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COMSATS UNIVERSITY ISLAMABAD,

WAH CAMPUS

DIGITAL SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY AND EMBEDDED SYSTEMS


SEYSTEMS

GROUP MEMBERS
GROUP MEMBERS
SAMIA NADEEM FA18-BSE-030
ERS
SYED AMEER HAMZA FA18-BSE-029
ATEEQUE AHMED FA18-BSE-027
MUHAMMAD ABDULLAH FA18-BSE-028

SUBMITTING TO

 MISS WALIA FATIMA


INTRODUCTION
An embedded system combines mechanical, electrical, and chemical components
along with a computer, hidden inside, to perform a single dedicated purpose.
There are more computers on this planet than there are people, and most of
these computers are single-chip microcontrollers that are the brains of an
embedded system. Embedded systems are a ubiquitous component of our
everyday lives. We interact with hundreds of tiny computers every day that are
embedded into our houses, our cars, our bridges, our toys, and our work. As our
world has become more complex, so have the capabilities of the microcontrollers
embedded into our devices. Therefore the world needs a trained workforce to
develop and manage products based on embedded microcontrollers.

Types of Embedded Systems


Embedded systems can be classified into different types based on performance,
functional requirements and performance of the microcontroller.

Types of Embedded systems

Embedded systems are classified into four categories based on their performance
and functional requirements:

 Stand alone embedded systems


 Real time embedded systems
 Networked embedded systems
 Mobile embedded systems

Embedded Systems are classified into three types based on the performance of
the microcontroller such as

 Small scale embedded systems


 Medium scale embedded systems
 Sophisticated embedded systems
Small Scale Embedded Systems

These types of embedded systems are designed with a single 8 or 16-


bit microcontroller, that may even be activated by a battery. For developing
embedded software for small scale embedded systems, the main programming
tools are an editor, assembler, cross assembler and integrated development
environment (IDE).

Medium Scale Embedded Systems

These types of embedded systems design with a single or 16 or 32 bit


microcontroller, RISCs or DSPs. These types of embedded systems have both
hardware and software complexities. For developing embedded software for
medium scale embedded systems, the main programming tools are C, C++, JAVA,
Visual C++, RTOS, debugger, source code engineering tool, simulator and IDE.

Sophisticated Embedded Systems

These types of embedded systems have enormous hardware and software


complexities, that may need ASIPs, IPs, PLAs, scalable or configurable processors.
They are used for cutting-edge applications that need hardware and software Co-
design and components which have to assemble in the final system.

Stand Alone Embedded Systems

Stand alone embedded systems do not require a host system like a computer, it
works by itself. It takes the input from input ports either analog or digital and
processes, calculates and converts the data and gives the resulting data through
the connected device-Which either controls, drives and displays the connected
devices. Examples for the stand alone embedded systems are mp3 players, digital
cameras, video game consoles, microwave ovens and temperature measurement
systems.

Real Time Embedded Systems

A real time embedded system is defined as, a system which gives a required o/p in
a particular time.These types of embedded systems follow the time deadlines for
completion of a task. Real time embedded systems are classified into two types
such as soft and hard real time systems.

Networked Embedded Systems

These types of embedded systems are related to a network to access the resources.
The connected network can be LAN, WAN or the internet. The connection can be
any wired or wireless. This type of embedded system is the fastest growing area in
embedded system applications. The embedded web server is a type of system
wherein all embedded devices are connected to a web server and accessed and
controlled by a web browser.Example for the LAN networked embedded system is
a home security system wherein all sensors are connected and run on the protocol
TCP/IP

Mobile Embedded Systems

Mobile embedded systems are used in portable embedded devices like cell phones,
mobiles, digital cameras, mp3 players and personal digital assistants, etc.The basic
limitation of these devices is the other resources and limitation of memory.

HISTORY

One of the very first recognizably modern embedded systems was the Apollo
Guidance Computer,[citation needed] developed ca. 1965 by Charles Stark Draper at
the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory. At the project's inception, the Apollo
guidance computer was considered the riskiest item in the Apollo project as it
employed the then newly developed monolithic integrated circuits to reduce the
size and weight. An early mass-produced embedded system was the Autonetics D-
17 guidance computer for the Minuteman missile, released in 1961. When the
Minuteman II went into production in 1966, the D-17 was replaced with a new
computer that was the first high-volume use of integrated circuits.
Since these early applications in the 1960s, embedded systems have come down
in price and there has been a dramatic rise in processing power and functionality.
An early microprocessor for example , the Intel 4004(released in 1971), was
designed for calculators and other small systems but still required external
memory and support chips. In 1978 National Engineering Manufacturers
Association released a "standard" for programmable microcontrollers, including
almost any computer-based controllers, such as single board computers,
numerical, and event-based controllers.\

As the cost of microprocessors and microcontrollers fell it became feasible to


replace expensive knob-based analog components such
as potentiometers and variable capacitors with up/down buttons or knobs read
out by a microprocessor even in consumer products. By the early 1980s, memory,
input and output system components had been integrated into the same chip as
the processor forming a microcontroller. Microcontrollers find applications where
a general-purpose computer would be too costly.
A comparatively low-cost microcontroller may be programmed to fulfill the same
role as a large number of separate components. Although in this context an
embedded system is usually more complex than a traditional solution, most of the
complexity is contained within the microcontroller itself. Very few additional
components may be needed and most of the design effort is in the software.
Software prototype and test can be quicker compared with the design and
construction of a new circuit not using an embedded processor.

APPLICATIONS
Embedded System for Detecting Rash Driving on Highways
The main intention of this project is to design a highway speed-checker device that
identifies rash driving on highways and alarms the traffic authorities if the speed
checker finds any vehicle violating the set speed limits on highways.

2. Application of Embedded System for Street Light Control


The main intention of this project is to detect the movement of vehicles on
highways and to switch on street lights ahead of it, and then to switch off the street
lights as the vehicle go past the street lights to conserve energy. In this project,
a PIC microcontroller is programmed by using embedded C or assembly language.
3. Embedded System for Traffic Signal Control System
The main goal of this project is to design a density based traffic signal system. At
every junction, the signal timing changes automatically according to the traffic
density at every junction. Traffic jam is a major problem in many cities across the
world and gives regular nightmares to the commuters and travelers .

4. Application of Embedded System for Vehicle Tracking


The main purpose of this project is to find the exact location of a vehicle by using
a GPS modem and in order to reduce vehicle thefts. The GSM modem sends an SMS
to a predefined mobile which stores the data in it. An LCD display is used to display
the location information in terms of latitude and longitude values. The
microcontroller (AT89C52) is pre programmed with the Keil software and
therefore, continuously checks the GPS modem.
Embedded System for Vehicle Tracking by Edgefx Kits

5. Embedded System for Auto Intensity Control


This project is designed to auto intensity control of LED based street lights by using
solar power from the photovoltaic panels. The awareness for solar energy is
increasing, and many institutions and peoples are opting solar energy. In this
project, Photovoltaic panels are used for charging batteries by converting the sun
energy into electrical energy. A solar charge controller circuit is used to control the
charging.

6. Application of Embedded System for Home Automation System


The main purpose of this project is to design a home automation system with the
Android application based remote control. Remote operation is performed by
Android OS based smart-phone or Tablet etc., upon a Graphical User Interface
based touch screen operation. In order to achieve this, Android application act as
a transmitter, that sends on/off commands to the receiver wherein loads are
connected.
Embedded System for Home Automation System by Edgefx Kits

7. Embedded System for Industrial Temperature Control


The main intention of this industrial temperature controller project is to control the
temperature of any device in any industrial application according to its necessity.
An LCD display is used to display the temperature in the range of –55°C to +125°C.
The heart of the circuit is the microcontroller which is from 8051 families and
controls all its functions.

8. Application of Embedded System for War Field Spying Robot


The main goal of this project is to design a robotic vehicle using RF technology for
remote operation and attached with wireless camera for monitoring purpose. The
robot with camera can wirelessly transmit real-time video with night vision
capabilities. This type of robot can be helpful for spying purposes in war fields.
An 8051 series of microcontroller is used for the desired operation.

Advantages of embedded operating system


 Small size and faster to load
 More specific to one task
 Easy to manage
 Low cost
 Spend less resources
 These operating system is dedicated to one device so performance is good
and use less resources like memory and micro-processors

Disadvantages of embedded operating system


 Difficult to upgrade
 If any problem occurs then you need to reset settings
 Nearly not scalable
 Hardware is limited
 Troubleshooting is difficult
 Difficult to transfer data from one system to other

REFERENCES

 https://www.efxkits.us/classification-of-embedded-
systems/
 https://www.elprocus.com/embedded-systems-real-time-
applications/
 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Embedded_system
 http://www.contrib.andrew.cmu.edu/~famustaf/Embedde
dSystems.html