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The science which deals with the study of living objects and their life processes is called

biology (Greek words, bios – life, logos – study). It covers all aspect of the study of living
creatures like occurrence, classification, ecology, economic importance, external form,
organization, internal structure, nutrition, health and other body functions, reproduction,
life history, inheritance and origin. Being broad – based and multi- disciplinary, the term
biology is often replaced by the term life sciences or biological sciences. Aristotle is known
as the ‘Father of biology’. The term biology was coined by Lamarck.

There are three major branches of biology – botany, zoology and microbiology. Botany is the
branch of biology which deals with the study of different aspects of plants. Theophrastus is
known as the father of Botany. Zoology is the branch of biology connected with the study of
different aspects of animals. Aristotle is known as the father of Zoology. Microbiology is the
branch of biology dealing with the study of different aspects of microorganism. Leeuwenhoek is
known as the father of Microbiology.


Some of the main branches of biology are briefly discussed below:

1. Taxonomy: It is the science of identification, nomenclature and classification of organisms.

2. Morphology: It is the study of external form, size, shape, colour, structure and relative
position of various living organ of living beings.
3. Anatomy: It is the study of internal structure which can be observed with unaided eye after
4. Histology: It is the study of tissue organization and structure as observed through light
5. Cytology: It is the study of form and structure of cells including the behavior of nucleus and
other organelles
6. Cell Biology: It is the study of morphological, organizational, biochemical, physiological,
genetic, developmental, pathological and evolutionary aspects of cell and its components.
7. Molecular Biology: It is the study of the nature, physicochemical organization, synthesis
working and interaction of bio-molecules that bring about and control various activities of the
8. Physiology: It is the study of different types of body functions and processes.
9. Embryology: It is the study of fertilization, growth, division and differentiation of the zygote
into embryo or early development of living beings before the attainment of structure and size of
the offspring.
10. Ecology: It is the study of living organisms is relation to other organism and their
11. Genetics: It is the study of inheritance of characters or heredity and variations. Heredity is
the study of expression and transmission of traits from parents to offspring.
12. Eugenics: It is the science which deals with factors related to improvement or impairment
of race, especially that of human beings.
13. Evolution: It studies the origin of life as well as new types of organism from the previous
ones by modifications involving genetic changes and adaptations.
14. Palaeontology: It deals with the study of fossils or remains and impressions of past
organisms present in the rocks of different ages.
15. Exobiology: It is the branch of scientific inquiry dealing with the possibility of life in the
outer space.
16. Virology: It is the study of viruses in all their aspects.


Organized form of Knowledge or systematic knowledge i.e.

1 Science
knowledge through process.
2 Biology The branch of science which deals with the study of living beings.
3 Zoology The branch of science which deals with the study of animals.
The branch of science which deals with the study of total general
4 Morphology
structures and forms including shape, size and appearance.
The branch of science which deals with the study of internal
5 Anatomy
structures after cutting or dissection.
The branch of science which deals with the study of tissue i.e.
6 Histology
microscopic anatomy.
The branch of science which deals with the study of cells and their
7 Cytology
8 Acariology Study of tics and mites.
The branch of science which deals with the study of radiation
9 Actinobiology
effects on organism.
10 Aerobiology Study of Flying organisms.
This branch deals with form of land used on which herbaceous
11 Agroforestry
crops and trees crops are cultivated
12 Agronomy Science which deals with the crop plants
13 Agrostology Study of grasses.
14 Angiology Science which deals with the study of blood vascular system.
15 Anthology Study of flowers.
16 Anthropology Study of apes and man.
17 Apiculture Study of bee keeping
18 Araneology Study of spiders.
19 Arthrology Study of joints.
20 Aschelitinthology Study of round worms
21 Bacteriology Study of bacteria.
22 Batrachology Study of frog.
Branch of science which deals with the study of chemical reactions
23 Biochemistry
in relations to life activities.
24 Biometrics Statistical analysis of different results of biological experiments.
Use of biological organisms in commercial processes for
25 Biotechnology producing fine chemicals such as drugs, vaccines and harmones
etc. on a large scale and at reasonable cost.
26 Bryology Study of Bryophytes.
27 Carcinology Study of crabs and crustaceans
28 Cardiology Study of heart.
29 Chondriology Study of Cartilage.
30 Chromatology Study of Pigments.
31 Cnidology Study of Coelenterata
32 Conchology Study of shells.
33 Craniology Study of skulls
34 Cryobiology Study of effects on life at very lower temperature.
35 Dendrology Study of shrubs and trees
36 Dermatology Study of skin
37 Ecobiology Study of problems of existence of life in outer space
38 Ecology Study of relationship between organism and environment
Study of embryo i.e. developmental stages after fertilization or
39 Embryology
birth of young ones.
40 Endocrinology Study of endocrine glands and their secretions
41 Entomology Study of insects
42 Enzymology Study of enzymes
43 Ethnology Study of man-kinds
Study of conditions of animals or behavior of animals, in a natural
44 Ethology
45 Etiology Study of diseases
Study of improvement of human race by applying laws of heredity.
46 Eugenics
It applied before birth. Eugenics is related with future generation.
Study of improvement of human race by drug treatment or gene
47 Euphenics
engineering i.e. medical engineering of genetic disorder.
Study of improvement of human race by improving environment.
48 Euthenics
It applied after birth and is related with present generation.
The branch of science which deals with the study of origin of new
49 Evolution from old i.e. origin, variation, inter-relationship between
organisms of past and present days.
50 Exobiology Space biology is also known as exobiology
51 Floriculture Study of flower yielding plants
52 Genetics Study of heredity and variations
53 Gerontology Study of growing old
54 Gynaecology Study of female reproductive organs
55 Haematology Study of blood
56 Helminthology Study of helminthes
57 Hepatology Study of liver
58 Herpetology Study of lizards and other reptiles
59 Hypnology Study which deals with sleep
60 Histochemistry Study of chemical nature of tissues
61 Horticulture Study of flowering and fruits plants
62 Ichnology Study of fossil footprints
63 Immunology Study of resistance of organisms against infection
Study of sensory or sensari-emotional values, sometimes called
64 Kalology
judgments of sentiment and taste
65 Karyology Study of nucleus
66 Lepidopterology Study of moths and butterflies
67 Lichenology Study of lichens
Study of fresh water lakes, ponds and streams in relation with
68 Limnology
plants and animals
69 Malacology Study of mollusks
70 Mammology Study of mammals
71 Mastology Study of breasts
72 Melanology Study of pigments
73 Molecular Biology Study of life sciences on molecular level (i.e. RNA and DNA
74 Mycology Study of fungi
75 Myrmecology Study of ants
76 Neonatology Study of the new-born up to 1 month of age
77 Nephrology Study of kidney
78 Neurology Study of nervous system
79 Nidology Study of nests of birds
80 Nisology Study of diseases
81 Odontology Study of teeth and gums
82 Olericulture Study of vegetable yielding plants
83 Oncology Study of cancer
84 Oneirology Study of dreams
85 Ontogeny Study of embryonic history
86 Oology Study of egg of birds
87 Ophthalmology Study of eyes
88 Organocology Study of development of organs under embryology
89 Organology Study of organs
90 Ornithology Study of birds
91 Osteology Study of bones
92 Otorhinolaryngology Study of ear, nose and throat
93 Paedology Study of larval stages
94 Palaezoology Study of fossils and their distribution in time.
95 Palaeozoology Study of fossils of animals
96 Palynology Study of pollen grains in relation to taxonomy and evolution
97 Parasitology Study of parasites
98 Pathology Study of various diseases in human beings
99 Parazoology Study of poifera (sponges)
100 Pedology Study of soils
101 Pharmacognosy Branch of science dealing with the medicinal plants
102 Pharmacology Study of synthesis and effect of medicines on organisms
103 Phenology Study of organisms as affected by seasonal climates e.g. of bird
migration, opening of flowers etc.
104 Phrenology Study of mental faculties of brain including feelings
105 Phycology (algology) Study of algae
106 Phylogeny Study of evolutionary history
107 Physiology Study of functions of various parts within the organisms
108 Pisciculture Study of rearing of fishes
109 Platyhelminthology Study of flat worms
110 Pomology Study of fruits
111 Poultry Study which deals with keepings of foul
112 Proctology Study of hind gut including rectum and anus
Study of protests. Its field of study overlaps with more traditional
113 Protistology
disciplines of algology, mycology and protozoology
114 Pteridology Study of pteridophytes
115 Rainology Study of nose and olfactory organs
116 Saurology Study of lizards
117 Sericulture Silk industry concerned with culture of silk moth and pupa
118 Serology Study of serum; interaction of antigens and antibodies in the blood
119 Study of snakes
120 Silviculture Study of development of forests
121 Sitology Study of dietetics
122 Speciology Study of species
123 Spermology Study of seeds
124 Splanchnology Study of visceral organs
125 Stomatology Study of forget including buccal cavity and stomach
126 Synecology Study of bony joints and ligaments
127 Taxi dermatology Study of skin and stuffing
The breach of science which deals with the study of classification
128 Taxonomy
of organisms
129 Teratology Study of foetal malformations
130 Torpedology Study of skates and rays
131 Toxicology Study of narcotics and the influence of narcotics on various
132 Traumatology Study of wounds and turnover
133 Trichology Study of hair
134 Trophology Study of nutrition
Study which deals with preservation of deals bodies in liquids by
135 Urobiology
Study of wine including diseases and the abnormalities of uninary
136 Urology
and urino-genital tract
137 Virology Study of virus
The branch of science which deals with the study of distribution of
138 Zoogeography
animals on earth.
139 Biophysics Study of physical aspects of living organisms
140 Cytogenetics Study of cytological basis of inheritance
141 Ctetology Study of acquired characteristics of organisms
142 Ichthyology Study of fish and it’s culture
143 Kinesiology Study of muscle movements
144 Phytogeography Study of plants distribution on earth
145 Palaeobotany Study of distribution and characteristics of fossils
146 Psychobiology Study of behavioural aspects of animals
147 Sarcology Study of muscles
148 Syndesmology Study of bone joints and ligaments
149 Tectology Study of structural organization of body
150 Zoophytology Study of drifting micro-organisms such as diatoms.

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