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(New Ideas on Big Bang)

Dayton, Ohio 45429 – USA

E-mail: gaurodec@netscape.net

Abstract

This article puts forward some ideas in the context of cosmological issues. The main suggestion

is to replace the singularity notion, which is the main contention of Big Bang’s theory, and to

this end a thought process is proposed: what would the end result be if all of universe’s mass,

energy and spacetime could be compressed under definite circumstances? Another possible start

to universe, different from infinity notions, is examined. The relative proportions of universe’s

volumes of spacetime and mass-energy are also numerically assessed, with somewhat

surprinsing results.

Maybe something in the article could eventually lead someone to other elaborations.

_____________________________________________________________________________

THE STAR BANG

Gonzalo A. Ordóñez

1. Introduction

The ideas and terminology of this article are based on two previous works of the same author

([01] and [02]). Some key words (as Apex hypothesis, D, Massen, Nozerinf hypothesis, Prebig,

Nocer, …) were used in those works.

The Summary of Numerical Values (par. 12) gives a classified list of the parameters (whose

names are always written in bold characters) I have used in the text, with its numerical values

usually calculated up to 9 decimals (even though the observed or experimental values generally

have less significant digits). This was done in order to facilitate the monitoring of calculations.

However, numerical values in the text appear as a rule with only two decimals. The asterisk (*)

denotes multiplication and the slash (/) denotes division. When a magnitude carries signs < or >

we will assume the sign = to perform calculations.

Throughout the article protons and quarks will be used, as representative not only of baryons in

general but of all of prebig's mass+energy, i.e, massen (prebig being the universe before the Big

Bang) . Note, however, that we are not implying that prebig was as a matter of fact formed by,

say, just protons, but only that these provide an equivalence to work with. It was assumed

throughout the article that the particles and cosmological objects have a spherical shape, unless

stated differently.

In this paper we will work basically with the space component of spacetime.

The widely accepted view about the origin of the universe is the so called hot Big Bang, taken as

implying a sudden increase in the size of something (‘prebig’), incredibly small and subject to

extreme conditions (mainly density and temperature).

In fact, postulating an infinite density for prebig is a bizarre idea because, regardless of what

exists in the universe, all of it is supposedly reduced to an almost "magical" singularity, a

mathematical zero-dimensional point of spacetime/energy where the known laws of physics fail.

The nozerinf hypothesis [01] rejects the theoretical contention that prebig was a singularity with

zero dimensions and infinite density. Then, prebig would have to be something with a finite

dimension and a non-infinite density. The finite density situation could derive itself from the

posited existence of D, the density apex [01, par.7.1], which would mark a limit to prebig's

density. According to nozerinf, a finite prebig has to be composed by discrete 3-dimension

unknown particles (indivisons) and not by a continuous medium.

3. Working parameters

According to NASA [03], present average universe's mass density = 9,9*10-30 g/cm3= avdens,

equivalent to 5,9 protons/m3 = num1. These values (for a flat universe and corresponding to the

critical density within 1%) include atoms' mass (4,6%), or about one proton per 4 m3; cold dark

matter (23%), and dark energy (~72%).

For the sake of making some idea let's think we could focus on space only. The universe is

assumed to be spherical. The present universe's diameter might be some 92*109 light years [04],

and its volume, 3,45*1080 m3= volu3. Then, from volu3 and num1, the whole universe would

contain 2,04*1081 protons = num3.

The accumulation density apex in nocer is D >= 1,5*1028 kg/m3 [01, par.7.1].

(See them in par. 12). Each parameter usually carry the indication of its numerical value’s source

or of how it was obtained.

The present usual cosmological theories of the Big Bang considers that it all started with a

singularity, a mathematical point of infinite density formed by the inconceivable compression of

spacetime and massen. In order to avoid the largely bizarre idea of a singularity it is also

accepted the notion that the compression led to something, enormously dense and small, for

instance smaller than a proton. In this paper I provide a way to better understand the magnitude

of the needed spacetime compression, which is so easily alluded to in the “infinite density

singularity”.

In order to examine this notion let’s start with our universe as we know it now. Of course we

consider that the totality of the present universe was originally in the pre-Big Bang state, and the

opposite is also assumed as true: it was such a state that generated after Big Bang the totality of

present universe.

Universe’s present (“normal”) spacetime volume is volu3 = 3,45*1080 m3 , and universe’ massen

is massen1 = 3,42*1054 kg (see par. 12). As I argue in a posterior section (par. 8), this massen

can have a volume volu31 of 2,27*1026 m3 , so it is now possible to establish the ratio volu3 /

volu31 = squeez331 = 1,52*1054 . To have an intuitive idea of the meaning of this ratio let us

consider a sphere with a volume of 1,41*1027 m3 (the size of our sun), and imagine that it

represents all of universe’s space. The inverse of the above ratio, applied to that sphere, is

9,303767596*10-28 m3 . Consider now a typical influenza A virus, which (if spherical) could

have a diameter of 100 nm and a volume of 5,235988*10-22 m3 . Then, 9,30*10-28 / 5,24*10-22 =

= 1,77*10-6 . In other words, if the totality of universe’s space were deemed to have a volume as

sun’s, then the totality of universe’s massen volume, compressed in the same ratio, would have

the size of something as the millionth part of a virus! Clearly, universe’s space is absolutely

gigantic by comparison to universe’s massen; the “contribution” of massen’s volume to

universe’s is incredibly insignificant, and probably connected to the relative weakness of gravity

force (or spacetime curvature).

Imagining now the presumed reduction of universe’s spacetime to less than a proton’s size (in

some Big Bang theories), it is clear that, in this case, massen would mean virtually nothing and

its role in the Big Bang would be likewise negligible. In numbers, and assuming the quasi

singularity has a proton’s volume (2,85941173*10-45 m3), it is easy to find that massen would be

1,883664769*10-99 m3 ! It looks almost impossible for this minuscule amount of massen to have

generated a gigantic spacetime curvature or have been the motor force to start and develop

inflation. Massen is so small relative to spacetime that it appears hard to understand how gravity

could slow spacetime expansion after Big Bang.

Being my contention then a) that an almost infinitesimal universe pre-Big Bang looks as

certainly wrong , and b) that on the “explosion” the negligible available massen could not have

had any important role, I propose in this article an alternative mechanism.

Let's note down some qualitative properties of spacetime, as listed by the author:

- Can be enormously "compressed" (along with massen) in a black hole and in the pre-Big Bang.

According to most current cosmological theories on reversing universe’s expansion (something

like an “intrapolation”), spacetime will continue to shrink up to zero and go to infinite massen

density. (Of course, nozerinf forbids that).

- Can be immensely stretched or "decompressed" (along with massen) after the Big Bang.

According to accepted cosmological theories spacetime will continue to expand up to infinity,

hence to zero massen density. (Of course, nozerinf forbids that).

- At big scale the universe is only very slightly curved because massen density is enormously

low at this scale. If this curvature, even slight, is positive, then spacetime would have to be

closed, hence probably finite.

- Spacetime is considered a field and has flexibility to adopt almost any curvature, resembling

physical fluids, but unlike those fluids, it cannot be separated into discontinuous parts nor it can

freely flow.

- Spacetime has the property to diffuse or spread electromagnetic radiation (for instance, heat),

and also to “canalize” electromagnetic beams, which appear to move as “slaves” of spacetime

shape (geodesics).

- If spacetime is something that can be extremely compressed and extremely expanded, but it is

not a gas or plasma, it is no doubt an entity totally different from whatever we know or

understand. According to nozerinf, spacetime is not continuous but has kind of a granular

structure. Most of Big Bang theories posit that spacetime is a continuous entity, incredibly

compressed at the pre-Big Bang, but this sort of medium has no parts, hence cannot be

compressed at all because only something with a granular medium can be compressed. In other

words, spacetime needs to have some kind of structure in order to be compressed.

When the expansion of the universe was discovered, and a basically lineal galactic movement

was defined, came at once the idea of “intrapolate” that movement and try to arrive to the

moment zero, the start of the universe. Mathematically that moment resulted to be a singularity, a

point of null dimension and infinite density which, as an unavoidable conclusion, had to contain

all the matter, all the energy and all the spacetime of the universe as we know it now.

In the following I argue instead that the spacetime and massen, along its intrapolation journey,

took a different path and ended in a different state.

To begin I will take num1 (5,9 protons/m3 ), as an average representing universe’s massen. I will

work only with “generic” protons and quarks, not taking into account detail characteristics or the

other Standard Model particles, but not implying that for me the physical reality was based only

on protons and quarks. My sole purpose is to examine in general terms how could have been an

alternative to a Big Bang based in a singularity.

The quarks inside a proton are what I call in general just “quarks” or “mass quarks”, assuming

that they concentrate all of proton’s mass. For comparisons with upcoming data: a “free” or

“normal” proton has a diamPr diameter of 1,761*10-15 m, which numerically amounts to the

juxtaposition of some 17 610 mass quark’s diameter.

Inside a proton there is not only the mass, represented by the three mass quarks, but also

powerful energy fields. Let us consider that all the proton’s mass is divided amongst the three

quarks (massPr / 3 = 5,58*10-28 kg), so the result per quark is a composite of mass+energy

which I call “massen quark”. The ratio massPr / massQ = 213,24 = num5, so each massen

quark is equivalent to num5 / 3 = 71,08121437 mass quarks.

I also will work with volu3, the universe’s volume: 3,45*1080 m3 [04]; with voluPr, proton’s

volume (2,86*10-45 m3 [02,par.5.1], equivalent to the sum of volumes of about 5,46*1012 mass

quarks), and with voluQ, mass quark’s volume (5,24*10-58 m3 [01, par.7.1]) . It is also assumed

that inside protons and quarks there exists spacetime, just like outside them. (See discussion in

[02, par. 7.2]; I adopted the idea above as the simpler one.). Total universe’s number of protons

is num3 = volu3 * num1 = 2,04*1081 .

At present time, and in our universe, each proton’s center, relative to each other proton’s, is at an

average spacing spacPrUni = 0,55 m, equal to the sum of some 3,14*1014 proton’s diameter.

Let’s now suppose that some unknown incredible force field, akin to gravity, starts to gradually

compress spacetime and, consequently, to a) shorten the distance between center of protons, and

b) compress spacetime inside protons. Of course this force field has to be “internal” to the

universe because nothing exists outside it, and the same situation arises when “intrapolating” the

galactic movement.

For this supposed process of compression of the universe we keep the working simplifying

hypothesis that protons represent all of mass and energy of the universe. One could imagine that,

on average, for each contracting cubic meter of space some 5,9 protons come close to another 5,9

protons, and so on. Finally after a time, presumably long, a body could be formed with all of

spacetime squeezed inside. We will call volu1 this body, such that volu1 = num3 * voluPr.

Probably that body, containing num3 protons, is spherical if we assume an average symmetry for

the unknown force. On its way to volu1 the universe could be thought of as essentially a sphere

of spacetime with protons “embedded”, which are becoming closer and closer to one another.

Eventually protons will be as close to one another as possible but keeping their integrity.

Using volu1 and num3 it is possible to calculate that, at volu1, spherical proton’s centers would

be at a mutual distance spac1Pr = 1,42*10-15 m (equal to diameter diam1Prs = 81% of diamPr,

and equal to the sum of some 14 194 mass quark’s diameter), and curiously this means that

protons, if still spherical, will be somewhat squashed in to a volume volu1Prs = 1,50*10-45 m3

(about 52% of voluPr and equivalent to 2,86*1012 mass quark’s volume). This is curious

because volu1, which was arrived at simply by multiplying num3 by voluPr, implies

“automatically” the mentioned proton’s squeeze. It is as if , upon the simple (but forced)

gathering of all universe’s protons in this body I call volu1, the compressed universe’s spacetime

became divided out between a part being inside protons (52%) and a part lying outside and

amongst them (48%).

However, volu1 can also be formed by cubic protons with a volume volu1Prc = voluPr each,

with edge spac1Prc = spac1Pr. These cubic protons are fully adjacent to one another and do not

leave any “interststitial” volume.

Being formed by protons, volu1 would have a volume volu1 = num3 * voluPr = 5,82*1036 m3 =

= num3 * volu1Prc (when working with cubic protons). If considering only the spacetime

inside spherical protons, body’s volume would be volu1s = num3 * volu1Prs = 3,05*1036 m3 ,

smaller than volu1. From now on we will work with volu1 because it has a compact

arrangement. This body volu1 would have a diameter diam1 of 2,23*1012 m (radius of

1 116*106 km). For a comparison, it is a value numerically not far from that of the mean distance

Saturn-Sun. At this stage, volu1, with the size of a giant star, would contain all the universe’s

massen. All of universe’s spacetime would also be compressed inside the plurality of volu1’s

protons, with a ratio squeez31 = 5,93*1043 , which implies that a volume of 0,17 m3 of spacetime

is squashed inside each cubic proton! This ratio squeez31 is incredible huge but not infinite.

In spite of holding all of the enormous universe’s massen (massen1 = 3,42*1054 kg), volu1 is

essentially a spacetime body only. As later will be explained, each proton is formed by spacetime

(voluPrst = 2,86*10-45 m3 = voluPr) plus three massen quarks (voluPreq = 1,12*10-55 m3 for the

trio). I have assumed that massen also contains spacetime, and that is why voluPrst equals

voluPr. It can be seen that massen (plus its spacetime) inside proton is only a minuscule fraction

of proton’s volume (massenPr2 = 3,90*10-11), and all the rest (percPr2 = 99,9999999961%) is

”pure” spacetime.

Finally, it is interesting to compare the proton’s center to center distance in volu1 with the

similar distance in some heavy chemical element’s nucleus, for instance in uranium-238. Its

nucleus’s diameter is about 15 fm [7]; for proton’s diameter we will take diamPr = 1,761*10-15

m; for neutrons, mean square radius is 0,8 fm [8].

238

U has 92 protons and 146 neutrons, so the nucleus' volume would be some 1,767*10-42 m3 .

For protons we take voluPr = 2,85941173*10-45 m3 . For neutrons we take a diameter of

1,6*10-15 m, that is a volume of 2,144660582*10-45 m3 . Hence, 92 protons give

2,630658792*10-43 m3 ; 146 neutrons give 3,13120445*10-43 m3 . Total, 5,761863242*10-43 m3 .

Finally, 5,762*10-43 m3 / 1,767*10-42 m3 = 0,326 .

So, in the uranium nucleus the 238 nucleons occupy only about 33% of the available volume.

The rest would be spacetime.

Now, to simplify, let's assume neutrons are the same size as protons. Then, mean space between

nucleons centers in the nucleus = (1,767*10-42 m3 / 238)1/3 = 1,951*10-15 m. This is bigger than

diamPr (1,951*10-15 m / 1,761*10-15 m = 1,108), hence nucleons are not compressed at all even

in such a heavy nucleus as uranium's, because their center to center distance is about 11% bigger

than nucleon's diameter. It is in some way as if the nucleons were freely “floating” in the

nucleus. Now, proton’s center to center in volu1 is diamPrs = 1,42*10-15 m, even smaller than

diamPr.

The imagined compression of volu1 continues and, in the common view, its density would grow

boundless, so it could go on and on up to the imagined singularity and its infinities. In my

hypothesis [01, par.7], however, compression will eventually find an insurmountable “wall”: the

apex density D of 1,5*1028 kg/m3 . This is when massen1 is going to form a body, probably

spherical and essentially incompressible, I call volu31. Its volume would be volu31 = massen1 /

D = 2,27*1026 m3 , with a diameter diam31 = 7,57 *108 m, which to give an idea is numerically

like a little more than half the sun’s diameter. So, volu31, like volu1, contains all of universe’s

volume and massen. To arrive at this body, volu1 needed a compression factor squeez131 of

2,56*1010 .

Do not forget that, to “represent “ massen in the universe, we are working only with protons,

quarks and energies. No use is done of quantum and gravitational interactions because we are

interested only in the total behavior of a body like volu31.

This body, now compressed as much as apex density allows, continues nevertheless having

protons. But these are enormously crushed together particles, although keeping a spherical shape.

Its diameter would be only 0,027% of diamPr or 4,82*10-19 m = diam31Prss, with an hugely

reduced volume volu31Prss = 5,85*10-56 m3 (2*10-11 of voluPr) . So, this is a size equal to only

some 4,8 quark’s diameter and 112 quark’s volume (cf. spac31Pr).

Now, let’s retake the massen quarks. As seen before (par. 6), each massen quark is equal to

num5 / 3 = 71,08121437 mass quarks. Volume of each massen quark = volu31Qeq =

= num5 / 3 * voluQ = 3,72*10-56 m3 . We are going to assume that this volume adopts a

spherical shape, and we call such a sphere a “miniproton”. Each one of these, then, on my

assumption, has a mass quark surrounded by energy equivalent to the other 70,08121437 mass

quarks. A diameter may then be determined for the miniproton: diam31Qeq = 4,14*10-19 m, a

diameter equal to some 4 quark’s diameter.

For three miniprotons inside a volu31 proton (volu31Prss) the sum of their volumes is

volu31Prc = 1,12*10-55 m3 , which is some 1,91 times bigger than the proton. This could be a

reason for the three miniprotons to “destroy” the proton and get loose.

We have assumed that all of universe’s spacetime is inside the miniprotons, and furthermore,

mass quarks, being three-dimensional objects, should also have inside them spacetime. The

totality of mass quarks could form a volume: volu31mq = voluQ * num4mq = 3,2*1024 m3 .

Imagining this volume as a sphere, its diameter would be only 1,83*108 m. To have another idea

of the universe’s mass smallness, consider that volu31mq is scarcely 1,40% of volu31 .

Note that all of massen1 is in volu31q (this is volu31 stripped of all of its spacetime), so its density

would be dens31q = 3,84*1038 kg/m3 . But this is 2,56*1010 times bigger than the apex D and

should not be allowed, meaning that a sphere formed only by massen cannot exist because in

order to have at most the density D it needs spacetime (a good amount of it).

In sum, we are assuming that volu1 and volu31 contain universe's spacetime in its entirety –

inside protons or miniprotons. This means that there is not spacetime at all between them

because of their absolutely compact arrangement. So, along the process of going from volu3 to

volu1 and beyond, spacetime somehow has to become compressed, gradually disappearing

outside protons and entering inside them by means of some monstrous squeezing.

There are two interesting coincidences as to the structure of volu1 and volu31.

-- For the formation of volu1 I assume only that num3 “normal” spherical protons voluPr

become congregated in a spherical body, but then it turned out that this body can best be formed

by voluPr cubic protons. This congregation would be fully compact, without interstices, so that

all of the universe’s spacetime is totally compressed inside the cubic protons.

-- For the formation of volu31 I assume only that the apex D is applied to massen1 and the

num3 spherical protons (very squeezed) are congregated in a spherical body, but then it turned

out that this body can best be formed by cubic protons with a volume volu31Prc. This

congregation would also be totally compact and will contain (although enormously compressed)

all of universe’s spacetime.

The extreme squeezing that originated volu31 gave rise to the following, really “explosive”,

situation:

- Hugely compressed protons. Instead of a “normal” proton which, theoretically, could house the

total volume of up to 5,46*1012 mass quarks, these squeezed protons now could put up the total

volume of only some 213 mass quarks.

- Incredible circumstance for miniprotons. Under the hypothesis that all of spacetime is inside

volu31, this means that all of universe’s spacetime has to be inside the whole plurality of

miniprotons. To go from volu3 to volu31 a squeezing ratio squeez331 = 1,52*1054 is needed,

and this unimaginable compression has to put 0,056 m3 of normal spacetime inside each

miniproton!

- On the other side, massen we have. Inside a normal proton there exists, apart from quarks, very

powerful fields, mainly gluons’s. Once protons arrive at the volu31 stage and are cubic protons,

they have suffered a compression squeezPrPrc = 2,56*1010 which is enormous enough (apart

from all quantum and gravitational effects) to contribute substantially to the (spacetime) Big

Bang.

All of this could originate a cosmologic spacetime/massen object we call “Star Bang”, which

could also be thought of as containing a hugely energetic “quark-gluon plasma”. It could

generate, I think, more than enough fluctuations to give rise later to universe’s macrostructure.

The whole universe’s electromagnetic field (num4 = 3,27*1090 photons) also would have to be

in the Star Bang. Taking only the universe’s number of photons to represent that field, a ratio can

be established of photons to mass quarks: num4 / num4mq = 3,27*1090 / 6,11*1081 =

= 5,35*108 . This enormous number of photons per quark gives a good idea of the probable EMF

charge exerted over the universe’s massen.

So, compressed spacetime (and massen) may generate a monstrous decompression force which,

once unleashed through the Star Bang, sparked off the Big Bang.

Star Bang would be formed only of spacetime+matter+energy. It appears then that no problem

would exist about Big Bang’s matter-antimatter or of the matter only survival conundrum.

Consider that when universe was 10-8 his present size, its temperature was 2,73*108 K and its

density was comparable to air's at Earth surface, approx. 1 kg/m3 [06]. Let's compare this

situation with volu31's: its volume is 6,587595445*10-55 of volu3. Now, 1/(6,587595445*10-55)

= 1,518004571*1054 . Assuming the same inverse lineal relationship between volume and

temperature one finds that volu31 temperature would have been 2,73*1,518004571*1054 =

4,144152479*1054 K. That is, an unimaginable temperature but very appropriate for setting off a

Big Bang! No need for an infinite temperature.

Recall that volu31 has a diameter of about 757 000 km, that is to say, the proportions of a star,

and is the genesis of the Big Bang. That is why I have dubbed “Star Bang” to this posited

extraordinary body, which moreover contains massen1, i.e., all of universe’s massen.

In the traditional Big Bang theory there is no explanation about how started to exist the supposed

infinite density singularity that “exploded”. Hence, I could likewise assume that the “exploding”

entity was the Star Bang.

The supposed singularity is deemed as an entity where are inapplicable, or fail, the known laws

of physics and cosmology. On the contrary, the Star Bang is a body which could perfectly be

analyzed with the available scientific tools.

One interesting possibility also arises about the expansion originated for the Star Bang: maybe as

a matter of fact an almost instantaneous and overwhelming Big Bang did not occurred but really

happened a relatively slow expansion of spacetime and massen.

Another point of view on the horizon problem (the large scale universe's homogeneity and

isotropy): According to the homogeneity and isotropy principles, a substantial spherical

symmetry could be assumed for the universe. Then the compression phase will plausibly produce

a volu1 and a volu31 shaped as spheres. Hence it is reasonable to consider that all of Star Bang’s

parts have essentially the same physical characteristics, heat for instance. On the other hand,

once the compression phase has reached D and ended, some three seconds time looks sufficient

to generate a full massen’s mixing before the expansion of Big Bang starts.

Of course, it can also be assumed that massen and spacetime are intrinsically such that the

"dilution" or dispersion of the former into the latter always results in a state similar from one

place to another, regardless of not being causally connected as inflation is supposed to allow.

This assumption is not more or less arbitrary than, for instance, introducing an inflaton field and

postulating for spacetime an incredibly huge and fast growth.

Let's assume that in prebig the spacetime indivisons were as today's quark's volume, and that

such indivisons underwent the stretching1 amplification. We can then calculate these indivisons'

today's volume:

voluQ = 5,23599*10-58 m3 ; stretching1 = 1,51515151*1054 . So,

voluQ * stretching1 = 7,933318155 * 10-4 m3 , and diameter = 0,114855575 m .

Today's spacetime indivisons does not have a diameter of some 11 cm, hence:

- Prebig's spacetime indivisons were enormously smaller than today's quarks, or

- Prebig's spacetime indivisons did not underwent the stretching1 amplification, or

- Spacetime in general was at prebig's time the same as today's, i.e., did not

underwent any amplification.

- By the stretching of an original spacetime, or

- by the continuous creation of new spacetime .

In any case the expansion relies in very difficult to understand mechanisms.

VOLUMES

volu3 3,45230130*1080 m3 = universe’s volume when radius = 46*109 light-years [04].

voluPr 2,85941173*10-45 m3 = each proton's volume (charge radius=0,877±0,007

fm [05]), which is equal to the sum of the volumes of about

5,461071793*1012 mass quarks and 7,682862262*1010 massen quarks.

This is what I call a “normal” or “free” proton, i.e., a spherical one not

subjected to compression.

voluQ < 5,23599*10-58 m3 = each mass quark's volume [01, par.7.1].

voluPreq 1,116541583*10-55 m3 = volume inside a “normal” proton occupied by the

volum es of the three massen quarks = num5 * voluQ .

And voluPreq/ voluPr = 3,904794781*10-11 only.

volu1Prs 1,497184482*10-45 m3 = each spherical proton’s volume when it is (very

squeezed (see also squeez1PrPrs)) in volu1 = 0,523598776 of voluPr. Equal to the

sum of the volumes of about 2,859410507*1012 mass quark’s . (volu1Prs’s diameter

is diam1Prs).

volu1Prc 2,85941173*10-45 m3 = each cubic proton's volume at volu1 = voluPr.

volu31Prss 5,846198051*10-56 m3 = each spherical proton’s volume at volu31 (equal to the

sum of the volumes of about 111,6541103 mass quark’s) when it is (enormously

squeezed (see also squeezPrPrss) ) in volu31 = 2,044545733*10-11 of voluPr.

(volu31Prss’s diameter is diam31Prss).

volu31Prc 1,116541583*10-55 m3 = volume of a cubic proton at volu31 =

= volu31 / num3 (side = diam31Prss and volume = (spac31Pr)3 ), which is

num5 = 213,2436431 times as big as one mass quark’s volume and results to be

the “natural” component of volu31. This proton’s arrangement does not leave

interstices.

Each cube contains 3 miniprotons, that is, volu31Qeq * 3. Note that this volume

is 1,909859319 times (i.e., ratio between a cube and its inscribed sphere) bigger

than volu31Prss.

Ratio of cubic protons volumes at volu1 and volu31 :

volu1Prc (= voluPr) / volu31Prc = 2,85941173*10-45 m3 / 1,116541583*10-55

m3 = 2,560954087*1010 .

voluPrst 2,85941173*10-45 m3 = “normal” spacetime inside a “normal” proton =

= voluPr – voluPreq = voluPr, essentially (voluPreq is very small).

In fact, this spacetime equals the full voluPr because voluPreq also contains

spacetime.

volu31Qeq 3,721805276*10-56 m3 = volume of one spherical miniproton (say, at

(miniproton) volu31) = num5 * voluQ / 3. This volume is equal to the sum of the

volumes of num6 mass quark’s. (Diameter is diam31Qeq).

One miniproton ≡ one massen quark.

volu31Qeqc 3,721805277*10-56 m3 = volume of one cubic miniproton at volu31 =

= volu31Prc / 3. (Side = spac31Qeqc).

volu1 5,8242151*1036 m3 = num3 * voluPr . It is a body (assumed spherical) formed by

num3 cubic protons, each one with a volume volu1Prc = voluPr. In essence,

volu1 can be considered as a body of almost only spacetime, because scarcely

2,075164138*10-11 of it is massen (which also contains spacetime).

volu1s 3,04955189*1036 m3 = num3 * volu1Prs . It is a body (assumed spherical)

formed by num3 spherical protons, when each proton has a volume compressed

to 52% of voluPr (0,523598776 = volu1Prs / voluPr). It could be said that

volu1s is a “smaller volu1”.

volu1st 5,8242151*1036 m3 = “normal” spacetime inside volu1 =

= num3 * voluPrst = num3 * voluPr = volu1, essentially.

volu31 2,274236432*1026 m3 = body (assumed spherical) formed when dens3

‘Star Bang’ (i.e D, the apex density), is applied to massen1: volu31 = massen1 / D .

In fact, volu31 is a body whose whole volume I posit is formed by num3

(spherical or cubic, very squeezed) protons, and conceptually could contain two

kinds of spacetime:

- Massen’s spacetime solely, if volu3 is in its entirety outside volu31. This

volu31 spacetime is in fact the whole volu31 geometrical volume, or

- Universe’s spacetime volu3 if this is totally compressed inside miniprotons.

volu31c 2,274236432*1026 m3 = volu31 = (spherical) body constituted by num3 cubic

protons, each one with a volume volu31Prc.

volu31s 1,190787741*1026 m3 = volu31Prss * num3 = (spherical) body formed by

spherical protons in volu31 = some 52% (0,52359892, the ratio between volumes

of a sphere and the cube in which the sphere is inscribed) of volu31. It could be

said that volu31s is a “smaller volu31”.

volu31eq 2,274236432*1026 m3 = accumulated volume (tight packaging) of all

spherical miniprotons or massen quarks (say, in volu31) =

= 3 * num3 * volu31Qeq = volu31.

volu31mq 3,199490122*1024 m3 = accumulated volume (supposed spherical) of all

mass quarks (say, in volu31) = voluQ * num4mq. (Diameter:

diam31mq). And volu31mq is the 1,40% (0,014068414) of volu31 .

volu31nst 0,0 m3 (essentially zero) = fraction of volu31 which is not spacetime. All

of miniproton’s volume is also spacetime.

volu31q 8,880426594*1015 m3 = volu31 * massenPr2 = volu31 stripped of all its

spacetime. (This calculation is not acceptable because massenPr2 is applicable to

protons and not to miniprotons, but is given to show that it is not possible to have

volu31 without all of its spacetime).

volu2 4,5028905915*10-24 m3 = body (assumed spherical) formed with Planck size

indivisons and num3.

voluE < 5,23599*10-55 m3 = electron's volume [01, par.7.1].

volu0 2,2107044446*10-105 m3 = sphere with a diameter equal to Planck size.

MASS / ENERGY

massen1 3,417778287*1054 kg = universe’s total massen = volu3 * avdens1. (Scaling up

NASA's average mass density avdens [03]; see avdens1). (To have a sense of

magnitude: Sun's mass is 1,98855*1030 kg; then massen1 is 1,718729*1024 suns,

i.e., some 1,7 trillions of trillions of suns (using USA nomenclature)).

massPr 1,672621637*10-27 kg = proton's mass [05]. Proton is a sphere of massen and

spacetime. Each proton has three (mass) quarks, hence three miniprotons (massen

quarks).

massenPr1 5,4934271*10-13 = fraction of voluPr occupied only by mass (three mass quarks).

massenPr2 3,9047948*10-11 = fraction of voluPr occupied only by massen (three massen

quarks = three miniprotons). Notice that volu31Prc / voluPr =

= 3,912147527*10-11 , which is almost equal to massenPr2 (coincidence of

99,8120539%) . Hence, volu31Prc is massen.

massQ 7,8437116*10-30 kg = quark's mass [01, par.7.1].

mass31Qeq 5,575405457*10-28 kg = mass of one miniproton (1 massen quark), say in

(miniproton) volu31 = massPr / 3 = num5 / 3 * massQ .

masseq 3,406892428*1054 kg = universe’s total mass of all of the massen quarks (say, in

volu31) = num4eq * massQ .

massmq 4,792957546*1052 kg = universe’s total mass of all the mass quarks (say, in

volu31) = num4mq * massQ .

mass0 2,1764411*10-8 kg = Planck mass [05].

DENSITIES

densUni 9,9*10-27 kg/m3 = avdens1 = average universe’s massen density [03].

densvolu3 9,9*10-27 kg/m3 = densUni = massen1 / volu3 .

densPr 5,849530585*1017 kg/m3 = density of “normal” spherical proton =

= massPr / voluPr .

dens11 5,86822128*1017 kg/m3 = volu1’s density when massen1 is applied to volu1 and

it suffers no additional compression.

D 1,502824531* 1028 kg/m3 = volu31’s density when this cutoff parameter is

applied to volu1.

dens11Q 1,068225927*1030 kg/m3 = volu31mq’s density when massen1 is applied to it. It

is not allowed because is 71,2150618 times bigger than D .

dens31q 3,841431047*1038 kg/m3 = 3,4177783*1054 kg / 8,897148635*1015 m3 =

= volu31q‘s density when massen1 is applied to it. Is not allowed because it is

2,56095*1010 times bigger than D .

dens12 7,590187305*1077 kg/m3= volu2’s density when massen1 is applied to it.

It is not allowed because is 5,06012487*1049 times bigger than D.

D 1,502824531* 1028 kg/m3 (>= 1,5*1028 kg/m3) = density apex (adjusted

value).

S 1,518004571*1054 m3/m3 = “spacetime density” apex? (volu31 = volu3/S).

DIAMETERS

diamPr 1,761*10-15 m = proton's diameter [05].

diam1Prs 1,419358921*10-15 m (same as spac1Pr) = spherical proton’s diameter shrunk in

volu1 to some 81% (0,80599598) of diamPr.

diam31Prss 4,815317938*10-19 m (same as spac31Pr) = spherical proton’s diameter

shrunk in volu31 to some 0,027% (2,736137702*10-4 = diam31Prss / diamPr) of

diamPr.

diamQ < 10-19 m = quark's diameter [01, par.7.1].

diam31Qeq 4,142396584*10-19 m = diameter of a spherical miniproton or massen quark (say,

in volu31), whose volume is volu31Qeq; this is an energy/spacetime sphere for

each massen quark . It is equal in length to some 4,1 (4,142396584) quark's

diameter. (Equal to spac31Qeq).

diam1 2,23226763*1012 m = diameter of (spherical) volume volu1. (Radius is

1,116133815*109 km).

diam31 7,57319251*108 m = diameter of (spherical) volume volu31.

diam31eq 7,57319251*108 m = diameter of (spherical) volume volu31eq .

diam31mq 1,828215488*108 m = diameter of (spherical) volume volu31mq.

OTHER

avdens 9,9*10-30 g/cm3= average universe's massen density, after NASA [03].

avdens1 9,9*10-27 kg/m3 = avdens * 10-3 * 106 .

num1 5,9 protons/m3 = average univers e's density of protons, after NASA [03]. (This is

basically the same as avdens).

num11 9,868467658*10-27 kg/m3 = num1 * massPr kg/m3 . This is virtually equal to

avdens1 and is obtained by putting massPr instead of “protons” in num1, and

multiplying.

num3 2,0368578*1081 = universe's total number of protons, after volu3 * num1.

num4 3,2685428*1090 = universe's total number of photons.

A ratio can be established of photons to mass quarks (i.e., massen quarks):

num4 / num4mq = 3,2685428*1090 / 6,1105734*1081 = 5,348995235*108 .

num5 213,2436431 = ratio massPr / massQ = equivalent number of mass quarks per

“normal” proton.

num6 71,08121437 = num5 / 3 = equivalent number of mass quarks per miniproton.

num4eq 4,343469777*1083 = universe’s equivalent number of mass quarks =

= num5 * num3 .

num4mq 6,1105734*1081 = universe’s number of mass quarks, i.e., number of miniprotons

or massen quarks (say, in volu31) = 3 * num3 .

percPr1 99,999999999945065729 % of proton's volume that is “pure” spacetime + energy =

100 - (100 * massenPr1).

percPr2 99,9999999960952052 % of proton's volume that is only “pure” spacetime

= 100 - (100 * massenPr2).

spacPr 1,761*10-15 m = diamPr = mean distance between centers of “normal”, just

touching, spherical protons. This spacing is equal to the sum of about

17 610 mass quark’s diameter.

spacPrU 1,95083197*10-15 m = mean spacing between centers of nucleons in the

uranium 238 nucleus. It is > diamPr .

spacPrUni 0,553412965 m = mean spacing between protons in present “full size” universe.

(This is about 3,142606275*1014 proton’s diameter).

spac1Pr 1,419358921*10-15 m = mean spacing in volu1 between centers of

shrunk spherical protons (compressed at about 81% (0,80599598 =

= spac1Pr / diamPr)) = (voluPr)1/3 . This spacing is equal to the sum of about

14 194 mass quark’s diameter.

spac1Prc 1,419358921*10-15 m = the edge of a cube at volu1 whose volume is

(spac1Pr)3= 2,859411735*10-45 m3 = voluPr .

spac31Pr 4,815317938*10-19 m = mean spacing in volu31 between centers of squeezed

spherical protons (compressed at about 0,027% (0,027 61376)) = (volu31 /

num3)1/3 . This spacing is equal to 4,815317938 mass quark’s diameter.

spac31Prc 4,815317938*10-19 m = the edge of a cube at volu31 whose volume is

(spac31Pr)3 = 1,116541583*10-55 m3 = volu31Prc . Length of that edge is

4,815317938 mass quark’s diameter.

spac31Qeq 4,142396584*10-19 m = distance between spherical miniproton’s centers at

volu31: 4,142396584 mass quark's diameter. (Equal to diam31Qeq).

spac31Qeqc 3,338754982*10-19 m = side of a cubic miniproton at volu31 =

= (volu31Qeqc)1/3 .

spacQPr 9,841285096*10-16 m = mean spacing between the three mass quarks in a

“normal” spherical proton = (voluPr / 3)1/3 , spacing which is equal to the

sum of about 9 841 mass quark’s diameter.

spac1QPr 7,932036198*10-16 m = mean spacing between the three mass quarks in a volu1

shrunk spherical proton, spacing which is equal to the sum of about 7 932 mass

quark’s diameter.

spac31QPr 2,691023083*10-19 m = mean spacing between the three mass quarks in a volu31

shrunk spherical proton, spacing which is equal to 2,691023083 mass quark’s

diameter.

squeez31 5,927496222*1043 = volu3 / volu1 = squeezing ratio to put all of universe’s

spacetime in the whole of volu1 protons = 0,169491522 m3 / proton.

squeez331 1,518004571*1054 = volu3 / volu31 = squeezing ratio to put all of universe’s

spacetime in the whole of volu31 miniprotons = 0,056497174 m3 / miniproton.

squeez131 2,560954093*1010 = volu1 / volu31 = squeezing ratio from volu1 to volu31.

squeez1PrPrs 1,909859316 = voluPr / volu1Prs = squeezing ratio (to 81% of voluPr’s

diameter) from a normal proton to a spherical proton of volu1.

squeez1PrPrc 1,0000 = voluPr / volu1Prc = squeezing ratio (to 100% of voluPr’s diameter)

from a normal proton to a cubic proton of volu1. Really not squeezing.

squeezPrPrss 4,891062029*1010 = voluPr / volu31Prss = squeezing ratio (to 0,027% of

voluPr’s diameter) from a normal proton to a spherical proton of volu31.

squeezPrPrc 2,560954087*1010 = voluPr / volu31Prc = squeezing ratio from a normal proton

to a cubic proton of volu31.

squeezPrQ 7,682862262*1010 = voluPr / volu31Qeq = squeezing ratio from proton to

miniproton. Note that the ratio squeezPrQ / squeez131 = 2,999999993 =

= essentially 3,0 = the difference in the number of mass quarks.

stretching313 6,587595445*10-55 = spacetime stretching from volu31 to volu3 =

= volu31 / volu3.

stretching23 1,304315643*10-104 = spacetime stretching from volu2 to volu3 =

= volu2 / volu3.

length0 1,616258*10-35 m = Planck length.

13. References

01. Gonzalo A. Ordóñez (Aug-2010). Zero, infinity and nocer ("Nature abhors a vacuum"

revisited). Scribd (Research / Science).

02. Gonzalo A. Ordóñez (Jun-2013). The Size of Pre-Big Bang. Scribd (Research / Science).

03. Gary F. Hinshaw (2006). What is the Universe made of? NASA WMAP – Content of the

Universe. http://map/gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/uni_matter.html (retrieved August 2009).

misconceptions of cosmological horizons and the superluminal expansion of the universe.

University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, 2052.

arXiv:astro-ph/0310808v2 13 Nov 2003

05. Review of Particle Physics (2010). Particle Data Group. U.S.DOE, U.S.NSF, CERN, MEXT,

INFN. http://pdg.lbl.gov/2010/download/rpp-2010-JPhys-G-37-075021.pdf (retrieved December

2010).

https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Atomic_nucleus&oldid=790530389 [retrieved July

21, 2017].

https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Neutron&oldid=790531546 [retrieved July 23, 2017].

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