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Motor Protection

Introduction

z Many different applications


z Different motor characteristics

Difficult to standardise protection

Protection applied ranges from

FUSES to RELAYS
Introduction

COST & EXTENT = POTENTIAL


OF PROTECTION HAZARDS

SIZE OF MOTOR,
TYPE & IMPORTANCE
OF THE LOAD
Motor Protection

SYSTEM MOTOR CIRCUIT LOAD


Voltage Dips Insulation failure Overload
Voltage Open circuits Locked rotor
Unbalance Short circuits Coupling faults
Loss of supply Overheating Bearing faults
Faults
Motor Protection Application
Voltage Rating Switching Protection
Device

< 600V < 11kW Contactor (i) Fuses


(ii) Fuses + direct acting
thermal O/L + U/V
releases

< 600V 11 - 300kW Contactor Fuses


+ Electronic O/L
3.3kV 100kW - 1.5MW Contactor + Time delayed E/F
Options :- Stalling
6.6kV 1MW - 3MW Contactor Undercurrent

6.6kV > 1MW Circuit


Breaker As above
+ Instantaneous O/C
11kV > 1MW Circuit + Differential
Breaker
Introduction

Protection must be able to :-


Operate for abnormal conditions

Protection must not :-


Affect normal motor operation

Considerations :-
- Starting current
- Starting time
- Full load current
- Stall withstand time (hot & cold)
- Thermal withstand
Mechanical Overload
Mechanical Overload
OVERLOAD

HEATING

INSULATION
DETERIORATION

OVERLOAD PROTECTION

FUSES THERMAL REPLICA


Motor Heating
MOTOR TEMPERATURE

T = Tmax (1 - e-t/τ)

TMAX

Time
Rate of rise depend on motor
thermal time constant τ

or as temp rise ∝ (current)2


T = KI2max (1 - e-t/τ)
Motor Heating
I2

I22 T2
I12 T1
IR2 TMAX

Time
t2 t1
Time

t1
t2 Thermal Withstand

Current
IR I1 I2
Motor Cooling

COOLING EQUATION :

I2m' = I2m e-t/τr

Current2
Im

Im'

0 t Time
After time ‘t’ equivalent motor current is reduced from Im
to Im’.
Motor Heating
Temp

Trip
Tmax
T

t1 t2 Time
Cooling time
constant τr
t1 = Motor restart not possible
t2 = Motor restart possible
Emergency Restart

z In certain applications, such as mine


exhaust and ship pumps, a machine
restart is required knowing that it will
result in reduced life or even
permanent damage.

– All start up restrictions are inhibited


– Thermal state limited to 90%
Start / Stall Protection
Stalling Protection

Required for :-
Stalling on start-up (locked rotor)
Stalling during running

With normal 3Ø supply :-

ISTALL = ILOCKED ROTOR ~ ISTART

∴ Cannot distinguish between ‘STALL’ and ‘START’ by


current alone.

Most cases :- tSTART < tSTALL WITHSTAND


Sometimes :- tSTART > tSTALL WITHSTAND
Locked Rotor Protection
Start Time < Stall Withstand Time

Where Starting Time is less than Stall Withstand Time :


z Use thermal protection characteristic
z Use dedicated locked rotor protection
Locked Rotor Protection :- tSTART < tSTALL

Thermal relay also provides protection against 3Ø stall.


t

Thermal Cold Curve

tSL Cold Stall


Withstand
tST

Start
Thermal Hot Curve

IFL IST I
ISL
Dedicated Locked Rotor Protection

Definite Time

Thermal Cold O/C (IS) (tS)


T
tSL
tS
Cold Stall Trip
tSTART Withstand

tSL > tS > tSTART

IST
IS
ISL
Hot Stall Protection

Tstart < Tstall


Use of motor start contact to distinguish between starting and hot stall

Time

Hot Stall Withstand


start
time

tSL (HOT)

Full load Io/c Current


Current
Locked Rotor Protection
Start Time > Cold Stall Withstand

z Motors with high inertia loads may often take longer to


start than the stall withstand time
z However, the rotor is not being damaged because, as
the rotor turns the “skin effect” reduces, allowing the
current to occupy more of the rotor winding
z This reduces the heat generated and dissipates the
existing heat over a greater area
z Detect start using tachometer input
Stall Protection

Tstart > Tstall


Use of tachoswitch and definite time overcurrent relay.

Time
Tacho opens at
∼ 10% speed

TD < Tstall
> Tacho opening
Start
Time Stall - Tstall
TD

Full load Io/c Current


Current
Unbalanced Supply Protection
Operation on Supply Unbalance

Negative sequence impedance is much less than positive


sequence impedance.

Small unbalance = relatively large negative sequence


current.

Heating effect of negative sequence is greater than


equivalent positive sequence current because they are
HIGHER FREQUENCY.
Operation on Supply Unbalance

At normal running speed

POSITIVE SEQ IMP ≈ STARTING CURRENT


NEGATIVE SEQ IMP NORMAL RUNNING
CURRENT

Negative sequence impedance is much less than positive


sequence impedance.

Small unbalance = relatively large negative sequence


current.

Heating effect of negative sequence is greater than


equivalent positive sequence current because they are
HIGHER FREQUENCY.
Equivalent Motor Current

Heating from negative sequence current greater than


positive sequence

→ take this into account in thermal calculation

Ieq = (I12 + nI22)½

where : n = typically 6

→ small amount of I2 gives large increase in Ieq and


hence calculated motor thermal state.
Loss of 1 Phase While Starting

STAR Normal starting current DELTA


A
V
Ι A = AN A
z z
z
With 1 phase open C
z
B VAB 3VAN B
C
Ι' A = =
2z 2z
= 0.866 x Ι A 3VAB
Normal =
1 1 z
Ι1 = (Ι' A + aΙ'B ) = (1- a)Ι' A
3 3 1 Phase open
1 3
Ι1 = Ι A = VAB x
2 2z
1 1 = 0.866 x normal
Ι 2 = (Ι' A + a Ι'B ) = (1- a2 )Ι' A
2
3 3
1 1 winding carries twice
Ι2 = Ι A
2 the current in the other 2.
Single Phase Stalling Protection

z Loss of phase on starting motor remains stationary


z Start Current = 0.866 normal start I
z Neg seq component = 0.5 normal start I

– Clear condition using negative sequence element

Typical setting ~ 1/3 I2


i.e. 1/6 normal start current
Single Phasing While Running

Difficult to analyse in simple terms


z Slip calculation complex
z Additional I2 fed from parallel equipment

Results in :-
z I2 causes high rotor losses.
Heating considerably increased.
z Motor output reduced.
May stall depending on load.
z Motor current increases.
Reverse Phase Sequence Starting

Protection required for lift motors, conveyors

Instantaneous I2 unit

Time delayed thermal trip

Separate phase sequence detector for low


load current machines
Undervoltage Protection
Undervoltage Considerations

z Reduced torque
z Increased stator current
z Reduced speed
z Failure to run-up

Form of undervoltage condition :-


z Slight but prolonged (regulation)
z Large transient dip (fault clearance)

Undervoltage protection :-
z Disconnects motor from failed supply
z Disconnects motor after dip long enough to
prevent successful re-acceleration
Undervoltage Considerations

z U/V tripping should be delayed for essential motors so


that they may be given a chance to re-accelerate
following a short voltage dip (< 0.5s)

z Delayed drop-out of fused contactor could be arranged


by using a capacitor in parallel with the AC holding coil
Insulation Failure
Insulation Failure

Results of prolonged or cyclic overheating

z Instantaneous Earth Fault Protection


z Instantaneous Overcurrent Protection
z Differential Protection on some large machines
Stator Earth Fault Protection

Rstab

50 (A) Residually connected CT’s

50 (B) Core Balance (Toroidal)CT

M Note: * In (A) CT’s can also drive thermal protection


* In (B) protection can be more sensitive
and is stable
50
Short Circuit

z Due to the machine construction internal phase-phase


faults are almost impossible
z Most phase-phase faults occur at the machine terminals
or occasionally in the cabling
z Ideally the S/C protection should be set just above the
max Istart (I>>=1.25Istart), however, there is an initial
start current of up to 2.5Istart which rapidly reduces over
3 cycles
– Increase I>> or delay tI>> in small increments
according to start conditions
– Use special I>> characteristic
Instantaneous Earth Fault or Neg. Seq. Tripping is not
Permitted with Contactors

TRIP

TIME

MPR

FUSE
M

Ts MPR
ELEMENT

Is Icont CURRENT

Ts > Tfuse at Icont.


Differential Protection
High-Impedance Winding Differential Protection

87 87 87
A B C

Note: Protection must be stable with starting current.


Self-Balance Winding Differential Protection

87
A

87
B

87
C
Bearings
Bearing Failure

Electrical Interference
Induced voltage
Results in circulating currents
May fuse the bearings
Remember to take precautions - earthing

Mechanical Failure
Increased Friction
Loss or Low Lubricant
Heating
Use of RTDs

RTD sensors at known stator hotspots

Absolute temperature measurements to bias the relay


thermal characteristic

Monitoring of motor / load bearing temperatures

Ambient air temperature measurement


Synchronous Motors
Synchronous Machines

z OUT OF STEP PROTECTION


Inadequate field or excessive load can cause the
machine to fall out of step. This subjects the
machine to overcurrent and pulsating torque
leading to stalling
>Field Current Method
Detect AC Current Induced In Field
Circuit.
>Power Factor Method
Detect Heavy Current At Low Power
Factor.
Synchronous Machines

z LOSS OF SUPPLY
On Loss Of Supply Motor Should Be
Disconnected If Supply Could Be Restored
Automatically.
Avoids Supply Being Restored Out Of Phase.

>Over voltage & Under frequency


>Under power & Reverse Power