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# Analysis of Faulted Power System (Shunt Fault)

## Sequence Model for Transformer

Roel B. Calano
Sequence Model for AC Generator

## Generator Connection Diagram Zero Sequence Network Diagram

a
Z0
c
Z0

Z0

Z0
N0
b

a
Z0
c
Z0

Z0 3Zn
Zn

Z0
N0
b

a Z0

c
Z0

Z0

Z0 N0

b
Sequence Networks

One of the most useful concepts about the symmetrical components is the sequence
network. A sequence network is an equivalent network for power system under the
assumption that only one sequence component of voltages and currents is presented in
the system. There will be no interaction between each sequence network and each of
them is independent of each other. The positive sequence network is the only one
containing voltage source since generators produce only voltages of positive sequence.
Negative and zero sequence networks contain only their corresponding impedances
and these impedances are obtained based on the location of the fault under
investigation. These sequence networks are shown in Figure. The types of fault
conditions will determine the connections between the sequence networks. The
positive sequence impedance, Z1, is the impedance looking into the positive sequence
network from the fault point. Similarly, the negative sequence impedance, Z2, is the
impedance looking into the negative sequence network from the fault point, and the
zero sequence impedance, Z0, is the impedance looking into the zero sequence
networks from the fault point.
Example:
Draw the Zero sequence network of the power system shown

## Y grounded - Y grounded ∆-∆

G G

Y grounded Reactance
grounded

Solution:

1 4

5 6
j0.09

## N0 (Neutral or Zero-potential bus)

Example:
Draw the Zero sequence network of the power system shown

## Y ungrounded - Y grounded Y ungrounded - Y ungrounded

G G

Y ungrounded Reactance
grounded

Solution:

j0.09

## N0 (Neutral or Zero-potential bus)

Y grounded- Y grounded ∆-∆

G G

Y ungrounded Reactance
grounded

G
Y grounded

1 4

5 j0.5 6
j0.09 j0.09

j0.09 j0.09

j0.09

## N0 (Neutral or Zero-potential bus)

B B
Y grounded - Y grounded ∆ - Y ungrounded

Y ungrounded

G G

## ∆ - Y grounded Y ungrounded - Y grounded

∆ - Y grounded ∆-∆

Solidly grounded
G

2 3

1 4

## N0 (Neutral or Zero-potential bus)

B B
Problem:

Draw the Positive, Negative and zero sequence model for the power system
shown.

## Y grounded - Y grounded ∆-∆

1 4

2 3
G G
5 6

Y grounded Reactance
grounded

## Y grounded - Y grounded ∆-∆

∆ - Y grounded ∆ - Y grounded

G G

∆ - Y grounded ∆ - Y grounded

∆ - Y grounded ∆ - Y grounded

G
Solution:
Reactance Diagram Simplification

1 4

## j0.2 j0.25 j0.22 j0.35 j0.2

5 6
G 1.0 angle 0° G 1.0 angle 0°

1 4

5 6

1 4

5 6
j0.09

## N0 (Neutral or Zero-potential bus)

B B
Positive Sequence Network

j0.35 3 j0.3

1 4

## G 1.0 angle 0° G 1.0 angle 0°

N1

3 3

j0.0.0714 j0.0.0714
1 4

j0.1952 j0.1673
j0.2 j0.2 j0.3952 j0.3673

## G 1.0 angle 0° 1.0 angle 0° G G 1.0 angle 0° 1.0 angle 0° G

N1 N1

3 3

3
j0.0.0714 j0.0.0714

j0.0.2618

1.0 angle 0° G

## 1.0 angle 0° G 1.0 angle 0° G

N1

N1
B B
N1B B
Negative Sequence Network
j0.35 3 j0.3

1 4

## j0.14 j0.82 j0.14

N2

3 3

j0.0.0714 j0.0.0714
1 4

j0.1952 j0.1673

## j0.14 j0.14 j0.3352 j0.3073

N2 N2

3 3

3
j0.0.0714 j0.0.0714

j0.0.2317

## j0.3352 j0.3952 j0.3073 j0.1603

N2

N2 B B
N2
B B
Zero Sequence Network

j0.2 j0.3
3
3
j0.06
j0.0.56

N0

N0

Problem:

## Draw the connection diagram of Positive, Negative and Zero sequence

network of the 4 bus shown.

G G
∆ - Y grounded
∆ - Y grounded
Short Circuit Current under Transient Condition

G G
Three Phase
Symmetrical Fault
G

Consider a Three phase Fault occurs near the terminal of the generator

e= VS sin (ωt + α)

α
Derivation of Short Circuit Current under Transient Condition

VR + VL = VS
Ldi
R+ = VS sin (ωt + α)
dt
Ldi
R+ = VS [sin ωt cosα + cosωt sinα]
dt

## Taking the Laplace Transform:

ω ω
RI(s) + L [sI(s) – I(0) ] = VS [cosα ( ) + sinα ( )]
s2 + ω2 s2 + ω2
I (0) = 0

Is [R + Ls] = VS [ ω cosα

s2 + ω2
+
s sinα

s2 + ω2
]

## Is [ R + Ls] = VS [ ω cosα + s sinα

s2 + ω2
]
Is = VS [ ω cosα + s sinα

(s2 + ω2 ) (R + Ls)
]
Simplification using partial fraction method:

Is = VS/ L [ As + B

(s2 + ω2 )
+
C

(s + R/L)
]
Solving for A, B and C:

## C = L/Z [sin (α – θ)] Z = √ (R2 + (ωl)2

θ = arctan ( ωL/R)

## Is = VS/L [ Ls/Z [sin (α – θ)]+ ωl/Z [cos (α – θ)]

(s2 + ω2 )
+
L/Z [sin (α – θ)]

(s + R/L)
]

## Is = VS/L [ sin (α –θ) {

s
s2 + ω2
} + cos (α – θ) {
s
s2 + ω2
}+
sin (α – θ)

(s + R/L)
]
Using the Inverse Laplace Transform:
[ ]
It = VS/Z {sin (α – θ)} (cos ωt) + [{cos (α – θ)} (sin ωt) - {sin (α – θ)}e –Rt/L

[
It = VS/Z {sin (ωt + α – θ - {sin (α – θ)}e –Rt/L]

## It = VS/Z {sin (ωt + α – θ - VS/Z {sin (α – θ)}e –Rt/L

From the given equation it can be seen that the short circuit current has two component, the transient
current which decays with respect to time ( at time = infinity) and the steady current.
Transient Analysis of Three Phase Short Circuit

## Three Phase Short Circuit at Phase c

Three Phase Short Circuit at the Field

## Line to Line Short Circuit at Phase b

Line to Line Short Circuit at the field

## Line to Ground Short Circuit at Phase a

Line to Ground Short Circuit at the Field
Different Level of Short Circuit Current with respect to time
Difference between Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical Fault

Symmetrical

Unsymmetrical

## Short Circuit Current near the Generator

Example:
Draw the wave form of short circuit current of different ωL/R and power factor angle

Solution:
ωL/R program
Important Notes when Conducting Short Circuit Analysis

## • The Three Sequence are independent

• The positive-sequence network is the same as the one line diagram used in
studying balanced three-phase current and voltages
• The Positive-sequence network has a voltage source. Therefore, the positive-
sequence current causes only positive-sequence voltage drops
• There is no voltage source in the negative or zero sequence networks
• Negative and Zero sequence currents cause negative and zero sequence
voltage drops only
• The Neutral of the System is the Reference for positive and negative sequence
networks, but ground is the reference for the zero sequence networks.
Therefore, the zero sequence current can flow only if the circuit from the
system neutrals to ground is complete
• The grounding impedance is reflected in the zero sequence network as 3 Z0
• The threes sequence systems can be solved separately on a per phase basis.
The phase currents and voltages can be determined by superposing the
symmetrical components of current and the voltages respectively.

Simplifications

When computing short circuits in a power system further simplifications can be made.
The following simplifications are also used for the analysis

## • All line capacitances are ignored.

• All non-motor shunt impedances are ignored; motor loads are treated the same
way as generators.

• The voltage magnitude and phase angle of generators and in feeds are all set to
the same value

## • All tap changing transformers are in middle position.

These simplifications are indicated for studies regarding medium- and long-term
network planning. In the planning stage, the calculations are based on estimated and
hence inaccurate data. Therefore, the demands on the short circuit computation
algorithm are lower than for real-time applications in the network operation, where
accurate results are desired.
Studies have shown that the shunt elements and loads have little influence on the short
circuit currents (0.5%. . . 4%) and may compensate each other. However, disregarding
the actual generator pole voltages and the actual positions of tap changing
transformers may sometimes lead to errors of up to 30%.
Single Line to Ground Fault
Fault point
Model
a
b
c

Zf
Iaf Ibf = 0 Icf = 0

F0

Va0 Z0
Ia0

N0

F1

## 3Zf Positive sequence network

Va1 Z1
Ia1

N1

F2

Negative sequence
Va2 Z2 network
Ia2

N2
Analysis of Single Line – to - Ground Fault

## Ia0 = Ia1 = Ia2 = 1.0 ∠ 0 °

Z0 + Z1 + Z2 + 3Zf

Iaf 1 1 1 Ia0
Ibf = 1 a2 a Ia1
Icf 1 a a2 I a2

Vaf = Zf Iaf

## Vaf = Va0 + Va1 + Va2

Va0 + Va1 + Va2 = 3Zf Ia1

Va0 0 Z0 0 0 Ia0
Va1 = 1.0 ∠ 0 ° - 0 Z1 0 Ia1
Va2 0 0 0 Z2 Ia2

Va0 = - Z0 Ia0
Va1 = 1.0 – Z1 Ia1
Va2 = -Z2 Ia2

Vaf 1 1 1 Va0
Vbf = 1 a2 a Va1
Vcf 1 a a2 Va2

## Vbf = Va0 + a2Va1 + aVa2

Vcf = Va0 + aVa1 + a2Va2
Line-Line Fault

Model

Fault point
a
b
c

Zf
Iaf = 0 Ibf Icf

F0

## Zero - sequence network

Va0 Ia0 = 0 Z0

N0

Zf

F1
F2
Positive sequence network
Va1 Z1
Ia1 Negative sequence
Va2 Z2 network
Ia2
G
N2
N1
Analysis of Line – to – line Fault

Iaf = 0
Ibf = -Icf
Vbc = Vb – Vc = Zf Ibf

Ia0 = 0
Ia1 = -Ia2 = 1.0 ∠ 0 °
Z1 + Z2 + Zf
with fault impedance

Z1 + Z2

## Ibf = -Icf = √3Ia1∠ -90 °

Va0 = 0
Va1 = 1.0 – Z1 Ia1
Va2 = -Z2 Ia2 = Z2 Ia1

Vbc = Vbf – Vcf

## Vca = √3 (Va1 ∠ 150 ° + Va2 ∠ -150 °)

Double Line to Ground Fault

Model
Fault point

a
b
c
Zf Zf

Zg Ibf + Icf

Zf + 3ZG Zf
Zf

F0 F1 F2

## Va0 Z0 Va1 Z1 Va2 Z2

Ia0 Ia1 Ia2

N0 G
N2

N1
Analysis of Double Line – to – ground Fault

Iaf = 0
Vbf = (Zf +Zg ) Ibf + Zg Ibf

Ia1 = 1.0 ∠ 0 °
(Z1 +Zf ) + (Z2+Zf )(Z0 +Zf + 3Zg)
Z0 + Z2 + 2Zf + 3Zg

## Ia2 = Ia1 Z0 + Zf + 3Zg

( Z0 + Zf + 3Zg ) + (Z2 +Zf )

## Ia0 = Ia1 (Z2 + Zf )

( Z2 + Zf ) + (Z0 + Zf +3Zg)

Iaf = 0

## Ibf = Ia0 + a2Ia1 + aIa2

Icf = Ia0 + aIa1 + a2Ia2

## Ia = Ibf + Icf = 3Ia0

Va0 = - Z0 Ia0
Va1 = 1.0 – Z1 Ia1
Va2 = - Z2 Ia2

## Vaf = Va0 + Va1 + Va2

Vbf = Va0 + a2Va1 + aVa2
Vcf = Va0 + aVa1 + a2Va2

Vbc = Vbf – Vcf
Vca = Vcf – Vaf

## Va0 = Va1 = Va2 = 1.0 – Z1 Ia1

Ia2 = - Va2
Z1

Ia0 = -Va0
Z0
Vaf = Va0 + Va1 + Va3 = 3Va1

Vbf = Vcf = 0

## Vab = Vaf – Vbf = Vaf

Vbc = Vbf – Vcf = 0
Vca = Vcf – Vaf = -Vaf
Three Phase Fault

Model

Fault point
a
b
c
Iaf Zf Ibf Zf Zf Icf

## Interconnection of sequence network

F2
F0
Zf
Va2 Z2
Va0 Z0 Ia2 = 0
Ia0 = 0

F1 N2
N0

Va1 Z1
Ia1

N1
Analysis of Three phase fault (symmetrical)

Iao = 0
Ia2 = 0
Ia1 = 1.0 ∠ 0 °
Z1 + Zf

Iaf 1 1 1 0
Ibf = 1 a2 a Ia1
Icf 1 a a2 0

Z1 + Zf

Z1 + Zf

Z1 + Zf

Va0 = 0
Va1 = Zf Ia1
Va2 = 0

Vaf 1 1 1 0
Vbf = 1 a2 a Va1
Vcf 1 a a2 0

## Vbf = aVa1 = Zf Ia1∠120

Vab = Vaf – Vbf = Va1 ( 1- a2 ) = √3 Zf Ia1∠30
Vbc = Vbf – Vcf = Va1 ( a2 -a ) = √3 Zf Ia1∠-90
Vca = Vcf – Vaf = Va1 ( a -1 ) = √3 Zf Ia1∠150
Three phase fault (unsymmetrical)

Fault point

a
b
c
Zf1 Zf2 Zf3

Zg

Fault point
a
b
c
Zf1 Zf1 Zf2

Zg

Fault point
a
b
c
Zf1 Zf2 Zf3
Fault point

a
b
c
Zf1 Zf2 Zf3

Fault point

a
b
c
Zf1 Zf2 Zf3

Fault point

a
b
c
Zf1 Zf2 Zf3
Fault point
a
b
c
Zf Zf

Zg

Fault point

a
b
c
Zf Zf

Fault point
a
b
c
Zf

Zg
Fault point

a
b
c
Zf Zf

Zg

Fault point

a
b
c

Zf

Fault point

a
b
c
Fault point Fault point
a
b
c

Zg

a
b
c
Zf Zf Zf

a
b
c