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This textbook mainly introduces new sales representatives to the basic knowledge,
skills, and attitudes that are essential to performing sales' activities. Please study it
sequentially from Lesson 1. If you encounter any difficulty during your actual sales
activities, be sure to refer back to this textbook because it can provide you with
useful guidelines.

Simply reading and learning the information contained in this textbook will not
immediately transform you into an outstanding sales rep. The three processes below
are essential for those of you who intend to become full -fledged sales reps.

Process 1 First, study the "Sales Fundamentals."

Process 2 Repeatedly put what you've learned from the "Sales
Fundamentals" into practice.
Process 3 Continue practicing the "Sales Fundamentals" until they become
second nature.

According to a Japanese proverb , "You can't practice swimming on a mat." No

matter how much you practice on a mat, you will never learn to swim. Until you jump
in the water and swallow some water, you will never be able to swim. The same is
true for sales. That's why it is important to repeat the processes described above.

"The more haste, the less speed." In other words, take your first jump by
studying the "Sales Fundamentals".
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1. Do you read a newspaper every morning?

2. Are you involved in some kind of sport?
3. Do you remember the people you meet each day?
4. Are you interested in commercials?
5. Do you and family share good communica tions?
6. Do you have breakfast every morning?
7. Can you recommend a good driving course?
8. Would you like to increase your income?
9. Are you well-informed about new cars?
10. Do you treat your friends well?
11. Do you eat delicious foods?
12. Do you have confidence in your health?
13. Do you know a good way of relieving stress?
14. Are you interested in what the world will be like 10 years from now?
15. Do you frequently see movies?
16. Is there anything now that you're really crazy about?
17. Have you decided how you will spend your bonus?
18. When you have a problem, is there some one you can turn to for advice?
19. Do you remember the titles of books you've read recently?
20. Are you comfortable talking in front of a large group of people?
21. Are you interested in new media?
22. Do you enjoy associatin g with different types of people?
23. Do you remember your first love?
24. Do you like new things?
25. Do you know what will be on TV tonight?
26. Do you believe in intuition or astrology?
27. Do you like Nissan cars?
28. Do you make an effort to keep promises?
29. Regarding life, do you think that each en counter with another person is a once -
in-a-lifetime occasion?
30. Are you interested in yourself?
If you gave a positive answer to a large number of these questions, you have the
potential to become a top sales rep. How did you do? The work of sales involves
serving as many customers as possible. Therefore, it is most important to have a
well-rounded personality. You will also need a keen curiosity and an antenna finely -
tuned to popular trends.
This lesson describes the seven steps to mastering the capabilities essential for
becoming a Nissan sales rep. First of all, concentrate on absorbing and applying
these seven steps. These will be your fir st steps up the ladder to becoming a
successful sales rep. Preliminary Approach


The Role of a Sales Company
Do you know what the role is of the sales company that you work for? It is not simply
to seli cars and performs periodic check-ups. It is essential to provide your
customers with satisfaction through the media of cars. [Production and sales are the
two pillars of the car industry which supports the Japanese economy.] Production
relies on sales. The sales of individual cars ultimat ely create a colossal car industry.
No. of car-related workers (1986)

5,250,000 persons (10.2% of the entire working population)

Retail car sales (1985)
960 million (9.5% of total retail sales)
[A "car life industry" which ensures the long -term safe and comfortable use of cars,
which have now become an integral part of daily life.]
The sales company fulfills a wide range of roles, from periodic canvassing for check -
ups, insurance, etc. up to the fulfillment of the customers' needs and wants.
ï No. of cars owned (as of 1986 end): 47,970,000 units
ï No. of licensed drivers (as of 1986 end): 54,000,000 persons (Ratio: 76% men,
39% women)

[To increase the number of Nissan cars owned]

This is an essential pre -condition for the growth of the Nissan Group.
[To contribute to the local community]
By stimulating the local economy, hiring locally, paying taxes, as well as conducting
cultural events and other activities, the sales company is also an important entity
within the local community.
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Next, you must acquire the product knowledge tha t the customers require. This
combined knowledge should naturally give you confidence and assurance.

Knowledge refers not only to product -related information but also to the sales
knowledge required by a sales rep. Please strive to firmly acquire the necessary
knowledge so that you can apply it smoothly during your interactions with the

[2. Excellent techniques]

Knowledge alone is not enough. A vast stock of knowledge is only valuable when it
can be effectively used during actual sales acti vities. Sales techniques are also
crucial to fully convincing your customer by effectively applying your knowledge
during your speech throughout the entire process, beginning from the approach up to
the collection of payment.

[3. Highly motivated behavior]

The word "behavior" is not used here in the sense of simply being polite. It implies a
positive mentality that is expressed through behavior, that is, determination. Even if
you are well-informed and have learned good techniques, they can only come alive
during your interactions with the customers. Even more than knowledge and
techniques, the most important capability for a sales rep is to be able to continuously
maintain a positive attitude that is supported by action.
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From a Succession of Small Successes
According to a famous marathon runner: "It's impossible for a person to run 42
kilometers from the very start. The same was true in my case. But anyone should
soon be able to run two to three kilometers. First, you set a target of 5 kilometers.
The feeling of achieving that target will make you next want to challenge yourself to
10 kilometers. The repeated challenge of aiming at slightly higher targets eventually
transformed me into a top marathon runner."
Everyone has experienced some type of success. Certainly, you have also
experienced this kind of process at some point in your life. Even a seemingly
insignificant success should be regarded as a valuable experience. Once you master
the pattern of success, the positive factors will spontaneously lead you to success. In
other words, a positive conviction that you will succeed has the power to transform
any negative factors into positive factors.
In addition to setting great value on small s uccesses, it is also important to set a
rather high ideal image of yourself. In other words, you should have pride in yourself
with thoughts like: "I can surely handle a job of this levelÈ" or "I can do it if I tryÈ"
For example, try setting up a schedule for this month to visit 30 places a day, then
make every effort to meet that schedule. If you successfully complete that schedule,
try setting yourself a slightly higher target for next month. If you really try, the
repetition of setting attainable goals a nd of successfully attaining your goals will
eventually transform you into a top sales rep.

Work Should Proceed According to the P-D-C-A Cycle PLAN -> DO -> CHECK ->
Once you set a goal, a plan is naturally needed to achieve that goal. To produce
steady results, carefully make plans on a yearly, monthly, or weekly basis, then try to
fulfill your plans. Later, thoroughly study and review the results of your activities t hen
apply countermeasures based on your results to your next plan.
3 Types of Awareness Crucial to sales Reps.

Target Awareness Be clearly aware of what you are doing and what you want to
accomplish, then take action with a positive attitude.
Critical Awareness Take a close look at your work , determine if it can be
improved or if it proceeds wastefully, unevenly, or
unreasonably, then seek means of improvement.
Price Awareness Strive to maintain the company¶s profit line and produce even
greater profits.

Regarding target awareness See (STEP) regarding Price Awareness See.

Critical Awareness Will Yield New Approaches and Ideas.

You've no doubt heard the familiar story of how Newton discovered the law of
universal gravitation when he saw an apple fall. If he did not have critical awareness,
he might have been totally unimpressed by the falling apple. The same is true fo r
sales work. Sales activities day after day are likely to seem monotonous. If you have
critical awareness, however, you should be able to demonstrate your individuality
and original ideas within such daily activities.

Imitation is a Springboard for Creat ivity. Learn by Observing Your SuperiorsÈ

Until you can tap your own individuality and original ideas, try imitating the good
techniques and customs of your superiors, such as someone who uses unique
business cards, produces original sales promotion tools, has special techniques for
making the rounds, and so on. At your sales office, there will definitely be a more
experienced sales rep you can learn from.
Try imitating those approaches that impress you favorably, then gradually add your
own ideas and techniques to develop your own style.
Make a Better First Impression
An interaction between two persons is entirely based on impressions. Even during
the course of a brief encounter, each person begins forming an image of the other
person. Data indicates that 70% to 80% of people form a general image of other
persons on the basis of the first impression. Consequently, the way in which you
begin your initial approach plays an important role in crea ting a good impression.
In order to make a better first impression, try paying attention to your clothing and
personal appearance as well as your facial expression and choice of words. Health
is Important As expressed by the Japanese proverb "A healthy mind resides in a
healthy body," you cannot impress the customer favorably when you are not feeling
up to par. The first step toward making a favorable impression is to keep yourself
healthy and fit.
If You Don't Know, Be Honest and Ask.

It's Also Important to Acknowledge That You're New

An important stage of starting out as a sales rep is to "learn" from the customers:
"There is something I don't understand, but could you please explain it to me?"
These simple words also provide you with powerful support, a nd is one way of
making a good impression. Of course, this principle is similar to that of learning from
more experienced sales reps and from your manager.
Sales Activities Additional Hints
1. Listen attentively to
what the customer is saying.
2. While taking notes, listen to
and confirm what the customer says.
3. Adapt your conversation to
the customer's knowledge and background.
4. Speak in an easily
understandable manner and avoid ambig uous expressions.
5. Display the object in question as you speak.
6. Avoid arguing with the customer.
7. Be firm in dealing with unreasonable requests.

Observe the Rules of the Work Environment
Just as there are rules in any sport, there are rules for working and for the work
environment. The basic rules are the company regulations. Besides these official
rules, however, don't forget to greet your fellow workers when you arrive at the office
each morning. Everyone should be responsible for keeping the working environment
clean. Heed the instructions and advice of your manager and of experienced sales
reps. These rules allow you to function as part of a team. Good teamwork can only
develop on the basis of rules.

Teamwork is Vital
Let's compare the sales office to a baseball team. An excellent team plays under the
guidance of the coach (your manager). Right now, however, you may still be a bench
warmer on your team. At a baseball training camp, there are always reserve players
who fetch the balls or prepare the grounds during the practice of the regular players.
This type of low-profile work is indispensable to training. First of ail, try to become an
essential part of your team. Helping out with the work of personnel at the front desk
or in services is also important to teamwork.
Strive to Become a Veteran Team MemberÈ
Actively Ask Your Manager,
"Is There Anything I Can Do to Help?"

To become a veteran on your sales office's team, you must first cover your assigned
position (assigned territory, customers, roles in the office, etc.), and then provide
back-up to the other players. With this aim, always faithfully carry out the instructions
of the coach (manager) and, whenever your manager or colleagues s eem to be in a
pinch, be sure to ask, "Is there anything I can do to help?"

If you are in a tight spot, you would surely appreciate the assistance of your manager
or your colleagues. Creating numerous friends is the first step toward eventually
becoming a veteran player.
Get to Like the Customers and Nissan Cars STRIVE TOWARD A POS5TIVE
Looking at the Bright Side Leads to Growth
You visited 100 places, but prospects at 90 of the places refused to speak with you.
"I was rejected at 90 places today. I have nothing but bad customersÈ"
"Today I created new relationships with 10 customersÈ"
Which attitude would you take?
It is essential for a sales rep to always try to look on the bright side of the picture.
Approach Work with a "Give and Give" Spirit
"Give and take" is a commonly used phrase. But as a sales rep, you should always
act in the spirit of "give and give." People who are regarded star sales reps have
built their reputation by many years of selfless giving. Work to induce your customers
to say, "Thank you very much. I'm really grateful for your assistance."

a If you see a customer in the street, be the first to greet him/her.

a If you see the customer's newspaper on the lawn, pick it up on your way to the
a Take sales promotion tools for the customer's children.

Be Familiar with the Models You Handle

0 Get to like the cars.
Observe, feel, drive, and like the cars. This is the quickest way to learn the features,
merits, and demerits of the models you are handling.

(2) Learn from the customers.

Anyone feels good when talking about a subject she/he knows well. Learn from
customers who are knowledgeable about cars. This will make the customer feel
good while increasing your knowledge about cars. As a new sales rep, this me thod is
also available to you.
(3) Keep informed about rival cars.
A knowledge of the rival cars is crucial to an understanding of the cars handled by
your company. As aptly expressed by the proverb, "If you know your enemy and your
self, you can succeed in 100 battles," a true understanding of the merits of the cars
you handle is gained by knowing about the rival cars.
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As a sales rep, it is essential for you to believe in serving the customers, provide
friendly care for numerous customers, and conduct your work as a "total car life
adviser" who possesses the knowledge, skills, and attitude that meet the
expectations of the customers.
Daily Sales Activities
To obtain a practical understanding of your work as a Nissan sales rep, you will need
to understand the sales system. This will form the basis for your daily sales activi -

(1) Your Territory
As a sales rep, you will need to work systematically and efficiently in accordance
with the company objectives. A territory is the smallest subdivision of a sales region.
Because your territory can increase your sales pe rformance and can produce
numerous results, it can be regarded as your asset.

The Advantages of territory

Facilitates the planning of projected sales and of customer visits.
Minimizes travelling time.
Enables customers management to be smoothly heddled .
Simplifies self ± appraisal, self ± review, and so on.

A territory is your area for sales activities which the company has assigned to you. It
is the field were you sow seeds by | making the rounds cultivate satisfied
customers and harvest results.

This is the minimum information you will need

2) knowing your territory.

Accessible by data Accessible by market studies
No. of cars owned Distribution of existing customers.
Company¶s stock of cars. Areas where Nissan cars are population.
Overall demand. Geographic conditions of your territory, your sales
Ownership monopoly ratio office and other sales offices.
Monopoly share. Territorial features (residential, commercial, )
Replacement ratio income level, temperament, etc.
Ownership density Customers characterisitics in your territory (income
Population level, temperatment etc.)
No. of households etc. Description of Sales
Originally your customer
A customer furned over to you (by your co.)
A customer of the company (moved into your
territory, used car owner etc.)

Besides the items listed above, there is much more information that you can study.
But the fundamental way to obtain an accurate grasp of your territory is to personally
visit and observe every part of it.

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Door ± to door visits No. prospects will be missed No productive in terms of
Requires minimal traveling time. sales efficiency.
Accurate grasp of the territory.
Actual practice in improving
visiting skills.
Zone based visit You can establish your own Make sure that the zoning
(visit focused on the exclusive domains. is not biased.
defined major zones Intrusion by other cars and the
in the territory) customers trends can be
Model ± based visit Product knowledge can be Be informed about the car
(visits to customers deepended being used by the
who own the same Annual projections can be easily customers before you
model) determined make your visits.
Easy to discuss common points Take the periodic check ±
of interest. up list with you on your
Occupation-based Wide ±ranging information can Know which trades are apt
visits (visits to be gathered, such as topics or to be affected by the
customers in the news related to each trade. economy.
same line of trade) You can learn to determine Spreading news between
how business is going in each people in the same trade
industry. can be good, but be sure
not be offend anyone.
TES visit No time is wasted. Do not offend the
(visit to the You can break the ice with customer¶s feeling by
neighbors of the neighbors by starting the repeating gossip. This
customer you need conversation with topic of your method will be more
to visit ) customer effective if first induce your
Tes : three doors on customer to tell you about
each side. the neighbors ( car owend,
family members etc.)
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Your first visits after becoming a sales rep will begin with introducing yourself to the
customer bases you have inherited. Because inherited customer bases are a vital
asset of the company, you will need to strive harder than your predecessor to turn
your customer base into regular customers.

1. Pick out the inherited customer base from among the Base Cards.
2. Confirm the location of each customer using a residential map. (If necessary,
mark the pertinent locations in red.)
3. When you make the visit, introduce yourself (see "(3) Conversation Skills for
Home Visits" on page 46 for examples) and inform the customer that you will
now be handling your predecessor's customers.
4. It is also effective to have your predecessor or manage r accompany you on your

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The larger the customer base you maintain and the closer your relationships with
each customer within that base, the better you will be able to achieve your monthly
sales targets on a steady and continuing basis.
Since you will inevitably have customers that replace their Nissan car with another
brand or stop using their car, however, you must constantly and actively strive to
increase your customer bases in accordance with your sales target. It is also
necessary to work at recovering customers who used to own one of our cars.

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Improving the customer base means paying regular visits to the customers in the
customer base with the aim of developing good personal re lationships based on
mutual understanding. Make sure that existing customers are satisfied and
encourage possible customers to buy a Nissan car. By continuing such efforts to
improve the customer base, the relationship between you and the customers in t he
base will deepen (the customers' goodwill toward you), and will increase their
desire (potential)* for buying a Nissan car. It is necessary for you to read
these shifts in the customers' feelings and influence the customers in the
appropriate manner. At Nissan, the increase in goodwill and in potential are
sequentially ranked as follows:
GOODWILL: Recognition -* Good Impression -> Trust

POTENTIAL: C Hot -> B Hot -» A Hot

(Cool) (Warm) (Hot)

These rankings enable the customers to be carefully influenced in a detailed

progression. The result of such efforts will ultimately lead to an order for a car. But
your work is not finished at this point. After the car is purchased, you also have the
important job of looking after the customer to ensure that the customer remains fully
satisfied. The real target of servicing the customer base is to work ai providing
comprehensive after-services to cultivate regular customers that say, "I plan to buy
my next car from you, tooÈ"

Judging the level of the customer¶s goodwill (Examples)

Trust Always meets you will pleasure
Offers you a beverage.
Listense attentively to the conversation or opinions of the sales
Can make small talk
Has introduced you to someone else before.

Good Impression Remembers your name

Will chat with you
Has attended an event.

Recognition Does not shut the door in your face

Remembers your previous visit.
Remembers your face.
Gave you his/ her business card.
Responds to simple questions but is difficult to engage in actual


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Through your daily sales activities, you will be facing the challenge of various goals.
But you do not have an unlimited time period to attain each goal.

That is, in order to achieve optimum work efficiency within a limited time period so
that you can attain your goals, it is essential that you conduct your daily activities on
the basis of a systematically planned schedule.

Merits pr5ovided by working systematically

1. Sales activities can be rationalized by the elimination of unnecessary, uneven,
or unreasonable work.
2. Maximum results can be expected from minimal efforts.
3. The satisfaction you gain by attaining your targets will promote enthusiasm
and self ± growth.
4. You can avoid falling into bad habits.
5. The factors leading to target attainment can be easily understood.
6. Self ± management is facilitated.

You will be conducting systematically planned activities throughout the entire

process of Approach h product persuasion h Appraisal h negotiations h closing
h Delivery h after±services and it can be said that, when you become capable of
systematically accomplishing the entire process described above, you will also
spontaneously be able to attain your sales targets.

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The P-D-C-A method can also be applied when planning your visits. To make your
rounds with composure and to avoid unnecessary, uneven, or unreasonable work, it
is important that you draw up the optimum visiting plan.

1. Selecting who to visit

a) Selection from the Customer Card s After you study market surveys to
understand the actual market environment, refer to the Customer Cards to select the
customers within the zone you plan to visit. First of all, while reading over each of the
cards, compile a list of the customers you pla n to visit the following day. When
compiling the list, organize the cards according to the priority of each visit's purpose.

Priority (Examples)
1. A customer in the A Hot category who must be visited tomorrow.
2. A customer with a current problem (complaint, etc.)
3. A customer in the B Hot category who must be visited tomorrow.
4. A customer who lives near a Hot customer and whose car inspection/insurance
period will soon expire.
5. A customer in the C Hot category who must be visited tomorrow.
6. A customer who lives near a Hot customer and who is visited regularly or has not
been visited recently.

b) Selection with the aim of expanding the base

Next, examine the people you will visit for the purpose of picking out high -potential
customers. If your objective is to visit 60 places of which 24 belong in the customer
base, the remaining 36 places will be non -base visits. The main method involves
crash visits, but it is necessary to also re-consider the visiting methods in order to
achieve maximum efficiency from your visits.

Possible visiting methods are listed below.

1. Occupation-based visits in the daytime
2. Daytime visits to corporations
3. Visits focusing on specific models (Visits to all customers who own a Corolla,
4. Visits focusing on the year of the car (Visits to all customers with a 19²
model or earlier, etc.)
5. TES visits (Visiting people at three doors on each side of the customer you
need to visit)
6. Crash visits
7. Other methods
In this manner, you can adjust the quantity of base custom ers and of non-base
customers to ensure the quantity required by your projected visiting target.

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Pet shop, Cafeteria, Pastry shop, Gas co.. Tailor, Dentist, Construction co., Paint
co., Barber/Beauty salon, Shoe store, Design office, Coffee shop. Shipping co.,
Printing co., Government official. Church, Electrical appliance store, Supermarket,
Boutique. Book store, Sports store, Cleaner's, Pha rmacy, Gasoline stand. Camera
shop. Architect office, Farm, Office, Tire shop, Newspaper co., Financial co.,
Accountant, Stationery store, Dime store, Fishing store, Liquor store, Florist, Record
shop, Butcher, Car shop, Fire station, Real estate agent, Tr avel agent, Jewelry store


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I) If a lot of the points listed below can be applied to a corporation, it can be
regarded as highly promising:
1. In the vicinity of an outlet (within the service area).
2. Appointments are relatively easy to get (government agencies, schools, etc.)
3. Uses a substantial number of cars (e.g., at least 10 cars including Nissan cars
and/or other cars).

4. No established relationship with a specific carmaker.

5. The company or agency is relatively stable and has high -quality employees.
6. Many cars that are relatively old or will soon require replacement.
7. Lots of young employees.
8. Ideally, one of its executives would be an existing customer.

II) When making daytime corporate visits, be sure to heed the following
1. Focus on only about five corporations then patiently observe your result after
a long ± term commitment of about one year.
2. Consider which time period would be feasible for an interview (e.g. around
4:30 P.M. for schools)
3. Visit the customer at least twice a month.
4. Cooperate in the service round to look after the customer.
5. Try to provide the customer with expedient information (e.g. introduce
publishing companies to a printer, describe the merit s of a sales campaign,

III) Compile your own Corporate visit Lists so that continuous services can be
List of Corporate customers within the Territory
Item No. of Cars Owned Cars Delivered Existing Customers Service Precautions (time /
Employees Place of visit Contact person)
___High 35 persons 24 units 4 units Vice ± Principal
School John Smith
Teacher Mary

c) Precautions on selecting who to visit

Clarify the purpose of the visits
During the selection of who to visit, it is important to clarify the purpose of the visits.
If the purpose of your visits is ambiguous, you are likely to mainly visit approachable
places while avoiding difficult places.
"I will visit this customer to make an appraisal, this customer to collect data, and this
customer to develop a better relationship." Each visit must have a clearly defined

Consider the time to be allotted

After the purpose of your visits is clarified, you must also consider the amount of time
required to accomplish your purposes. During negotiations, be sure to maintain your
own pace to avoid spending too much unnecessary time.

Also consider the progress of the overall plan

Calculate what percentage of your projected monthly number of visits has been
completed so far. If you are falling behind schedule, you must re -consider the
amount of work you must do in order to compensate for any differences.

(2) Study the route for your visits

After you decide who to visit, use a residential map to confirm the location of the
base customers and then the non-base customers and to determine the route and
sequence for your visits. Be sure to set up the most efficient route by basing your
priorities on the considerations below:
a) Customers you should see first:
Hot customers, customers with complaints, etc.
b) Customers with appointments or those who can only be met at certain times:
Customers who made an appointment by phone, customers waiting to have
their car delivered, etc.
c) Road traffic
This route requires very serious consideration. If you make even one mistake
in setting up this route, various problems will occur, such as the entire
schedule being thrown off or your company being unable to contact you with
urgent messages.
ýV /" 0*
After you have decided the destinations, purposes, and route for your visits of the
following day, record the planned date of the visits on the Customer Cards. Next, in
the sequence of your route, record the names, addresses, phone numbers, and
purpose of the visits on the Daily Visit Report. Check your plan again to see if you've
forgotten anything, if the timing for the visits is all okay, etc. To ensure that you can
smoothly achieve the purpose of your visits, check your conversational techniques
while imagining that you are t alking with the customers and also check that you have
the required documents. The visiting tools will vary with the customer, so prepare
materials (newspaper or magazine. clippings, sales promotion tools, etc.) in line with
the purpose of the visit. Moreo ver, make an effort to conduct efficient visits by,
whenever possible, phoning the customers to inform them that you intend to visit
them the following day.

Submit your visiting plan together with the Daily Visit Report, Customer Cards, and
other required materials to your manager, and ask for his instructions. Finally, you
must check your sales tools, briefcase, and personal accessories to make sure that,
after the morning meeting of the following day, you will be able to simply grab your
briefcase and go out ID make your visits.

What to put in your briefcase

Catalogs, price lists, quick reference charts for interest rates, color samples, set of
order forms, list of insurance rates, note pad, receipts, measuring tape, sales
manual, sales promotion tools etc.

ýV $ *"#
Make an effort to conduct your visits according to the plan that you made the
previous day. Please observe the following precautions while you are visiting the

c ! )""- *"#

 After the morning meeting, quickly leave the office. Before leaving, make sure that
you have your Daily Visit Report, Customer Cards, and sales tools.

(2) Constantly strive to work according to your visiting plan.

If your planned time schedule goes awry due to traffic congestion, unexpected
negotiations, etc., try to keep changes in the schedule to an absolute minimum. If
you have a fixed appointment with a customer, call the customer and ask to have the
time changed. Also contact your manager to inform him of your change in schedule.

(3) Remember to call in periodically.

Be sure to make regular contact with your company in order to clarify your
whereabouts as well as to keep them informed of any urgent requests from your
© Devise ways to conduct visits efficiently.

a Paiking may not be permitted in densely populated residential areas or shopping

areas, so it may be effective to travel by bicycle.
a You may finish a visit early and have extra time. In such case, use your time
effectively by either looking for shortcuts between destinations or by returning to
the sales office to write/review Customer Cards, address direct mail, or update
your daily report.

(5) What to do if the customer is out:

If the customer you visit is out, leave an impression of your visit by writing a shor t
memo on the back of your business card, leaving a catalog or PR magazine with
pages you'd like the customer to read marked in red, etc. Since the rule of customer
visits is to go to "the proper place at the proper time," however, make sure to quickly
find out this data about the customer and record it on the Customer Card.

(6) Using materials and leaflets

During a visit, materials and leaflets can be effectively used when advising a
customer about models or looking for a topic of conversation.
(7) What to do about customers who are only available at night:
a Even if the customer cannot be met during the day, leave your business and
materials at the customer's place several times.
a Send personally-written letters or reply-paid postcards.

Make sure to draw attention to the pages in the catalog, etc. that you want to be
noticed (red underlining, etc.)

Phone to say that you have visited.

(8) Miscellaneous
It is not advisable to park in front of the customer's house. When parking the car,
also consider that other people may be visiting the customer for other reasons.

( 1,"# ,,"-"'&)!)-!
0 If a customer makes the appointment at a very specific time, assure the customer
that you will be punctual and repeat the time, then make sure you are on timeÈ
(2) If the customer is out at the appointed time, wait for a short period then leave a
memo to inform the customer of your visit and of the date/time of your next visit. On
the same day, be sure to contact the customer by p honing or making another visit.
(3) Make prior allowances for congested roads so you can travel without undue
haste. @ While making visits, plan ahead. Always keep in mind what you will do
next. (5) When you cannot be punctual, immediately phone the custom er in advance:
"I'm sorry, but I'm going to be ² minutes late." At this time, do not make long -winded
V  ! 
The merits of crash visits
a You can learn the car ownership situation in your territory by finding out what
makes of car are owned.
a You can learn the financial situation of each family, shop, and company by
finding out if they plan to buy another car or replace a current one.
a You can learn the tactics of rival companies in your territory by finding out how
many of their cars are being sold.
a You can learn the tactics of rival companies by finding out if their sales
success is due to reduced prices or product power.
a You can learn about shifts in the population. Different people like different

(2) Documents required for a crash visit

Ú Management ledger of the customer
Ú Various rosters
Ú Membership rosters of various unions, high-income earners' list, school
graduation lists, other membership lists.
Ú "Letters from the Readers" column in car magazines
Ú Phone directory
Ú Other visible indications
Ú Car inspection sticker, garage, residential map, persons who have requested
catalogs or have attended an event
Ú News from information networks
Ú Parking lots, gas station attendants, car repairmen, other sales reps,
colleagues, your superiors.

ýV $ *"#
Make an effort to conduct your visits according to the plan that you made the
previous day. Please observe the following precautions while you are visiting the

c ! )""- *"# 

After the morning meeting, quickly leave the office. 
1. Before leaving, make sure that you have your Daily Visit Report, Customer
Cards, and sales tools.
2. Constantly strive to work according to your visiting plan.
3. If your planned time schedule goes awry due to traffic congestion, unexpected
negotiations, etc., try to keep changes in the schedule to an absolute minimum. If
you have a fixed appointment with a customer, call the customer and ask to have
the time changed. Also contact your manager to inform him of your change in
4. Remember to call in periodically.
5. Be sure to make regular contact with your company in order to clarify your
whereabouts as well as to keep them informed of any urgent requests from your
6. Devise ways to conduct visits efficiently.

Ú Pat king may not be permitted in densely populated residential areas or

shopping areas, so it may be effective to travel by bicycle.
Ú You may finish a visit early and have extra time. In such case, use your time
effectively by either looking for shortcuts between destinations or by returning
to the sales office to write/review Customer Cards, address direct mail, or
update your daily report.

What to do if the customer is out:

If the customer you visit is out, leave an impression of your visit by writing a short
memo on the back of your business card, leaving a catalog or PR magazine with
pages you'd like the customer to read marked in red, etc. Since the rule of custome r
visits is to go to "the proper place at the proper time," however, make sure to quickly
find out this data about the customer and record it on the Customer Card.

Using materials and leaflets During a visit, materials and leaflets can be effectively
used when advising a customer about models or looking for a topic of conversation.

What to do about customers who are only available at night:

Ú Even if the customer cannot be met during the day, leave your business and
materials at the customer's place several times.
Ú Send personally-written letters or reply-paid postcards.
Make sure to draw attention to the pages in the catalog, etc. that you want to
be noticed (red underlining, etc.)
Ú Phone to say that you have visited.
2. Miscellaneous
It is not advisable to park in front of the customer's house.
When parking the car, also consider that other people may be visiting the
customer for other reasons.

( 1,"# ,,"-"'&)!)-! 
1. If a customer makes the appointment at a very specific time, assure the
customer that you will be punctual and repeat the time, then make sure you
are on timeÈ
2. If the customer is out at the appointed time, wait for a short period then leave
a memo to inform the customer of your visit and of the date/time of your next
visit. On the same day, be sure to contact the customer by phoning or making
another visit.
3. Make prior allowances for congested roads so you can travel without undue
4. While making visits, plan ahead. Always keep in mind what you will do next.
5. When you cannot be punctual, immediately phone the customer in advance:
"I'm sorry, but I'm going to be ² minutes late." At this time, do not make long -
Winded excuses.

V  ! 
1. The merits of crash visits
ï You can learn the car ownership situation in your territory by finding out what
makes of car are owned.
ï You can learn the financial situation of each family, shop, and company by
finding out if they plan to buy another car or replace a current one.
ï You can learn the tactics of rival companies in your terr itory by finding out how
many of their cars are being sold.
ï You can learn the tactics of rival companies by finding out if their sales
success is due to reduced prices or product power.
ï You can learn about shifts in the population. Different people like different
2. Documents required for a crash visit
Ú Management ledger of the customer
Ú Various rosters
Membership rosters of various unions, high-income earners' list, school
graduation lists, other membership lists.
Ú Letters from the Readers" column in car magazines
Ú Phone directory
Ú Other visible indications
Car inspection sticker, garage, residential map, persons who have requested
catalogs or have attended an event
Ú News from information networks
Parking lots, gas station attendants, car repairmen, other sales reps,
colleagues, your superiors

ý " )2. * )! 

1. Analyze the results It is necessary to analyze the results of your sales
activities to check whether or not they accurately proceeded according to your
visiting plan.
c Organizing the Daily Visit Report
Ú Check the difference between your visiting plan and your actual performance,
(no. of places visited, no. of appraisals made, periodic check -up orders
received, number of A/B Hot customers, etc.)
Ú How many effective visits did you make?
Ú What factors kept you from working as planned?
Ú How many customers were out when you visited?
Ú Did you fulfill the purpose of your visits?
( Filling in the Customer Cards
Ú Record the content of each visit according to the Daily Visit Report.
Ú Record/update any changes in the customer's data. Add any new data about
the customer.
Ú If any forms must be drafted, do so after consultation with your manager.

V Filling in other ledgers

Ú Newly developed Hot customers should be recorded in the Potential
Customer Management List and Hot Customer Status Chart.
Ú Update any changes in the Hot customer status.
Ú Record any customers that ordered a periodic check -up, etc. in the Periodic
Check-Up List.

Ö Reporting to your manager Submit all necessary documents, such as the

Daily Visit Report, Customer Cards, and Hot Customer Status Chart, and
present a report on your overall activities for that day. (Sample contents of
your report)
Ú Did the quantity, destin ations, and route of your visits conform to your plan?
Ú Did you fulfill the purpose of your visits? » What will you do during your next
Ú How did the Hot customer visits go? (Did you meet the person with decision -
making power? Any changes in the Hot customer status? What are the trends
of other brands? Did you get a subsequent appointment?)

  2 $ 
2) How to deal with complaints
It is essential to quickly feed any information acquired through your visits back to
related sections of your company. Next, coordinating between the customers and the
related sections, write the required items into your next visiting plan. Customers who
were out must be contacted either by phoning them to inform them of your visit or b y
sending letters or postcards. Complaints should be quickly handled upon due
consultation with your manager.

ý +#! " 0

1) Customer cards
As you conduct your sales activities by meeting various people each day, it becomes
quite difficult to remember all of the information pertaining to each customer. It is
vital, however, to be able to know what each customer is like as well as how you
have been approaching each customer. The Customer Cards enable you to record
and keep track of both customer-related information and the information describing
the progress of your customer relationships.
The Customer Cards which are currently being used come in two types, for existing
customers and for possible customers. In addition, some of the Customer Cards for
existing customers may have a Service card attached.

2) Daily Visit Report

This form is used to plan your visits for each day so that your activi ties can be
performed systematically. Each day after returning to your office, this form is
recorded with your results of that day, your plans for the next day, your plans for
subsequent visits, and fixed appointments with customers, then you submit the
completed form together with the Customer Cards to your manager.

3) Hot Customer Status Chart

This form is used to manage the progress of negotiations with each hot customer
until an order is received. If any customers are judged as being a B Hot customer o r
higher, their data is transcribed from the Customer Cards to a Hot Customer Status
Chart, then the current status of activities related to those customers is traced and
checked using symbols. Record the data of A Hot and B Hot customers appearing
during the current month in the the Hot Customer Status Chart for the current month.
Record the data of those appearing during the next month in the Hot Customer
Status Chart for the next month.

4) Organizing the Card Box

After you finish recording the results o f your visits for one day, be sure to properly file
the Customer Cards in the card box as described in the following points.

1. Filing by the car inspection expiration date

a) Classification by area
Ú The cards are classified into six blocks by geographical area and identified by
a) Primary Territories - Cities = RED
b) Secondary Teiritories - Towns = ORANGE
c) Your Territory in the Service Area (1) = YELLOW
d) Your Territory in the Service Area (2) = GREEN
e) Inside Service Area's Territory = BLUE
f) Outside Service Area's Territory = BLACK

b) Index labels
ï Write the name of each customer on labels, then attach the tables to the
cards. Existing customers: Red labels (use red ink if you made the sale
yourself) Possible customers: Blue labels
ï Finding cards again will be easier if you attach the labels from left to right,
starting from the left again at the beginning of each new letter of the alphabet.

d) Filing methods


Check-up Date by Mont Check ± up Date by month

Special A Hot






Jan / Jul




A Hot

C hot
B hot

ï At the end of each month extract the card of the customers you should visit
next month then file them in the this Month¶s Customers division in your card
box for the next month.
ï In the Check ± up Date by Month Section, being visiting the customers with
you earliest expiration dates.
ï For customers who will be visited during the same round, try to plan ahead by
using cards of the same color (for area classification). Arrange the cards
according to the sequence of the fixed appointments and the times which
customers can be met, then make your visits in that sequence.
ï The card of a customer you have visited should be filed:
In the "This Month's Customers" division if the customer requires an
additional visit.
In the "Visits Completed" division if the customer requires no additional
visit that month.

(2) Filing based on overhauls for existing customers

In principle, the cards should be sequentially filed in the box according to the month
of the initial registration date.
ï Extract the cards of customers to be visited and file them separately in the
"This Month's Customers" division. The cards of customers who have had
overhauls or have already definitely decided whether or not to get an overhaul
should be returned to the "Registrations by Month" division.
ï Attach colored tape to the top left of each card so you can determine the base
classification in a glance. Also identify the Service Cards using the same color
categories by writing the letters from A to E in pencil. A hBLUE B h GREEN
ï For existing customers that reside outside of the service -area territory, cut off
the top left corner of the card as shown on the left to easily distinguish their
cards from the rest. If the rank of a customer changes, attach tape which
indicates the new rank directly over the old tape. In case of the Service Chart,
erase the previous rank and write in the new one.






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(1) Approach
When you meet a customer for the first time, create a personal relationship which
facilitates communication by conveying to the customer what you and your company
do and by softening the resistance of the customer.
At such time, it is important to get information about the customer and to understand
the customer's car-related needs.
(2) Precautions on the Approach
There are two types of doubts that a customer may feel when meeting a sales rep
(or the first time: doubts about the unfamiliar and doubts about being talked into
buying a car. During the approach phase, it is important that you eliminate these
doubts as quickly as possible and create a mood that makes the customer feel open
to talking.
For this aim, you should strive to make a good first impression on the customer and
avoid exposing your intent to sell a car in thy very beginning.
10 Points for Opening the Door to the Customer's Heart
Precautions for the first visit
0 To create a good first impression, pay careful attention to your dress, behavior,
choice of words, and facial expressions.
(2) Treat each and every visit with importance.
(3) Visit the customer as if you have useful information to convey.
0 Avoid a pushy attitude towards the customer.
(5) Impress customer with your product and company.
(D Strive to understand the customer's needs and wants.
ý Fully consider the customer's situation, standpoint, etc.
(D Leave the customer curious and interested.
(9) Create an opportunity for a subsequent visit.
(Q) Pick the proper moment to make your exit.
Points for a Good Approach
0 The first minute is the key
‡ Strive to improve the first impression made by your behavior, dress, etc.
‡ Pick a time that is convenient for your customer.
standardize your approach
‡ When you only have one minute:
Give the company's name and your name, leave your business card and
catalogs, ask the customer if he owns a car, its make, etc., and ask the customer to
read the catalogs. (Check the garage. Don't give all of your sales promotion tools at
‡ When you have about three minutes:
Besides the above, ask the customer if she/he is satisfied with the after-services,
what the car is used for, how the car runs, etc.
‡ When you have five minutes or more:
While extending the conversation using flattery a nd questions, attract the customer's
curiosity and interest by presenting one or two sales points of the car you wish to
3) Conversation Skills for Home visits.
Sequence Conversational skills
A Greeting µ good morning¶ good afternoon hello excuse me.
B self My name is ______________________ and I work for the ________
introduction sales office of Nissan Motors.
C) Asking for the Excuse me, But is your husband (wife) at home?
(If necessary )
µ I hope my visit is not an inconvenience for you. I am vesting today
in relation to
(Existing customer)
Has your car been running well since we last met.
I am now in charge of the area which was being handled by your
former representative, Mr. ___________ so I would like to introduce

[Inheriting an existing customer] "I am now in charge of the area

which was being handled by your former repre sentative, Mr. ² ²,
so I would like to introduce myself."
[Possible customer]
"I have recently become the Nissan sales representative in this area,
and I would like to make your acquaintance."
[Pick up a car]
"Thank you very much for asking us to repair your ²². I have come
to pick up your car."
[Deliver a car]
"Thank you very much for asking us to repair your ²². The repair
work has been completed, so 1 have come to return your car."
[Complaint] "I'm very sorry for any inconvenience this problem may
have caused you."
Confirm the purpose for your visit and your information about the customer in
advance. (Check the Customer Card and Service Card) Before ringing the doorbell
(or knocking), tidy up your appearance. (Arrange your hair and necktie. Remove your
hat.) Press the doorbell for 1 or 2 seconds. If there's no answer, wait for about 15
seconds then try again. If there's no bell, use your voice to call the customer. If
there's no response, try again after 15 seconds. Say "Good morningÈ" until about
10:00 a.m. Smile cheerfully and seem full of pep.

How to exchange business cards: Give your business card first. If' your manager or
superior is accompanying you, let them give their card first. Receive a business card
with your left hand, with your right hand placed undern eath.

While talking, look at your customer's eyes. While listening, direct your eyes in the
vicinity of where the knot in a necktie would be. Use polite and easy -to-understand
words. Listen attentively to the customer until she/he stops speaking. When you are
asked to enter the home: Politely "decline" the first offer." "I'm afraid that it might be
too much of a bother for you" or "Are you sure it would not be too much trouble?"
When entering, be sure to say "Thank you very much" and to wipe your shoes off
carefully on
the doormat.
ý '1, "! "/0'"#
During your approach, your ability to keep the conversation flowing will create a
favorable mood for talking together. Your sales efficiency will be greatly affected by
your skill in this area, so you must study this section carefully and exploit its
techniques during your visits. The Basics Topics of "! "
a Climate, weather, season
a Profits, business, taxes
a News (current events)
a Local news
a Congratulations on marriage, school admission, graduation
a Medical care, health, sports
a Hobbies, work
a Flattery
a Travelling, happy stories
a Relatives, acquaintances, friends
a Home, family, children, pets
a Heart-moving stories

 -,0 "! "/00!

Weather : "It sure is nice weather today, isn't it?"
News : "They say that this year's harvest is going to be very
House : "This is really a lovely homeÈ"
Pet : "This is a very unusual type of goldfish." Hobbies:
"Do you have any hobbies?"
Health : "You always seem so healthy. What is your secret?"
Family : "How many children do you have?"
Work : "How is your business going?"
Acquaintances : "Mr. Jones is also a very good customer of mine."
Life : "As the president of your company, you seem so well
by your employees. Could you please teil your
proverb about life?"
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4) Promise to bring materials Promise the customer a gift' by saying: "I'd like to
return to bring you some useful information." Examples: Information about a
new car, a hobby, insurance, or other information that the customer wants .
5) Don't overstay your welcome.
"Well, I don't want to use up any more of your time..."Consider the customer's
schedule and quickly wrap up your talk within a short time. Leave a favorable
impression with courteous behavior.
Remember to give a little push after the approach Don't forget to phone, send
a postcard, send materials, etc. In particular, even if you are turned away at the
door, thank the customer for his/her time, strive to convey the purpose of your
visit and to ask for an appointment.
6) Record the necessary information for your next visit on the Customer Card
Make sure to record the information you received about a customer in the
customer base on a Customer Card. It will provide you with topics of
conversation to use in your next visit.
7) Conversation Topics During a Visit
1) Prsise Ways to Use Words of Praise Effectively It is better to praise a
possession of the customer than to flatter the customer directly Example:
"That's a very fine trophy."
2) Follow praise by a question -> Particularly useful Example: "I'm hoping to live
in a lovely home like this someday. When was it built?"
3) Flatter the customer indirectly via a third person

"I really appreciate the advice given to me by the Vice-President of your company.
It's been really useful in my work." Anyone gets more enjoyment out of being
praised, even when they realize it's just flattery, than out of being scolded or
criticized. An appropriate degree of flattery will satisfy the customer's self-respect
and increase the feeling of friendship between both of you. Various Praising Phrases
Possessions: "That is a very handsome necktie." Birthplace: "Whenever anyone
mentions "New Mexico," it always reminds me of beautiful blue skies."
School : "Did you graduate from ² University? 1 wanted to study
there too,
but it seemed so hard to get in that I just gave up."
Company : All the employees of your company are so courteous."
Work : "It's wonderful that you're business is always thr iving."
Family : "With such wonderful children, it must be a real joy to watch
Hobby : "Golf is such a nice hobby. It's so healthy."

Create a Bond Through Common interests

2) Common interests - Shared Interest
If skillful flattery has no effect, try -to find common interests which you can talk about
Golf, fishing, mutual acquaintances, etc.
a "If I remember correctly, your husband's favorite hobby is golf, isn't it?"
a "Did you see the article about ²² in yesterday's evening paper?"
a "Oh yes, I used to live there before." "My father was also in that line of work."
a "Yes, I've met him several times before. He used to work in the ²²
a "I agree completely with what you're saying."
a "I can understand how you feel, because I also tried it but I got the same results.

Customers will show more interest in recent topics than in topics out of the distant
past. From common interests tc shared interests Rather than news that was
broadcast on TV, local news that you've both experienced together makes a better
topic of conversation.

Allow the Customer to Talk with Pleasure

4) Listening is also important Listening to the customer is an indispensable condition
of modern sales. Listening is very different from hearing. It requires an active
attitude of paying attention to what the customer is saying. Being a good listener
does not mean that you should just listen passively. It does means that you
temporarily set aside your own thoughts, opinions, and expectations. This
enables you to concentrate on what the customer is saying and to understand the
customer's opinions, reactions, conclusions, judgement, feelings, and so on.
Listening also involves empathizing with the customer's moods and actively
perceiving the customer's emotions, facial expressions, behavior, and any shifts
thereof. Listening is not the technique of listening to the words of the customer. It
is the total acceptance of the customer as a person.

1 $
Speaking skillfully
1) Speak from the customer¶s 2) Be cheerful
3) Enunciate clearly 4) Speak in an easy ± to ± understand
While you are speaking, you must pay attention to the four points below :

1) Speak from the customer's standpoint

Respect the customer's standpoint and avoid sounding egocentric. People have
different opinions and ideas. Recognize that "the customer has his/her own opinions
and ideas," and strive to converse in a way that will never offend the customer's self -

2) Speak cheerfully
Rather than merely a superficial cheerfulness, it is also vital to be int ernally cheerful
so you can talk openly to the customer with real feeling.

3) Enunciate your words clearly

Although "clear enunciation" is basic to speaking, it is often regarded as being of little
importance because even mumbled words can be understood in many cases.
Unless you are always careful to enunciate your words clearly, however, it may lead
to unnecessary misunderstanding and embarras' sment.
4) Speak in an easy-to-understand manner
Avoid using ambiguous phrases that can be interpreted by the customer in various
ways as well as specialized terminology that the average person does not
understand. Learn the Customer's Needs Through the Conversation (7) Collecting
Information 1) The necessity of collecting information The customer obtains
information from various sources (TV commercials, magazines, newspapers, etc.). If
the information is incorrectly interpreted, however, the final decision may also be
wrong. For example, even if you present the same model, different people will have
a different rationale for buying it, such as the nice styling, the well -equipped
instrument panel, the reaso nable cost, etc. That is, each individual has different
tastes, personality, ideas, environment, attributes, etc. During a sale, you must also
know a lot about your customer so you can make the appropriate approach.

2) Points on collecting information

1. Collecting information starts from becoming interested in the customer A

fundamental of sales activities is to collect various types of information about
the customer. It is no exaggeration to say that the results of your sales
activities depend on how well you interpret the information. First of all, it is
essential to try to know what kind of person your customer is. Please keep in
mind that you cannot collect information if you are not interested in the
2. Be sure to collect useful information The point is not to simply collect a large
volume of information about the customer. It is important to obtain useful
information that will help you increase the potential and goodwill of the
3. Also collect information that is useful to the customer
The types of information to be collected can be broadly grouped into three
types: information about the customer, 2) information about the car currently
owned, and (3) information about the movements of other companies.
Information can be gradually collected through the insight of the sales rep and
through conversations with the customers. Particularly during your initial visits,
some questions can be easily answered by the wife. For example, probe the
needs of the customer by gradually collecting information about the children,
hobbies, etc. through conversations.
3) Main type of information to be collected.


























4) How to ask questions to get information Open -ended questions This type of
question has no fixed answer and is designed to have the customer think up his/her
own response. Once you have a rather good understanding of the customer's
situation, it will be easy to extend the conversation as shown in the examples below.
Example: "Is that so? That's really wonderful. Could you please tell me a little more
about it?" "I wonder why that happened. Could you please tell me the reason? (2)
Limited questions This type of question can be easily answered by the customer with
a simple yes or no, or a few words.
"How many children do you have?" "What kind of car are you driving now?" -34-.
The merits of questions
1. You can induce the customer to tell you what you want to know.
2. You can tell whether the customers is being persuaded and how interested
the customer is in the product, you can rate your progress in negotiations etc.
3. While listening to the customer¶s resp onse, you can decide what to say next.
4. By creating a mood of casual conversation, the customer will be put at ease.
5. Respect is show for the customer¶s opinions, so you make a good impression
and gain the customer¶s trust.
6. You can confirm that the customer expect from you. Then allow the customer
to also decide what should be done to meet those demands.
7. You can express your own through without making the customer feel that
you¶re pushy.

5) Sample questions for collecting information from the custome r The questions
below give examples for extracting various types of information.

1. The customer's impression of Nissan cars

(O)"What do you think of Nissan's ²² model?"
2 Level of knowledge about Nissan cars
(O)"How does Nissan's ²² compare with the ²²?"
3. Tastes in cars
(O) "What kind of car do you like?"
(L) "What kind of car do you prefer, a hardtop or a sedan?"
4. Impression of the currently owned car.
(O)"How is the after-service?"
(L) "Is a specific person assigned to servicing you?"
5. Condition of the current car
(O)"How is your car running?" "How is the engine?"
6. How the car is used
(O) "What do you usually use the car for?"
(L) "Do you use the car to get to work?"
7. The purchase conditions of the current car
(L) "Did you get a good price when you purchased your current car?"
8. Car replacement cycle
(L) "How often do you usually switch cars?"
9. Intention of replacing the current car
(O) "When your car inspection certificate expires next month, what are you
planning to do?'
10. Expiration date of the car inspection
(L) "When did you buy your current car?"
(L) "When did you last have your car inspected?"
13. Movements of rival sales eps
(L) "Have you been visited by a sales rep from the ²² Company?"
12. Family members
(L) "How many people are there in your family?"
13. Plans for days off
(L) "Do you plan to go for a drive on your next day off?"
(O)"How do you plan to spend your next day off?"
Note that (O) indicates an openended question, and (L) indicates an limited
8) Judging the level of potential
Criteria (examples)
A hot an order Has asked for an explanation of the tr ade ± in, discount, or pay
within one month ment conditions.
Has asked for a demonstration or a test ± drive.
Has decided which model to buy.
Has clearly indicate an intent to buy within one month
The entire family has reached a consensus.
Has asked for a tender offer or written estimate.
B hot an order The time for periodic replacement has arrived.
within three A car inspection will soon be required.
months Allowed the current car to be appraised.
Is studying the trade ± in conditions.
Has collected catalogs
Will soon be getting a driver¶s license because a car has
become necessary.
Has begun to pay close attention to articles, advertisements,
and reviews about cars.
C hot an order May possibly buy a car within about six months.
within 6 months (The customer has indicated an intention to switch cars within
six, months, or is within six months from the end of the usual
replacement cycle.)
Owns an old car and is presently dissatisfied with it.
Is almost finished paying off the monthly installments.

Perceive the NEEDS of the Customer Speak in Simple and Concrete Terms
(1) The Importance of Product
When a customer compares the product value and price of a car and judges that the
product value is higher, that customer will reach the decision to buy the car. For this
reason, you must perform product so that the customer "falls in love with the car." In
other words, you must convince the customer that the product value is higher than
the price.
(2) Points in Product
1) Convince the customer about what the customer wants to know The key is to
figure out what the customer wants, then persuade the customer without focusing on
those points more than necessary.
"It must be difficult to get in and out of the garage with your current car. This model
has a minimum turning radius of ² meters, so ..."

2) Be accurate in your persuasion

It is, of course, unacceptable to give incorrect or misleading information. Also avoid
using vague expressions, such as "approximately ...," "I think ...," etc. If you refer to
the catalogs when you come to an unclear point, it will make a good impression on
the customer. -36- .

3) Be careful in your comparisons with rival cars

Actively answer any questions asked by the custome r about comparisons with rival
cars. If you try to persuade the customer by speaking badly of rival cars, however, it
may make the customer mistrust you. On the basis of actual data, explain the
differences in an easy-to-understand way.

4) Persuade customer in simple terms

Using familiar examples that also draw from your own experiences, explain the
benefits the product offers to the customer. Abstract features, such as "safety," can
be effectively described by using objective data. Example: "What is the fuel
consumption of your current car?" "About 7 to 8 km/I in town? That amounts to 1000
km a month.""In our tests, the fuel consumption of this model achieved 15 km/I in
town. So if gas costs $² a
liter, that means you save about $ ²² in gas each month." "I could save that
"With the money you save, you could afford to pay the monthly installments."

5) Adapt your persuasion to the customer

There are many aspects of a car that are difficult to understand because of the
specialized terminology involved. Even in very elementary matters, therefore, it may
be necessary to persuade the customer in a gentle and patient manner. In case of
"car fanatics," on the other hand, the method of taking the role of the listener and
responding to the questions of the customer is usually effective.

(3) Precautions on Product

1. Always be careful not to persuade in an aggressive and pushy manner
that ignores the customer's standpoint
2. Each time that you are about to present your product persuasion:
a. Have absolute confidence in your own product persuasion.
b. Have confidence in your ability to satisfy the customer.
c. Have absolute confidence in your own company's services.

According to a top sales Rep.

Newer, sales reps often complain to me that they have seriously tried to persuade a
customer, but the customer never reaches a decision, whenever I hear this, I always
respond with the same answer, I bet you only talked to the customer about the car.
How will the customer about the car, how will the cust omer, benefit from buying the
car? Unless you speak from the customer¶s standpoint. the customer will definitely
be uninterested, the problem is that that you just describe the car and then leave,
without ever really persuading the customer.

(4) Effective Methods of Product Persuasion

Draw the customer's interest by describing the benefits (profits), then provide
support by explaining the car's utility (features) and functions (merits).

Example A: Sales rep:

"With this model, passengers rarely get carsick (profit)." Customer:
"Really? Why is that?" Sales rep: "It has a four -wheel independent suspension
system (feature). As a result, it can move parallel to the ground by balancing evenly
on all four wheels like a four -legged animal (merit). In ad dition,

Example B: Sales rep:

"This model has a four-wheel independent suspension system." Customer: "A four -
wheel independent suspension system? What does that mean?" Sales rep: "Well, it
means that ... so your passengers will rarefy get carsick." To pe rsuade a customer
about the product, initially make an appeal for its benefits (profits) to draw the
customer's interest. To achieve this, proceed with your persuasion as presented in
Example A above (profit -> feature -> merit).

2) Create an image that matches the customer's expectations.

Each person has different expectations from a car. Persuade the customer by
presenting benefits (profits) that satisfy the customer's expectations.

3) Confirm how much the customer has understood, then provide a summary.
If the sales rep tries to persuade the customer by doing all the talking, it will be
impossible to fully convince the customer. To ensure the full understanding of the
customer, make sure you proceed in your persuasion while constantly confirming
how much the customer has understood and whether or not the customer agrees
with what you are saying.

(5) Persuasion by Demonstration

A demonstration is an extremely effective weapon for settling the negotiations,
because the benefits and functions of the car can be proven to the customer by
allowing the customer to see, touch, and drive the actual car.

1. Demonstration opportunities
2. When the customer wants to decide after making a comparison with other cars
3. When the customer is tired of trying to decide and wishes to settle the matter
4. When the customer is still attached to the currently owned car.
5. When points difficult to explain verbally are blocking the progress of talks.
6. When the time comes to switch to a luxury class car.
7. After a model has been improved
8. When a customer is buying a car for the first time

2) Precautions on persuasion ` demonstration

a Ask a lot of questions and allow the customer to convince himself/herself
"Wouldn't it be great to drive a new car?" "Don't you think the interior is much
roomier than your current car?"

(2) Be careful not to dominate the conversation once you catch the customer's
(3) During the customers' encounter with the demo car, they are imagini ng that it is
their own car, so be careful not to destroy that mood.

3) Precautions on test-drives
1. Choose a course with little traffic.
2. If the customer drives well, express appropriate praise. Even if the customer
drives badly, however, never let it show in your face.
3. Discretely pick a moment while the customer is feeling excited about the car, and
encourage the customer to buy it.



An appraisal is an evaluation of the present value of the customer's currently owned
(1) The Necessity of Appraisals
1) As a lead-up to negotiations
Certain customers may show potential but are always reluctant to engage in
concrete negotiations. In this case, an appraisal will later enable you to immediately
begin negotiations based on concrete conditions.
2) A powerful weapon for encouraging the customer to replace the currently owned
car If a customer is confused about whether or not to replace the current car. you
should give an appraisal anyway and present the trade-in conditions. Concrete
figures regarding the trade -in price have a strong effect on reaching the decision to
buy a car.
3) The number of orders received is directly proportional to the number of
appraisals given No matter what method is used to have the appraisal made, an
increase in the number of appraisals made clearly and directly links to an increase in
orders received. This implies that an appraisal leads up to negotiations and has the
effect of encouraging replacement of the current car. As a guideline for attaining your
targeted number of orders received, try actively increasing your number of

4) To create potential customers for the future Even if a customer does not intend
to buy a new car right away, it is still necessary to appraise the currently owned car
in order to confirm information about that car, such as its year, specifications,
condition, etc. And if you also present the appraised price, future conversations to
encourage replacement of that car will proceed more smoothly.

(2) How to Lead Up to an Appraisal The customer may have the feeling of being
pursued or of being pushed into buying a car. The most important points in leading
up to an appraisal are to remove such doubts from the customer 's mind and to
create a mood in which the customer can easily agree to the appraisal without
1) As a physical examination for a "beloved car" By giving the example of physical
examinations for people, stress "the necessity of constantly b eing aware of the
condition of the beloved car" and make the appealing point that, in contrast with a.
periodic check-up, an appraisal teaches the customer about any problems with the
car for free.
2) Begin a conversation about the going rates for used cars

"In the case of new cars, various models in the same class are being sold at similar
prices. But a car's value varies quite widely once it becomes a used car. Especially
for the class of car that you're driving, the price varies widely depending on the
make. But you really made a wise choice, because.

3) As a periodic evaluation of assets Stress thai a car is a consumer goods item

and that it is thus necessary to have the car periodically appraised to assess its

4) Use the fact that you are new Example: "Since I'm new to this work, I would like
to learn everything that I can. Would you let me at least appraise your car so I can
study this aspect of my job?"

5) As a chance for taking advantage of current prices

Example: "At this moment, our Used Car Department is in trouble because its stock
is so low. I think you could get a good price at this time, so why not have your car
appraised now?"

(3) Precautions on Appraisals

1) Never give a prediction on the price Even before the appraisal is completed,
customers are likely to want to know the appraised price. Until the result is
announced, however, make sure never to give the customer your predictions on the
appraised price or trade-in price. The customer will mistrust you if your predicted
price turns out to be higher than the actual appraised price, making it difficult for you
to conduct negotiations.

2) Find out what the desired price is, then negate its feasibility If the customer asks
you for a predicted price , answer with a question to find out what the customer
desires: "How much would be willing to settle for?" In response to the customer's
reply, it may be effective to lower the customer's expectations by saying, "That price
may be quite difficult." Everyone views their own car in a favorable light and has
great expectations, so you should prepare the customer for a lower price

3) Do not speak badly of the customer's car Because it is important to gently lower
the customer's expectations about the desired price, do not say anything negative
about the customer's car. The customer may misunderstand your intention and feel
that you're trying to "beat down the price."

4) Establish the authority on the appraisal To avoid any illegal request from the
customer, the authority of the appraisal system must be established in advance. An
effective means of establishing such authority is to ask the customer to be present
during the appraisal.

When a customer is thinking of buying a car or any other product, the customer
considers whether or not she/he would be satisfied with the person or company
selling that product, the product itseif, after -services, etc. Other important
determinants in the buying decision are whether the benefits gain ed by using the
product will meet the customer's demands and whether it is necessary to buy that
product at this time.

In other words, negotiations consist of convincing the customer that our product is
the perfect choice. During negotiations, it is vitaÈ that both parties are satisfied with
and agree to the payment method and sales conditions.
(1) Preparing for Negotiations
1) Organize your information about the other party, and study it thoroughly before
the meeting (T) Have a firm grasp of the custom er's home situation

Check the family configuration as well as who will make the decision, who will be
paying, and who will be using the car.
Who exerts influence? (at home and outside)
What major events have occurred? (birth, school admission, graduation, new
job, marriage, illness, death, new house, change of residence, job transfer, etc.
Study the customer's character from the following angles:
Health, physical build, physiognomy
Age, gender
Birthplace, education, social position

(3) Confirm details about the possible trade -in car

a New or used car?
a If new, the new-car price at the time of purchase
a If used, the purchase price
a Car model, year, mileage
a Record of past accidents, car remodeled or not
a Appraised price (status of rust, corrosion, scratches, etc.)

0 Check if you have competition

a Anticipate the causes below in advance:
a Is the customer using a rival company to get a better deal from you?
a Is the customer using you to get a better deal from a rival company?

o Is the customer simply pretending a competitor exists?

a Will the customer buy any car if the price is low enough?
a Is the customer indecisive and unable to pick the model?
a If competition exists, make every effort to find out:
a Who your competitor is (what person of what company).
a What the rival model is.

The key to beating the competition is to make more visits than your rival.

Especially in the case of an existing customer, make sure to review the previous
order form when devising your strategy.
2) Make sure to keep in contact with your manager Make sure to keep your
manager constantly informed about with whom and about what you are negotiating.

3) Define your attitude prior to negotiations 1 Be strongly convinced th at you will

definitely be able to settle the negotiations. Listen attentively and totally assume the
role of an adviser to the customer's purchase.

4) Be diligent in your preparations for the negotiations .3) Check the cars in
a What models and colors are available?
a Have any cars been in stock for a long time?
a What are the approximate delivery schedules?

Confirm the discount limits.

a What are your given limits?
a What is the discount limit by model?

Make sure you have all the accessories required for the negotiation.
a Always prepare a complete set of documents (To be able to settle everything at
once, place a set of all related documents in an envelope or folder, then write the
customer's name on the front.)
a Materials for calculations (note pad, calculator, interest rate table, price list, ball -
point pen)
a On the order form, fill in any items that have already been decided so that
negotiations will proceed smoothly.
5) Set the most effective "stage" for negotiations (7) If possible, try to set an
appointment for your visit so that the customer will also be mentally prepared. (2)
Consider a time that is convenient for the customer. (3) Make sure to arrive
punctually at the promised time.
0 Carefully consider the number of visits, and number of hours spent on
(5) It is also effective to occasionally have your manager accompany you.
6) For negotiating with a customer who has little time (F) Before you visit, figure out
how the customer feels, get an prior look at the trade -in car, etc. (2) Request an
interview for a minimum time of five or seven minutes. (f Organize your thoughts to
minimize the points the customer will need to consider, for example, wr ite the main
points down and bring that sheet with you. (2) Points During Negotiations 1)
Confirm the customer's intent to buy. Example: "If the conditions satisfy you, may
we deliver the car to you this month?" 2) Confirm appealing points and the mo del of
the car to be sold. (T) Present an outline of that car The car's history The car's date
of release Positioning of the car The image created by the car The car's features The
car's reputation Explain the line -up and prices of models in that series

a Describe the uses and features of each model in the series (the
difference in individual specifications).
a Probe the needs of the customer.
a Observe the customer's reaction to product persuasion
a Ask the customer's opinion about the currently owned car
a Ask the customer's impression of the car you are selling
a Convince the customer of that car's sales points.

.4) Persuade the customer by a comparison with rival cars.

(5) Confirm which model the customer wants to buy.
3) Aim at stimulating the desire to buy
When buying something, a person will not always base the decision on purely logical
reasons. As in the case of impulse purchases, purchases are sometimes influenced
by instincts. (T) Easily influenced instincts Self -esteem, copycat instinct, rivalry, fear,
superiority, etc. (D Personal instincts must not be abused Abuse of an instinct may
have a negative reaction in proportion to how deeply the person has been affected.
[An example utilizing fear]
"In the middle of the night last week, the child of your neighbor, Mr. Smith, broke out
in a high fever and was taken to the o O Hospital in A A City because that was the
closest good hospital. It's a good thing the Smiths have a carÈ At that time of night,
it's impossible to get a taxi and it's too late to ask a neighbor. Mr. Smith was saying
that he had never realized how important it was to hav e a car until that very time."
4) Clarify the method of payment
Cash or monthly installments?
Will the amount be the same for each installment or not?
How much can be paid each month? X How much will be paid at bonus months?
How much will the down payment be? (Only the trade-in car or the trade-in car plus
cash?) In the case of an existing customer, find out what the previous payment plan
was beforehand.

5) Convince the customer of the trade -in car's predicted trade -in value j Establish the
authority of the appraisal. 2 Mention that the same appraisal system is used by every
company. J Convince the customer of the relationship of the trade -in value to the
current market situation. X Convince the customer of the condition of the trade -in
* Also see "(3) Precautions on Appraisals" on page ?62. Persuade the customer that
different discounts are available according to the desired model, using the angles
Date of release
List price
Level of popularity
X Government regulations on price control
"NOW IS THE PERFECT TIIVSE TO BUYS" Send This Signal to the Customer

(3) Negotiating the Conditions

Precautions prior to presenting the conditions
Select a site that permits ample time for talking.
Stimulate the customer's desire to buy.
Give the customer the feeling that the conditions are favorable (even if the
price you are instructed to offer is not good). X Do not waste too much time leading
up to the essential points.
Points to confirm while presenting the condi tions
Confirm the model, specifications (displacement, grade, etc.).
Confirm the color of the body.
Confirm the payment method (cash or installments).
a Confirm the service goods and accessories.
a Confirm any optional parts, such as an air conditioner.
a Confirm who the guarantor will be.

Confirm the date/time and location for the delivery of the car, and the parking lot.
(8) Confirm the insurance policy, membership of an automobile federation, etc.

3) The timing for presenting the conditions The best time to present the conditions
is when the customer strongly desires to buy the car. 0 Pick a time when the
customer and you are feeling close. Pick the time in consultation with your manager.
If you have competition, do not present your conditions too ea rly. The conditions will
be limited by the price indicated by your manager. If your initial conditions are too
favorable, it will be difficult to offer service parts, etc. The basic role of a sales rep is
to skillfully negotiate within the fixed limits.

The sequence for making concessions

If the customer insists on a larger discount, try offering service goods with a value
equivalent to the desired reduction in price.
Change the price by approximately USS5.00 at a time. (Never change it by $50.00 at
If a condition must be negotiated in the final stage of settlement, lead up to the
closing by making, if possible, a 50:50 compromise with the customer. (4) After you
present your final price, stick to it.

Test Closing During a "test closing ," you test the customer's desire to buy and
actively lead the customer to the closing. As indicated in the examples below, there
are many ways of making a test closing. Making a Test Closing (Sample Dialogues)
0 Substantiation Method Mention the name of another customer who has actually
bought a car from you.
Example: "One of my satisfied customers is A A, whom i think you know quite
(2) Assumption Method (Assumed Agreement Method)
Convince yourself that the customer wants to buy a car, the n talk with the customer
in a way that conveys your assumption to the customer. Example: "This car is very
popular and usually requires some time
before delivery. Therefore, I'll start making arrangements so you can use it by the
next weekend."

(3) Attraction Method - Make an advantageous offer to the customer. Offering

something special to the customer can serve to resolve the customer's indecision or

Example: "Since there's a special campaign, if you place your order, you receive this
splendid premium." (4) Selection Method (Alternative Choice Method) Have the
customer start making a decision about very little matters.
Example: "Would you prefer a white car or a silver car?"

(5) Action Method Assume that the customer is goin g to buy a car, and express
assumption through your behavior and actions, rather than through words.

a Begin filling in the order form.
a Give the customer the order form, and request a signa ture.
a Summary Method (Sales Point Review Method)
a Out of the sales points that you have presented thus far. give a
repeated summary of only the points in which your customer expressed curiosity
or interest.

Example: "As I mentioned before, its best feature is fuel efficiency..." Question
If you are still unsuccessful after making various efforts, temporarily stop trying
to persuade the customer and ask the customer's reasons for not wanting to buy.
Test Drive Method By having the custom er test-drive the model concerned, the
customer can be induced to make the decision on his/her own. \9) Request Method
The sales rep makes a direct request to the customer: "Please buy a car." It is
advisable, however, to avoid using this method outright or all the time. It is important
to remember that this method is only likely to be successful after a close relationship
has been established with the customer.
Example: "Well, what do you think? Isn't it about time that you placed an order?" "I
hope that you will entrust me with the task of providing you with the right car."

Timing is the KEYÈ Be Calmly AND Stronty CONFIDENTÈ

CLOSING (1) The Timing of the Closing Needless to say, the closing should
coincide with the time when the customer's desire to buy is the strongest. By
becoming thoroughly familiar with the customer's personality, thinking, and desired
conditions during the course of negotiations, you will be able to perceive any
changes in the customer's body language, facial expression, behavior, etc. At this
stage as well: it is important to actively create the opportunity rather than passively
waiting for it.

Even if the customer wishes to buy a car, that desire w ill rarely be expressed
directly. The customer may convey the idea that "I no longer wish to buy a car" by
disagreeing with you or acting disinterested. By looking through that behavior,
however, it is sometimes possible to get a glimpse of what the custom er really feels
as expressed through the customer's speech, body language, facial expression, and
so on. Make sure you properly interpret such signs, so you can actively lead up to
the closing.
The mood
The customer welcomes you very warmly when you visit (2) You are suddenly being
received in a much more hospitable manner.

a Persons who do not have decision-making power also treat you warmiy
a The customer doesn't protest when you take the order form out of your briefcase.
a The customer's body language
a The customer is trying to calm down by deliberately taking deep breaths, etc.
a The customer has begun serious consideration, by writing notes in the catalogs,
a The customer now leans forward, changes positions, or has otherwise changed
the way she/he sits when listening.
The customer suddenly starts negotiating when another matter was being discussed.
J) The customer has started making calculations about the payment method, etc. D
When you provide an explanation in response to the customer's objec tion, the
customer can be fully convinced.

The customer's facial expression

The customer looks convinced.
The customer wears a satisfied expression.
The customer appears tense.
The customer tries to avoid your gaze.
The customer's speech
The customer has started concretely talking about the payment conditions, service
goods, paint color, delivery, etc. The customer has seriously begun trying to lower
the sales price. The customer has started asking questions about post -purchase
matters, such as the service warranty, after-services, expenses, etc. The customer
asked the opinion of a third person, such as the wife, the person in charge, etc.
Precautions on the Closing
During the closing stage In addition to influencing the customer's logic, also influence
the customer's emotions.
Once you enter the closing stage, do not change the conditions.
Speak with vigor and brevity. Neither talk of unrelated matters nor use word s that
seem lacking in confidence, such as "But..." or "However,..."
Make the customer feel that she/he made the actual decision.

efore filling in the order form Do not lose your nerve about the sales conditions.
Determine the conditions according to yo ur assigned limits.
While filling in the order form
Do not talk about unrelated matters.
Be sure to write down all promises and conditions while getting the confirmation of
the customer.
In principle, the monthly installment schedule should consist of "a higher down
payment and fewer installments."
Confirm the name of the titular owner.
Check the bank from which payments will be made plus the presence/absence of
other banks the customer uses and checking accounts.
While getting the customer's signature
Conduct this stage speedily.
Handle it as business -like as possible.
Make sure to confirm all monetary figures.
Receive the deposit.
Give the customer a copy of the form.
Anything that is difficult to say should be said first. Don't Forget to PRAISE the
Customer's Decision and Courage

(3) Points for After the Closing 1) Make the customer feel satisfied A look of joy and
victory is likely to show in your face after receiving the order. At this stage, however,
the customer is still feeling insecure about the negotiated terms. It is important to
make the customers feel that they have "made a good bargain." Examples: "You
chose the perfect time to buy." "You really drive a h ard bargain." "You got an
excellent dealÈ"
2) Try to leave as soon as possible after the closing After receiving the order,
discuss the date/time for the car's delivery, then present your planned schedule for
future visits to the customer to obtain the customer's approval. Finally, make your
departure as smoothly as possible by saying, "Thank you very much for placing your
order with me today. I must be leaving now, because I would like to return to the
office and immediately begin arranging for the deli very."