contractul de vanzare/cumparare da nastere la prestatii reciproce intre parti
1
Caracterul sinalagmatic al unui contract este dat de obligatia partilor de a se achita
de raspunderile ce le revin in timpul executarii contractului
0
776 Ce reprezinta protestul de mare?
Reprezinta documentul prin care comandantul ia atitudine fata de o situatie sau un
eveniment extraordinar, care cauzeaza sau ar putea cauza daune materiale navei,
marfii sau echipajului, eveniment pe care-l face public pe aceasta cale
1
Protestul Comandantului impotriva viciilor ascunse ale marfurilor ce le are spre
transport 0
Documentul de protest legat numai de cazul avariei particulare
0

777 Ce se intampla daca din motive subiective nava nu poate realiza viteza
economica prevazuta prin contract?
Cand nava nu poate realiza viteza economica prevazuta in contract nu se produc
efecte financiare pentru armator
0

Chiria va fi diminuata cu contravaloarea timpului pierdut si/sau a consumului de


combustibil suplimentar
1
181
In astfel de cazuri navlositorul poate avea optiunea de a rezilia contractul si a
incheia altul la o chirie mai redusa
0
778 Ce se intelege cambie documentara?
Folosita la consolidarea mecanismului incasoului documentar cu conditia ca
cuprinsul sau sa se prevada expres ca banca emitenta se obliga sa plateasca pretul,
renuntand la beneficiul de diviziune si discutiune, daca documentele atesta
indeplinirea intocmai a obligatiilor contractuale ale vanzatorului0

Titlu de credit autonom prin care o persoana numita tragator da ordin unei alte
persoane numita tras sa plateasca neconditionat, la o anumita data numita
scadenta, o anumita suma de bani unui beneficiar indicat
1

Marfurile se trimit pe adresa unui tert, de obicei banca la care Cumparatorul are
credit, care nu le expediaza decat dupa incasarea pretului
0

779 Ce se intelege prin "buna stare de navigabilitate legala"?


Nava sa fie dotata si echipata cu tot ce prevede legislatia nationala si internationala
0

Nava sa aiba la bord in stare de valabilitate toate actele de registru si conventii in


plus sa aiba echipaj complet si competent conform STCW, combustibil adecvat si
suficient, harti si documente nautice la zi, hrana si apa pentru echipaj
1

Nava sa fie etansa si solida cu echipaj complet si competent, cu combustibil


adecvat si suficient, harti si documente nautice la zi
0

780 Ce se intelege prin "conosament la ordin"?


Conosament emis la ordinul unei anumite persoane (fie al destinatarului marfurilor,
fie incarcatorului, fie al unei banci), care apoi poate andosa conosamentul unei alte
persoane 1

Conosament ce se elibereaza in favoarea unei persoane nominata expres in acest


document, ca fiind singura indreptatita sa solicite armatorului sa-I predea marfurile
inscrise, in cantitatea indicata 0

Conosament prin excelenta negociabil, iar comandantul navei este obligat sa


predea marfa celui care prezinta conosamentul
0
781 Ce se intelege prin "conosament la purtator"?
Conosament emis la ordinul unei anumite persoane (fie al destinatarului marfurilor,
fie incarcatorului, fie al unei banci), care apoi poate andosa conosamentul unei alte
persoane 0

Conosament ce se elibereaza in favoarea unei persoane nominata expres in acest


document, ca fiind singura indreptatita sa solicite armatorului sa-I predea marfurile
inscrise, in cantitatea indicata 0
182
Conosament pe care sunt inscrise cuvintele "to bearer" sau "to holder" fiind un titlu
prin excelenta negociabil, indreptatind pe orice detinator al acestuia sa solicite
livrarea marfii 1
782 Ce se intelege prin "conosament nominativ"?
Conosament emis la ordinul unei anumite persoane (fie al destinatarului marfurilor,
fie incarcatorului, fie al unei banci), care apoi poate andosa conosamentul unei alte
persoane 0

Conosament ce se elibereaza in favoarea unei persoane nominata expres in acest


document, ca fiind singura indreptatita sa solicite armatorului sa-i predea marfurile
inscrise, in cantitatea si conditia indicata
1

Conosament prin excelenta negociabil, iar comandantul navei este obligat sa


predea marfa celui care prezinta conosamentul
0
783 Ce se intelege prin "dispasa"?
Lucrarea care consta din calcularea si stabilirea indemnizatiilor de despagubire pe
care asiguratorii urmeaza sa la plateasca proprietarilor navei si marfurilor care au
suferit daune, pierderi sau daune cheltuielii in urma savarsirii unui act de avarie
comuna 1

Raportul de expertiza intocmit de o persoana autorizata (dispasor) prin care se


stabileste masele active si pasive si sumele pe care le vor plati participantii la
expeditia maritima asiguratorilor 0

Lucrare intocmita de experti numita si Regulamentul avariei comune prin care se


stabilesc imprejurarile in care a avut loc un act de avarie comuna precum si
consecintele ce decurg din aceasta 0

784 Ce se intelege prin "forta majora" (ACT OF GOD) ?


Un eveniment produs in timpul unei expeditii maritime, in imprejurari exceptionale
si acre nu poate fi evitat de o nava aflata in perfecta buna stare navigabilitate.
0

Un eveniment inevitabil produs fara intentia umana, gen tempesta, inundatie sau
deces, care opereaza in cazul anumitor contracte cum sint cele de asigurare sau de
transport. 1

Evenimente grave produse la bordul navei, cum ar fi incendii, inundarea unor


magazii, avarii la motorul principal, pentru care armatorul are dreptul la asigurare si
pentru care nu este responsabil.0

183
785 Ce se intelege prin "navlu global" (LUMP SUM)?
Forma de stabilire a navlului prin care navlositorul plateste aceeasi suma de bani
indiferent de cantitatea de marfa incarcata in conditiile in care armatorul pune la
dispotia navlositorului o anumita capacitate de incarcare
1

Forma de stabilire a navlului prin care navlositorul plateste armatorului o suma fixa
de bani 0

Forma de stabilire a navlului prin care navlositorul plateste navlul pe tona sau pe
volumul de marfa incarcata
0

786 Ce se intelege prin "Notice of readiness"?


Notificare prin care Comandantul navei ii instiinteaza pe navlositori, in calitatea lor
de agenti prezumati ai armatorului, ca nava este sosita si este gata din toate
punctele de vedere pentru a incarca sau descarca marfa in conformitate cu
conditiile contractului de navlosire 0

Notificare prin care Comandantul navei ii instiinteaza pe armatori, in calitatea lor de


agenti prezumati ai navlositorului, ca nava este sosita si este gata din toate
punctele de vedere pentru a incarca sau descarca marfa in conformitate cu
conditiile contractului de navlosire 0

Notificare prin care Comandantul navei ii instiinteaza pe incarcatori sau primitori, in


calitatea lor de agenti prezumati ai navlositorului, ca nava este sosita si este gata
din toate punctele de vedere pentru a incarca sau descarca marfa in conformitate
cu conditiile contractului de navlosire 1
787 Ce se intelege prin "RUNING DAYS" sau "CONSECUTIVE DAYS"?
Zile care urmeaza una dupa alta cu exceptia duminicilor.
0
Zile care urmeaza una dupa alta cu exceptia duminicilor si sarbatorilor legale.
0
Zile care urmeaza una dupa alta.
1

788 Ce se intelege prin "stalii determinabile"?


Sunt stalii determinate de catre armator si navlositor in functie de rata de operare
conform uzului portului dar nu mai mult de o perioada rezonabila de 5/10 zile
0
Sunt stalii determinate de catre armator si navlositor in functie de natura marfii
operate 0
Sunt stalii ce se pot calcula prin raportarea cantitatii de marfa incarcate sau
descarcate la o anumita rata de incarcare sau descarcare
1

789 Ce se intelege prin "WEATHER PERMITTING"?


Se intelege faptul ca perioadele de timp cit vremea impiedica operatiunile de
incarcare sau descarcare nu se vor conta ca stalii
1
184
Se intelege faptul ca perioadele de timp cit vremea impiedica operatiunile de
incarcare sau descarcare sau le-ar fi impiediat daca acestea s-ar fi desfasurat nu se
vor conta ca stalii 0
Daca lucrul este intrerupt din cauza timpului nefavorabil timpul respectiv nu va
conta la stalii daca uzurile portului nu prevad altfel.
0

790 Ce se intelege prin acreditiv?


Forma a creditului documentar prin care o banca se obliga in baza unui contract
incheiat cu clientul sa plateasca beneficiarului indicat, pana la termenul stabilit, in
baza prezentarii unor documente comerciale, indicate in deschiderea respectivului
credit, o anumita suma 1

Forma a creditului documentar care se concretizeaza intr-un document prin care


banca emitenta se obliga sa plateasca, fara rezerve, o suma determinata, in situatia
in care beneficiarul intocmai continutul sau
0

Creditorul preda bancii sale documentele care atesta ca sunt indeplinite obligatiile
ce I-au revenit in baza unui contract comercial, banca remite documentele spre
incasare altei banci, care la randul ei le inmaneaza Debitorului dupa ce acesta
achita contravaloarea lor 0

791 Ce se intelege prin arbitraj (ARBITRATION) ?


Modalitate de solutionare a litigiilor prin care partile implicate cad de acord asupra
utilizarii unui arbitru sau nomineaza fiecare cite un arbitru
1
Judecarea de catre un tribunal international a unei dispute intre partile participante
la un contract.0
Decizie a unei instante in legatura cu probleme in care partile nu au ajuns la o
intelegere. 0
792 Ce se intelege prin armator?
O persoana juridica indreptatita din punct de vedere legal sa construiasca sau sa
cumpere o nava0
O persoana fizica sau juridica, care are in proprietate nave pe care le utilizeaza in
scopul transportului de marfuri/pasageri pe mare
1
O persoana fizica sau juridica, care are in proprietate nave pe care le inchiriaza in
"time charter" 0

793 Ce se intelege prin avarie comuna?


Avaria produsa navei sau marfurilor ca urmare a unui accident maritim, sau
izvorand din natura lucrurilor (nava sau marfuri), fara a reprezenta vointa unei
persoane sau intentia de a savarsi un act in legatura cu aceasta
0

Avaria este consecinta cazului fortuit, a fortei majore sau a viciului propriu al navei,
vicii ale incarcaturii, daunele si cheltuielile se refera numai la nava sau numai la
incarcatura 0

185
Sacrificiul extraordinar sau cheltuielile extraordinare facute de Comandant
intentionat si rational pentru salvarea comuna a navei si a marfii de la un pericol
care le ameninta in expeditia maritima si care trebuie suportate de catre partile
care au beneficiat de pe urma acestui act, in mod proportional cu valorile salvate
1

794 Ce se intelege prin avarie particulara?


Avaria produsa ca urmare a unui accident maritim in care este afectata numai nava
urmand ca pentru acoperirea pagubei sa participe atat armatorul cat si navlositorul
0

Avaria produsa navei sau marfurilor ca urmare a unui accident maritim


0

Avaria produsa navei sau marfurilor ca urmare a unui pericol maritim, fara a
reprezenta vointa unei persoane sau intentia de a savarsi un act in legatura cu
aceasta 1

795 Ce se intelege prin buna stare de navigabilitare (SEAWORTHINESS)?


Punerea de catre navlositor la dispozitia armatorului a tot ce este necesar pentru
un voiaj in deplina siguranta.
0

Echiparea unei nave cu tot ce este necesar pentru efectuare unei expeditii pe mare
in bune conditii pe orice vreme. In plus fata de echiparea corespunzatoare a navei,
armatorul trebuie sa aiba un echipaj complet si competent, combustibil suficient,
provizii suficiente si complete pentru voiaj. Echipamentul navei trebuie sa fie in
buna stare, iar daca se transporta marfuri, nava trebuie sa fie corespunzator
pregatita pentru transportul marfurilor respective
0

Echiparea unei nave cu tot ce este necesar pentru efectuare unei expeditii pe mare
in conditii rezonabile de siguranta. In plus fata de echiparea corespunzatoare a
navei, armatorul trebuie sa aiba un echipaj complet si competent, combustibil
suficient, provizii suficiente si complete pentru voiaj. Echipamentul navei trebuie sa
fie in buna stare, iar daca se transporta marfuri, nava trebuie sa fie corespunzator
pregatita pentru transportul marfurilor respective
1

796 Ce se intelege prin buna stare de navigabilitate contractuala?


Nava sa satisfaca cerintele de echipare impuse de BIMCO
0
Sa aiba dotarile necesare pentru a duce o marfa la destinatie in buna stare
1
Nava sa aiba dotarile si echipamentele prevazute de un registru naval recunoscut
0

186
797 Ce se intelege prin bunuri fungibile?
Bunuri care datorita calitatilor lor intrinseci nu se pot inlocui cu altele
0
Toate marfurile destinate exportului
0
Marfuri ce se pot schimba unele cu altele, raportul de echivalenta stabilindu-se prin
cantarire, numarare, masurare
1

798 Ce se intelege prin bunuri nefungibile?


Bunuri care datorita calitatilor lor intrinseci nu se pot inlocui cu altele
1

Toate marfurile destinate exportului


0

Marfuri ce se pot schimba unele cu altele, raportul de echivalenta stabilindu-se prin


cantarire, numarare, masurare
0

799 Ce se intelege prin clauza "ballast bonus" introdusa intr-un contract "time-
charter"?
Nava nu va fi balastata in perioada inchirierii, pentru balastare armatorul va plati un
bonus navlositorului
0
Atunci cand o nava este departe de locul de livrare in momentul incheierii
contractului, navlositorul plateste jumatate din cheltuielile de aducere a navei la
locul de livrare 0
Atunci cand o nava este departe de locul de livrare in momentul incheierii
contractului, navlositorul contribuie la cheltuielile de aducere a navei la locul de
livrare cu o suma ce este negociata 1
800 Ce se intelege prin clauza BRUTTO/NETTO referitoare la includerea pretului
ambalajului in pretul marfii?
Costul ambalajului nu este cuprins in pretul marfii
0
Costul ambalajului este cuprins in pretul marfii
1
Costul ambalajului se calculeaza separat de cel al marfii
0

801 Ce se intelege prin credit documentar?


Creditul documentar este o forma de creditare de catre banci pentru clienti
comerciali in vederea derularii unor contracte de vanzare internationala
0

Creditul documentar este un aranjament prin care o banca denumita emitenta se


obliga in numele unui client denumit ordonator sa plateasca navlul prevazut in
instructiunile de deschidere a acreditivului0

Este orice aranjament, prin care o banca denumita banca emitenta se obliga in
numele unui client denumit ordonator sa:-efectueze plata directa sau sa autorizeze
efectuarea de plati catre o alta banca, catre un beneficiar indicat de ordonatoru
187
sau; -sa accepte si sa negocieze cambii trase asupra sa de catre tertul indicat.
1
802 Ce se intelege prin cuvantul "DEMURRAGE" inserat intr-un contract de
navlosire?
Inseamna timpul cat armatorul va astepta, dupa expirarea staliilor, pentru
finalizarea operatiunilor de incarcare-descarcare
0
Inseamna suma convenita si platita de catre armator daca nava a terminat
incarcarea/descarcarea inaintea expirarii staliilor
1
Suma platita de armator navlositorului pentru perioada de asteptare in vederea
obtinerii danei de operare
0

803 Ce se intelege prin cuvintul "marfuri" conform regulilor de la Haga ?


Prin aceasta expresie se inteleg: bunuri, obiecte, marfuri si articole de orice natura
cu exceptia animalelor vii.
0
Prin aceasta expresie se inteleg ; lucruri, obiecte, marfuri de orice natura cu
exceptia animalelor vii si a incarcaturii de pe punte.
1
Expresia "marfuri" cuprinde orice bun material care ar putea constitui obiect de
comert pe mare inclusiv animalele vii si marfurile incarcate pe punte.
0

804 Ce se intelege prin expresia "CUSTOMARY (QUICK) DESPATCH"?


Navlositorul va opera nava cu viteza prevazuta de uzurile porturilor.
0
Navlositorul trebuie sa incarce cit mai repede posibil in circumstantele
predominante in timpul incarcarii si descarcarii.
1
Navlositorul nu are nici o responsabilitate in legatura cu durata operatiunilor.
0

805 Ce se intelege prin expresia "dana sigura" inserata intr-un contract de


navlosire?
O dana la care o nava poate opera fara a se expune vre-unui pericol de orice natura
ar fi. 0

Inseamna o dana la care, pe timpul respectivei perioade, nava poate ramine sau
pleca din ea fara a fi expusa vre-unui pericol chiar in imprejurari deosebite.
0

Inseamna o dana la care, pe timpul respectivei perioade de timp, nava poate sa/si
ramine sau pleca din ea, in absenta unor intimplari anormale, fara a fi expusa unui
pericol care nu poate fi evitat printr-o buna navigatie sau practica marinareasca.
1
806 Ce se intelege prin expresia marfuri conform regulilor de la Haga?

188
Prin marfuri se intelege : bunuri, obiecte si articole de orice natura cu exceptia
animalelor vii si a incarcaturilor de pe punte.
1
Prin marfuri se inteleg orice categorii de bunuri si obiecte de orice natura ar fi
inclusiv animale vii si marfuri incarcate pe punte.
0
Prin marfuri se inteleg orice categorii de bunuri cu exceptia celor care pot prejudicia
viata echipajului si siguranta navei.
0

807 Ce se intelege prin incasoul documentar?


Forma a creditului documentar prin care o banca se obliga in baza unui contract
incheiat cu clientul sa plateasca beneficiarului indicat, pana la termenul stabilit, in
baza prezentarii unor documente comerciale, indicate in deschiderea respectivului
credit, o anumita suma 0

Forma a creditului documentar care se concretizeaza intr-un document prin care


banca emitenta se obliga sa plateasca, fara rezerve, o suma determinata, in situatia
in care beneficiarul intocmai continutul sau
0

Creditorul preda bancii sale documentele care atesta ca sunt indeplinite obligatiile
ce I-au revenit in baza unui contract comercial, banca remite documentele spre
incasare altei banci, care la randul ei le inmaneaza Debitorului dupa ce acesta
achita contravaloarea lor 1

808 Ce se intelege prin masa activa (creditoare) in cazul unei avarii comune?
Masa activa cuprinde toate valorile pierderilor sau daunelor verificate si pentru care
cei interesati cu dreptul sa ceara despagubire. Ea cuprinde pierderile sau daunele
suferite de nava si incarcatura precum si cheltuielile facute in mod voluntar pentru
salvarea comuna 1

Masa activa cuprinde toate valorile pierderilor sau daunelor verificate la care
participantii ar putea avea dreptul de recuperare.Masa activa cuprinde toate
bunurile si cheltuielile facute pentru a repune nava in buna stare de navigabilitate
dupa o avarie comuna 0

Masa activa cuprinde toate valorile pierderilor sau daunelor verificate si pentru care
cei interesati cu dreptul sa ceara despagubire. Masa activa cuprinde valorile
bunurilor pierdute precum si daunele verificate pentru care participantii la expeditia
maritima au polita de asigurare 0

809 Ce se intelege prin navlosire?


Activitate prin care se angajeaza spatiul de transport (total sau partial) pe o nava
maritima si care de obicei se finalizeaza prin incheierea unui contract de navlosire
sau a unui Booking Note. 1

189
"Navlosire inseamna un contract dovedit prin existenta unui conosament."
0

Navlosire inseamna un contract pentru transportul marfurilor pe mare pe baza de


Ch/P si existenta lui este dovedita prin conosamentul ce se emite dupa incarcarea
marfurilor la bord 0

810 Ce se intelege prin scrisoare de credit?


Forma a creditului documentar prin care o banca se obliga in baza unui contract
incheiat cu clientul sa plateasca beneficiarului indicat, pana la termenul stabilit, in
baza prezentarii unor documente comerciale, indicate in deschiderea respectivului
credit, o anumita suma 0

Forma a creditului documentar care se concretizeaza intr-un document prin care


banca emitenta se obliga sa plateasca, fara rezerve, o suma determinata, in situatia
in care beneficiarul intocmai continutul sau
1

Creditorul preda bancii sale documentele care atesta ca sunt indeplinite obligatiile
ce I-au revenit in baza unui contract comercial, banca remite documentele spre
incasare altei banci, care la randul ei le inmaneaza Debitorului dupa ce acesta
achita contravaloarea lor 0

811 Ce se intelege prin scrisoare de garantie bancara?


Folosita la consolidarea mecanismului incasoului documentar cu conditia ca
cuprinsul sau sa se prevada expres ca banca emitenta se obliga sa plateasca pretul,
renuntand la beneficiul de diviziune si discutiune, daca documentele atesta
indeplinirea intocmai a obligatiilor contractuale ale vanzatorului
1

Titlu de credit autonom prin care o persoana numita tragator da ordin unei alte
persoane numita tras sa plateasca neconditionat, la o anumita data numita
scadenta, o anumita suma de bani unui beneficiar indicat
0

Marfurile se trimit pe adresa unui tert, de obicei banca la care Cumparatorul are
credit, care nu le expediaza decat dupa incasarea pretului
0

812 Ce se intelege prin stalii reversibile?


Stalii calculate conform "uzo porto"
0
Stalii calculate conform normei de incarcare/descarcare
0
Un numar total de zile acordat prin contract atat pentru incarcare cat si pentru
descarcare 1

190
813 Ce se intelege prin termenul "in scris" (IN WRITING) folosit in legatura cu
notice-ul?
Un notice batut la masina, sau transmis prin radio.
0

Un notice batut la masina sau transmis prin telex care trebuie transmis apoi in
original agentului navei din portul de incarcare sau descarcare pentru a fi sau nu
acceptat de catre compania de stivatori.0

Un notice vizibil exprimat in orice mod de reproducere a cuvintelor; mediul de


transmitere va include comunicatiile electronice cum ar fi radiocomunicatiile si
telecomunicatiile. 1

814 Ce se intelege prin termenul avarie?


Avarii sunt toate cheltuielile extraordinare facute pentru nava si pentru incarcatura,
pentru amandoua impreuna sau pentru fiecare in parte, si toate pagubele suferite
de nava sau incarcatura dupa incarcare si plecare pana la sosire si descarcare
1
Avarii sunt toate cheltuielile obisnuite facute pentru nava si care pot fi inserate in
continutul contractului de navlosire
0
Avarii sunt daunele si cheltuielile facute in mod voluntar si constient pentru salvare
comuna a navei, navlului si incarcaturii
0

815 Ce se intelege prin urmatoarea prescurtare foarte des folosita in contractele


de navlosire referitor la despatch "DHDATSBE"?
Despatchul va fi jumatate din contrastalii pentru tot timpul salvat la ambele capete
1
Despatchul se va plati integral atat pentru incarcare cat si pentru descarcare
0
Despatchul va fi jumatate din contrastalii pentru timpul de lucru salvat la ambele
capete 0

816 Ce se intelege prin urmatoarea prescurtare foarte des folosita in contractele


de navlosire referitor la despatch "DHDWTSBE"?
Despatchul va fi jumatate din contrastalii pentru tot timpul salvat la ambele capete
0
Despatchul va fi jumatate din contrastalii pentru timpul de lucru salvat la ambele
capete 1
Nu se va plati dispatch
0
191
817 Ce se intelege prin vinculatie?
Folosita la consolidarea mecanismului incasoului documentar cu conditia ca
cuprinsul sau sa se prevada expres ca banca emitenta se obliga sa plateasca pretul,
renuntand la beneficiul de diviziune si discutiune, daca documentele atesta
indeplinirea intocmai a obligatiilor contractuale ale vanzatorului0

Titlu de credit autonom prin care o persoana numita tragator da ordin unei alte
persoane numita tras sa plateasca neconditionat, la o anumita data numita
scadenta, o anumita suma de bani unui beneficiar indicat
0

Marfurile se trimit pe adresa unui tert, de obicei banca la care Cumparatorul are
credit, care nu le expediaza decat dupa incasarea pretului
1

818 Ce semnifica cifra de la rubrica "ALLOWABLE STACKING WEIGHT FOR 1,8g" de


pe placuta CSC?
Ca un container nu poate suporta static in terminal o greutate mai mare decat cea
inscrisa la aceasta rubrica
0
Ca peste container nu se poate incarca o greutate mai mare decat cea inscrisa la
aceasta rubrica astfel ca in timpul mersului datorita solicitarilor dinamice
containerul sa nu se deformeze 1
Cifra reprezinta greutatea pe care o suporta in terminal si in magazia navei in
timpul marsului fara ca sa se afecteze structura de rezistenta a containerului
0

819 Ce semnificatie are angajarea BSS 0/2


D/A-ul la cele 2 porturi de descarcare va fi suportat de navlositor
0
D/A-ul la incarcare/descarcare va fi suportat de armator si navlositor
0
D/A-ul in portul/porturile de incarcare va fi suportat de navlositor iar in cele 2 porturi
de descarcare va fi suportat de armator
1

820 Ce semnificatie are clauza "OWNER`S RESPONSIBILITY CLAUSE" inserata intr-


un contract de navlosire?
Armatorul va fi raspunzator pentru orice pierde sau daune cauzate marfurilor, sau
pentru orice dauna rezultata din intarzieri in livrarea marfurilor numai pentru fapte
personale si nu este raspunzator pentru daune sau cheltuieli cauzate de prepusii lui
1
192
Armatorul este raspunzator pentru daune sau avarii indiferent de natura lor cauzate
in timpul transportului de fapte personale cat si de faptele prepusilor sai si este
raspunzator pentru fapte personale sau ale prepusilor sai si pentru daune cauzate
de intarzieri in livrarea marfurilor la destinatie0

Armatorul nu este raspunzator pentru daune sau avarii produse marfurilor in timpul
transportului, pentru aceste riscuri ale unei expeditii maritime exista mecanismul
asigurarilor 0

821 Ce semnificatie are cuvintul "dana" inscris intr-un contract de navlosire?


Un cheu amenajat. 0
Un loc specific din interiorul unui port unde navele incarca sau descarca.
1
Un loc amenajat special pentru operarea navelor indiferent daca nava este la cheu
sau in bazinul portuar.
0

822 Ce semnificatie are cuvintul "port" inserat intr-un contract de navlosire?


Port inseamna o incinta special amenajata in care navele pot fi incarcate si/sau
descarcate de marfa fiind recunoscuta in documentele specifice ca atare si marcata
special pe hartile de navigatie. 0

Port inseamna un bazin acvatic adapostit unde navele pot opera la o dana sau la
ancora. 0

Port inseamna o suprafata in care navele incarca sau descarca marfa fie ca este
vorba de dane, zone de ancoraj, balize sau ceva similar si care include locurile
uzuale unde navele isi asteapta randul sau primesc instructiuni sau sint obligate sa-
si astepte rindul indiferent de distanta de aceasta zona. 1
823 Ce stabileste clauza FOB?
Dozeaza obligatiile vinzatorului, care suporta toate cheltuielile pina ce marfa se va
incarca la bordul navei.
1
Conform acestei clauze, marfa se va incarca la bordul navei fara nici o cheltuiala din
partea armatorului.
0
Clauza obliga pe cumparatorul marfurilor sa le ridice pe cheltuiala sa din portul de
descarcare. 0
824 Ce sunt clauzele subantelese ale unui contract de navlosire?
Clauzele inscrise in contractul standard
0
Clauzele nescrise in contract, dar care se refera la buna credinta a partilor pentru
realizarea scopului comercial al voiajului
1
Clauzele contractuale nescrise care se refera la obligatia armatorului de a asigura
nava si marfa 0

193
825 Ce trebuie prevazut intr-un contract de vinzare-cumparare international
pentru a determina corect cantitatea de marfa
Determinarea cantitatii sa se faca prin una din metodele recunoscute international
(draft survey, cantarire, etc) si numai dupa ce marfa a fost incarcata la bordul navei
0
Determinarea cantitatii prin intermediul unei companii de inspectie recunoscuta pe
plan international0
Unitatea de masura, locul si momentul determinarii cantitatii, modul de stabilire a
cantitatii, documentele care atesta cantitatea marfii
1

826 Ce trebuie sa contina clauza de livrare/relivrare a unei nave in "time-


charter"?
Sa contina o prevedere clara care poate sa identifice cu exactitate locul
livrarii/relivrarii 1
Clauza sa prevada explicit ca o nava este in "time-charter" dupa efectuarea
expertizei "ON HIRE" si iese din time charter dupa expertiza "OFF HIRE"
0
Intrarea/iesirea din time-charter sa se faca conform prevederilor regulilor si
reglementarilor BIMCO0
827 Ce trebuie sa contina un protest de mare cand se face extinderea lui?
La extindere protestul de mare trebuie sa aiba acelasi continut ca la depunere
0
Sa contina detalii referitoare la eforturile depuse de armator pentru punerea navei
in buna stare de navigabilitate
0
Sa contina detalii referitoare la evenimentul pentru care s-a intocmit protestul de
mare cat si o descriere amanuntita a eventualelor daune produse
1

828 Ce trebuie sa contina un protest de mare?


Afirmatia ca nava este in buna stare de navigabilitate, descrierea evenimentului cat
mai pe scurt posibil si rezervarea dreptului de a extinde protestul la locul si timpul
care ii convine armatorului 1
Afirmatia ca nava este in buna stare de navigabilitate, descrierea evenimentului cat
mai explicit si rezervarea dreptului de extindere al protestului
0
Continutul protestului va fi astfel incat sa satisfaca interesele tuturor participantilor
la expeditia maritima
0

829 Ce trebuie sa descrie comandantul navei la extinderea protestului de mare in


cazul unei avarii comune?
La extinderea protestului de mare comandantul va descrie detaliat modul cum a
hotarat efectuarea de sacrificii voluntare in scopul salvarii comune
0
La extinderea protestului se vor mentiona imprejurarile care au determinat actul de
avarie comuna0

194
La extinderea protestului de mare se vor descrie toate sacrificiile si /sau cheltuielile
extraordinare rezultate in urma actului de avarie comuna
1

830 Ce trebuie sa se intocmeasca la bordul navei pentru ca armatorul asigurat sa


beneficieze de despagubiri in cazul unor avarii?
Comandantul sa intocmeasca si sa depuna protestul de mare
1
Comandantul sa intocmeasca si sa depuna la autoritati o scrisoare de protest
0
Sa faca dovada ca avariile sunt produse din cauza unei forte majore
0

831 Ce urmareste proprietarul navei in perioada cand nava este inchiriata in


"Charter party BY DEMISE?
Proprietarul navei punand nava disparent ownerului nu mai are competenta in
urmarirea navei 0
Proprietarul navei urmareste prin intermediul comandantului eficienta exploatarii
navei 0
Proprietarul prin experti tehnici face periodic o verificare tehnica a navei si
instalatiilor 1

832 Ce valoare juridica are o scrisoare de garantie sau alte garantii date de
incarcator pentru semnarea unor conosamente ce nu sunt in concordanta cu Mate's
Receipt?

O scrisoare de garantie prin care incarcatorul se obliga sa despagubeasca pe caraus


pentru orice pierdere rezultata din emiterea de catre caraus a unui conosament ce
nu este in concordanta cu mate's receipt nu are nici un fel de valoare juridica.
1

O scrisoare de garantie sau alt gen de garantii date de incarcator exonereaza pe


armator de orice eventuala reclamatie a primitorilor daca armatorul poate dovedi
ca marfa nu s-a avariat pe parcursul voiajului.
0
Nu au nici un fel de valoare juridica deoarece nu poate fi opusa nici fata de
incarcatorul care a eliberato.
0

833 Ce variante ofera contractul GENCON 1994 in legatura cu plata navlului?


Contractul ofera varianta de plata a navlului in avans sau plata in conformtate cu
prevederile contractului de navlosire
0
Contractul ofera varianta de plata a navlului anticipat si varianta de plata la livrare
1
Navlul se va plati la livrarea marfurilor, la rata medie de schimb in ziua sau zilele
platii. 0

195
834 Cind este exonerat carausul si nava de orice raspundere pentru pierderi sau
pagube produse marfurilor, conform regulilor de la Haga ?
Daca nu a fost intentata o actiune de protest in termen de 1 an de la predarea
marfurilor. 1
Daca nu a fost intentata o actiune de protest in termen de 6 luni de la predarea
marfurilor. 0
Carausul si nava vor raspunde oricind si oriunde in fata primitorilor pentru
integritatea cantitativa si calitativa a marfurilor.
0

835 Cind nu se aplica regulile de la Haga ?


Regulile nu se aplica in situatiile cind partile nu au convenit in mod expres in
contract asupra aplicarii lor.
0
Regulile nu se aplica contactelor de navlosire Ch/P.
1
Regulile nu se aplica contractelor in baza carora se efectueaza transport de marfuri
cu eliberare de B/L.0

836 Cind se aplica regulile de la Haga ?


Cind se executa un transport de marfuri pe mare numai pe baza de Ch/P si
conosament. 0
Cind se executa un transport de marfuri pe mare in baza unui contract ferm
indiferent de felul acestui contract.
0
Cind contractul de transport este probat printr-un conosament sau un document
similar. 1
837 Cind se aplica regulile YORK-ANVERS unui contract?
Totdeauna. 0
Cind existenta contractului este probata de un conosament.
0
Cind partile au convenit acest lucru prin contract.
1

838 Cind se elibereaza conosamentul conform regulilor de la Haga?


Conosamentul se elibereaza conform cerintelor navlositorilor inscrise in Ch/P.
0
Conosamentul se elibereaza dupa incarcarea marfurilor pe nava.
0
Conosamentul se elibereaza dupa ce carausul, comandantul sau agentul carausului
a luat in proprie grija marfurile.
1

839 Cine confirma din partea navei cele inserate de stivatori in raportul zilnic de
lucru?
Comandantul
0
Timonierul de serviciu
0
Ofiterul de serviciu sau secundul navei
1

196
840 Cine evidentiaza existenta contractului de transport in cazul navelor de linie?
Conosamentul
1
Charter party
0
Charter party si conosamentul
0

841 Cine nominalizeaza compania de stivatori in transportul de linie?


Stivatorii sunt nominalizati de armatorii navelor ce deservesc liniile in urma unor
negocieri 1
Stivatorii sunt nominalizati de autoritatile portuare conform uzantelor locale
0
Stivatorii sunt nominalizati de reprezentantii marfurilor ce urmeaza a fi operate
0

842 Cine suporta costul combustibilului cand o nava este inchiriata in "BARE
BOAT"?
Armatorul 0
Armatorul si navlositorul in proportii egale
0
Disponent owner-ul 1

843 Cite zile de contrastalii sint admise in contractul GENCON 1994?


Sint admise 10 zile lucratoare de contrastalii.
0
Nu se face nici o precizare in acest sens
1
Sint admise 15 zile consecutive de contrastalii.
0

844 Clauza "DHDATSBE" inseamna:


"DESPATCH-ul" va fi jumatate din valoarea contrastaliilor pentru tot timpul salvat
atat la incarcare cat si la descarcare
1
"DESPATCH-ul" va fi jumatate din valoarea contrastaliilor dar numai pentru
incarcare 0
"DESPATCH-ul" va fi jumatate din valoarea contrastaliilor numai pentru timpul de
lucru salvat atat la incarcare cat si la descarcare
0

845 Clauza "FDBE"inserata intr-un contract semnifica:


Nu avem nici contrastalii nici timp economisit
0

197
Fara despatch la incarcare
0
Fara despatch atat la incarcare cat si la descarcare
1

846 Clauza DHDWTSBE inseamna:


"DESPATCH-ul" va fi jumatate din valoarea contrastaliilor pentru tot timpul salvat
atat la incarcare cat si la descarcare
0
"DESPATCH-ul" va fi jumatate din valoarea contrastaliilor pentru timpul de lucru
salvat atat la incarcare cat si la descarcare
1
"DESPATCH-ul" nu conteaza nici la incarcare nici la descarcare
0

847 Clauza Hardship are drept scop:


renegocierea contractului ca urmare a cresterii costurilor de exploatare ale navei
aflta intr/un contract pe termen lung
0

renegocierea contractului in situatia in care conditiile de pe piata se schimba


substantial 0

renegocierea contractului in situatia in care conditiile economice se schimba


substantial si partile nu sint de acord ca partea care sufera pierderi poate rezilia
contractul. 1

renegocierea contractului daca partea care sufera pierderi nu-si mai poate acoperi
cheltuielile de exploatare a navei si exista riscul ca nava sa fie arestata
0

848 Comandantul navei va mai fi in legatura cu proprietarul navei pe perioada


inchirierii in "BARE BOAT"?

Comandantul va fi in legatura numai cu disponent owner-ul


0

Va fi in contact si cu proprietarul navei ori de cate ori acesta solicita acest lucru
1

Comandantul va refuza informarea proprietarului acest lucru constituind o


prerogativa a disponent owner-ului
0
849 Companiile de linie formeaza de obicei conferinte. In acest context notiunea
de conferinta poate considerata ca fiind:

intruniri ale armatorilor si navlositorilor la care se dezbat probleme de interes la


nivel mondial 0

198
structura capabila de a aduna toate companiile ce efectueaza transporturi intre
anumite porturi si a constitui astfel o structura monolopista
1

o companie de navigatie ce efectueaza servicii de transport pe o anumita relatie


deservita de mai multe companii de navigatie
0

intruniri ale organizatiilor armatorilor si incarcatorilor in care se dezbat probleme de


interes comun0

850 Conform "VOYAGE CHARTE PARTY LAYTIME INTERPRETATION RULES 1993" ce


se intelege prin expresia "X weather working days" (X weather working days of 24
hours; X weather working days of 24 consecutive hours)?

Vor conta ca stalii acele zile lucratoare de 24 de ore consecutive cu exceptia


perioadelor in care conditiile meteorologice nefavorabile nu permit desfasurarea
operatiunilor de incarcare sau descarcare, sau nu le-ar fi permis daca nava se afla
sub operatiuni de incarcare/descarcare 1

Vor conta ca stalii zilele de 24 ore consecutive timpul socotindu-se de la ora 00.00
la ora 24.00 a fiecarei zile indiferent de vreme
0

Vor conta ca stalii acele zile lucratoare de 24 de ore consecutive cu exceptia


perioadelor in care conditiile meteorologice nefavorabile sunt singurul motiv pentru
care nu se desfasoara operatiunile de incarcare sau descarcare
0

851 Conform "VOYAGE CHARTER PARTY LAYTIME INTERPRETATION RULES 1993"


ce se intelege prin expresia "X days"(se mai folosesc X running days; X consecutive
days)?
In timpul de stalii sunt incluse toate zilele saptamanii fara a se tine seama de faptul
ca o zi este sau nu zi lucratoare
1
In timpul de stalii sunt incluse numai zilele lucratoare ale saptamanii care depind de
uzul portului0
Zilele de stalii se vor conta la rand dar nu se vor lua in calcul sarbatorile locale
0

852 Conform "VOYAGE CHARTER PARTY LAYTIME INTERPRETATION RULES 1993"


ce se intelege prin "X working days, weather permiting"?
Vor conta ca stalii acele zile lucratoare cu exceptia perioadelor in care conditiile
meteorologice nefavorabile nu permit desfasurarea operatiunilor de incarcare sau
descarcare, sau nu le-ar fi permis daca nava se afla sub operatiuni de incarcare-
descarcare 0

Se va exclude din timpul de stalii orice perioada de timp in care conditiile


meteorologice nefavorabile impiedica efectiv desfasurarea operatiunilor de

199
incarcare sau descarcare, vremea nefavorabila trebuie sa fie singurul motiv pentru
care operatiunile respective nu se desfasoara 1

Vor conta ca stalii acele zile lucratoare cu exceptia perioadelor in care conditiile
meteorologice nefavorabile nu permit desfasurarea operatiunilor de incarcare sau
descarcare 0

853 Conform "VOYAGE CHARTER PARTY LAYTIME INTERPRETATION RULES 1993"


ce se intelege prin expresia "X clear days"?
Staliile alocate sunt x zile consecutive incepand de la ora 12.00 din ziua imediat
urmatoare in care s-a transmis NOR pana la ora 12 in ziua in care au expirat cele x
zile allocate 0
Staliile alocate sunt x zile consecutive incepand de la ora 00.00 din ziua imediat
urmatoare in care s-a transmis NOR pana la ora 24 in ziua in care au expirat cele x
zile alocate 1
Staliile alocate sunt x zile consecutive incepand de la ora 00.00 din ziua in care s-a
transmis NOR pana la ora 24 in ziua in care au expirat cele x zile alocate
0

854 Conform "VOYAGE CHARTER PARTY LAYTIME INTERPRETATION RULES 1993"


ce se intelege prin expresia "X working days" (se mai folosesc X working days of 24
hours; X working days of 24 consecutive hours)?
Vor conta ca stalii toate zilele indiferent ca sunt sau nu sarbatori locale
0
In timpul de stalii sunt incluse toate zilele saptamanii fara a se tine seama de faptul
ca o zi este sau nu zi lucratoare
0
Vor conta ca stalii acele zile care nu sunt in mod expres excluse din stalii
1

855 Conform regulilor INCOTERMS 2000 care este conditia de livrare din grupa F
recomandata in cazul in care marfurile se incarca pe o nava RO-RO
FOB 0
FAS 0
FCA 1

856 Conform regulii de interpretare din regulile York Antwerp in situatia in care
exista contradictii intre regulile literare si cele numerice se apeleaza la dreptul
comun:

avaria comuna va fi reglementata in orice imprejurare in conformitate cu regulile


numerice 0

in situatia in care partile au convenit prin contractul de navlosire sau prin


conosament ca avaria comuna va fi reglementata in conformitate cu regula York-
Anvers nu pot invoca dispozitii de ordin legislativ sau uzuri comerciale cand avaria
nu este prevazuta in regulile I-XXII si avaria se reglementeaza in conformitate cu
regulile literare 1

200
in situatia in care partile au convenit prin contractul de navlosire sau prin
conosament ca avaria comuna va fi reglementata in conformitate cu regula York-
Anvers pot invoca dispozitii de ordin legislativ sau uzuri comerciale cand avaria nu
este prevazuta in regulile I-XXII si avaria se reglementeaza in conformitate cu
prevederile dreptului comun 0

857 Contarea timpului de stalii este influentata de:


Clauza cu privire la navlu 0
Clauze cu privire la zilele de sarbatoare
1
Clauze de razboi 0

858 Contractul de navlosire este documenttul prin care se reglementeaza


drepturile si obligatiile:
Armatorului si posesorului conosamentului
0
Armatorului si navlositorului
1
Armatorului si primitorului
0

859 Contractul de navlosire pe timp este


contractul prin care navlositorul inchiriaza nava pentru o perioada destul de lunga
0
contractul prin care navlositorul se angajeaza sa plateasca armatorului o chirie
zilnica pentru utilizarea navei asa cum doreste
0
contractul dintre armator si navlositor prin care navlositorul inchiriaza nava si
serviciile echipajului pe o perioada determinata sau nedeterminata
1
contractul prin care armatorul cedeaza in schimbul unei sume de bani numita chirie
gestiunea nautical si comerciala a navei pentru o perioada determinate de timp
0

860 Contrastaliile incep sa conteze:


Dupa ce comandantul i-a informat pe navlositori ca nava se afla in contrastalii
0
Imediat ce au expirat staliile
1
Imediat ce au expirat staliile daca acestea expira intr-o zi lucratoare
0

861 Contrastaliile nu se conteaza daca:


Daca nava face reparatii la capacele magaziilor in care deja s-a finalizat incarcarea
0
Daca nava a fost scoasa in rada de catre autoritatile portuare pentru a astepta
diferenta de marfa ce urmeaza a se incarca
0
Daca nava face reparatii la capacele magaziei in care ar fi trebuit sa se efectueze
operatiuni de incarcare
1
201
862 Corporatia Lloyds’ este:
cea mai mare societate de asigurare din lume
0
o companie care acorda support logistic sindicatelor Lloyds, ce activeaza pe piata
asigurarilor 1
atit o mare firma de asigurari cit si o bursa de asigurari
0
este o cafenea in care se intilnesc comerciantii si asiguratorii
0

863 Cui se aplica prevederile Conventiei pentru Securitatea Containerelor?


Containerelor utilizate in transport naval
0
Containerelor destinate transportului naval, feroviar sau auto si transportului
combinat intre acesta1
Containerelor utilizate in transportul naval si auto
0

864 Cui se subordoneaza comandantul cand nava este in "time-charter"?


Comandantul se subordoneaza din toate punctele de vedere navlositorului
0
Comandantul se subordoneaza armatorului cu exceptia cazurilor litigioase in
legatura cu aspectul comercial al voiajului cand se subordoneaza navlositorului
0
Din punct de vedere legal/administrativ Comandantul se subordoneaza armatorului
iar din punct de vedere comercial navlositorului
1

865 Cum este definita avaria comuna conform "Regulii A" (YORK-ANVERS)?
Avaria comuna este orice avarie care are loc in imprejurari fortuite, avind drept
cauza forta majora.0

Un act de avarie comuna exista cind, si numai atunci cind se fac sau se suporta in
mod intentionat si rational sacrificii sau cheltuieli extraordinare pentru siguranta
comuna, in sensul de a pune la adapost de pericol bunurile implicate intr-o
expeditie maritima comuna 1

"Avaria comuna exista cind si numai atunci cind are loc un


act voit si constient al comandantului si/sau al echipajului in scopul salvarii
marfurilor de la bordul navei de o forta majora."
0

866 Cum influenteaza modalitatea de angajare a navei valoarea navlului?


Angajarea FIOS trebuie sa mareasca valoarea navlului
0
Valoarea navlului nu este influentata de modalitatea de angajare a navei
0

202
Angajarea FIOS scade valoarea navlului, costul incarcarii/descarcarii fiind suportat
de navlositor1
867 Cum poate actiona comandantul pentru grabirea operatiunilor de
incarcare/descarcare?
Comandantul nu are mijloace pentru accelerarea acestor operatiuni
0
Prin informarea armatorului
0
Prin scrisori de protest adresate celor interesati cand operatiunile se prelungesc
1

868 Cum poate exploata nava un "disponent owner" in perioada cand o are in
"BARE BOAT"?
Poate exploata nava in" voyage charter" ,"time charter" dar nu o poate exploata in
"BARE BOAT" 1
Poate exploata nava cu orice tip de contract doreste
0
Daca contractul nu prevede altfel poate exploata nava numai in "voyage charter" si
cu acordul armatorului in Time Charter
0

869 Cum poate fi depusa semnatura pe conosament conform regulilor de la


HAMBURG?
Semnatura depusa pe conosament poate fi scrisa numai de mina.
0
Poate fi scrisa de mina sau prin stampilare
0
Poate fi scrisa de mina, tiparita in facsimil, aplicata prin perforare sau stampilare, se
poate prezenta sub forma de simbol sau sa fie aplicata prin orice mijloace mecanice
sau electronice, legale. 1

870 Cum procedeaza o banca atunci cand primeste conosamente cu clauze


restrictive?
Banca efectueaza platile si tine raspunzator pe incarcare pentru eventualele
nereguli fata de primitor0
In astfel de cazuri bancile au obligatia sa refuze primirea unui astfel de conosament
si sa ceara instructiuni ordonatorului de credit
1
O banca nu are competenta de a face referiri la un conosament clauzat de catre
comandant 0

871 Cum se aplica clauza "pe gura de magazie pe zi" (PER HATCH PER DAY)?
Timpul de stalii va fi calculat prin inmultirea normei de incarcare/descarcare a marfii
cu numarul gurilor de magazie ale navei si impartind apoi cantitatea de marfa la
rezultatul produsului. 1
Timpul de stalii se calculeaza prin impartirea cantitatii de marfa continuta de
magazia cea mai mare la norma zilnica de incarcare stabilita prin contract.
0
Timpul de stalii va depinde de cit se opereaza zilnic pe fiecare magazie conform
uzurilor portului.0
203
872 Cum se calculeaza staliile/contrastaliile/despatch-ul la navele de linie?
Se calculeaza conform clauzelor inserate in contract
0
In transportul de linie nu se calculeaza stalii, contrastalii sau despatch
1
Se calculeaza conform uzurilor portuare
0

873 Cum se defineste "Notice-ul de sosire" (NOTICE OF READINESS)?


Documentul intocmit de armator si inminat navlositorului prin care se aduce la
cunostinta ca nava a sosit la dana fiind gata de operatiuni.
0

Notificarea adresata navlositorului, incarcatorului, primitorului sau altei persoane


dupa cum prevede contractul, ca nava a sosit in port sau la dana dupa cum este
cazul si este gata sa incarce/descarce.1

Documentul intocmit de ofiterul maritim I si inminat autoritatilor portuare prin care


se afirma ca nava este sosita este gata de incarcare(descarcare) si poate incepe
incarcarea intr-o anumita perioada de timp.
0

874 Cum se defineste asigurarea CASCO ?


Este contractul prin care armatorul unei nave stipuleaza cu un tert, ca pe baza platii
unei prime, acesta sa-i plateasca o indemnizatie sau despagubire daca nava se
pierde sau avariaza. 1
Este contractul prin care armatorul unei nave stipuleaza cu un tert sa fie despagubit
pentru orice daune sau avarii la nava, marfa sau echipaj, contra unei prime de
asigurare. 0
Asigurarea marfurilor si echipajului este asigurarea CASCO.
0

875 Cum se defineste caracterul consensual al contractelor de vanzare


cumparare internationala?
Caracterul consensual stabileste un raport juridic bazat pe acordul de vointa a
ambelor parti 1
Caracterul consensual inseamna acordul partilor pentru realizarea scopului
comercial pentru care s-a incheiat contractul
0
Caracterul consensual inseamna acordul vanzatorului si cumparatorului pentru
rezolvarea unor eventuale litigii prin arbitraj international
0

876 Cum se defineste caracterul translativ de proprietati al contractului de


vanzare internationala?
Vanzatorul transporta marfurile catre cumparator in concordanta cu clauzele
inserate in mod consensual in contract
0

204
Marfurile se transfera cumparatorului ramanand in proprietatea vanzatorului pana
la acceptarea lor de catre cumparator
0
Vanzatorul se obliga sa livreze marfurile in cantitatea si calitatea stabilita si sa-I
transfere cumparatorului dreptul de proprietate cu toate prerogativele sale
1

877 Cum se defineste expresia "zile lucratoare" (WORKING DAYS)?


Zile lucratoare inseamna o zi de 24 de ore in care conform calendarului BIMCO nu
se excepta nici-o parte(ti) din acea zi.
0
Inseamna zile sau parte(ti) din zi, care nu sint in mod expres excluse din stalii de
catre contractul de navlosire si care nu sint sarbatori.
1
Sint definite conform celor inscrise in uzul portului.
0

878 Cum se defineste functia conosamentului de dovada a preluarii marfurilor


spre transport?
Conforma acesteia mafurile inscrise in conosament au fost incarcate la bordul navei
sau au fost preluate spre incarcare.
0
Conosamentul este o dovada la prima vedere ca marfurrile au fost preluate sau
incarcate la bord in cantitatea si starea si conditia aparenta mentionata in
conosament 1
Conosamentul este o dovada imposibil de necontestat ca marfurrile au fost preluate
sau incarcate la bord in cantitatea si starea si conditia aparenta mentionata in
conosament 0
879 Cum se defineste functia conosamentului de titlu de credit reprezentativ al
marfurilor?
Orice posesor al conosamentului poate vinde sau transferea proprietatea asupra
marfurilor, le poate depune drept garantie sau poate ob'ine credite chiar daca
marfurile se afla pe mare 0

Cind este nominativ poate circula prin girare (andosare).


0

Proprietarul legitim al conosamentului poate vinde sau transferea proprietatea


asupra marfurilor, le poate depune drept garantie sau poate obtine credite chiar
daca marfurile se afla pe mare 1
880 Cum se defineste un "conosament curat" (CLEAN BILL OF LADING)?
Un conosament in care agentul a inscris toate clauze prevazute in instructiunile de
deschiderea acreditivului.
0
Un conosament care sa nu contina clauze prin care sa se mentionere ca marfurile
au fost incarcate fara a fi in stare si conditie aparent buna sau fara a fi in cantitatea
mentionata. 1
Conosamentul fara rezerve ale comandantului in ceea ce priveste starea marfurilor
incarcate. 0

881 Cum se defineste vinzarea internationala?

205
Vinzarea internationala reprezinta un ansamblu de activitati legate de transportul
unor marfuri de la un proprietar la un cumparator, avind sediul intr-o alta tara.
0
Reprezinta totalitatea activitatilor economice care au ca scop realizarea de
operatiuni comerciale internationale privind circulatia marfurilor de la vinzator la
cumparator in concordanta cu contractul incheiat.
1
Transferarea unor marfuri de la vinzator la cumparator in concordanta cu acordul lor
si uzantele uniforme internationale.
0

882 Cum se interpreteaza termenul "EXCEPTED" sau "EXCLUDED" inserat intr-un


contract?
Inseamna ca zilele specificate nu vor conta ca stalii indiferent daca se opereaza sau
nu 1
Inseamna zile de sarbatoare excluse de la curgerea staliilor
0
Inseamna zile excluse de la contrastalii si timp economisit
0

883 Cum se intocmeste protestul de mare in cazul unei avarii comune?


La fel ca si in cazul unei avarii particulare
0
In plus fata de avaria particulara se declara de catre comandant in cuprinsul
protestului avaria comuna1
Se alatura protestului de mare raportul de expertiza al dispasorului, denumit
dispasa 0

884 Cum se numeste Conventia internationala care stabileste formele de


securitate a containerelor in transportul maritim?
Conventia internationala pentru Transportul Marfurilor in Containere
0
Conventia pentru Transportul Marfurior in Siguranta
0
Conventia internationala pentru Securitatea Containerelor
1

885 Cum se numeste documentul prin care se rezerva spatiu pe o nava de linie?
BOOKING NOTE
1
Contract de navlosire
0
Cerere de spatiu 0

886 Cum se plateste chiria in cazul unui contract "BARE BOAT"?


Chiria se plateste cand disparent owmer-ul dispune de sumele necesare
0
Chiria se plateste anticipat la termeni prevazuti prin contract
1
Chiria se plateste la fiecare zece zile calendaristice
0
206
887 Cum vor incepe sa conteze staliile conform contractului GENCON 1994
functie de inaintarea NOR?
Daca NOR s-a transmis in zilele lucratoare in timpul orelor oficiale de birou pana la
ora 12.00, staliile incep sa conteze in aceeasi zi de la ora 13.00, iar daca NOR s-a
transmis, in zilele lucratoare in orele oficiale de birou, dupa ora 12.00 staliile incep
sa conteze din ziua urmatoare neexeptata, de la ora 07.00
0
Daca NOR s-a transmis in zilele lucratoare in timpul orelor oficiale de birou pana la
ora 12.00, staliile incep sa conteze in aceeasi zi de la ora 13.00, iar daca NOR s-a
transmis, in zilele lucratoare in orele oficiale de birou, dupa ora 12.00 staliile incep
sa conteze din ziua urmatoare neexeptata, de la ora 06.00
1
Daca NOR s-a transmis in zilele lucratoare in timpul orelor oficiale de birou pana la
ora 12.00, staliile incep sa conteze in aceeasi zi de la ora 14.00, iar daca NOR s-a
transmis, in zilele lucratoare in orele oficiale de birou, dupa ora 12.00 staliile incep
sa conteze din ziua urmatoare neexeptata, de la ora 08.000

888 Cum vor incepe sa conteze staliile in contractele de navlosire de pe piata


produselor petroliere?
Staliile vor incepe sa conteze la 6 ore dupa ce nava este gata, din toate punctele de
vedere, de incarcare sau descarcare si NOR a fost transmis
1
Staliile vor incepe sa conteze la 12 ore dupa ce nava este gata, din toate punctele
de vedere, de incarcare sau descarcare si NOR a fost transmis
0
Staliile vor incepe sa conteze la 8 ore dupa ce nava este gata, din toate punctele de
vedere, de incarcare sau descarcare si NOR a fost transmis
0

889 Daca avem conosamentul marcat cu clauza "freight to be paid 95% in 5 B/D
AFFER S/R of Bs/L" si dupa cele 5 zile bancare navlul nu a fost platit ce va face
armatorul?
Daca dupa cele 5 zile bancare prevazute in conosament navlul nu a fost platit,
armatorul va da notificarile ce se impun dupa care poate sa-si exercite dreptul de
retentie asupra marfurilor1
Dupa, cele 5 zile prevazute in conosament armatorul poate sa-si exercite dreptul de
retentie 0
Armatorul este obligat sa astepte plata navlului pana in ultimul port de descarcare
0

207
890 Daca dupa rata de incarcare sau descarcare de "1000metric tons per weather
working days SSHEX" se foloseste expresia "unless used" atunci:
Timpul utilizat inainte de inceperea staliilor se va conta ca stalii
0
Zilele de sarbatoare nu se vor conta ca stalii chiar daca se lucreaza in aceasta
perioada 0
In zilele de sambata si duminica se vor conta ca stalii doar perioadele de timp in
care se lucreaza efectiv1
891 Daca expertii tehnici ai armatorului gasesc la inspectiile tehnice grave
probleme, cand nava este inchiriata in CH/P BY DEMISE, atunci:
Armatorul nu are competenta legala sa ia masuri
0
Armatorul va da in judecata navlositorul
0
Va soma navlositorul sa remedieze imediat defectiunile constatate sau in situatii
grave va rezilia contractul
1

892 Daca in contractul de navlosire se mentioneaza ca nava va incarca un anume


tip de marfa atunci:
Navlositorul poate incarca orice alta marfa care necesita o capacitate volumetrica
cel mult egala cu cea a marfii mentionate in contract
0
Navlositorul trebuie sa incarce acea marfa mentionata in contract, aflata in starea si
conditia mentionata in contract sau in conformitate cu uzul portului respectiv
1
Navlositorul poate incarca doar marfuri similare cu marfa mentionata in contract si
aflate in starea si conditia uzuala din portul de incarcare
0

893 Daca in contractul de navlosire se mentioneaza nivelul contrastaliilor ca fiind


3000 per day si navlositorul depaseste perioada de stalii cu 2 zile 3 ore si 36 minute
atunci aceasta datoreaza armatorului:
6000$ USD 0
6450$ USD 0
9000 USD 1

894 Daca in situatia in care o nava depune toate diligentele pentru a ajunge in
portul de incarcare inainte de expirarea datei de reziliere si totusi nava constanta ca
nu poate ajunge pina la acea data si il informeaza pe navlositor despre acest lucru
navlositorul este obligat conform GENCON 1994 sa raspunda daca accepta sau
prelungirea contractului in termen de
24 de ore de la primirea notificarii
0
48 de ore de la primirea notificarii
1
208
72 de ore de la primirea notificarii
0

895 Daca intr-un conosament la rubrica "Portul de descarcare" se inscrie din


greseala "Bucuresti" atunci:
armatorul are obligatia de a transporta marfa doar pina in Constanta deoarece
Bucuresti nu este port0
armatorul are obligatia de a transporta marfa pina in cel mai apropiat port de
Bucuresti 0
armatorul este responsabil pentru transport marfurilor pina la destinatia finala
Bucuresti 1
armatorul poate cere posesorului conosamnetului sa platesca orice suma de bani pe
care armatorul o plateste suplimentar pentru transportul marfii la destinatia finala
0

896 Daca intr-un contract de navlosire pe timp gasiti expresia „delivery APS
Constanta”
aceasta inseamna ca nava va fi livrata in momentul in care ia pilot la bord si se
indreapta catre portul Constanta
0
aceasta inseamna ca nava se va considera livrata in momentul in care debarca
pilotul la iesirea din portul Constanta
0
aceasta inseamna ca nava se va considera livrata in momentul in care ajunge in
locul din care se ia uzual pilot pentru a intra in portul Constanta
1
acesta inseamna ca nava se considera livrata la trecerea travers de Constanta
0

897 Daca intr-un contract de navlosire pe timp gasiti expresia „delivery DLOSP”
urmata de numele unui port in care se folosesc 2 servicii de pilotaj: de mare si de
riu
acesta inseamna ca nava se va considera livrata in momentul in care debarca
primul pilot folosit pentru manevra de iesire a navei din portul respective
0
acesta inseamna ca nava se va considera livrata in momentul in care debarca
ultimul pilot maritim folosit pina la iesirea in marea libera
1
aceasta inseamna ca nava va fi livrata in momentul in care ajunge in locul din care
se ia uzual pilot pentru a intra in portul respectiv
0
aceasta inseamna ca nava va fi livrata in momentul in care ia la bord primul pilot
pentru a intra in portul respectiv
0
209
898 Daca intr-un contract de navlosire pe timp gasiti expresia „delivery DOP
Constanta”
aceasta inseamna ca nava va fi livrata in momentul in care ia pilot la bord si se
indreapta catre una din danele portului Constanta
0
acesta inseamna ca nava se considera livrata la trecerea travers de Constanta
0
aceasta inseamna ca nava va fi livrata in momentul in care ajunge in locul din care
se ia uzual pilot pentru a intra in portul Constanta
0
aceasta inseamna ca nava se va considera livrata in momentul in care debarca
pilotul la iesirea din portul Constanta
1

899 Daca la rubrica ”consignee” a unui conosament este inscris numele unei
firme atunci acest conosament este:
conosament nominativ
1
conosament la ordin
0
conosament la purtator
0
conosament la primitor
0

900 Daca marfa nu a sosit in port si ea a fost ferm angajata pe o nava de linie
cum va proceda comandantul?
Nava va astepta sosirea marfii pentru a nu plati "SHORT SHIPPED"
0
Nava va incarca numai marfurile sosite cand le va veni randul conform
cargoplanului exonerand pe navlositor de orice plata
0
Daca marfurile angajate nu au sosit la incarcare cand sunt cerute de comandant se
va trece peste el si se va pretinde navlu mort
1

901 Daca navlositorul nu raspunde unei notificari corecte de intirziere a navei


peste data de reziliere a contractului in termen de 48 de ore de la primirea ei atunci
conform GENCON 1994:
Noua data de reziliere a contractului este stabilita la 7 zile de la data transmiterii
notificarii 0
Noua data de reziliere a contractului este stabilita la 7 zile de la noua data estimata
de sosire a navei avizata de armatori
1
Noua data de reziliere a contractului este stabilita la 7 zile data de reziliere a
contractului mentionata in contract
0

210
902 Daca o nava angajata pe baza expresiei "1000 metric tons per working day
weather permitting SSHEX" transmite corect NOR la ancorare si apoi asteapta o
anumita perioada de timp in rada inainte de a intra in port atunci:
Perioadele de timp petrecute in rada portului in care ploua nu se conteaza ca stalii
1
Perioadele de timp petrecute in port, cu suficienta marfa la cheu, in care nu se
lucreaza pentru ca ploua se conteaza ca stalii
0
Perioadele de timp, in care nava nu lucreaza datorita faptului ca instalatiile de cheu
nu functioneaza si in care ploua se conteaza ca stalii
0

903 Daca o nava are deadweight-ul net de 5200 tone ce implicatii are inscrierea
acestuia intr-un contract de navlosire pentru o nava angajata sa incarce 5000 tone
5% mai mult sau mai putin in optiunea navlositorului?
Nava trebuie sa incarce cel putin o cantitate de marfa egala cu deadweight-ul brut
al navei 0
Armatorul trebuie sa aprovizioneze nava cu apa potabila si combustibil astfel incat
in momentul finalizarii operatiunilor de incarcare nava sa poata incarca cel putin
5200 de tone 1
Nava trebuie sa fie capabila sa incarce pana la 5250 de tone deoarece armatorul a
acceptat acest lucru prin contract
0

904 Daca printr-un contract de navlosire s-au agreat stalii reversibile atunci:
Timpul de stalii alocat pentru incarcare se aduna cu timpul de stalii alocat pentru
descarcare si apoi se efectueaza calculele
1
Se efectueaza calcule separate pentru porturile de incarcare si descarcare si se
compenseaza timpul salvat intr-un port cu cel folosit in alt port
0
Timpul utilizat suplimentar in portul de incarcare se scade din timpul de stalii alocat
in portul de descarcare
0

905 Daca un tanc petrolier este angajat la nivelul WS80, si conform WORLD
SCALE navlul intre doua porturi este de 18$ USD pe tona atunci navlul unitar pe
care il va primi armatorul este:
18$ USD 0
21,6$ USD 0
14,4$ USD 1

906 De cate feluri sunt asigurarile "CASCO" din punct de vedere al duratei
contractului de asigurare?
Acopera un singur voiaj
0
Acopera numai o perioada de timp
0

211
Pot fi intocmite fie pe voiaj fie pe timp
1

907 De ce navlositorii in anumite cazuri refuza sa plateasca tot navlul anticipat?


Pentru ca la finalizarea contractului in cazul ca se produc avarii la marfa, sa aiba o
suma de unde sa fie despagubiti
0
Pentru a plati un bonus pentru bune servicii comandantului si sefului mechanic
0
Pentru a avea o suma din care va opri cat este necesar in eventualitatea ca dupa
intocmirea time-sheet-ului va rezulta dispatch
1

908 De cine poate fi semnat un conosament conform regulilor de la Hamburg?


Numai de comandantul navei pe care se transporta marfurile.
0
De catre orice persoana care a primit imputernicirea armatorului.
1
De catre comandantul navei sau orice alt ofiter de la bordul navei.
0

909 De cine sunt reglementate avariile comune?


De regulile YORK - ANVERS
1
De regulile YORK-ANVERS si HAGA
0
De regulile de la Hamburg
0

910 De cite feluri sint asigurarile maritime ?


Cargo si Casco.
0
Cargo, Casco si P and I.
1
Cargo , P and I, F.P.A. si W.P.A.
0

911 Despatch-ul se plateste


Intotdeauna deoarece stivatorii trebuie premiati pentru finalizarea operatiunilor de
incarcare sau descarcare inaintea expirarii staliilor
0
Ori de cate ori prin contractul de navlosire se stabilesc contrastalii
0
Doar daca in contractul de navlosire exista o prevedere in acest sens
1

912 Din ce se compun regulile YORK-ANVERS 1974?


Din 22 de reguli numerotate cu cifre romane.
0

212
Dintr-o regula de interpretare, 7 reguli numerotate cu litere si 22 de reguli
numerotate cu cifre romane.
1
Din mai multe reguli care pot fi completate dupa caz cu prevederi specifice fiecarui
transport pe mare.0

913 Dintr-un contract de vanzare cumparare internationala nu pot lipsi:


Clauzele privind curgerea staliilor
0
Clauze privind determinarea calitatii si cantitatii marfurilor livrate
1
Clauze de greva, razboi si inghet
0

914 Disponent owner-ul din contractul de BAREBOAT poate numi comandant?


In lipsa unei prevederi contrare nomineaza totdeauna comandantul
1
Nu are aceasta competenta legala
0
Daca are acordul proprietarului poate numi commandant
0

915 Disponent owner-ul se poate imprumuta la banca garantand cu nava?


Disponent owner-ul se poate imprumuta la banca si sa garanteze cu nava in orice
situatie 0
Nu poate garanta imprumuturi cu nava deoarece nu este proprietarul ei
1
Poate garanta cu nava daca valoarea navlului incasat in viitoarea calatorie are
valoare mai mare decat nava
0

916 Documentul utilizat in transportul multimodal conform Conventiei


Internationale referitoare la transportul modal se numeste :
Multimodal transport document; 1
Multimodal transport Bill of Lading
0
Through Bill of Lading?
0

917 Dupa ce criterii se apreciaza caracterul restrictiv al mentiunilor facute de


comandant pe conosament?
In aprecierea caracterului restrictiv al mentiunilor facute pe conosament trebuie sa
se aibe in vedere daca sunt afectate interesele vanzatorului
0
Se are in vedere ca mentiunile sa nu afecteze navlositorul navei
0
In aprecierea caracterului restrictiv al mentiunilor facute pe conosament trebuie sa
se aiba in vedere daca sunt afectate interesele cumparatorului
1

918 Dupa modul de intocmire conosamentele pot fi:


213
Conosamente la ordin si conosamente directe
0
Conosamente nominative, la ordin si la purtator
1
Conosamente cu transbordare si conosamente "ON BOARD"
0

919 Explicati denumirea conventionala"Seaworthy packing".


Ambalaj solid
0
Ambalaj executat cu masini speciale protejate cu folie de polietilena pentru a
preveni patrunderea apei de mare
0
Ambalaj corespunzator marfurilor transportate pe mare
1

920 Expresia "100% after signing but Before releasing of Bs/L" inserata intr-un
contract inseamna:

Ca navlul se va plati in intregime dupa semnarea conosamentelor dar inainte de


eliberarea lor 1
Ca navlul se va plati in intregime dupa semnarea conosamentelor
0
Plata navlului dupa semnarea conosamentelor si inmanarea lor comandantului
0

921 Expresia "95%in…..B/D after S/R of Bs/L" inserata intr-un contract inseamna:
Ca navlul se va plati in proportie de 95% intr-un numar de zile consecutive dupa
semnarea si eliberarea conosamentului
0
Navlul se va plati in proportie de 95% dupa un anumit numar de zile bancare dupa
semnarea si eliberarea conosamentelor
1
95% din navlu se va plati dupa semnarea, eliberarea conosamentelor
0

922 Expresia "customony quickest deasptch" inserata intr-un contract semnifica:


Ca nava va opera conform clauzelor inscrise in mod consensual in contract
0
Ca nava va opera cat de repede posibil in circumstantele locale
1
Ca nava va opera cat de repede poate ponta marfa, echipajul
0

214
923 In afara de situatia cind navlositorul plateste muncitorii necesari pe cheu si
nava incarca marfurile la bord, ce alta stipulatie mai este inscrisa in GENCON 1994
in legatura cu cheltuielile de incarcare/descarcare ?

FIOST - Marfa va fi adusa in hambare, incarcata, stivuita si rujata si luata din


hambare si descarcata de navlositori sau agentii lor, libera de orice risc,
responsabilitati sau cheltuiala din partea armatorului.1

Marfa va fi incarcata, stivuita si rujata cind e cazul pe cheltuiala si riscul armatorului


si descarcata pe cheltuiala si riscul navlositorului.
0

Marfa va fi incarcata, stivuita si rujata pe cheltuiala vinzatorului.


0

924 In afara de stalii reversibile cum se mai pot calcula staliile?

Pentru fiecare port conform normei de incarcare/descarcare


1
Stalii calculate conform uzurilor si practicilor locale
0
Stalii calculate conform contractului de vanzare cumparare
0

925 In cadrul asigurarilor maritime pierderea partiala este


o pierdere aparuta in cadrul avariei comune
0
o pierdere aparuta ca urmare a unui pericol maritim
0
orice pierdere, alta decit o pierdere totala
1
orice pierdere in care nava exista, dar cheltuielile de reparatie sunt atit de mari incit
este mai bine sa se renunte la nava
0

926 In care din urmatoarele clauze cu privire la ambalaj contravaloarea


ambalajului este inclusa in pretul marfii?
Netto 0
Netto plus ambalaj 0
Bruto/netto 1

927 In care din urmatoarele conditii de livrare raspunderea trece de la vanzator la


cumparator in momentul in care marfurile au depasit copastia navei in portul de
incarcare?
FOB 1
DDU 0
DEQ 0

215
928 In care din urmatoarele conditii de livrare raspunderea trece de la vanzator la
cumparator in momentul in care marfurile au depasit copastia navei in portul de
incarcare?
FOB 0
CIF 1
DES 0

929 In care din urmatoarele situatii se poate presupune ca un comandant poate


actiona ca agent din necesitate al proprietarului marfurilor?
Nava are bord marfuri perisabile 0

Nava are la bord marfuri perisabile si instalatiile frigorifice nu functioneaza


0

Nava are la bord marfuri perisabile, instalatiile frigorifice nu functioneaza si nu se


poate lua legatura cu incarcatorul pentru instructiuni
0

Nava are la bord marfuri perisabile, instalatiile frigorifice nu functioneaza si nu


poate lua legatura cu navlositorul pentru a obtine instructiuni
1

930 In cate copii nenegociabile se elibereaza un conosament?


Numarul de copii nenegociabile sunt indicate de agentul navei
0
Copiile nenegociabile se pot intocmi in atatea exemplare cate sunt necesare partilor
ce participa la expeditia maritima
1
Se pot elibera numai 3 copii nenegociabile
0

931 In cazul contractelor de navlosire pe timp riscurile intirzierii navei datorita


conditiilor meteorogice nefavorabile, grevelor din porturi sau congestiei porturilor
de escala:
apartin armatorilor 0
apartin navlositorilor
1
se impart intre armatori si navlositori
0
se stabileste cui apartin doar dupa ce se analizeaza foarte bine contractul
0

932 in cazul contractelor de navlosire pe voiaje consecutive


armatorul va primi navlul in functie de numarul teoretic de voiaje consecutive ce
pot fi efectuate de nava
0
armatorul va primi navlul pentru fiecare voiaj efectuat de nava
1
216
armatorul va primi navlul atit in functie de numarul de voiaje efectuate de nava cit
si in functie de durata aceastora
0
armatorul va primi navlul in functie de durata voiajelor efectuate de nava
0

933 In cazul in care armatorul incarca incorect marfuri pe punte atunci:


Armatorul se poate baza in continuare pe conventiile de limitare a
responsabilitatilor 0
Armatorul este responsabil doar pentru acele avarii pentru care poate fi considerat
vinovat 0
Armatorul este responsabil pentru orice avarie a marfurilor indiferent de cauza care
a produs-o 1

934 in cazul in care comandantul unei nave aflata intr-un contract de bareboat, si
exploatata pe baza unui contract de navlosire pe timp si a unui contract de
navlosire pe voiaj, semneaza conosamentele atunci
cel mai probabil se va considera ca navlositorul din contractul de bareboat este
caraus 1
cel mai probabil se va considera ca armatorul navei este caraus
0
cel mai probabil se va considera ca navlositorul din contractul de navlosire pe timp
este caraus 0
cel mai probabil se va considera ca navlositorul din contractul de navlosire pe voiaj
este caraus 0

935 In cazul in care marfurile sunt incarcate pe punte pe riscul incarcatorului


atunci:
Armatorul nu este responsabil daca marfurile se pierd indiferent de cauza din care
acestea se pierd0
Armatorul este responsabil daca marfurile se pierd datorita lipsei bunei stari de
navigabilitate a navei1
Armatorul este responsabil daca marfurile se avariaza din orice cauza
0

936 In cazul in care o nava incarca marfuri in stare si conditie aparent buna si la
destinatie marfurile ajung in aceeasi stare si conditie aparent buna, dar depreciate
calitativ:
este datoria armatorului sa demonstreze ca marfurile nu s/au avariat din vina sa
0
armatorul este responsabil in orice imprejurare
0
armatorul nu poate fi in nici un caz responsabil deoarece marfa a fost livrata in
aceeasi stare si contie aparenta in care a fost incarcata
0

217
armatorul poate fi responsabil daca posesorul conosamentului demonstreaza ca
marfurile au fost avariate din vina armatorului
1

937 In cazul in care o nava incarca marfuri in stare si conditie aparent buna si la
destinatie marfurile sosesc fara a mai fi in aceeasi stare si conditie aparent buna
armatorul este responsabil daca nu demonstreaza ca marfurile nu s-au avariat din
vina sa 1
armatorul este responsabil in orice imprejurare
0
armatorul nu poate fi responsabil deoarece marfa era avariata inainte de incarcare
si armatorul nu a observat acest lucru
0
armatorul poate fi responsabil daca posesorul conosamentului demonstreaza ca
marfurile au fost avariate din vina armatorului
0

938 In cazul in care o nava soseste la destinatie cu o parte din marfuri avariate
din vina armatorului atunci:
Navlositorul este indreptatit sa compenseze contravaloarea avariilor cu o parte din
navlu si sa plateasca diferenta armatorului
0
Navlositorul trebuie sa plateasca navlul armatorului fara nici un fel de reduceri
1
Navlositorul plateste navlul integral doar pentru marfa sosita in conditii bune si
diferenta o pastreaza ca garantie
0
939 In cazul unor avarii urmate de pierderea bunei stari de navigabilitate a navei
cand nava este navlosita in "charter party by demise", cine va suporta reparatiile si
va repune nava in buna stare de navigabilitate.
Disponent owner-ul
1
Proprietarul navei 0
Atat disponent owner-ul cat si proprietarul navei
0

940 In ce conditii un comandant va semna un conosament marcat "DUPLICAT"?


Comandantul va semna un astfel de conosament daca primeste ordin de la armator
0
Nu se vor semna conosamente marcate "duplicat"
1
Se vor semna numai cu acordul navlositorului
0

941 In ce conventie se vorbeste despre continutul minim obligatoriu al unui


conosament?
Regulile de la HAGA
0
Regulile Haga Visby
0
Regulile de la Hamburg
1
218
942 In ce situatii este obligat comandantul sa livreze marfurile la destinatie?
Dupa acostarea navei si finalizarea controalelor de rutina
0
Dupa ce a primit din partea vamii permisul vamal
0
Cand a fost prezentat de catre incarcatorii conosamentul original
1

943 in ceea ce priveste forma conosamentului:


este obligatoriu ca acesta sa fie identic cu modelele aprobate de BIMCO
0
este obligatoriu ca acesta sa fie intr-o forma acceptata de armator
0
nu exista nici un fel de restrictii asupra formei conosamanetului
1
este obligatoriu sa fie tiparit pe o pagina A4
0

944 In cite exemplare originale se emite un conosament?


In oricate exemplare cu singura conditie ca numarul conosamentelor originale sa fie
mentionat in conosament.
1
Totdeauna se elibereaza 2 (doua) conosamente originale.
0
Numarul de conosamente originale este de 3 (trei) indiferent de cerintele
incarcatorului. 0

945 in contractele de navlosire intelesul expresiei ”full and complete cargo”


este acela de marfa care ocupa volumul total al magaziilor navei sau conduce la
utilizarea intregii capacitati de incarcare a navei
0

este acela de marfa, care stivuita corect ocupa volumul total al magaziilor navei sau
conduce la utilizarea intregii capacitati de incarcare a navei
1

este acela de marfa ce satisface deadweight-ul net al navei


0

este acela de marfa, care stivuita corect ocupa volumul total al magaziilor navei si
conduce la utilizarea intregii capacitati de incarcare a navei
0

219
946 In contul cui sunt taxele de tranzitare prin canale/stramtori cand o nava este
in time charter?
Taxele de tranzitare prin stramtori/canale sunt in sarcina armatorului indiferent de
forma de navlosire0

Taxele de tranzitare prin stramtori/canale sunt platite atat de armator cat si de


navlositor in proportii egale conform prevederilor contractului
0

Taxele de tranzitare prin canale/stramtori sunt platite numai de navlositor pe toata


durata time-charter-ului
1

947 In general despagubirile pentru riscurile de coliziune sunt acoperite:


in proportie de 100 % de asiguratorii H&M
0
in proportie de 80% de asiguratii H & M si 20% de asiguratorii P&I
0
in proportie de 75 % de asiguratii H & M si 25% de asiguratorii P&I
1
in proportie de 75 % de asiguratorii P&I si de 25 % de asiguratorii H&M
0

948 In lipsa unei prevederi contractuale navlul se plateste:


Pe cantitatea de marfa incarcata
0
Pe cantitatea de marfa descarcata
0
Pe cea mai mica dintre cantitatile incarcat-transportata-livrata
1

949 In lipsa unei prevederi contrare navlul se plateste:


Pe greutatea bruta 1
Pe greutatea teoretica
0
Pe greutatea neta 0

950 In lipsa unor prevederi contrare in conosament:


transbordarea marfurilor este permisa in anumite imprejurari
0
este interzis a se efectua operatiunea de transbordare a marfurilor
1
transbordarea este permisa doar daca se efectueaza in porturi bine cunoscute de
transbordare0
transbordarea este permisa cit timp armatorul garanteaza sosirea in timp a
marfurilor la destinatie0

951 In lipsa unor prevederi contrare in contractul de navlosire navlul se considera


castigat
La sosirea navei in rada portului de destinatie
0
220
Pe masura ce marfa este descarcata din nava
1
La semnarea si eliberarea conosamentului
0
952 In lipsa unor prevederi contrare, armatorul unei nave angajate de catre
navlositor pentru a incarca marfa din 3 porturi si a o descarca in 2 porturi, trebuie
sa transmita NOR:
Doar in primul port de incarcare
0
In fiecare port de escala a navei
1
Doar in porturi de descarcare
0
953 In lipsa unor prevederi contrare, armatorul unei nave angajate de catre un
navlositor pentru a incarca marfa din 3 porturi si a o descarca in 2 porturi, trebuie
sa transmita NOR:
in fiecare port de escala al navei
0
doar in primul port de incarcare
1
doar in primul port de incarcare si in primul port de descarcare
0
doar in porturile de incarcare
0

954 In mod normal armatorul poate accepta una din urmatoarele modalitati de
plata a navlului:
In trei zile bancare de la eliberarea conosamentelor daca acestea sunt marcate
"freight payable as per charter party"
1
In trei zile bancare de la eliberarea conosamentelor daca acestea sunt marcate
"freight prepaid" 0
Dupa descarcare 0

955 In mod normal armatorul poate accepta una din urmatoarele modalitati de
plata a navlului:
In trei zile bancare de la eliberarea conosamentelor daca acestea sunt marcate
"freight prepaid" 0
Inainte de eliberarea conosamentelor daca acestea sunt marcate "freight prepaid"
1
Dupa descarcare 0

956 In momentul in care se schimba societatea de clasificare se produc


urmatoarele:
asigurarea CASCO se anuleaza imediat daca nava este in port
1
asigurarea se reinoieste automat in aceleasi conditii
0
asigurarea se reinoieste dupa obtinerea noilor certificate de clasa in aceleasi
conditii 0
221
schimbarea societatii de clasificare nu are nici un efect asupra asigurarii navei
0

957 In practica maritima, asigurarea CASCO:


este obligatorie doar pentru navele ce transporta produse petroliere
0
este obligatorie doar pentru navele de peste 1000 grt
0
nu este obligatorie 1
este obligatorie doar pentru navele vechi ce pot cauza pierderi autoritatilor portuare
0

958 In situatia in care comandantul a acceptat din greseala inscrierea in


conosament a unei cantitati eronate de marfa atunci:
el are dreptul de a demonstra contrariul indiferent in posesia cui se afla
conosamentul 0
el are dreptul de a demonstra contrariul doar daca acel conosament se afla in
posesia incarcatorului1
el are dreptul de a demonstra contradiul in situatia in care conosamentul de afla in
posesia unui tert de buna credinta
0
el nu are dreptul in nici o imrejurare sa demonstreze contrariul
0

959 in situatia in care exista un contract de navlosire conosamentul ce se va


emite guverneaza relatia dintre
caraus si orice posesor al conosamentului
0
caraus si navlositorul posesor al conosamentului
0
caraus si orice posesor al conosamentului cu exceptia navlositorului
1
navlositor si posesorul conosamanetului
0

960 In situatia in care in contract nu se stabileste nivelul despagubirilor pentru


retinere atunci nivelul acestora:
Este acelasi cu nivelul contrastaliilor
0
Este dublul contrastaliilor si uneori chiar mai mare
0
Se determina in functie de potentialul de piata al navei la momentul in care acestea
se produc 1
961 In situatia in care in ordinul de imbargo se inscriu remarci cu privire la starea
si conditia aparenta a marfurilor:
comandantul va accepta sa emita conosamente fara remarci doar daca incarcatorul
ii furnizeaza o scrisoare de garantie prin care este exonerat de orice raspundere cu
privire la conditia marfii 0

222
nu este obligatoriu ca aceste remarci sa fie inscrise in conosament
0
conosamentul ce se va emite trebuie sa contina aceste remarci
1

962 in situatia in care in urma negocierilor dintre armator si posesorul


conosamentului se agreeaza ca marfa sa fie descarcata in alt port decat cel
mentionat in conosament atunci:

comandatul poate elibera marfa si fara a se prezenta un conosament original


0
comadantul poate elibera marfa in schimbul unui exemplar din conosamentul
original 0
comandantul poate elibera marfa doar daca se prezinta toate exemplarele originale
in care s-a emis conosamentul
1
comandantul poate elibera marfa in schimbul prezentarii unei copii negociabile a
conosamentului0

963 in situatia in care la bordul navei se prezinta un primitor cu un exemplar


original al unui conosament nominativ sau cu un exemplar original al unui
conosament la ordin andosat in plin atunci

comandantul trebuie sa elibereze marfurile posesorului conosamentului


0

comandantul trebuie sa elibereze marfurile doar dupa ce posesorul demonstreaza


ca este reprezentantul legal al celui mentionat in conosament
1

comandantul trebuie sa elibereze marfurile doar daca se prezinta toate exemplarele


originale 0
comadantul ar putea elibera marfurile chiar si in lipsa conosamentelor originale
daca se face dovada ca

pesoana respectiva il reprezinta legal pe cel mentionat in conosament


0

964 In situatia in care o nava este asigurata, asiguratului i se cere:

sa-si defasoare activitatile dupa cum doreste, deoarece asigurarea trebuie sa


plateasca orice despagubire
0
sa-si defasoare activitatile cu extrem de multa precautie astfel incit sa evite si cele
mai mici riscuri de a avea o avarie
0
sa-si conduca afacerile ca si cind ar fi o persoana prudenta nesigurata
1
sa accepta expeditii maritime cu riscuri mari deoarece acesta este si motivul pentru
care plateste asigurare
0
223
965 in situatia in care pe conosament este trecut numarul de exemplare originale
in care acesta s-a emis atunci:
comandantul poate elibera marfa, in portul de destinatie, doar daca ii sunt
prezentate toate exemplarele originale
0
comandantul poate elibera marfa, in portul de destinatie, daca se prezinta cel putin
doua exemplare originale
0
comandantul poate elibera marfa si pe baza unei copii a conosamentului original
0
comandantul poate elibera marfa, in portul de destinatie, in schimbul unui singur
exemplar original1

966 In situatia in care prin contract se mentioneaza limita minima si maxima a


cantitatii de marfa ce se va incarca, fara a se preciza cine are optiunea de a alege
aceste limite atunci:
Se subintelege ca aceste limite sunt in optiunea armatorului si ca acesta are dreptul
de a alege orice cantitate ce se incadreaza intre aceste limite
0
Se subintelege ca aceste limite sunt in optiunea navlositorului si ca acesta are
dreptul de a alege orice cantitate ce se incadreaza intre aceste limite
0
Trebuie sa se incarce pana la capacitatea maxima de incarcare cu deosebirea ca
armatorul garanteaza ca va incarca cel putin cantitatea minima si nu va solicita mai
mult decat cantitatea maxima 1

967 In situatia in care prin contract se stabileste ca despatch-ul se plateste pentru


"all time saved" atunci:
Despatch-ul se plateste pentru o perioada de timp egala cu diferenta dintre
momentul in care expira staliile si in momentul in care se finalizeaza operatiunea de
incarcare sau descarcare din care se scad toate perioadele de timp exceptate
0
Despatch-ul se plateste pentru perioada de timp dintre momentul teoretic al
expirarii staliilor si momentul in care nava paraseste portul de incarcare sau
descarcare 0
Despatch-ul se plateste pentru timpul de la momentul finalizarii operatiunilor de
incarcare sau descarcare pana in momentul teoretic la care staliile ar fi trebuit sa
expire 1

968 In transportul de linie nava asteapta rand la dana de operare?


Nava va opera imediat ce dana va fi dana libera
0
Nava va opera imediat ce a sosit fara sa astepte rand
1
Nava va fi programata de autoritati sa opereze la dana in ordinea sosirii in port si
inaintarii NOR, cand portul este congestionat.
0

969 Inainte de intrarea unei nave in "time-charter" se efectueaza:


224
O inspectie atenta a corpului navei si a instalatiilor sale
0
Vizitarea navei de catre reprezentantul navlositorului
0
O inspectie de intrare denumita "on hire survey"
1

970 Intelesul modern al expresiei "No cure - No pay" este:


acela ca in anumite imprejurari se remunereaza operatiunile de salvare a vietii
umane pe mare 0
acela ca nu se remunereaza decit operatiunile de salvare incununate de succes
0
acela ca se remunereaza si operatiunile de prevenire si reducere a poluarii mediului
marin chiar daca operatiunea nu este incununata de succes
1

971 Intr-un contract "BARE BOAT" in sarcina cui este asigurarea CASCO si P&I
pentru nava?
In sarcina armatorului
0
CASCO in sarcina armatorului si P&I in sarcina navlositorului
0
In sarcina disponent owner-ului ambele forme de asigurare
1

972 Intr-un contract de navlosire cuvantul port


Inseamna o zona in care navele incarca sau descarca marfuri fie ca este vorba de
incarcare la dana, ancoraj, geamanduri sau ceva asemanator si include in cele mai
multe cazuri locurile in care navele asteapta la rand, sunt instructionate sau sunt
obligate sa astepte, indiferent de distanta la care se afla de aceasta zona
1
Inseamna un grup de dane la care navele efectueaza operatiuni de incarcare,
descarcare si operatiuni de buncherare si include doar radele interioare si
exterioare in care navele asteapta de obicei sa acosteze la dana de incarcare sau
descarcare 0
Inseamna portul strict in conformitate cu regulile stabilite de navlositor
0

973 Intr-un contract de navlosire pe voiaje consecutive clauza de reziliere a


contractului este valabila
pentru fiecare voiaj efectuat de nava
0
doar pentru primul si ultimul voiaj
0
pentru primul si al doilea voiaj
0
doar pentru primul voiaj 1

974 Izvoarele de drept care calauzesc un contract de vanzare internationala sunt:


225
Regulile de la Haga, Hamburg si York Anvers
0
Conventia MONTEGUE-BAY si Codul Comercial Roman
0
Tratatele internationale, uzurile si uzantele uniforme internationale, sistemul de
drept ales de parti si clauzele inscrise in mod consensual in contract
1

975 La bordul navei se prezinta un primitor cu un exemplar original al unui


conosament semnat de catre comandant in portul de incarcare. In aceste conditii
comandantul:
elibereaza marfurile si nu retine la bord conosamentul original
0
elibereaza marfurile si retine la bord o copie a conosamentului original
0
nu elibereaza marfurile pina la instructiunile navlositorului
0
elibereaza marfurile si retine la bord conosamentul original
1

976 La cat se limiteaza raspunderea carausului pentru daune rezultate din


pierderea sau avarierea marfurilor conform regulilor de la Hamburg :
La 840 DST pe colet si 3 DST. pe kg;
0
La 835 DST pe colet sau alta unitate de transport sau 2,5 DST. pe kg;
1
La 850 DST pe colet sau alta unitate de transport si 3,5 DST pe kg
0

977 La cat se limiteaza raspunderea carausului pentru intarzieri in livrarea


marfurilor conform regulilor de la Hamburg :
La de doua ori valoarea navlului pentru marfurile intarziate la livrare;
0
La un cuantum egal cu valoarea navlului platibil pentru marfurile livrate cu
intarziere; 0
La de doua ori si jumatate valoarea navlului platibil pentru marfurile livrate cu
intarziere; 1

978 La ce fel de angajare a navei navlul trebuie sa fie mai mare?


FIOST 0
FI/LO si LO/FI 0
LINNER TERMS
1

979 La o angajare LINNER TERMS cine suporta eventualele operatiuni de amarare,


fardare, asigurare a marfii in magazie?
Armatorul 1
Navlositorul 0
Armatorul si navlositorul in proportii egale
0

226
980 La transportul cu navele de linie contractul de transport dintre armator si
proprietarul marfurilor altul decit incarcatorul este:
Charter Party
0
Charter party cu eliberare de conosament
0
Conosamentul (B/L)
1

981 Livrarea marfurilor in portul de destinatie se face de catre comandant in


schimbul ?
Unei scrisori de garantie bancara
0
Unei scrisori de garantie semnata de primitor si navlositor sau in optiunea
comandantului in schimbul conosamentui original
0
Unui conosament original 1

982 Marfurile generale sunt considerate a fi:


Marfuri neomogene, ambalate si de dimensiuni mai reduse, satisfacand partial, ele
singure capacitatea de incarcare a unei nave
1
Toate marfurile transportate de navele cargou
0
Marfuri omogene, ambalate si de dimensiuni mai reduse, satisfacand partial, ele
singure capacitatea de incarcare a unei navei
0

983 Marfurile in vrac sunt considerate a fi:


Marfuri omogene, neambalate si transportate in loturi destul de mari pentru a
satisface capacitatea de incarcare a navei
1
Marfurile neomogene, ambalate si transportate in loturi destul de mari pentru a
satisface capacitatea de incarcare a navei
0
Marfuri omogene, ambalate si transportate in loturi destul de mari pentru a
satisface capacitatea de incarcare a navei
0

984 Marimea navlului mort este:


Egala cu produsul dintre navlul unitar si cantitatea de marfa neincarcata de catre
navlositor pana la limita maxima stabilita in contract
0
Egala cu produsul dintre navlu unitar si cantitatea de marfa neincarcata de catre
navlositor pana la limita minima stabilita in contract
0
Egala cu navlul suplimentar ce ar fi fost obtinut daca s-ar fi incarcat cantitatea
minima de marfa din care se scad cheltuielile suplimentare ce ar fi fost efectuate de
catre armator daca s-ar fi incarcat cantitatea minima de marfa mentionata in
contract 1

227
Egala cu navlul suplimentar ce ar fi fost obtinut daca s-ar fi incarcat cantitatea
maxima de marfa din care se scad cheltuielile suplimentare ce ar fi fost efectuate
de catre armator daca s-ar fi incarcat cantitatea maxima de marfa mentionata in
contract 0

985 Navele C si D intra in coliziune cu pierderi la marfurile de la bord de 0.5


milioane dolari si respectiv 0.25 milioane dolari. Navele C si D sunt vinovate in
proportie de 60 % si 40 %. In aceste conditii asiguratorii navei C vor plati navei D:
0, 15 milioane dolari
1
0, 30 milioane dolari
0
0,10 milioane dolari
0
0, 20 milioane dolari
0

986 Navele C si D intra in coliziune cu pierderi la marfurile de la bord de 0.5


milioane dolari si respectiv 0.25 milioane dolari. Navele C si D sunt vinovate in
proportie de 60 % si 40 %. In aceste conditii asiguratorii navei D var plati navei C
0, 15 milioane dolari
0
0, 30 milioane dolari
0
0,10 milioane dolari
0
0, 20 milioane dolari
1

987 Navlositorul trebuie sa incarce sau sa descarce atat de repede pe cat este
posibil in imprejurarile existente la data incarcarii sau descarcarii daca nava este
angajata pe baza expresiei:
Custom of the port 0
Customary quick dispach 1
As fast as the vessel can receive or deliver
0
988 Navlul lumpsum reprezinta:
Navlul platit armatorului pentru punerea la dispozitia navlositorului a intregii
capacitati de incarcare a navei
1
Produsul dintre capacitatea de incarcare a navei si navlul pe tona
0
Navlul platit armatorului daca nu se incarca toata cantitatea de marfa mentionata in
contract 0
989 Navlul mort reprezinta:
Despagubirea pe care o primeste armatorul pentru capacitatea de transport
neutilizata 0
Contravaloarea navlului pentru spatiul mort ocupat de o marfa la bordul unei nave
0
Despagubirea pe care o primeste armatorul pentru neincarcarea de catre navlositor
a cantitatii minime de marfa mentionata in contract
1
228
990 Navlul poate fi stabilit ca:
Suma de bani pe tona sau metru cub
1
Suma de bani pe zi platita armatorului
0
Suma de bani pe deplasament pe luna
0

991 Navlul poate fi stabilit ca:


Suma de bani globala indiferent de cantitatea de marfa incarcata de navlositor
1
Suma de bani pe numarul de magazii puse la dispozitie
0
Suma de bani dependenta de mai multi factor variabili
0

992 Notice of Readiness poate fi transmis:


Doar in prima zi a L/C
0
La orice ora din zi sau noapte si in orice zi nava poate fi pusa la dispozitia
navlositorului 1
Doar in prima zi a L/C daca acesta nu este o zi de sarbatoare
0

993 O cambie este:


Cambia sau tratat reprezinta un titlu de credit autonom prin care o persoana
denumita tragator da ordin altei persoane denumita tras sa plateasca neconditionat
la o anumita data denumita scadenta ,o anumita suma de bani
1
Cambia este un titlu de credit reprezentativ a carui valoare este inscrisa in
continutul ei 0
Cambia este un document prin care incas-oul documentar poate fi utilizat in platile
internationale0
994 O nava a incarcat 4000 tone de marfa pe baza expresiei 1000metric tons per
weather working days SSHEX EIU (timpul de vineri de la ora 17 pana luni la ora
08.00 nu va conta ca stalii chiar daca este utilizat), contrastaliile au fost stabilite la
nivelul de 4000 USD pe zi sau pro rata si despatch-ul jumatate din contrastalii
pentru timpul de lucru salvat. Staliile expira luni la ora 14.00 si daca operatiunile de
incarcare se finalizeaza sambata la ora 18.00, atunci suma pe care armatorul
trebuie sa o plateasca navlositorului este:
3666.66 USD
1
1000 USD 0
5750 USD 0

995 O nava aflata intr-un contract de bareboat este angajata intr-un contract de
navlosire pe timp unui navlositor care la randul sau angajeaza nava intr-un contract
de navlosire pe voiaj. Cine este responsabil pentru a mentine nava in buna stare de
navigabilitate:
Armatorul navei 0

229
Navlositorul din contractul de bareboat
1
Navlositorul din contractul de navlosire pe timp
0

996 O nava care efectueaza operatiuni de incarcare in 2 porturi, datorita spatiului


limitat, este nevoita sa incarce in aceeasi magazie ceapa si ciocolata si datorita
mirosului de ceapa, ciocolata ajunge avariata la destinatie. Navlositorul considera
ca nava nu se afla in buna stare de navigabilitate la inceputul voiajului. Dupa o
scurta analiza a istoricului operatiunilor de incarcare se poate spune:
Nava nu se afla in buna stare de navigabilitate daca ceapa s-a incarcat in primul
port iar ciocolata in cel de-al doilea port
1
Nava nu se afla in buna stare de navigabilitate daca ciocolata s-a incarcat in primul
port si ceapa in cel de-al doilea port
0
Nava se afla in buna stare de navigabilitate in orice imprejurare deoarece buna
stare de navigabilitate nu se refera la compatibilitatea marfurilor
0

997 O nava cu 3 magazii si 5 guri de magazie (magaziile 2 si 3 au cate 2 guri de


magazie) are de incarcat 15000 de tone si dupa finalizarea operatiunilor de
incarcare nava a incarcat astfel: H1:4000tone; H2:5800tone; H3:5200tone. Care
este tipul de stalii in portul de incarcare daca rata de incarcare a fost stabilita la 500
tone per working hatch per weather working day?
6 zile 0
5 zile 19 ore 12 minute
1
11 zile 14 ore 24 minute
0

998 O nava cu 3 magazii si 5 guri de magazie (magaziile 2 si 3 au cate 2 guri de


magazie) are de incarcat 15000 de tone si dupa finalizarea operatiunilor de
incarcare nava a incarcat astfel: magazia 1: 4000 tone; magazia 2: 5800 tone;
magazia 3: 5200 tone. Care este timpul de stalii in portul de incarcare daca rata de
incarcare a fost stabilita de 400 tone per hatch per weather working day?
7 zile 6 ore 0
7 zile 12 ore 1
14 zile 12 ore
0

999 O nava cu 3 magazii si 5 guri de magazie (magaziile 2 si 3 au cite 2 guri de


magazie) a incarcat 10000 tone de marfa si la finalizarea operatiunilor de incarcare
a incarcat astfel H1: 2500 tone H2: 4400 tone H3: 4100 tone. Care este timpul de
stalii in portul de incarcare daca rata de incarcare a fost stabilita la 300 tone per
hatch per day?
6 zile 16 ore 1
7 zile 8 ore 0

230
6 zile 8 ore 0

1000 O nava cu o capacitate de incarcare de 10,800tdw este angajata pe baza


expresiei "10,000mts 5pct molchop". In aceste conditii navlositorul a indeplinit
obligatia contractuala daca nava la finalizarea incarcarii avea la bord:
9000 tone 0
9600 tone 1
9200 tone 0

1001 O nava cu o capacitate de incarcare de 10,800tdw este angajata pe baza


expresiei "10,000mts 5pct moloo". In aceste conditii navlositorul s-a indeplinit
obligatia contractuala daca nava la finalizarea incarcarii avea la bord:
10.500 tone 1
9600 tone 0
10,000 tone 0

1002 O nava cu o capacitate de incarcare de 10,800tdw este angajata pe baza


expresiei "min/max 10,000/11000 mts". In aceste conditii navlositorul a indeplinit
obligatia contractuala daca nava la finalizarea incarcarii avea la bord:
10800 tone 1
10200 tone 0
10,600 tone 0

1003 O nava este angajata a incarca o marfa din portul Galati si datorita congestiei
din port este obligata sa ancoreze in rada Sulina. In aceste conditii nava este
considerata sosita:
In momentul in care ancoreaza la Sulina
1
In momentul in care ajunge la dana de incarcare in portul Galatzi
0
In momentul in care ajunge in rada portului Galati
0
1004 O nava este angajata pentru a incarca o marfa de la dana 35 din portul
Constanta. De asemenea in contract se mentioneaza ca nava este considerata ca
fiind nava sosita weather in berth or not. In aceste conditii nava este considerata ca
fiind o nava sosita:
In momentul in care ajunge in limitele legale, administrative si fiscale ale portului
Constanta 1
In momentul in care ancoreaza in rada Portului Constanta
0
In momentul in care nava este acostata la dana 35 din Portul Constanta
0

1005 O nava este angajata pentru a incarca o marfa de la dana 35 din portul
Constanta. In aceste conditii nava este considerata ca fiind o nava sosita:
In momentul in care ajunge in limitele legale, administrative si fiscale ale portului
Constanta 0
231
In momentul in care ancoreaza in rada Portului Constanta
0
In momentul in care nava este acostata la dana 35 din Portul Constanta
1

1006 O nava fara marfuri la bord, pentru a evita scufundarea, se pune pe uscat. In
aceste conditii
aveam de-a face cu o avarie comuna deoarece actul a fost intentionat
0
nu avem de-a face cu o avarie comuna deoarece nu au existat mai multi participanti
la expeditia maritima
1
nu se poate stabili din aceste date daca este sau nu un caz de avarie comuna
deoarece nu stim ce alte persoane mai aveau interes in finalizarea expeditiei
maritime 0
avem de-a face cu o salvare deoarece nava s-a salvat de la scufundare
0

1007 O nava poate inainta NOR in portul de incarcare daca:


Are de efectuat reparatii la capacele magaziei numarul 2
0
Are de efectuat reparatii in compartimentul masina
1
Are de efectuat reparatii in magazii
0

1008 O nava transporta pe punte tevi metalice si in timpul unei furtuni, pentru a
evita scufundarea navei, comandantul decide sa arunce o parte din aceste tevi
peste bord. In acest caz:

proprietarul tevilor este indreptatit sa fie despagubit in cadrul avariei comune


0
proprietarul tevilor nu va primi nici o despagubire in cadrul avariei comune
deoarece aceasta marfa nu se transporta in mod uzual pe punte
1
aceste marfuri pot fi aruncate peste bord in orice imprejurare deoarece ele nu se
incarca in mod uzual pe punte
0
proprietarul marfurilor nici nu contribuie la avaria comuna nici nu este despagubit
0

1009 Pe masura ce capacitatea navei creste si exista mijloace moderne de operare


in porturi:
costul unitar pe tona de marfa transportata creste
0
costul unitar pe tona de marfa transportata scade
1
costul unitar pe tona de marfa transportata se mentine constant 0
costul unitar pe tona de marfa transportata nu este dependent de marimea navei
0

1010 Pentru ca o nava sa fie off-hire intr-un contract de navlosire pe timp:


232
este suficient sa considere navlositorul ca nava respectiva subperformeaza
0
este necesar a se obtine o decizie a unei instante sau a unei curti de arbitraj
0
este necesar ca motivele pentru care nava este off-hire sa fie continute intr-o clauza
speciala 1
este nevoie ca armatorul ca fie de acord cu reclamatia navlositorului
0

1011 Pentru o nava in "time charter" subordonarea comandantului din punct de


vedere comercial se limiteaza la:
Cele inscrise in contract
1
Aspectul legal al calatoriei
0
Nu se limiteaza la nici o prevedere
0

1012 Pentru un armator este indicat sa incheie un contract de navlosire pe timp


daca :
se estimeaza ca navlurile vor creste
0
se estimeaza ca navlurile ramin constante
0
se estimeaza ca navlurile vor scadea
1
nu se poate estima evolutia navlurilor
0

1013 Perioada de timp utilizata pentru incarcare sau descarcare inainte de


momentul in care incep staliile:
Se conteaza ca stalii indiferent de prevederile contractului de navlosire
0
Nu se conteaza ca stalii indiferent de prevederile contractului de navlosire
0
Se conteaza ca stalii doar daca exista o prevedere contractuala in acest sens
1

1014 Perioada de timp utilizata pentru incarcare sau descarcare inainte de


momentul in care incep staliile:
Se conteaza ca stalii indiferent de prevederile contractului de navlosire
0
Nu se conteaza ca timp de stalii indiferent de prevederile contractului de navlosire
0
Se conteaza ca stalii doar daca exista o prevedere contractuala in acest sens
1

1015 Piata transportului de marfuri in vrac este o piata caracterizata de:

233
monopolul armatorilor
0
monopolul navlositorilor 0
oligopol
0
concurenta perfecta
1

1016 Prin avarie particulara se intelege


Orice avarie produsa la bordul navei in scopul salvarii navei si/sau echipajului.
0
Avaria care are loc in imprejurari de forta majora avind ca efect distrugerea
marfurilor. 0
Orice avarie care nu este avarie comuna si are loc in imprejurari fortuite, avind
drept cauza forta majora.
1

1017 Prin folosirea expresiei "Unless Used"


Timpul lucrat in conditii de vreme nefavorabila se va conta ca stalii
0
Timpul lucrat inainte de inceperea staliilor nu se va conta ca stalii
0
Timpul efectiv lucrat in zilele exceptate se va conta ca stalii, daca staliile au inceput
1

1018 Prin includerea in contractul de navlosire a expresiei "freight deemed earned


discountless and non returnable on signing bills of lading vessel and or cargo lost or
not lost"
Se plateste navlul chiar daca nava se pierde imediat dupa incarcare dar inainte de
semnarea conosamentelor
0
Se plateste navlul chiar daca nava se pierde dupa ce conosamentele au fost
eliberate 1
Se plateste navlul doar daca nava a ajuns in portul de destinatie si este gata de
livrare 0

1019 Prin includerea in contractul de navlosire a expresiei ”freight deemed earned


discountless and non returnable on signing bills of lading vessel and or cargo lost or
not lost”
se plateste navlul chiar daca nava se pierde imediat dupa incarcare dar inainte de
semnarea conosamentelor
0
se plateste navlul chiar daca nava se pierde dupa ce conosamentele au fost
semnate 1
se plateste navlul doar daca nava a ajuns in portul de destinatie si este gata de
livrare 0
se plateste navlul indiferent de ce se intampla cu nava si indiferent cind se intimpla
0

1020 Prin mentionarea in contract a contrastaliilor:


234
Sunt satisfacute doar interesele navlositorului care poate finaliza operatiunile de
incarcare chiar daca a depasit perioada de timp alocata prin contract
0
Sunt satisfacute doar interesele armatorului care primeste o despagubire pentru
retinerea navei peste perioada de timp alocata prin contract
0
Sunt satisfacute atat interesele armatorului cat si ale navlositorului deoarece
armatorul primeste o despagubire, iar navlositorul finalizeaza operatiunile de
incarcare sau descarcare 1

1021 Prin notiunea de "back freight" se intelege:


Totalitatea sumelor de bani pe care armatorul le poate solicita de la navlositor in
situatia in care nu reuseste sa gaseasca marfa pentru voiajul de intoarcere
0

Totalitatea cheltuielilor efectuate de armator pentru a proteja marfurile, daca nava


nu poate livra marfurile datorita unui pericol exceptat sau din vina navlositorului si
navlositorul nu transmite instructiuni cu privire la livrarea marfurilor
1

Totalitatea cheltuielilor pe care armatorul le efectueaza cu marfa atunci cand este


nevoit sa puna sechestru pe marfuri datorita faptului ca navlositorul nu si-a
indeplinit o obligatie contractuala 0
1022 Prin stalii se intelege:
Perioada de timp alocata prin contractul de navlosire reprezentantilor navlositorului
pentru a efectua operatiunile de incarcare si/sau descarcare pentru care nu se
plateste nici o suma peste nivelul navlului din contract
1

Perioada de timp alocata prin contractul de navlosire reprezentantilor navlositorului


pentru a efectua operatiunile de incarcare si/sau descarcare pentru care se plateste
o suma de bani proportionala cu durata acestora
0

Reprezinta perioada de timp cat alocata prin contractul de navlosire armatorului


pentru a finaliza operatiunile de incarcare si sau descarcare si pentru care el nu
plateste penalitati 0

1023 Regulile INCOTERMS au fost elaborate de:


BIMCO cu sediul la COPENHAGA
0
IMO cu sediul la LONDRA 0
Camera de Comert International de la PARIS
1

1024 Regulile INCOTERMS reglementeaza:


Conditiile pe care sa le indeplineasca partile contractante in vederea
acceptarii/realizarii unui contract international de vanzare
0
235
Obligatiile amanuntite ale vanzatorului/cumparatorului pentru livrarea marfurilor
contractate, a termenilor de livrare si a conditiilor calitative si cantitative ale livrarii
1
Costul marfurilor in conditiile de livrare la poarta fabricii pana la poarta
cumparatorului 0

1025 Regulile York-Anvers 1994 sunt formate din:


Regula de interpretare, regula Paramount, regulile literale A-G avand caracter de
principii generale, regulile numerice I-XXII referitoare la cazuri practice de avarie
comuna 1
Regula de interpretare, regulile literale A-G avand caracter de principii generale,
regulile numerice I-XXII referitoare la cazuri practice de avarie comuna
0
Regula de interpretare, regulile numerice I-XXII avand caracter de principii generale,
regulile literale A-G referitoare la cazuri practice de avarie comuna
0

1026 Remarcile facute in timpul incarcarii pe ordinul de incarcare se pot transfera


pe conosament?
Toate remarcile de pe ordinul de incarcare referitoare la marfa si/sau ambalajul
marfii se vor transfera pe conosament
1
Unele remarci nu se transfera
0
In cazul ca incarcatura garanteaza pentru marfa printr-o scrisoare de garantie
acoperita de o banca, remarcile nu se mai transfera pe conosamente
0

1027 Scrisorile de garantie pentru descarcarea marfurilor, fara prezentarea


conosamentelor originale: sunt considerate o practica fraudulenta si nu trebuie
niciodata acceptate de catre armator 0

sunt considerate o solutie comerciala acceptabila in cele mai multe situatii, daca
marfa se descarca in custodia vamii sau a unui agent al armatorului
1

se pot accepta doar daca sunt contrasemnate de catre reprezentatii primitorului


0

de obicei scrisorile de garantie se folosesc doar pentru semnarea conosamentelor


fara remarci, nu si pentru eliberarea marfurilor fara prezentarea conosamentului
original 0

1028 Scrisorile de garantie pentru semnarea conosamentelor fara remarci:


236
pot fi acceptate de catre comandant daca este vorba de un navlositor mare, cu care
armatorul are contracte regulate
0

nu trebuie acceptate niciodata de catre comandant deoarece ele constituie o


practica fraudulenta1

pot fi acceptate intotdeauna deoarece astfel armatorul este exonerat de raspundere


pentru orice litigiu ce poate sa apara din aceasta cauza
0
se pot accepta scrisori de garantie doar pentru neinscrierea in Mate's Receipt a
remarcilor 0

1029 Statement of Facts este documentul ce se intocmeste de catre:

Capitanul secund al navei si este contrasemnat de catre stivatori


0
Agentul navei si este contrasemnat de catre armator si navlositor
0
Agentul navei si este contrasemnat de comandantul navei si companiile de stivatori
ca prepusi ai incarcatorilor/primitorilor
1

1030 Sunteti comandantul unei nave aflata in pericol de scufundare si in urma


transmiterii unui mesaj SOS singura nava care va ofera ajutorul solicita o prima de
salvare foarte mare. In aceste conditii:

acceptati serviciul oferit de salvatori, deoarece nivelul primei de salvare va fi stabilit


de instanta 1

incercati sa continuati negocierile si numai daca ajungeti la o suma acceptabila


puteti accepta serviciul de salvare
0

il informati pe armator despre acest lucru si numai daca armatorul isi da acordul
puteti accepta serviciul de salvare
0
nu acceptati oferta si asteptati pina raspunde urmatoarea nava
0

1031 Un armator isi plateste echipajul in Euro si incheie un contract de navlosire in


care se prevade ca navlul se plateste in dolari. In care din urmatoarele situatii
considerati ca este indicat pentru armator sa introduca o clauza valutara:
Se estimeaza ca euro va creste in raport cu dolarul
0
Se estimeaza ca euro va scadea in raport cu dolarul
1
Se estimeaza ca intre euro si dolar se va mentine aproximativ acelasi raport de
schimb 0
237
1032 Un contract de navlosire pe timp pentru un singur voiaj este cunoscut sub
denumirea de:
Round Trip Charter 0
Trip Charter 1
Time Charter for one voyage
0
One Trip Charter 0

1033 Una din navele apartinind aceleiasi companii de navigatie solicita ajutorul
navei pe care o comandati pentru a efectua transbordul unei piese de schimb, ce nu
poate fi transbordata decit prin apropierea navelor una de alta. In aceste conditii:

este bine sa ajutati nava in cauza deoarece astfel reduceti o serie de cheltuieli
suplimentare pentru companie
0

este mai bine sa asteptati instructiunile scrise ale navlositorului in acest sens
0

este interzis a efectua astfel de operatiuni fara acordul asiguratorului deoarece


asigurarea navei poate fi anulata
1

este permis a se efectua astfel de operatiuni deoarece riscuri suplimenatre pentru


armator si implicit pentru asigurator sunt minore si normale
0

1034 Unde a avut loc Conventia Internationala referitoare la cerintele pe care


trebuie sa le indeplineasca paiolul din lemn al unui container?
LONDRA 0
MELBOURNE 1
HAGA 0

1035 Unde a avut loc CONVENTIA INTERNATIONALA REFERITOARE LA


TRANSPORTUL MULTIMODAL?
COPENHAGA/1990 0
LONDRA/1975
0
GENEVA/1980
1

1036 Unde se depune un protest de mare?


La Capitania portului de inmatriculare a navei
0
La autoritatea competenta din primul port de escala dupa producerea
evenimentului 1
238
La autoritatea competenta cea mai apropiata de locul producerii evenimentului
0

1037 Unde si cand se pot tranzactiona conosamentele?


Conosamentele nu se pot tranzactiona, detinatorul legal al conosamentului fiind
proprietarul marfurilor
0
Conosamentele se pot tranzactiona dupa ce au fost semnate, tranzactiile
desfasurandu-se prin negocieri directe
0
Pe piata de valori mobiliare cand sunt intocmite la ordin
1

1038 Valoarea de despagubire pentru o nava ce naviga din Constanta in India


pentru dezmembrare si care se scufunda este:
valoarea de piata a navei la momentul scufundarii
0
valoarea de fier vechi a navei
1
valoarea de piata a navei inainte de scufundare
0
suma inscrisa in polita de asigurare
0

1039 Andosarea unui conosament se poate face:


in alb 1
in gol 0
in plin 1
in gri 0

1040 Armatorul este indreptatit sa primeasca navlu fara deduceri daca


marfurile sosesc la destinatie usor avariate
1
atat de avariate incat s-au pierdut calitatea de bunuri comerciale
0
doar o parte din marfuri sosesc la destinatie
0
doar o parte din marfuri sosesc la destinatie si nava a fost angajata pentru navlu
lumpsum 1

1041 Atunci cind se vorbeste despre " starea si conditia aparenta" a marfurilor
se are in vedere calitatea marfurilor
0
se are invedere si ambalajul marfii
1
se are in vedere aspectul exterior al marfii
1
se are in vedere atit aspectul exterior al marfii cit si continutul coletelor
0
239
1042 Care din urmatoarele clauze pot fi considerate ca fiind subintelese intr-un
contract de navlosire pe voiaj?
Clauza referitoare la plata navlului
0
clauza referitoare la buna stare de navigabilitate
1
clauza referitoare la devierea navei de la ruta uzuala de navigatie
1
clauza referitoare la nominarea porturilor de descarcare
0

1043 Care din urmatoarele obligatii ale armatorului pot fi considerate ca fiind
subintelese intr-un contract de navlosire:
obligatia de a prezenta nava in timp util in portul de incarcare
0
obligatia de a depune diligenta cuvenita pentru a pune la dispozitia navlositorului o
nava in buna stare de navigabilitate
1
obligata de a acorda grija cuvenita marfurilor pe toata perioada cat acestea se afla
in custodia sa 1
obligatia de a efectua voiajul intr-o perioada de timp rezonabila
1

1044 Care din urmatoarele riscuri formeaza obiectul asigurarii P&I:


amenzi
1
responsabilitati fata de marfa
1
pierderea navei
0
fransizele avariei particulare
1

1045 Care dintre urmatoarele lucruri trebuie sa le faca un comandant care


considera ca nava sa este apta de a incarca o anumita marfa si cu toate acestea ea
este refuzata in mod nejustificat de mai multe ori de surveyor:
Sa curete magaziile de atatea ori de cate spune surveyor-ul
0
Sa aiba in vedere ca actioneaza doar in numele armatorului si sa incerce sa-l apere
cit de mult poate1
Sa inainteze o scrisoare de protest navlositorului
1

1046 Care dintre urmatoarele modalitati de stabilire a staliilor se incadreaza in


categoria staliilor determinabile?
4000 metric tons per day 1
8 running days
0
240
1000 metric tons per hatch per day
1

1047 Care dintre urmatoarele particularitati poate fi considerata ca fiind o


particularitate a transportului maritim de linie
armatorii sunt obligati sa accepte spre incarcare toate marfurile ce satisfac
conditiile minimale cu privire la cantitate si volum
1
nivelul tarifelor de transport fluctueaza frecvent in functie evolutia pietei navlurilor
0
cheltuielile de incarcare si descarcare sunt incluse in pretul de transport
1
pentru procurarea marfurilor folosesc brokeri
0

1048 Care sunt documentele mentionate in contractul de vinzare/cumparare


internationala, ce implica transport maritim, care stabilesc cantitatea de marfa
expediata?
Scrisoarea de trasura maritima - seaway bill
1
Conosamentul
1
Chitanta maritima 0
Factura comerciala 0

1049 Care sunt factorii care pot influenta valoarea navlului?


Durata staliilor si clauzele de intrerupere a curgerii staliilor
1
Distanta dintre porturi
1
Gradul de dotare al navei 0

1050 Care sunt functiile principale ale marcajului unei marfi?


Identificare 1
Propaganda comerciala
1
Operativitate in manipularea marfurilor in timpul transportului, propaganda
comerciala 1
1051 Ce factori pot influenta valoarea navlului?
Zona geografica in care naviga nava
1
Situatia meteorologica din zona de navigatie
1
Asigurarea CASCO si/sau P&I
0

1052 Ce se intelege prin "despatch"?


Timpul economisit de catre navlositor in operarea navei si suma de bani platita de
catre armator navlositorului ca prima pentru finalizarea operatiunilor de incarcare
sau descarcare intr-o perioada de timp mai redusa decat cea alocata prin contract
1

241
Timpul economisit de catre armator in operarea navei si suma de bani platita de
catre navlositor armatorului ca prima pentru finalizarea operatiunilor de incarcare
sau descarcare intr-o perioada de timp mai redusa decat cea alocata prin contract
0

Suma de bani platita ca prima de catre armatori navlositorului pentru finalizarea


operatiunilor de incarcare sau descarcare intr-o perioada de timp mai redusa decat
cea alocata prin contract 1

1053 Ce se intelege prin cuvantul "contrastalii"?


Perioada de timp folosita pentru finalizarea operatiunilor de incarcare sau
descarcare dupa expirarea staliilor/suma de bani pe care navlositorul agreeaza sa o
plateasca armatorului pentru perioada de timp folosita pentru incarcare sau
descarcare peste termenul alocat in mod gratuit prin contractul de navlosire
1

Perioada de timp folosita pentru finalizarea operatiunilor de incarcare sau


descarcare dupa expirarea staliilor
0

Suma de bani pe care navlositorul agreeaza sa o plateasca armatorului pentru


perioada de timp folosita pentru incarcare sau descarcare peste termenul alocat in
mod gratuit prin contractul de navlosire1
1054 Ce semnifica caracterul oneros al contractului comercial de vanzare
internationala?
Cumparatorul se obliga sa plateasca pentru marfa pretul stabilit
1
Vanzatorul se obliga sa puna la dispozitie marfa conform intelegerii
0
Cumparatorul se obliga sa incarce marfa pe nava
1

1055 Ce semnifica expresia "Dreptul de retentie al carausului" (CARIER'S LIEN)?


Retinerea de catre caraus a marfurilor de la bord pina la plata sumelor stabilite in
caz de avarie comuna.
1
Dreptul de retinere in posesia sa a bunurilor, pina la plata navlului scadent.
1
Dreptul navlositorului pentru retinerea navei pentru avarii produse de marfurilor
transportate. 0

1056 Clauzele de reziliere a contractelor datorita razboiului se utilizeaza in


urmatoarele contracte de navlosire:
contractele de navlosire pe voiaj
0
contractele de navlosire pe timp 1
contractele de bareboat
1
contractele de navlosire pe voiaje consecutive
1

242
1057 Conform princiului maximei bune credinte, din cadrul asigurarilor maritime un
asigurator poate

accepta asigurarea unei marfi chiar daca marfa a ajuns cu bine la destinatie
0
se poate efectua asigurarea unui obiect chiar daca la momentul asigurarii se
cunoaste ca obiectul respectiv s-a pierdut
0
daca maxima buna credinta nu este observata la una dintre parti contractul poate fi
anulat 1
toate faptele relevante pentru riscul asumat trebuie sa fie anuntate asiguratorilor
inainte de inceperea intocmirii politei
1

1058 Contrastaliile se conteaza:


In mod continuu din momentul expirarii staliilor pana la finalizarea operatiunilor de
incarcare sau descarcare
1
Fara a se tine seama de zilele de sarbatoare sau de cele in care vremea este
nefavorabila 1
Tinandu-se cont de zilele de sarbatoare si de cele in care vremea nefavorabila
impiedica operatiunile de incarcare
0

1059 Daca o nava angajata pe baza expresiei "1000 metric tons per working day
weather permitting SSHEX" transmite corect NOR la ancorare si apoi asteapta o
anumita perioada de timp in rada inainte de a intra in port atunci:
Perioadele de timp petrecute in rada portului in care ploua se conteaza ca stalii
1
Perioadele de timp petrecute in port, cu suficienta marfa la cheu, in care nu se
lucreaza pentru ca ploua se conteaza ca stalii
0
Perioadele de timp, in care nava nu lucreaza datorita faptului ca instalatiile de cheu
nu functioneaza si in care ploua se conteaza ca stalii
1

1060 Evaluarea nivelului primei de asigurare H&M pentru o nava se face in functie
de urmatoarele elemenete distincte:
elementul de pierdere totala
1
elementul de pierdere totala prin interpretare
0
elementul de avarie comuna
0
elementul de avarie particulara
1

1061 In care din urmatoarele situatii o nava nu este considerata a fi in buna stare
de navigabilitate?
Nava este inclinata 10 grade spre babord la plecarea din portul de incarcare
1
243
nava nu are capitan secund la plecarea din portul de incarcare si aceasta functie
este solicitata prin Safe Manning Certificate
1
pe parcursul voiajului unul dintre marinari lasa din neglijenta o lampa aprinsa in
magazia navei 2 a navei si o parte din marfa este avariata
0
la plecarea din portul de bunkerare nava are probleme tehnice ce pot afecta
siguranta navei 1

1062 In care din urmatoarele situatii se poate considera ca este vorba de pierdere
totala prin interpretare (Constructive Total Loss):
nava este abandonata deoarece pierderea totala reala pare inevitabila
1
nava nu poate fi salvata de la o pierdere totala reala fara cheltuieli care ar depasi
valoarea ei de asigurare sau in cazul in care aceasta este subevaluata, valoarea ei
comerciala. 1
atunci cind nava necesita reparatii destul de mari si asiguratorii nu vor sa le
platesca 0
atunci cand nava este atat de avariata incat costul reparatiilor ar depasi valoarea
navei dupa reparatie1

1063 In cazul Cluburilor P& I


protectia oferita este mutuala, in sensul ca fiecare armator este in acelasi timp si
asigurator si asigurat1
protectia oferita este similara cu cea oferita de o societate de asigurare, iar
armatorul plateste o prima de asigurare in schimbul careia este despagubit
0
momentul de incepere al anului politei este mereu acelasi 20 Februarie, ora 12.00
GMT 1
momentul de incepere al anului politei este mereu acelasi 1 Ianuarie, ora 0.00 GMT
0

1064 In cazul unei nave aflata intr-un contract de navlosire pe timp se considera
ca nava este off-hire daca:
nava intra la adapost in cazul conditiilor meteorologice nefavorabile (vint forta 10,
mare extrem de agitata)
0
nava nu are instalatiile de incarcare in buna stare de functionare si conform
contractului trebuie sa le foloseasca
1
nava nu are la bord sef mecanic atunci cind navlositorul ordona navei sa paraseasca
portul respectiv1
nava efectueaza reparatii la motorul principal pe durata operatiunilor de incarcare
0

1065 In cazul unui contract de navlosire ce nu exclude in mod expres marfurile


periculoase armatorul le poate refuza daca:
Masurile de siguranta ce trebuiesc luate conduc la cheltuieli mari
1
Echipajul refuza incarcarea lor
0
244
Este imposibil de efectuat transportul acestor marfuri in siguranta
1
1066 In cele mai multe polite de asigurare asigurarea CASCO a navei se considera
anulata daca:
nava transporta droguri
1
nava efectueaza operatiuni ce pot fi asimilate pirateriei
1
nava efectuaza transporturi fara a avea incheiate contracte de navlosire
0
nava nu este in buna stare de navigabilitate la inceputul calatoriei
1

1067 In mod normal asiguratorul nu este responsabil pentru:


uzura normala a obiectului asigurat
1
pierderile si scurgerile accidentale ale marfi asigurate
1
pierderile cauzate de pericole maritime
0
pierderile generate de viciul ascus sau de natura obicetului asigurat
0

1068 In momentul livrarii si relivrarii navei intr-un contract de navlosire pe timp se


determina cantitatea de combustibil de la bord deoarece:
este necesar a se determina daca nava poate ajunge pina in urmatorul port cu
cantitatea de combustibil de la bord
0
este bine de stiut inaintea inceperii si la sfirsitul voiajului ce cantitati de combustibil
are nava la bord0
nava trebuie relivrata cu aproximativ aceeasi cantitate de combustibil ca la livrare
1
combustibilul folosit pe durata contractului de navlosire pe timp este platit de
navlositor 1

1069 Marimea primei de salvare depinde de:


gradul de pericol suportat de nava salvatoare
1
valoarea proprietatii salvate
1
pierderea, daca exista, pe care a suferit-o salvatorul
1
vechimea navei salvatoare
0

1070 O nava cu capacitatea de incarcare de 35,000 tone de marfa a incarcat


32.500 tone. Comandantul trebuie sa transmita incarcatorilor o scrisoare de navlu
mort daca nava este angajata pe baza expresiei:
32,000 metric tone 5 percent more or less in owners option
1
34,000 metric tons 5 percent more or less in charterers option
0
245
min/max 33,000 metric tons
1
min/max 32,000/33,000 metric tons
1

1071 O nava cu marfuri la bord, inclusiv 5 containere pe punte intra in coliziune cu


un tanc petrolier. In timpul coliziunii 2 containere cad in apa si se avariaza marfa din
magazia 1. Pentru a evita scufundarea navei comandantul decide sa puna nava pe
uscat si in timpul acestei manevre se arunca peste bord inca un container si se
pierde ancora din babord. Dupa punerea navei pe uscat se fac reparatii temporare
la nava si aceasta pleaca catre un port de refugiu unde este andocata. In aceste
conditii urmatoarele pagube si cheltuieli sunt incluse in avaria comuna:

cele 2 containere cazute peste bord


0
avariile provocate la marfa din magazia 1
0
reparatiile temporare
1
pierderea ancorei 1

1072 Prin expresia "lawful merchandise" se poate intelege:

Ca nava va incarca o marfa fara a incalca legislatia din portul de incarcare si din
portul de descarcare1
Ca nava va incarca o marfa ce va fi transportata fara a incalca legislatia statului al
carui pavilion il poarta
1
Ca nava va incarca o marfa ce respecta toate tratatele internationale
0

1073 Prin expresia ”lawful merchandise” se poate intelege:


ca nava va incarca o marfa fara a incalca legislatia din portul de incarcare, din
portul de descarcare si eventual a statului al carui pavilion il poarta
1
ca nava va incarca o marfa ce va fi descarcata fara a incalca doar legislatia din
portul de descarcare0
ca nava poate transporta armament si munitie daca ele nu sunt in mod expres
excluse prin contract1
ca nava va incarca o marfa ce respecta toate tratatele internationale
0

1074 Regula generala in transportul maritim este aceea ca marfurile se transporta


sub punte. Exceptii fiind:
Exista o prevedere expresa in contractul de navlosire ce permite armatorului
incarcarea marfurilor pe punte
1
Marfurile respective se transporta in mod uzual pe punte
1
Nava poate transporta prin constructie marfuri pe punte
1
246
Transportul containerelor 1

1075 Regulile de la Haga-Visby nu se aplica tuturor transporturilor pe mare ci doar


in situatia:
Conosamentul este emis intr-o tara care a ratificat regulile
1
Nava poarta pavilionul unei tari care a ratificat regulile
0
In documentul de transport este incorporata Clauza Paramount
1
incarcarea s-a efectuat intr-o tara care a ratificat regulile
1

1076 Banca nu accepta plata unui conosament care se prezinta la incasare mai
tarziu de :
12 zile dupa emitere
0
20 de zile dupa emitere
0
21 de zile dupa emitere
1

1077 Bancile accepta la plata conosamentele care mentioneaza ca "navlul a fost


platit anticipat" ?
Nu 0
Nu, fara acordul primitorului marfii
0
Da 1

1078 Bancile accepta la plata un conosament care are inscris un alt loc de preluare
a marfurilor decat portul de incarcare ?
Nu 0
Da 1
Da,dar numai cu acordul carausului
0

1079 Bancile accepta la plata un conosament care are mentionat ca expeditor o


alta persoana decat beneficiarul acreditivului ?
Da 1
Nu 0
Da, cu acordul navlositorului
0

1080 Bancile accepta la plata un conosament care are o data de emitere


posterioara datei de valabilitate stipulata in acreditiv ?
Nu 1
Da, cu acordul carausului 0
Da 0

1081 Ce inseamna "conosament" conform Regulilor de la Hamburg 1978?


247
Un document care face dovada unui contract de transport si a preluarii sau
incarcarii marfurilor 0
Un document care face dovada unui contract de transport pe mare si a preluarii sau
incarcarii marfurilor de catre caraus, prin care carausul se obliga sa livreze marfurile
contra prezentarii acestui document1
Un document care face dovada unui contract de transport si a preluarii sau
incarcarii marfurilor de catre caraus, prin care carausul se obliga sa livreze marfurile
0

1082 Ce reguli considera conosamentul un document care face dovada " unui
contract de transport pe mare si a preluarii sau incarcarii marfurilor de catre caraus
Regulile de la Haga 0
Regulile York-Anvers
0
Regulile de la Hamburg
1

1083 Ce semnificatie are termenul "caraus" conform Regulilor de la Hamburg


1978?
Orice persoana care,sau in numele careia a incheiat un contract de transport de
marfuri pe mare cu un incarcator
1
Orice persoana care,sau in numele careia a incheiat un contract de transport de
marfuri cu un incarcator
0
Orice persoana care,sau in numele careia a incheiat un contract de transport de
marfuri 0

1084 Conform Regulilor de la Hamburg este obligatorie inserarea numarului de


conosamente originale?
Da 1
Nu se prevede expres
0
Nu 0

1085 Conform Regulilor de la Hamburg este obligatorie mentionarea in


conosament a datei sau perioadei de livrare a marfurilor ?
Nu 0
Nu se prevede expres
0
Da, daca aceasta a fost expres agreata de catre parti.
1

1086 Conform Regulilor de la Hamburg este obligatorie mentionarea in


conosament a destinatarului marfurilor ?

248
Nu se prevede expres
0
Nu 0
Da, daca este numit de incarcator.
1

1087 Conform Regulilor de la Hamburg este obligatorie mentionarea in


conosament a marcajului marfurilor ?
Da 1
Nu 0
Nu se prevede expres
0

1088 Conform Regulilor de la Hamburg este obligatorie mentionarea in


conosament a modalitatii de plata a navlului ?
Nu 0
Nu se prevede expres
0
Da 1

1089 Conform Regulilor de la Hamburg este obligatorie mentionarea in


conosament a numarului de conosamente originale?
Nu 0
Nu se prevede expres
0
Da 1

1090 Conform Regulilor de la Hamburg este obligatorie mentionarea in


conosament a starii aparente a marfurilor?
Da 1
Nu 0
Nu se prevede expres
0

1091 Conform Regulilor de la Hamburg intr-un conosament este obligatorie


inserarea locului de emitere a acestuia?
Nu 0
Da 1
Nu se prevede expres
0

1092 Conform Regulilor de la Hamburg raspunderea carausului pentru marfurile


transportate pe punte este similara cu raspunderea pentru marfurile incarcate sub
punte, daca:
este prevazut expres in contractul de transport si inscris in conosament.
1
este prevazut expres in cargo-plan si semnat de capitanul secund.
0
este prevazut in contractul de transport si agreat de caraus.
0

249
1093 Conform Regulilor de la Hamburg, actiunile indreptate impotriva carausului
cu privire la pierderea sau avarierea marfurilor ce fac obiectul contractului de
transport maritim sau pentru intarzieri in livrare, pot fi fundamentate pe:

raspunderea contractuala sau delictuala


1
raspunderea contractuala
0
raspunderea delictuala
0

1094 Conosamentele eliberate de case de expeditii care nu sunt membre FIATA


(house bill of lading), pot fi negociate?
Da daca acest lucru se prevede expres in acreditiv.
1
Da daca comandantul le semneaza clean.
0
Nu 0

1095 Conosamentul "la ordin" este:


Conosamentul emis la ordinul unei anumite persoane, care il poate andosa unei alte
persoane,aceasta devenind proprietarul de drept al marfii
1
Conosamentul emis la ordinul unei anumite persoane, pentru comandantul navei
care transporta marfurile
0
Conosamentul emis la ordinul unei persoane, pentru armatorul navei care
transporta marfurile 0
1096 Conosamentul "la purtator" este negociabil?
Nu 0
Da cu acordul navlositorului
0
Da 1

1097 Conosamentul direct (through bill of lading) se elibereaza cand:


marfurile sunt transportate si livrate direct la primitor
0
marfurile sunt transportate succesiv cu mai multe nave sau in situatia unui
transport combinat. 1
marfurile sunt transportate direct la primitor fara devieri
0

1098 Conosamentul este "titlu de valoare" deoarece:


are stipulata valoarea marfii.
0
250
face dovada incarcarii marfurilor la bord.
0
incorporeaza marfa incarcata la bordul navei pentru a fi transportata.
1

1099 Conosamentul este un instrument probatoriu deoarece:


constituie o dovada ca marfa a fost predata de producatorul acesteia.
0
constituie o conventie intre navlositor si proprietarul marfurilor.
0
constituie o dovada pentru incarcator ca a incarcat marfa.
1

1100 Conosamentul fractionat impropriu:


Nu are valoarea juridica a unui conosament
1
Are valoarea juridica a unui conosament
0
Are valoarea juridica a unui conosament daca este eliberat la interventia
armatorului 0

1101 Conosamentul nominativ se elaboreaza:


in favoarea unei anumite persoane nominata expres
1
in favoarea unei persoane stabilita de navlositor
0
in favoarea unei persoane imputernicita sa preia marfurile
0

1102 Conosamentul primit pentru incarcare este:


Conosamentul eliberat de comandant prin care armatorul se obliga a incarca pe o
anumita nava, marfurile luate in custodie, pe raspunderea sa de la incarcator, spre
a le transporta intr-un anumit port0

Conosamentul eliberat de caraus prin care armatorul se obliga a incarca pe o


anumita nava sau pe una din navele sale, marfurile luate in custodie, pe
raspunderea sa de la incarcator, spre a le transporta intr-un anumit port
1

Conosamentul eliberat de proprietarul marfii prin care armatorul se obliga a incarca


pe o anumita nava sau pe una din navele sale, marfurile luate in custodie, pe
raspunderea sa de la incarcator, spre a le transporta intr-un anumit port
0

1103 Conosamentul standard de linie (conlinebill a fost elaborat si aprobat de):


FIATA 0
BIMCO
1
BIMCO si FIATA
0

251
1104 Daca carausul sau alta persoana care emite conosamentul in numele sau nu
face in conosament mentiuni privind starea aparenta a marfurilor, se considera
conform Regulilor de la Hamburg ca:
marfurile au fost incarcate in stare buna
0
marfurile au fost incarcate
0
s-a mentionat in conosament ca marfurile erau in stare aparent buna
1

1105 Emiterea unui conosament fara rezerve cu privire la starea aparenta a


marfurilor se poate face in baza unei scrisori de garantie prin care incarcatorul se
obliga sa despagubeasca carausul?
Da 0
Nu 1
Da, cu conditia ca scrisoarea sa fie depusa la o banca credibila.
0

1106 In care varianta se aplica Regulile de la Hamburg?


La toate contractele de transport pe mare intre doua state diferite daca au convenit
ca atare. 0
Conosamentul sau alt document care face dovada contractului de transport pe
mare este emis intr-un stat ce a ratificat conventia.
1
Conosamentul sau alt document care face dovada contractului de transport pe
mare este "clean".0
1107 Inserarea in conosament a clauzei "contents and value unknown" are efect
asupra acestuia ca document de plata?
Da, daca conosamentul este semnat de commandant
0
Nu 1
Da 0

1108 Inserarea in conosament a clauzei "said by shipper to contain" are efect


asupra acestuia ca document de plata?
Nu 1
Da, daca conosamentul este semnat de comandant
0
Da 0

1109 Inserarea in conosament de clauze cu referire la ambalajul marfii, are efect


asupra acestuia ca document de plata?
Nu, daca s-a depus o scrisoare de garantie
0
Da 1
252
Nu 0

1110 Inserarea in conosament de clauze cu referire la numarul de colete, are efect


asupra acestuia ca document de plata?
Da 1
Nu, daca s-a depus o scrisoare de garantie
0
Nu 0

1111 Inserarea in conosament de clauze cu referire la starea marfii, are efect


asupra acestuia ca document de plata?
Nu 0
Da 1
Nu, daca s-a depus o scrisoare de garantie
0

1112 Inserarea pe un conosament ca navlul este platibil la destinatie, afecteaza


calitatea sa ca document de plata ?
Da 0
Nu 1
Da, daca nu are acordul incarcaturului
0

1113 Intr-un conosament "nominativ":


Destinatarul marfurilor, incarcatorul, sau banca emitenta poate andosa
conosamentul unei alte persoane
0
Incarcatorul sau banca emitenta poate andosa conosamentul unei alte persoane
0
Carausul cunoaste de la inceput persoana careia ii va remite marfurile si fata de
care isi va executa obligatiile
1

1114 La semnarea unui conosament curat sub protest, comandantul pentru a


inlatura raspunderea sa este obligat:
sa informeze armatorul inainte de a semna.
0
sa informeze armatorul si primitorul marfurilor inainte de a semna.
0
sa depuna un protest notarului local cu privire la starea marfurilor sau a
ambalajelor. 1

1115 O nava cu 4 hambare incarca 14000 tone marfuri generale la o norma de 600
tone pe gura de hambar pe zi calculata la 24 de ore consecutive in :
5 zile si 20 ore
1

253
5 zile si 18 ore
0
5 zile si 22 ore
0

1116 Regulile de la Hamburg permit inserarea in conosament a clauzelor de


exonerare?
Da 0
Nu 1
Nu se prevede expres.
0

1117 Regulile de la Hamburg prevad ca persoana indreptatita sa faca o reclamatie


pentru pierderea marfurilor, poate considera marfurile ca pierdute daca:
acestea nu au fost livrate in termen de 60 de zile consecutive de la expirarea
termenului de livrare.1
acestea nu au fost livrate in termen de 30 de zile consecutive de la expirarea
termenului de livrare.0
acestea nu au fost livrate in termen de 45 de zile consecutive de la expirarea
termenului de livrare.0

1118 Regulile de la Hamburg prevad ca raspunderea carausului pentru daune


rezultate din pierderea sau avarierea produsa marfurilor este limitata la o suma
echivalenta cu:
845 de unitati de cont pe colet sau alta unitate de transport, sau 2,5 unitati de cont
pe kilogram de greutate bruta a marfurilor pierdute sau avariate, oricare din ele
este mai nmare. 0
835 de unitati de cont pe colet sau alta unitate de transport, sau 2,5 unitati de cont
pe kilogram de greutate bruta a marfurilor pierdute sau avariate, oricare din ele
este mai nmare. 1
835 de unitati de cont pe colet sau alta unitate de transport, sau 3,5 unitati de cont
pe kilogram de greutate bruta a marfurilor pierdute sau avariate, oricare din ele
este mai nmare. 0

1119 Regulile de la Hamburg prevad ca raspunderea carausului pentru intarziere in


livrarea marfurilor este limitata la un cuantum echivalent cu:
de doua ori si jumatate valoarea navlului platibil pentru marfurile livrate cu
intarziere. 1
de doua ori valoarea navlului platibil pentru marfurile livrate cu intarziere.
0
de trei ori valoarea navlului platibil pentru marfurile livrate cu intarziere.
0

1120 Regulile de la Hamburg se aplica atunci cand::


Conosamentul sau alt document care face dovada contractului de transport pe
mare este "clean".0
Portul de descarcare se afla intr-un stat ce a ratificat conventia.
1
Portul de descarcare se afla inscris in conosament.
0

254
1121 Regulile de la Hamburg se aplica contractului de navlosire?
Nu se prevede expres.
0
Da 0
Nu 1

1122 Regulile de la Hamburg se aplica in una din urmatoarele situatii:


La toate contractele de transport pe mare intre doua state diferite daca portul de
incarcare se afla intr-un stat ce a ratificat conventia.
1
La toate contractele de transport pe mare intre doua state diferite daca au convenit
ca atare. 0
La toate contractele de transport pe mare intre doua state diferite daca plata
navlului se face in momentul livrarii marfii.
0

1123 Termenul "incarcator" conform Regulilor de la Hamburg 1978 are urmatoarea


semnificatie:
Orice persoana de catre care sau in numele careia sau din autorizarea careia s-a
incheiat cu carausul un contract de transport de marfuri
0
Orice persoana de catre care sau in numele careia s-a incheiat cu carausul un
contract de transport0
Orice persoana de catre care sau in numele careia sau din autorizarea careia s-a
incheiat cu carausul un contract de transport de marfuri pe mare
1

1124 Un conosament este "fractionat impropriu" sau bun de livrare atunci cand:
documentul fractionat este eliberat de posesorul legitim al conosamentului initial,
fara nici o interventie din partea navlositorului sau armatorului
1
documentul fractionat este eliberat de posesorul legitim al conosamentului la
solicitarea navlositorului 0
documentul fractionat este eliberat de posesorul legitim al conosamentului la
solicitarea armatorului 0
1125 Un conosament este "la purtator" atunci cand:
Nu este indicata persoana careia I se transmite conosamentul
0
Pe conosament sunt inscrise cuvintele "la purtator"
1
Este detinut de comandantul navei
0

1126 Ce are la baza regimul juridic specific contractelor comerciale de vanzare


internationala ?
Tratate internationale
0
Tratatele internationale, uzurile si uzantele uniforme internationale, sistemul de
drept ales de parti si, in principal, clauzele inscrise in contract
1
255
Intelegerea intre parti
0

1127 Ce este TIME-SHEET-ul ?


Documentul care evidentiaza zilnic de la inaintarea noticelui, curgerea
staliilor,eventualele contrastalii sau despatch
1
Documentul care evidentiaza curgerea staliilor,eventualele contrastalii sau dispatch
0
Documentul care evidentiaza curgerea staliilor
0

1128 Ce presupune caracterul consensual al unui charter-party?


Armatorul se obliga sa puna la dispozitie nava pentru a transporta marfurile
0
Acordul de vointa a doua persoane: armatorul si navlositorul
1
Navlositorul se obliga sa plateasca navlul stabilit
0

1129 Ce se intelege prin CLEAR DAY sau CLEAR DAYS ?


Ziua in care este data o notificare si ziua in care expira notificarea nu se includ in
perioada notificata1
Ziua in care este data o notificare si ziua in care expira notificarea se includ in
perioada notificata 0
Ziua in care este data o notificare si ziua in care expira notificarea se includ in
perioada notificata in portul de descarcare
0

1130 Ce se intelege prin CONTRASTALII ?


Sumele pe care navlositorul este obligat sa le plateasca carausului pentru timpul
reincarcare/descarcare
0
Sumele pe care navlositorul este obligat sa le plateasca carausului pentru timpul de
incarcare/descarcare consumat peste perioada de stalii
1
Sumele pe care navlositorul este obligat sa le plateasca carausului pentru timpul de
incarcare/descarcare consumat pe timp favorabil
0

1131 Ce se intelege prin stalii ?


Timpul alocat pentru incarcere/descarcare
0
Timpul agreat de parti in care se va tine nava la dispozitie pentru
incarcare/descarcare 0
Perioada de timp agreata de parti in care se va tine nava la dispozitie pentru
incarcare/descarcare fara vreo plata suplimentara in afara navlului
1
256
1132 Ce semnifica caracterul oneros al unui charter-party?
Navlositorul se obliga sa plateasca navlul stabilit
1
Armatorul se obliga sa puna la dispozitie nava pentru a transporta marfurile
0
Marfa poate fi transportata peste mai multe frontiere
0

1133 Ce semnifica PER HATCH PER DAY?


Timpul de stalii este dat de raportul dintre cantitatea de marfa si norma de
incarcare/descarcare 0
Timpul de stalii este dat de raportul dintre cantitatea de marfa si norma de
incarcare/descarcare pe hambarul cu cea mai mare cantitate de marfa
0
Timpul de stalii este dat de raportul dintre cantitatea de marfa si produsul dintre
norma de incarcare/descarcare a marfii pe magazie cu numarul magaziilor navei
1

1134 Ce semnifica UNLESS USED la durata si calculul staliilor ?


Daca se lucreaza pe timpul zilelor exceptate, numai orele efectiv lucrate conteaza
ca stalii 1
Daca se lucreaza pe timpul zilelor exceptate, orele efectiv lucrate nu conteaza ca
stalii 0
Daca se lucreaza pe timpul zilelor exceptate, din totalul orele efectiv lucrate
conteaza ca stalii jumatate din acestea
0

1135 Ce semnifica WEATHER PERMITTING la durata si calculul staliilor ?


Timpul cat vremea impiedica lucrul va conta in calculul staliilor la jumatate
0
Timpul cat vremea impiedica lucrul va conta in calculul staliilor numai pentru zilele
lucratoare 0
Timpul cat vremea impiedica lucrul nu va conta ca stalii
1

1136 Ce semnificatie are clauza de substituire intr-un charter - party?


Armatorul poate sa substituie nava
0
Armatorul are dreptul sa substituie nava cu o nava de aceeasi clasa si de marime
similara, tip si pozitie1
Armatorul are dreptul sa substituie nava cu o nava de aceeasi clasa
0

1137 Ce semnificatie are clauza F.I.O. intr-un charter - party?


Cheltuielile de incarcare/descarcare sunt suportate de navlositor
1
Cheltuielile de incarcare/descarcare sunt suportate de proproetarul marfii
0

257
Cheltuielile de incarcare/descarcare sunt suportate de armator
0

1138 Ce semnificatie are clauza F.I.O.S. intr-un charter - party?


Cheltuielile de incarcare/descarcare si stivuire a marfurilor sunt in contul
proproetarului marfii 0
Cheltuielile de incarcare/descarcare si stivuire a marfurilor sunt in contul
navlositorului 1
Cheltuielile de incarcare/descarcare si stivuire a marfurilor sunt in contul
armatorului 0

1139 Ce semnificatie are clauza F.I.O.S.T. intr-un charter - party?


Cheltuielile de incarcare/descarcare, stivuire si rujare a marfurilor sunt in contul
proproetarului marfii0
Cheltuielile de incarcare/descarcare, stivuire si rujare a marfurilor sunt in contul
armatorului 0
Cheltuielile de incarcare/descarcare, stivuire si rujare a marfurilor sunt in contul
navlositorului 1
1140 Ce semnificatie are clauza NEW JASON intr-un charter-party?
De protejare a armatorului contra consecintelor ce ar rezulta, inainte sau dupa
inceperea voiajului,indiferent din ce cauza
1
De protejare a armatorului contra consecintelor ce ar rezulta, dupa inceperea
voiajului 0
De protejare a armatorului contra consecintelor ce ar rezulta, la livrarea marfurilor
in portul de destinatie
0

1141 Ce semnificatie are clauza PARAMOUNT intr-un charter-party sau


conosament?
Transportului si documentelor respective li se vor aplica Regulile York-Anvers-1974
0
Transportului si documentelor respective li se vor aplica Regulile de la Haga 1924
1
Transportului si documentelor respective li se vor aplica Regulile de la Hamburg
1978 0

1142 Ce semnificatie are DAYS referitor la durata si calculul staliilor?


Perioada continua de 24 ore,care,numai daca nu se stipuleaza altfel, curge de la
miezul noptii pana la miezul noptii urmatoare
1
Perioada de 24 ore 0
Perioada continua de 24 ore
0

1143 Clauza "incetarii raspunderii" inserata intr-un contract de transport de marfuri


pe mare semnifica:
Obligatiile carausului nu inceteaza la incarcarea marfurilor.
0
Obligatiile navlositorului inceteaza dupa incarcarea marfurilor.
1
258
Obligatiile armatorului inceteaza la livrarea marfurilor.
0

1144 Clauza "LINER TERMS" intr-un charter-party semnifica:


Cheltuielile legate de incarcare/descarcare si stivuire a marfurilor sunt in contul
armatorului 1
Cheltuielile legate de incarcare/descarcare si stivuire a marfurilor sunt in contul
navlositorului 0
Cheltuielile legate de incarcare/descarcare si stivuire a marfurilor sunt in contul
proprietarului marfii0
1145 Clauza de avarie generala intr-un contract de navlosirte semnifica :
orice avarie comuna va fi solutionata conform Regulilor de la Hamburg.
0
orice avarie comuna va fi solutionata conform Regulilor de la Haga.
0
orice avarie comuna va fi solutionata conform Regulilor York-Anvers.
1

1146 Clauza de deviere intr-un contract de navlosirte permite comandantului sa se


abata din drum pentru aprovizionare cu alimente ?
Da 0
Nu 1
Da cu acordul armatorului
0

1147 Conform "cesser clause" carausul are drept de retentia asupra incarcaturii ?
Da 1
Nu 0
Da, cu acordul incarcatorului
0

1148 Conform "Lien clause" :


Navlositorul se obliga sa plateasca navlul stability
0
Armatorul este in drept sa nu predea marfa sau o parte din marfa in portul de
descarcare, pana nu primeste navlul convenit.
1
Primitorul marfii se obliga sa plateasca navlul stabilit
0

1149 Conform clauzei de cancello inserata intr-un contract de navlosire, optiunea


navlositorului de rezilliere a contractului sau de acceptare a intarzierii rezonabile a
navei trebuie sa parvina navei in timp de cel mult :
48 de ore 1
36 de ore 0
24 de ore 0

259
1150 Conform clauzei de retentie inserata intr-un contract de navlosire, retentia
marfurilor este generata de :
legea locului de incarcare a marfurilor
0
legea locului carausului marfurilor
0
legea locului de descarcare a marfurilor
1

1151 Conform Regulilor de la Hamburg carausul efectiv este raspunzator pentru


intarzierea in livrare cauzata printr-o imprejurare care s-a produs in timp ce
marfurile erau in grija sa ?
Nu 0
Da 1
Nu se prevede expres
0
1152 Conform Regulilor de la Hamburg destinatarul are obligatia sa transmita
carausului o notificare scrisa de pierdere sau de avariere a marfurilor :
cel mai tarziu la expirarea a 12 ore de la predarea marfurilor de catre caraus.
0
cel mai tarziu la expirarea a 24 de ore de la predarea marfurilor de catre caraus.
0
cel mai tarziu in ziua lucratoare care urmeaza zilei cand marfurile i-au fost predate
de catre caraus.1
1153 Conform Regulilor de la Hamburg raspunderea carausului pentru marfuri
acopera perioada in care :
marfurile sunt in grija sa pe timpul transportului.
0
marfurile sunt in grija sa pe timpul transportului si la portul de descarcare.
0
marfurile sunt in grija sa la portul de incarcare, pe timpul transportului si la portul
de descarcare.1
1154 Conform Regulilor de la Hamburg termenul "caraus efectiv" inseamna:
persoana care a incheiat un contract de transport de marfuri pe mare cu un
incarcator. 0
persoana careia I s-a incredintat de catre caraus, efectuarea partiala sau in
intregime a unui transport de marfuri.
1
persoana care a incheiat un contract de transport de marfuri pe mare cu
proprietarul marfurilor respective..
0

1155 Daca actele unei nave angajata in "time charter" expira in perioada de
angajare, armatorul are obligatia:
Sa prelungeasca actele navei
0
Sa suspende angajarea "time charter" pe durata prelungirii actelor
0
Sa inlocuiasca nava cu o nava "sora", fara a afecta interesele navlositorului
1

260
1156 In cadrul unui contract "charter-party", in timpul calatoriei, comandantul va
respecta ordinele navlositorului referitoare la :
Aspectele comerciale ale voiajului
1
Aspectele legate de echipaj
0
Aspectele legate de echipaj si porturile de escala
0

1157 In contractul "charter parter-by demiser" conosamentul semnat de


comandant este un contract cu:
Proprietarul navei 0
Vanzatorul marfii 0
Navlositorul - chirias
1
1158 In contractul "time charter" comandantul este obligat sa execute :
Toate ordinele armatorului in ceea ce priveste porturile de incarcare
0
Ordinele navlositorului in ceea ce priveste nava
0
Toate ordinele armatorului in ceea ce priveste nava si echipajul
1

1159 Intrarea unei nave in "time charter" se face pe baza de :


Acord intre parti 0
Expertiza 1
Anul de livrare a navei
0
1160 Intr-un charter-party clauza de brokeraj stabileste:
comisionul platit unui curtier maritim pentru incheierea tranzactiei de navlosire a
navei sau pentru procurarea de navlu partial.
1
comisionul necesar pentru incheierea tranzactiei de navlosire a navei sau pentru
procurarea de navlu partial.
0
comisionul solicitat de armator si necesar pentru incheierea tranzactiei de navlosire
a navei sau pentru procurarea de navlu partial.
0
1161 Intr-un contract ""voyage charter", comandantul executa ordinele primite de
la :
Navlositor 0
Armator 1
Armator, navlositor, broker
0
1162 Intr-un contract "time charter" comandantul navei si echipajul sunt la ordinul:
Armatorului 1
Navlositorului
0

261
Chiriasului navei 0

1163 Intr-un contract "time charter" stivuirea marfurilor si asigurarea unei bune
stabilitati a navei sunt in sarcina::
Incarcatorului marfii
0
Comandantului navei
1
Navlositorului
0

1164 Intr-un contract "voyage charter" armatorul :

Pastreaza controlul navei din punct de vedere legal


0
Pastreaza controlul navei din punct de vedere comercial
0
Pastreaza controlul navei atat din punct de vedere legal, cat si din punct de vedere
comercial 1
1165 Intr-un contract "voyage charter" armatorul pastreaza controlul asupra navei
din punct de vedere:
legal 0
comercial 0
legal si comercial 1

1166 Intr-un contract "voyage charter" comandantul va executa ordinele


referitoare la conditiile de transport primite de la:
navlositor 0
incarcatorul marfii 0
armatorul navei
1

1167 Intr-un contract "voyage charter" comandantul va executa ordinele


referitoare la marfurile ce urmeaza a fi incarcate primite de la:
armatorul navei
1
navlositor 0
incarcatorul marfii 0

1168 Intr-un contract "voyage charter" comandantul va executa ordinele


referitoare la porturile de incarcere si descarcare primite de la:
navlositor 0
armatorul navei
1
incarcatorul marfii 0

262
1169 Intr-un contract BALTIME suspendarea chiriei devine efectiva daca nava nu
poate fi operata din deficit de personal pe o perioada ce depaseste :
12 ore consecutive 0
24 de ore consecutive
1
18 ore consecutive 0

1170 Intr-un contract BALTIME toate instructiunile si dispozitiile pentru navigatie


vor fi furnizate comandantului navei de catre :
Navlositor 1
Armator 0
Incarcatorul marfii 0

1171 Intr-un contract by demise combustibilul, materialele de intretinere si


proviziile sunt in sarcina:
Proprietarului marfilor
0
Proprietarului navei
0
Armatorului-navlositor
1

1172 Intr-un contract by demise dreptul de a alege echipajul navei il are:


chiriasul navei
1
armatorul 0
armatorul sau chiriasul navei
0

1173 Intr-un contract by demise dreptul de a numi comandantul navei il are:


armatorul 0
armatorul sau chiriasul navei
0
chiriasul navei
1

1174 Intr-un contract by demise mentinerea navei in buna stare de navigabilitate


revine:
Chiriasului navei 1
Armatorului 0
armatorului sau chiriasului navei
0

1175 Intr-un contract by demise navlositorul-chirias este in sensul legii:


Navlositorul marfii 0
Vanzatorul marfii 0
Armator-navlositor si caraus
1
263
1176 Intr-un contract by demise raspunderea fata de incarcatori sau terti care au
interese in marfurile transportate revine:
armatorului navei 0
navlositorului – chirias
1
proprietarului marfurilor 0

1177 Intr-un contract by demise recompensa de salvare revine:


echipajului navei 0
armatorului navei 0
navlositorului – chirias
1

1178 Intr-un contract by demise salariile si intretinerea echipajului sunt in sarcina:


Armatorului-navlositor
1
Proprietarului marfilor
0
Proprietarului navei
0

1179 Intr-un contract by demise taxele portuare si onorariile agentilor sunt in


sarcina:
Proprietarului marfilor
0
Armatorului-navlositor
1
Proprietarului navei
0

1180 La o angajare "time charter", cand voiajul este intrerupt datorita unor
defectiuni tehnice, navlositorul este indreptatit:
Sa plateasca jumatate din chirie pentru perioada respectiva
0
Sa nu plateasca chirie pentru perioada respectiva
1
Sa rezilieze contractul
0

1181 Recompensa de salvare castigata de o nava inchiriata prin contract "by


demise" revine:
Navlositorului - chirias
1
Proprietarului navei
0
Vanzatorului marfii 0

264
1182 Transportul marfurilor efectuate pe punte, contrar unei intelegeri exprese
este considerat, conform Regulilor de la Hamburg :
ca un act sau o omisiune a carausului
1
ca un act sau o omisiune a proprietarului marfurilor.
0
ca un act sau o omisiune a primitorului marfurilor.
0

1183 Valoarea inscrisa la rubrica "Allowable stacking weight for 1,8 g" de pe
placuta de securitate C.S.C. a containerului semnifica:
greutatea ce poate fi stivuita deasupra unui container, astfel ca in timpul calatoriei
solicitarile dinamice sa nu avarieze containerul.
1
greutatea ce poate fi stivuita in container, astfel ca in timpul calatoriei solicitarile
dinamice sa nu avarieze containerul
0
greutatea ce poate fi stivuita intr-un container.
0

265