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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

Vol. 8, No. 8, 2010

SIP and RSW: A Comparative Evaluation Study
Mahmoud Baklizi1, Nibras Abdullah1, Omar Abouabdalla1, Sima Ahmadpour1.
1: National Advanced IPv6 Centre of Excellence
1: Universiti Sains Malaysia
1: Penang, Malaysia
1: {mbaklizi, abdullahfaqera, omar, sima}@nav6.org

oriented programming languages such as Java and Perl. These

Abstract— Voice over internet protocol (VoIP) is a technology allow easy debugging, and most importantly make SIP flexible
that uses Internet to transmit voice digital information. The and extensible. (ii) Less signaling. (iii) transport-layer-
Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and Real time Switching (RSW) protocol neutral (iv) parallel search [5][7].
are signaling protocols that emerged as a new VoIP which gained
popularity among VoIP products. In literature, many
comparative studies have been conducted to evaluate signaling
Real time Switching appeared in late 1993 as a control
protocols, but none of them addressed the targeted protocols. In mechanism for multimedia conferencing. It was designed by
this paper, we make a comparative evaluation and analysis for Network Research Group (NRG) in school of computer
SIP and RSW using Mean Opinion Score rating (MOS). We science-University Science Malaysia (USM) .The goal of
found that RSW performs better than SIP under different RSW Control Criteria is how to conduct a conference around a
networks in terms of (packet delays). meeting table [8][9][10]. Moreover, RSW is used to handle
two issues in multimedia conferencing. The first one is to
Keywords- VoIP; MOS; InterAsterisk eXchange Protocol; Real handle the confusion generated while everyone tries to speak
Time Switching Control Criteria and Session Initiation protocol. at the same time. The second issue is the tremendous amount
of network traffic generated by all participating sites [6].
More recently, InterAsterisk exchange protocol has been
Nowadays, the use of distributed computer network systems emerged as new protocol that improved the voice quality. It
has been increased in many areas of government, academia has also many features such as simplicity, NAT-friendliness,
and industry. Video conferencing system is one of computer- efficiency and robustness [2][3]. There are several goals for
based communication applications. The idea of video this protocol. The main goals of this protocol are (i)
conferencing appeared for the first time in the 1920s [1]. The Minimizing bandwidth usage for signaling and media transfer,
task of video conferencing concentrates on individuals to be with a particular emphasis on voice (ii) Ensuring NAT
together in space and time, and makes groups more effective transparency (iii) Ability to exchange dial plans (iv) Efficient
at their work by applying different services such as telephony implementation of intercom and paging features. On the other
service over IP networks that are known as IP telephony or hand, IAX can be used with different types of streaming media
Voice over IP. VoIP communication usually consists of two such as video and voice calls [4]. In this paper, we have
protocols: (i) Signaling protocols that are used to setup a voice selected two case studies that depend on IAX protocol. In the
conversation and manage voice sessions (ii) Media transfer first case study, the researchers made comparison between
protocols that are used for exchanging voice data traffic during IAX and RSW [3]. While in the second case study the
one session lifetime. [2]. One of the most important functions researchers compared between IAX and SIP [2]. According to
in the VoIP infrastructure is signaling session. Signaling the last two comparisons, we have made a comparative
session should be by any VoIP protocol before transmitting evaluation of SIP and RSW by using Mean Opinion Score
any media type. Therefore, it allows various network rating (MOS).
components to communicate with each other to setup and to
tear down calls [3]. Recently, there is strong focus on the
development of scalable VoIP protocols, such as SIP, RSW II. RELATED WORK
and IAX.
Before transmitting any media, the signaling session, which is
Large efforts have been done to study SIP. It was standardized the most important function in VoIP, allows different network
in the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) RFC 2543 and components to communicate between each other to set up and
further extended in RFC 3261.It is used for creating, terminate calls. Mean Opinion Score (MOS) is used as a
modifying, and terminating sessions with one or more method to assess call quality. In addition, it is used to measure
participants [5][6]. subjective voice quality. To measure network performance, we
use the MOS rating which is the most widely used assessment
technique. The listening subjects were given a scale from 1 to
Session Initiation Protocol has many features: (i) the service of
text-based which allows easy implementation in object

117 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
ISSN 1947-5500
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 8, 2010
5, where 1 = bad, 2 = poor, 3 = fair, 4 = good, and 5 = that the packet delay in IAX is better than that in SIP and
excellent [11]. RSW. The gained results are extracted using the SPSS
statistical tool. The Interclass Correlation Coefficient
Recently, there are many researchers concentrated on this statistical test is used to analyze IAX with comparison to the
function and compared between different VoIP protocols. The previous two studies. As a result, the correlation between the
study conducted by [2] compared the performance between two variables is high. The single measure Interclass
IAX and SIP protocols. They have indicated that both correlation coefficient is 0.995, the test value for absolute
protocols perform comparably in the presence of fixed delay. agreement is 0.99999, and p is approximately equal to 1. The
Therefore IAX appeared to perform slightly better as shown in IAX protocol regression formula and curve were identical in
Figure 1 [2]. previous two studies. An indirect comparison between RSW
and SIP was made directly in terms of fixed packet delay.
Figure 3 indicates that the RSW protocol performs slightly
better in the presence of fixed packet delay than SIP protocol.

Figure 1: Packet Delay - SIP versus IAX [2]

The researchers in [3] compared the performance between Figure 3: Packet Delay - SIP versus RSW
IAX and RSW protocols. They indicated that both protocols
perform comparably in the presence of fixed delay. Therefore
IAX appeared to perform slightly better than RSW as shown CONCLUSION
in Figure 2 [3].
This paper suited the performance of the RSW and SIP in term
of packet delay. From the evaluation and analysis, we
conclude that RSW achieves more improvement than SIP in
VoIP in relation to packet delay via the MOS score. Further
research on RSW control criteria and SIP protocols and their
performance under various conditions is recommended.


We would like to thank Hani Mimi and Abdullah Dahbali

for their support and guidance throughout the study and

Figure 2: Packet Delay - RSW versus IAX [3]
[1] E. M. Schooler, “Conferencing and collaborative computing,”
Multimedia Systems. Vol. 4, pp. 210-225, 1996
[2] T. Abbasi, S. Prasad, N. Seddigh, and I. Lambadaris, "A comparative
study of the SIP and IAX VoIP protocols," Electrical and Computer
III. ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION Engineering, Canadian Conference, pp.179-183, 1-4 May 2005
[3] S. Manjur, M. Mosleh, O. Abouabdalla, W. Tat , and A. Manasrah,
The predicated evaluation is based on previous two “Comparative Evaluation and Analysis of IAX and RSW,”(IJCSIS).Vol.
comparisons that were conducted by [2] and [3]. We can see

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ISSN 1947-5500
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 8, 2010
[4] M. Spencer, F. Miller, “IAX Protocol Description,” February 2005,
[5] I. Dalgic and H. Fang, “Comparison of H.323 and SIP for IP telephony
signaling,” in Proc. of Photonics East, (Boston, Massachusetts), SPIE,
Sept. 1999.
[6] O. Abouabdalla, R. Sureswaran, "Enable Communications between The
RSW Control Criteria and SIP Using R2SP," Distributed Frameworks
for Multimedia Applications, 2006. The 2nd International Conference
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[7] Y. Zhang, “SIP-based VoIP network and its interworking with the
PSTN,” Electronics & Communication Engineering Journal, December
2002, Volume 16, Issue 6, pg 273-282
[8] R. Sureswaran, “A Reflector Based System to Support the RSW
Multimedia Conferencing Control Criteria,” IASTED International
Conference on Networks, Orlando, January 1996.
[9] R. Sureswaran, Subramanian, R.K, H. Guyennet, and M. Trehel, “Using
the RSW Control Criteria To Create A Distributed Environment for
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Malaysia. 27-29 November 1997.
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[11] http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-P.800/en

Mahmoud Khalid Baklizi is a researcher

pursuing his PhD in Computer Science at the
National Advanced IPv6 Center of
Excellence in University Sains Malaysia. He
received his first degree in Computer Science
from Yarmouk University, Jordan, 2002 and
his Master degree in Computer Information
System from the Arab Academy for Banking
and Financial Sciences, Jordan in 2008. His
research area of interest includes Multimedia
Nibras Abdullah Faqera received his
Bachelor of Engineering from College of
Engineering and Petroleum, Hadhramout
University of science and technology,
Yemen, 2003. He obtained his Master of
Computer Science from School of Computer
Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia in 2010.
He is academic staff member in Hodeidah
University, Yemen. He is researcher pursuing
his PhD in Computer Science at the National
Advanced IPv6 Center of Excellence in
University Sains Malaysia. His research area
of interest includes Multimedia Conferencing System (MCS).
Dr. Omar Amer Abouabdalla is a senior
lecturer and head of the technical department
in the National Advanced IPv6 Centre
(NAv6) - University Science Malaysia
(USM). Dr. Omar is the Chairman of
multimedia working group (a sub working
groupin APAN), Asia Pacfic Advanced
Network (APAN) is a high bandwidth
network that will interconnect the Asia
Pacifc Countries. He is also a member of
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and
a member of Editorial Board for Journal of IT in Asia. Dr. Omar is heavily
involved in researches carried by NAv6 center, such as Multimedia
Conferencing System (MCS) and IPv6 over Fiber project. He has more than
five years experience in the field of IPv6 and more than ten years in the field
of Multimedia Network.

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